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Sample records for batch chemical process

  1. Control and Optimization of Batch Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Sohrab; Chhabra, Raj; Bonvin, Dominique; François, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    A batch process is characterized by the repetition of time-varying operations of finite duration. Due to the repetition, there are two independent “time” variables, namely, the run time during a batch and the batch index. Accordingly, the control and optimization objectives can be defined for a given batch or over several batches. This chapter describes the various control and optimization strategies available for the operation of batch processes. These include online and run-to-run control o...

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  3. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  5. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  6. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-10

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  7. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  8. Selection of chemically defined media for CHO cell fed-batch culture processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, X.; Streefland, M.; Dalm, C.; Wijffels, R.H.; Martens, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    Two CHO cell clones derived from the same parental CHOBC cell line and producing the same monoclonal antibody (BC-G, a low producing clone; BC-P, a high producing clone) were tested in four basal media in all possible combinations with three feeds (=12 conditions) in fed-batch cultures.
    Higher

  9. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  10. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  11. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  12. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  13. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  14. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the reference control technology requirements for Group 1 batch process vents in § 63.1322, the.... Owners or operators of all Group 2 batch process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control....1323 is not required. (2) For batch process vents and aggregate batch vent streams, the control...

  16. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  17. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  18. Control of Batch Processes Based on Hierarchical Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA, Tomoyuki; ITO, Takashi; HASHIZUME, Susumu; KURIMOTO, Hidekazu; ONOGI, Katsuaki

    2004-01-01

    A batch process is a typical concurrent system in which multiple interacting tasks are carried out in parallel on several batches at the same time. A major difficulty in designing a batch control system is the lack of modeling techniques. This paper aims at developing a method of constructing batch control system models in a hierarchical manner and operating batch processes using the constructed models. For this purpose, it first defines process and plant specifications described by partial l...

  19. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  1. Improved monitoring of batch processes by incorporating external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of statistical process monitoring with the emphasis on batch processes and the possible steps to take for improving this by incorporating external information. First, the general concept of statistical process monitoring of batches is explained. This concept has

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly Quarterly...

  3. An Integrated Environment for Batch Process Development - From Recipe to Manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batch process development involves the process of converting a chemical synthesis into an optimum, safe, robust, and economical process for manufacturing the chemical of desired quality at the ultimate desired scale. In this paper we describe a strategy for developing a set of integrated decision...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... megagram of product or less for non-solvent-based resin production. (2) The owner or operator of a reactor... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor...

  5. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  6. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Using warping information for batch process monitoring and fault classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Martínez, J.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Ferrer, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how to use the warping information obtained after batch synchronization for process monitoring and fault classification. The warping information can be used for i) building unsupervised control charts or ii) fault classification when a rich faulty batches database is available.

  8. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  9. Recursive Gaussian Process Regression Model for Adaptive Quality Monitoring in Batch Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chemical batch processes with slow responses and a long duration, it is time-consuming and expensive to obtain sufficient normal data for statistical analysis. With the persistent accumulation of the newly evolving data, the modelling becomes adequate gradually and the subsequent batches will change slightly owing to the slow time-varying behavior. To efficiently make use of the small amount of initial data and the newly evolving data sets, an adaptive monitoring scheme based on the recursive Gaussian process (RGP model is designed in this paper. Based on the initial data, a Gaussian process model and the corresponding SPE statistic are constructed at first. When the new batches of data are included, a strategy based on the RGP model is used to choose the proper data for model updating. The performance of the proposed method is finally demonstrated by a penicillin fermentation batch process and the result indicates that the proposed monitoring scheme is effective for adaptive modelling and online monitoring.

  10. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic

  11. Monitoring a PVC batch process with multivariate statistical process control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tates, A. A.; Louwerse, D. J.; Smilde, A. K.; Koot, G. L. M.; Berndt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process control charts (MSPC charts) are developed for the industrial batch production process of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). With these MSPC charts different types of abnormal batch behavior were detected on-line. With batch contribution plots, the probable causes of these

  12. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisnant, R.A.; Sherring, C.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  13. Use of batch and column methodologies to assess utility waste leaching and subsurface chemical attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Streile, G.P.

    1991-05-01

    Waste leaching and chemical attenuation involve geochemical reactions between immobile solid surfaces in the waste or in other porous media and dissolved solutes in the mobile fluid phase. Because the geochemical reactions occur along with water flow, the question often arises whether waste leaching and chemical attenuation are best studied under static or dynamic conditions. To answer this question, the scientific literature was reviewed to identify how static (batch) and dynamic (column) approaches have been applied to obtain data on waste leaching and chemical attenuation and the types of information each technique has provided. This review made it possible to both (1) assess the specific merits of the batch and column experimental techniques and (2) develop an integrated research strategy for employing these techniques to quantify leaching and chemical attenuation processes under conditions relevant to the field. This review led to the conclusion that batch systems are best suited to systematically establishing the specific geochemical reactions involved in leaching and attenuation, obtaining thermodynamic and kinetic constants, and identifying the manifestation of these reactions in wastes or natural subsurface materials. 184 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published new process validation guidance for pharmaceutical processes. The new guidance debunks the long-held industry notion that three consecutive validation batches or runs are all that are required to demonstrate that a process is operating in a validated state. Instead, the new guidance now emphasizes that the level of monitoring and testing performed during process performance qualification (PPQ) studies must be sufficient to demonstrate statistical confidence both within and between batches. In some cases, three qualification runs may not be enough. Nearly two years after the guidance was first published, little has been written defining a statistical methodology for determining the number of samples and qualification runs required to satisfy Stage 2 requirements of the new guidance. This article proposes using a combination of risk assessment, control charting, and capability statistics to define the monitoring and testing scheme required to show that a pharmaceutical batch process is operating in a validated state. In this methodology, an assessment of process risk is performed through application of a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (PFMECA). The output of PFMECA is used to select appropriate levels of statistical confidence and coverage which, in turn, are used in capability calculations to determine when significant Stage 2 (PPQ) milestones have been met. The achievement of Stage 2 milestones signals the release of batches for commercial distribution and the reduction of monitoring and testing to commercial production levels. Individuals, moving range, and range/sigma charts are used in conjunction with capability statistics to demonstrate that the commercial process is operating in a state of statistical control. The new process validation guidance published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January of 2011 indicates that the number of process validation batches

  15. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  16. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    alkylation reaction was achieved using a filter reactor coupled with a side‐entry tubular reactor, using real‐time in‐line near‐infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring the reaction and ensuring the right product quality. A subsequent hydrolysis of the alkoxide product was performed in continuous mode......Pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been produced in batches using multipurpose stirred vessels. Reactions and separations have typically been tailored to fit these units, facing multiple limitations when transferring synthetic routes from the laboratory to industrial scale. Scaling up...... thus resulted in many cases in low reaction yields and separation efficiencies. These limitations were however compensated by a relatively fast process implementation. For the pharmaceutical industry this meant that new drug products could be exclusively marketed for a longer time period, resulting...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch process vent that has chosen to use a control device to comply with § 63.1322(a) shall... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents...

  18. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process vents... process vent, reduce organic HAP emissions for the batch cycle by 90 weight percent using a control device... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED BATCH-PROCESS SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the shortcomings of solar disinfection of water (SODIS) is the absence of a feedback mechanism indicating treatment completion. This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system aimed at solving this challenge. Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro ...

  20. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available the scheduling of operations in the synthesis phase. The mathematically based method presented in this paper deals with the synthesis of a batch plant operating in the fashion mentioned above. The method determines the optimal size and number of processing...

  1. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion device to control halogenated batch front-end process vents or halogenated aggregate batch vent... periods of process or control device operation when monitors are not operating. (f) Aggregate batch vent... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  2. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream that uses a control device to... meets the conditions of § 63.490(b)(3). (i) For batch front-end process vents using a control device to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  3. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recorded under § 63.491(e)(3) when the batch front-end process vent is diverted away from the control... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end...

  4. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  5. Using Simulation for Scheduling and Rescheduling of Batch Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Joglekar

    2017-01-01

    The problem of scheduling multiproduct and multipurpose batch processes has been studied for more than 30 years using math programming and heuristics. In most formulations, the manufacturing recipes are represented by simplified models using state task network (STN) or resource task network (RTN), transfers of materials are assumed to be instantaneous, constraints due to shared utilities are often ignored, and scheduling horizons are kept small due to the limits on the problem size that can b...

  6. Sequencing batch-reactor control using Gaussian-process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Juš; Hvala, Nadja

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Gaussian-process (GP) model for the design of sequencing batch-reactor (SBR) control for wastewater treatment. The GP model is a probabilistic, nonparametric model with uncertainty predictions. In the case of SBR control, it is used for the on-line optimisation of the batch-phases duration. The control algorithm follows the course of the indirect process variables (pH, redox potential and dissolved oxygen concentration) and recognises the characteristic patterns in their time profile. The control algorithm uses GP-based regression to smooth the signals and GP-based classification for the pattern recognition. When tested on the signals from an SBR laboratory pilot plant, the control algorithm provided a satisfactory agreement between the proposed completion times and the actual termination times of the biodegradation processes. In a set of tested batches the final ammonia and nitrate concentrations were below 1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively, while the aeration time was shortened considerably. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Floyd L. Inman III; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  8. Performance assessment and improvement of control charts for statistical batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, Henk-Jan; van Sprang, Eric N. M.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Gurden, Stephen P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Meulen, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of statistical batch process monitoring and the associated problems. It starts with an introduction to process monitoring in general which is then extended to batch process monitoring. The performance of control charts for batch process monitoring is discussed by

  9. Low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater treatment by biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Rao, N Chandrasekhara; Sarma, P N

    2007-06-01

    Biofilm configured system with sequencing/periodic discontinuous batch mode operation was evaluated for the treatment of low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater (low BOD/COD ratio approximately 0.3, high sulfate content: 1.75 g/l) in aerobic metabolic function. Reactor was operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h [fill: 15 min; reaction: 23 h (aeration along with recirculation); settle: 30 min; decant: 15 min] and the performance of the system was studied at organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.92, 1.50, 3.07 and 4.76 kg COD/cum-day. Substrate utilization showed a steady increase with increase in OLR and system performance sustained at higher loading rates. Maximum non-cumulative substrate utilization was observed after 4h of the cycle operation. Sulfate removal efficiency of 20% was observed due to the induced anoxic conditions prevailing during the sequence phase operation of the reactor and the existing internal anoxic zones in the biofilm matrix. Biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed comparatively higher efficiency to the corresponding suspended growth and granular activated carbon (GAC) configured systems studied with same wastewater. Periodic discontinuous batch mode operation of the biofilm reactors results in a more even distribution of the biomass throughout the reactor and was able to treat large shock loads than the continuous flow process. Biofilm configured system coupled with periodic discontinuous batch mode operation imposes regular variations in the substrate concentration on biofilm organisms. As a result, organisms throughout the film achieve maximum growth rates resulting in improved reaction potential leading to stable and robust system which is well suited for treating highly variable wastes.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.1322(a)(1) or § 63.1322(b)(1) or routing the batch process vent to a control device to comply... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-methods and... Polymers and Resins § 63.1323 Batch process vents—methods and procedures for group determination. (a...

  11. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources with batch front-end process vents classified as Group 1 shall comply with the reference control... Group 2 batch front-end process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control technology... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year (0...

  14. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  15. Combined Estimation and Optimal Control of Batch Membrane Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelemenský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the model-based time-optimal operation of a batch diafiltration process in the presence of membrane fouling. Membrane fouling poses one of the major problems in the field of membrane processes. We model the fouling behavior and estimate its parameters using various methods. Least-squares, least-squares with a moving horizon, recursive least-squares methods and the extended Kalman filter are applied and discussed for the estimation of the fouling behavior on-line during the process run. Model-based optimal non-linear control coupled with parameter estimation is applied in a simulation case study to show the benefits of the proposed approach.

  16. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  17. A novel TiO{sub 2}-assisted solar photocatalytic batch-process disinfection reactor for the treatment of biological and chemical contaminants in domestic drinking water in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, E.F.; Al Touati, F. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Kehoe, S.C. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (IE). Dept. of Surgery] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactors fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO{sub 2} powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12. Isopropanol at 100 ppm concentration levels was observed to be completely photodegraded after 24 h continuous exposure to 100 mW/cm{sup 2} simulated sunlight in a similar solar photocatalytic disinfector (SPC-DIS) reactor. The technique for producing the TiO{sub 2}-coated plastic inserts is described and demonstrated to be an appropriate and affordable technology for developing countries. (Author)

  18. A PAT-based qualification of pharmaceutical excipients produced by batch or continuous processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, A; Müller, H; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2015-10-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients have an influence on the main requirements for medicinal products (viz., quality, safety and efficacy) but also on their manufacturability. During product lifecycle it may become necessary to introduce minor changes (e.g., to continuously improve it) or major changes in the validated process (e.g., moving it to a new production site, replacing process version or even disruptively changing processing type). Those changes can influence the critical to quality attributes of the product. Therefore, it is important to enhance process understanding to avoid the risk of any significant quality changes. Process analytical technology can support better decision making and risk-management as required in quality by design - viz., by many pharmaceutical regulatory authorities. This study compares the quality of the pharmaceutical excipient sodium carbonate (anhydrous) produced either in a batch or a continuous process. For continuous processing two different production lines were available that differed on the dryer and crystallizer types used. Therefore their influence on critical to quality attributes of sodium carbonate was investigated for each of the three processing alternatives. The overall goal was to identify which of the continuous processes ensures a similar product quality to batch processing. Namely, changes on chemical and physical attributes of the product were investigated with Raman spectroscopy, laser diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. Principal component analysis, a very common multivariate analysis technique, was applied to extract relevant information from small differences at multiple spectral regions from samples from each process type and from each analytical technique used. Changing processing from batch to continuous improved consistency of certain attributes (e.g., particle size distribution) but affected others. However, the increased process/product knowledge gained can lead to an enhanced control strategy and

  19. Selecting local constraint for alignment of batch process data with dynamic time warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spooner, Max Peter; Kold, David; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    observation number for every batch. Dynamic time warping has been shown to be an effective method for meeting these objectives. This is based on a dynamic programming algorithm that aligns a batch to a reference batch, by stretching and compressing its local time dimension. The resulting ”warping function......There are two key reasons for aligning batch process data. The first is to obtain same-length batches so that standard methods of analysis may be applied, whilst the second reason is to synchronise events that take place during each batch so that the same event is associated with the same......” may be interpreted as a progress signature of the batch which may be appended to the aligned data for further analysis. For the warping function to be a realistic reflection of the progress of a batch, it is necessary to impose some constraints on the dynamic time warping algorithm, to avoid...

  20. Biological sludge reduction during abattoir wastewater treatment process using a sequencing batch aerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskes, Sajiâa; Bouallagui, Hassib; Godon, Jean Jacques; Abid, Sami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-01-01

    Excess sludge disposal during biological treatment of wastewater is subject to numerous constraints, including social, health and regulatory factors. To reduce the amount of excess sludge, coupled processes involving different biological technologies are currently under taken. This work presents a laboratory scale sequencing batch aerobic system included an anaerobic zone for biomass synchronization (SBAAS: sequencing batch aerobic anaerobic system). This system was adopted to reduce sludge production during abattoir wastewater (AW) treatment. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 89% was obtained at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) and a sludge retention time (SRT) of 2 days and 15-20 days, respectively. The comparison of SBAAS performances with a conventional sequencing batch activated sludge system (SBASS) found that the observed biomass production yield (Y(obs)) were in the ranges of 0.26 and 0.7 g suspended solids g(-1) COD removed, respectively. A significant reduction in the excess biomass production of 63% was observed by using the SBAAS. In fact, in the anaerobic zone microorganisms consume the intracellular stocks of energy by endogenous metabolism, which limits biosynthesis and accelerates sludge decay. The single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method was used to study the dynamic and the diversity of bacterial communities. Results showed a significant change in the population structure by including the anaerobic stage in the process, and revealed clearly that the sludge production yield can be correlated with the bacterial communities present in the system.

  1. Hydrogen generation from glycerol in batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, K.; Waligorska, M.; Wojtowski, M.; Laniecki, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of concentration of glycerol, inoculum and total nitrogen on hydrogen generation, in batch dark fermentation process in the presence of digested sludge (at 37 C and at initial pH = 6) was studied. Changes in substrate and products concentrations were modeled with modified Gompertz equations (correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9015). The 1,3-propandiol, butyric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were found as the main liquid metabolites. Maximal substrate yield for hydrogen was 0.41 mol H{sub 2}/mol glycerol and was obtained for medium containing 10 g/l of glycerol with the lowest amount of inoculum - 1.16 g volatile suspended solid (VSS)/l. Increase of glycerol concentration from 5 to 30 g/l resulted in much better hydrogen generation, namely from 0.345 to 0.715 l H{sub 2}/l. Further increase of glycerol concentration did not cause any changes. The H{sub 2}:CO{sub 2} ratio in biogas in system with the highest substrate yield was always 1. The initial concentration of glycerol does not influence the rate of hydrogen generation. The increase of initial concentration of inoculum from 1.2 to 11.6 g VSS/l results in the decrease of specific hydrogen yield. Nitrogen concentration in medium does not influence the hydrogen production. (author)

  2. Specialized hybrid batch fabrication process for MEMS RF voltage sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Jan; Judaschke, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus

    2007-12-01

    RF voltage measurement based on electrostatic RMS voltage-to-force conversion is an alternative method in comparison to the classical thermal power dissipation method. It is based on a parallel-plate capacitor with one elastically hinged plate. By applying an AC voltage, a force proportional to its RMS value is generated between the plates, and consequently the movable plate swings to the equilibrium position between spring force and electrostatic force. For a theoretically adequate resolution and precision, the necessary geometrical dimensions of the sensor practically require the use of advanced micromachining techniques. In this contribution, we discuss a unique batch fabrication process to meet the challenge of having two very large plane-parallel surfaces separated by only a few microns. The basic design consists of an actuator made of silicon embedded between two glass wafers for electrical contacting and sealing. Each step of this hybrid process has been optimized to prevent residual liquids leading to stiction and breaking of the fragile parts of the micro-structures. Flat grooves in the silicon define the gap between the capacitor electrodes, and an anisotropic dry-etch step releases the actuator. A second glass wafer builds the top of the stack and is fixated using a patterned photo-resist. Bumpers on the bottom layer and ridges in the top wafer improve the robustness of the structure. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the production process, pointing out critical as well as alternative design steps towards the optimized sensor. Finally, results of working devices are shown.

  3. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  4. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  5. Critical evaluation of approaches for on-line batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sprang, E. N. M.; Ramaker, H. J.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Gurden, S. P.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of batch process monitoring using component models in 1992, different approaches for statistical batch process monitoring have been suggested in the literature. This is the first evaluation of five proposed approaches so far. The differences and similarities between the

  6. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  7. A storage assignment model for batch preparation in process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop new model formulation for reducing the workload in pre‐batching at a manufacturer of flavors and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about

  8. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  9. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  10. Process Analytical Technology (PAT): batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes by robust process operational design and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoth, S; Jenzsch, M; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

    2007-10-31

    The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative of the FDA is a reaction on the increasing discrepancy between current possibilities in process supervision and control of pharmaceutical production processes and its current application in industrial manufacturing processes. With rigid approval practices based on standard operational procedures, adaptations of production reactors towards the state of the art were more or less inhibited for long years. Now PAT paves the way for continuous process and product improvements through improved process supervision based on knowledge-based data analysis, "Quality-by-Design"-concepts, and, finally, through feedback control. Examples of up-to-date implementations of this concept are presented. They are taken from one key group of processes in recombinant pharmaceutical protein manufacturing, the cultivations of genetically modified Escherichia coli bacteria.

  11. Biomass characteristics in three sequencing batch reactors treating a wastewater containing synthetic organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Z.Q.; Ferraina, R.A.; Ericson, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The physical and biochemical characteristics of the biomass in three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) treating a synthetic wastewater at a 20-day target solids retention time (SRT) were investigated. The synthetic wastewater feed contained biogenic compounds and 22 organic priming...... compounds, chosen to represent a wide variety of chemical structures with different N, P and S functional groups. At a two-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) cycled between -100 (anoxic) and 100mV (aerobic) in the anoxic/aerobic SBR, while it remained in a range...... of 126 +/- 18 and 249 +/- 18 mV in the aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) and the aerobic SBR reactor, respectively. A granular activated sludge with excellent settleability (SVI = 98 +/- 31 L mg(-1)) developed only in the anoxic/aerobic SBR, compared to a bulky sludge with poor settling...

  12. A discrete time formulation for batch processes with storage capacity and storage time limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.A.; van Donk, D.P.; Wijngaard, J.

    This paper extends the conventional discrete time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for scheduling multiproduct/multipurpose batch processes by introducing storage capacity and storage time limitations. For this purpose, storage vessels are explicitly modeled on which material

  13. Designing an Autonomous Integrated Downstream Sequence From a Batch Separation Process - An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anton; Andersson, Niklas; Sellberg, Anton; Nilsson, Bernt; Löfgren, Magnus; Wood, Susanne

    2017-12-16

    This work is a proof of concept of how a sequence of industrial batch separation steps together are used to form an integrated autonomous downstream process. The sequence in this case study consisted of an anion chromatography step, virus inactivation and finally a hydrophobic chromatography step. Moving from batch to integrated separation minimizes hold-up times, storage tanks, and required equipment. The conversion from batch to integrated mode is achieved by extracting operating points and separation data from batch chromatograms. The integrated separation process is realized on an ÄKTA Pure controlled by an open research software called Orbit, making it possible to operate complex process configurations including multiple steps. The results from this case study is the principle and method of the steps taken to automation, achieving a more continuous and efficient downstream process. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of a series of industrial batch processes using a bilinear grey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sprang, Eric N M; Ramaker, Henk-Jan; Westerhuis, Johan A; Smilde, Age K; Gurden, Stephen P; Wienke, Dietrich

    2003-08-01

    A good process understanding is the foundation for process optimization, process monitoring, end-point detection, and estimation of the end-product quality. Performing good process measurements and the construction of process models will contribute to a better process understanding. To improve the process knowledge it is common to build process models. These models are often based on first principles such as kinetic rates or mass balances. These types of models are also known as hard or white models. White models are characterized by being generally applicable but often having only a reasonable fit to real process data. Other commonly used types of models are empirical or black-box models such as regression and neural nets. Black-box models are characterized by having a good data fit but they lack a chemically meaningful model interpretation. Alternative models are grey models, which are combinations of white models and black models. The aim of a grey model is to combine the advantages of both black-box models and white models. In a qualitative case study of monitoring industrial batches using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, it is shown that grey models are a good tool for detecting batch-to-batch variations and an excellent tool for process diagnosis compared to common spectroscopic monitoring tools.

  15. Real-time synchronization of batch trajectories for on-line multivariate statistical process control using Dynamic Time Warping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzáles-Martínez, J.M.; Ferrer, A.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the real-time monitoring of batch processes with multiple different local time trajectories of variables measured during the process run. For Unfold Principal Component Analysis (U-PCA)—or Unfold Partial Least Squares (U-PLS)-based on-line monitoring of batch processes, batch

  16. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  17. Chemical process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a guide to simulation techniques for chemical engineering. It covers flowsheeting, partitioning and tearing a set of equations and networks of process units, maintaining sparsity of matrices, convergence promotion methods, and available data banks of properties. The book reviews background information on model formulation and numerical methods, and applications of graph theory in synthesising networks

  18. French chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C.; Lerat, J.-M.; Plurien, P.

    1979-01-01

    A new chemical exchange reaction between two forms of uranium compounds with a high elementary separation coefficient and good kinetics has been discovered at the French Energy Commission ten years ago and developed to the industrial stage. We give here some general characteristics of the process and discuss some parameters of the kinetics exchange

  19. Integrated waste management in batch chemical industry based on multi-objective optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerat, Claude; Papadokonstantakis, Stavros; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-03-01

    A multi-objective optimization methodology for hazardous liquid waste management is presented in this paper using industrially based LCA models and operating constraints. This approach is used to optimize the handling of waste streams introducing flexible mixing policy scenarios compared to the rigid policy scenarios of the industrial system. It is shown that increasing the degrees of freedom for the waste mixing reduces significantly both the operating cost and the environmental impact by avoiding the use of utilities. Moreover, the influence of waste availability as function of production planning without waste storage is analyzed in several multiperiod optimizations. There, it is demonstrated that this saving potential can be further increased by integration of multiperiod production planning with waste management policies, up to the level of 40% for the environmental impact, and more than 50% for the operating cost, compared to the industrial base case. In some specific cases, a proper matching of production planning and waste mixing policies can also turn the waste treatment into a source of profit exploiting energy production from the incineration process. This study reveals the savings potential of more flexible policies in waste management, in particular waste mixing of liquid waste in batch chemical industries treated in incineration, wet air oxidation, wastewater treatment plants, or recovered by distillation. Through a multi-objective optimization framework including models for operating costs and life-cycle inventories based on industrial data, operating constraints from industrial practice, and terminal constraints from legislation, savings potentials up to 50% for the operation cost and 40% for the environmental impact are demonstrated in two case studies.

  20. Cell engineering of Escherichia coli allows high cell density accumulation without fed-batch process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Emma; Markland, Katrin; Larsson, Gen

    2008-01-01

    A set of mutations in the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was used to create Escherichia coli strains with a reduced uptake rate of glucose. This allows a growth restriction, which is controlled on cellular rather than reactor level, which is typical of the fed-batch cultivation concept. Batch growth of the engineered strains resulted in cell accumulation profiles corresponding to a growth rate of 0.78, 0.38 and 0.25 h(-1), respectively. The performance of the mutants in batch cultivation was compared to fed-batch cultivation of the wild type cell using restricted glucose feed to arrive at the corresponding growth profiles. Results show that the acetate production, oxygen consumption and product formation were similar, when a recombinant product was induced from the lacUV5 promoter. Ten times more cells could be produced in batch cultivation using the mutants without the growth detrimental production of acetic acid. This allows high cell density production without the establishment of elaborate fed-batch control equipment. The technique is suggested as a versatile tool in high throughput multiparallel protein production but also for increasing the number of experiments performed during process development while keeping conditions similar to the large-scale fed-batch performance.

  1. Application of heat compensation calorimetry to an E. coli fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Meusel, Wolfram; Husemann, Ute; Greller, Gerhard; Kraume, Matthias

    2018-01-20

    The application of biocalorimetry to fermentation processes offers advantageous insights, while being less complex compared to other, sophisticated PAT solutions. Although the general concept is established, calorimetric methods vary in detail. In this work, a special approach, called heat compensation calorimetry, was applied to an E. coli fed-batch process. Much work has been done for batch processes, proving the validity and accuracy of this calorimetric mode. However, the adaption of this strategy to fed-batch processes has some implications. In the first section of this work, batch fermentations were performed, comparing heat capacity calorimetry to the compensation mode. Both processes showed very good agreement by means of growth behavior. The heat related differences, e.g. temperature profiles, were obvious. In addition, the impact of the chosen mode on the calculation of in-process heat transfer coefficients was shown. Finally, a fed-batch fermentation was performed. The compensation mode was kept sufficiently, up to the point where the metabolic heat production accelerated strongly. Controller tuning was a neuralgic point, which would have needed further optimization under these conditions. Nevertheless, in the present work it was possible to realize a working compensation process while demonstrating critical aspects that must be considered when establishing such approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...... in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen...... limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes...

  3. Functional Unfold Principal Component Regression Methodology for Analysis of Industrial Batch Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology utilizing functional unfold principal component regression (FUPCR), for application to industrial batch process data as a process modeling and optimization tool. The methodology is applied to an industrial fermentation dataset, containing 30 batches of a production...... process operating at Novozymes A/S. Following the FUPCR methodology, the final product concentration could be predicted with an average prediction error of 7.4%. Multiple iterations of preprocessing were applied by implementing the methodology to identify the best data handling methods for the model....... It is shown that application of functional data analysis and the choice of variance scaling method have the greatest impact on the prediction accuracy. Considering the vast amount of batch process data continuously generated in industry, this methodology can potentially contribute as a tool to identify...

  4. Mechanistic Models for Process Development and Optimization of Fed-batch Fermentation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads O.

    2016-01-01

    . This is based on on-line gas measurements and ammonia addition flow rate measurements. Additionally, a mechanistic model is applied offline as a tool for batch planning, based on definition of the process back pressure, aeration rate and stirrer speed. This allows the batch starting fill to be planned, taking...... into account the oxygen transfer conditions, as well as the evaporation rates of the system. Mechanistic models are valuable tools which are applicable for both process development and optimization. The state estimator described will be a valuable tool for future work as part of control strategy development...... for on-line process control and optimization....

  5. Tank 40 final sludge batch 9 chemical and fissile radionuclide characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch (SB) 9 was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS)i. The SB9 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB9. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the 3-L Tank 40 SB9 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 547 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO3/HCl (aqua regiaii) in sealed Teflon® vessels and four with NaOH/Na2O2 (alkali or peroxide fusioniii) using Zr crucibles. Three Analytical Reference Glass – 1iv (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB9 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic

  6. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of industrial fermentation processes are operated in fed-batch mode. In this case, the rate of feed addition to the system is a focus for optimising the process operation, as it directly impacts metabolic activity, as well as directly affecting the volume dynamics in the system...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ooo of... - Batch Process Vent Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1416(d).b Boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity less than 44 megawatts and where... Requirements 3 Table 3 to Subpart OOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. OOO, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart OOO of Part 63—Batch Process Vent Monitoring...

  8. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The integration of process planning and shop floor scheduling in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we explore possibilities to cut manufacturing leadtimes and to improve delivery performance in a small batch part manufacturing shop by integrating process planning and shop floor scheduling. Using a set of initial process plans (one for each order in the shop), we exploit a resource

  10. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  11. Water-integrated scheduling of batch process plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo

    2018-01-01

    Efficient water management is becoming increasingly important in production systems, but companies often do not have any concrete strategies to implement. While there are numerous technological options for improving water efficiency in process plants, there is a lack of effective decision support to

  12. SPEEDUP simulation of liquid waste batch processing. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannahan, K.L.; Aull, J.E.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has accumulated radioactive hazardous waste for over 40 years during the time SRS made nuclear materials for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. This waste is being stored as caustic slurry in a large number of 1 million gallon steel tanks, some of which were initially constructed in the early 1950's. SRS and DOE intend to clean up the Site and convert this waste into stable forms which then can be safely stored. The liquid waste will be separated into a partially decontaminated low-level and radioactive high-level waste in one feed preparation operation, In-Tank Precipitation. The low-level waste will be used to make a concrete product called saltstone in the Saltstone Facility, a part of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concrete will be poured into large vaults, where it will be permanently stored. The high-level waste will be added to glass-formers and waste slurry solids from another feed preparation operation, Extended Sludge Processing. The mixture will then be converted to a stable borosilicate glass by a vitrification process that is the other major part of the DWPF. This glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters and sent to a temporary storage facility prior to delivery to a permanent underground storage site

  13. Modelling of Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Droppings for L-lysine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Ivanova

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the development of dynamic unstructured model of L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process with droppings. This approach includes the following procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; identification of the specific rates (growth rate (mu , substrate utilization rate (nu, production rate (rho; establishment and optimization of the dynamic model of the process; simulation researches.

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum wastewater by hyper-phenol tolerant Bacillus cereus: Preliminary studies with laboratory-scale batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2017-09-03

    Petroleum wastewater samples from oil refinery and oil exploration site were treated by hyper phenol-tolerant Bacillus cereus (AKG1 and AKG2) in laboratory-scale batch process to assess their bioremediation efficacy. Quality of the treated wastewater samples were analyzed in terms of removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium nitrogen content, and improvement of biological oxygen demand (BOD). Adaptation of these bacteria to the toxic environment through structural changes in their cell membranes was also highlighted. Among different combinations, the co-culture of AKG1 and AKG2 showed the best performance in degrading the wastewater samples.

  15. Development and validation of a novel monitoring system for batch flocculant solids settling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Pérez, Borja; Zhang, Xueqian; Penkarski-Rodon, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Secondary sedimentation is the main hydraulic bottleneck of effective pollution control WWTP under wetweather flow conditions. Therefore, online monitoring tools are required for control and optimization of the settling process under dynamic conditions. In this work we propose a novel monitoring...... system able to monitor batch settling tests by tracking the sludge blanket height and solid concentration along the column in the range of 1 to 8 g L-1. The system could be efficiently applied to monitor the batch settling tests of several full scale treatment plants run under different operational...... conditions....

  16. Fault detection properties of global, local and time evolving models for batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses alternative methods for batch process monitoring. Two alternative methods are investigated and compared to an existing one (the benchmark). A description of the models is given and the performance is discussed by means of fault detection performance indices. The performance

  17. Fault detection properties of global, local and time evolving models for batch process monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H.J.; van Sprang, E.N.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses alternative methods for batch process monitoring. Two alternative methods are investigated and compared to an existing one (the benchmark). A description of the models is given and the performance is discussed by means of fault detection performance indices. The performance

  18. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such as low leg drains, high point bleeds, analyzer vents, open-ended valves or lines, and pressure relief valves needed for safety purposes are not subject to this paragraph (e). (1) Properly install... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-monitoring...

  19. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  20. Contribution to the heat integration of batch processes (with or without heat storage)

    OpenAIRE

    Krummenacher, Pierre; Favrat, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This work addresses the indirect heat integration (i.e. resorting to intermediate heat storage) and the direct heat integration (i.e. heat exchanges between coexisting process streams) of batch processes. Tools and methods for the targeting of these two limiting cases of heat integration are proposed, and completed by the development and the application of an automatic design & optimization methodology using the Struggle genetic algorithm (GA). A brewery process is used to demonstrate the fea...

  1. Biological treatment of potato processing wastewater for red pigment production by immobilized cells of UV-irradiated monascus sp. in repeated batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Potato processing wastewater (PPW) was collected and analyzed for biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and starch content. A fungal strain isolated from PPW identified as Monascus sp. PPW was evaluated for its ability to grow and produce red pigment, biomass and reduce the starch content of the ,PPW. Active UV-irradiated isolate of the above strain was obtained by exposing the parent strain to UV-radiation and coded Monascus. sp. PPW-UV7 and used as immobilized cell system for PPW treatment process in repeated batch fermentation. The immobilized cells (in sponge cubes) were able to reduce COD by about 85.7 %, with biomass production of 9.22 gl+ l and over productivity of red pigment of 2.6 gl+ 1 after 8 days fermentation (2 batches). The immobilized cells showed stability and viability for 8 batches (32 days) during the process treatment

  2. Simple control of fed-batch processes for recombinant protein production with E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepe, Sebastian; Kuprijanov, Artur; Aehle, Mathias; Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    A very simple but effective process control technique is proposed that leads to a high batch-to-batch reproducibility with respect to biomass concentration as well as the specific biomass growth rate profiles in E. coli fermentations performed during recombinant protein production. It makes use of the well-established temperature controllers in currently used fermenters, but takes its information from the difference between the controlled culture temperature T (cult) and the temperature T (coolin) of the coolant fed to the fermenter's cooling jacket as adjusted by the fermenter temperature controller. For process control purposes this measured difference is corrected regarding stirrer influences and cumulated before it is used as a new process control variable. As a spin-off of this control, it becomes possible to estimate online the oxygen mass transfer rates and the corresponding k(L)a values during the real cultivation process. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  3. Process kinetics and digestion efficiency of anaerobic batch fermentation of brewer`s spent grains (BSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeonu, F.C.; Okaka, A.N.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Biochemistry

    1996-12-31

    The process kinetics of optimized anaerobic batch digestion of brewer`s spent grains (BSG) reveal that biomethanation is essentially a first order reaction interrupted intermittently by mixed order reactions. An apparent cellulose degradation efficiency of approximately 60% and a lignin degradation efficiency of about 40% was observed in the optimized process. Using the Ken and Hashimoto model, the operational efficiency of the digester was determined to be 26%. (author)

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data are not collected. Boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity less than 44... and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. U, Table 6 Table...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.2460, you must meet... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  6. Application of chemical oxidation to remediate HCH-contaminated soil under batch and flow through conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Tascone, Oriane; Rybnikova, Victoria; Faure, Pierre; Hanna, Khalil

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study describing the chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soil under water saturated and unsaturated flow through conditions. Soil contaminated with β-HCH (45 mg kg -1 ) and γ-HCH (lindane, 25 mg kg -1 ) was sampled from former lindane waste storage site. Efficiency of following treatments was tested at circumneutral pH: H 2 O 2 alone, H 2 O 2 /Fe II , Na 2 S 2 O 8 alone, Na 2 S 2 O 8 /Fe II , and KMnO 4 . Experimental conditions (oxidant dose, liquid/solid ratio, and soil granulometry) were first optimized in batch experiments. Obtained results revealed that increasing dose of H 2 O 2 improved the oxidation efficiency while in Na 2 S 2 O 8 system, maximum HCHs were removed at 300 mM. However, oxidation efficiency was slightly improved by Fe II -activation. Increasing the solid/liquid ratio decreased HCH removal in soil samples crushed to 500 μm while an opposite trend was observed for 2-mm samples. Dynamic column experiments showed that oxidation efficiency followed the order KMnO 4  > Na 2 S 2 O 8 /Fe II  > Na 2 S 2 O 8 whatever the flow condition, whereas the removal extent declined at higher flow rate (e.g., ~50% by KMnO 4 at 0.5 mL/min as compared to ~30% at 2 mL/min). Both HCH removal and oxidant decomposition extents were found higher in saturated columns than the unsaturated ones. While no significant change in relative abundance of soil mineral constituents was observed before and after chemical oxidation, more than 60% of extractable organic matter was lost after chemical oxidation, thereby underscoring the non-selective behavior of chemical oxidation in soil. Due to the complexity of soil system, chemical oxidation has rarely been reported under flow through conditions, and therefore our findings will have promising implications in developing remediation techniques under dynamic conditions closer to field applications.

  7. Advances in industrial biopharmaceutical batch process monitoring: Machine-learning methods for small data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Garvin, Christopher; Ündey, Cenk

    2018-04-06

    Biopharmaceutical manufacturing comprises of multiple distinct processing steps that require effective and efficient monitoring of many variables simultaneously in real-time. The state-of-the-art real-time multivariate statistical batch process monitoring (BPM) platforms have been in use in recent years to ensure comprehensive monitoring is in place as a complementary tool for continued process verification to detect weak signals. This article addresses a longstanding, industry-wide problem in BPM, referred to as the "Low-N" problem, wherein a product has a limited production history. The current best industrial practice to address the Low-N problem is to switch from a multivariate to a univariate BPM, until sufficient product history is available to build and deploy a multivariate BPM platform. Every batch run without a robust multivariate BPM platform poses risk of not detecting potential weak signals developing in the process that might have an impact on process and product performance. In this article, we propose an approach to solve the Low-N problem by generating an arbitrarily large number of in silico batches through a combination of hardware exploitation and machine-learning methods. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first article to provide a solution to the Low-N problem in biopharmaceutical manufacturing using machine-learning methods. Several industrial case studies from bulk drug substance manufacturing are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach for BPM under various Low-N scenarios. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  9. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches. PMID:26177093

  10. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... and adjustable over a wide range of settings. It is possible to monitor the product weight and temperature continuously during baking. The simultaneous measuring of mass and a window allowing for visual (e.g., by video recording) control is unique for this experimental batch oven. Two validation steps have been...... oven, with a butter cookie as the test product. The investigated quality parameters for the butter cookies were mass loss and surface browning, where the uniformity of browning was evaluated subjectively against a scale of standards and objectively by L* value measurements. Good reproducibility...

  11. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Definition of a process for the recovery of ultra traces of Pu238 from a 300 Kg depleted uranium batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, C.

    1992-11-01

    In order to measure the half life of the double beta decay of U 238 , a process for the recovery of trace amounts of Pu 238 (about 30 000 atoms) from a 300 kg batch of depleted uranium has been studied and tested. The process includes a Pu (IV) valency adjustment step with nitrous oxide, followed by nine chromatographic cycles (plutonium decontamination factor up to 10 11 have been achieved for Th, Pa and U). The procedure to realize the alpha spectrometry measurement has also been defined. Full scale apparatus have been set in the CRN facility near STRASBOURG. The first part of the experiment (U 238 purification before one year aging and measurement of the extracted Pu 238 traces) has been realized. The results of the Pu traces counting allows the validation of the chemical process but also show an important Pu 238 contamination certainly a consequence of the TCHERNOBYL accident. (author). 76 refs., 63 tabs., 49 figs

  13. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Cassells, Benny; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-07-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress of the batch taking into account the oxygen mass transfer conditions and the expected future trajectory of the mass. The final results show that the target fill was achieved to within 5% under the maximum fill when tested using eight pilot scale batches, and over filling was avoided. The results were reproducible, unlike the reference experiments which show over 10% variation in the final tank fill, and this also includes over filling. The variance of the final tank fill is

  14. Effect of feeding methods on the astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma in fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gomes Moriel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding methods on the production of astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 was studied, using continuous and pulsed fed-batch processes and low cost materials as substrates (sugar cane juice and urea. In continuous fed-batch processes, a cellular astaxanthin concentration of 383.73 µg/g biomass was obtained. But in pulsed fed-batch processes a reduction in the cellular astaxanthin concentration (303.34 µg/g biomass was observed. Thus the continuous fed-batch processes could be an alternative to industrial production of astaxanthin, allowing an increase in the biomass productivity without losses on astaxanthin production by the yeast.O efeito da alimentação na produção de astaxantina pela levedura Phaffia rhodozyma ATCC 24202 foi estudado, utilizando processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua e intermitente, e matérias-primas de baixo custo como substratos (caldo de cana de açúcar e uréia. Em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua, uma concentração celular de astaxantina de 383,73 µg/g biomassa foi obtida. Entretanto, em processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação intermitente, uma redução na concentração celular de astaxantina (303,34 µg/g biomassa foi observada. Desta forma, processos descontínuo alimentado com alimentação contínua poderiam ser uma alternativa na produção industrial de astaxantina, permitindo um aumento na produtividade de biomassa sem perdas na produção de astaxantina pela levedura.

  15. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  16. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  17. The small intestine and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a batch process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Brian C

    2008-11-01

    Faults in a batch process model of the small intestine create the symptoms of all types of irritable bowel syndrome. The model has three sequential processing sections corresponding to the natural divisions of the intestine. It is governed by a brain controller that is divided into four sub-controllers, each with a unique neurotransmitter. Each section has a sub-controller to manage transport. Sensors in the walls of the intestine provide input and output goes to the muscles lining the walls of the intestine. The output controls the speed of the food soup, moves it in both directions, mixes it, controls absorption, and transfers it to the next section at the correct speed (slow). The fourth sub-controller manages the addition of chemicals. It obtains input from the first section of the process via the signalling hormone Cholecystokinin and sends output to the muscles that empty the gall bladder and pancreas. The correct amounts of bile salts and enzymes are then added to the first section. The sub-controllers produce output only when input is received. When output is missing the enteric nervous system applies a default condition. This default condition normally happens when no food is in the intestine. If food is in the intestine and a transport sub-controller fails to provide output then the default condition moves the food soup to the end of that section. The movement is in one direction only (forward), at a speed dependent on the amount and type of fibre present. Cereal, bean and vegetable fibre causes high speeds. This default high speed transport causes irritable bowel syndrome. A barrier is created when a section moving fast at the default speed, precedes a section controlled by a transport sub-controller. Then the sub-controller constricts the intestine to stop the fast flow. The barrier causes constipation, cramping, and bloating. Diarrhoea results when the section terminating the process moves at the fast default speed. Two problems can occur to prevent

  18. Process performance of high-solids batch anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaocong; Li, Huan; Cheng, Yingchao; Chen, Nan; Li, Chenchen; Yang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of high-solids anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge were investigated by comparison with conventional low-solids processes. A series of batch experiments were conducted under mesophilic condition and the initial solid contents were controlled at four levels of 1.79%, 4.47%, 10.28% and 15.67%. During these experiments, biogas production, organic degradation and intermediate products were monitored. The results verified that high-solids batch AD of sewage sludge was feasible. Compared with the low-solids AD with solid contents of 1.79% or 4.47%, the high-solids processes decreased the specific biogas yield per gram of sludge volatile solids slightly, achieved the same organic degradation rate of about 40% within extended degradation time, but increased the volumetric biogas production rate and the treatment capability of digesters significantly. The blocked mass and energy transfer, the low substrate to inoculum rate and the excessive cumulative free ammonia were the main factors impacting the performance of high-solids batch AD.

  19. Multivariate statistical process control of batch processes based on three-way models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, D. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of batch MSPC control charts is extended and improved control charts an developed. Unfold-PCA, PARAFAC and Tucker3 models are discussed and used as a basis for these charts. The results of the different models are compared and the performance of the control charts based on these models is

  20. Differential expression of small RNAs under chemical stress and fed-batch fermentation in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Long, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as posttranscriptional regulators involved in the control of bacterial lifestyle and adaptation to stressful conditions. Although chemical stress due to the toxicity of precursor and product compounds is frequently encountered in microbial bioprocessing...... applications, the involvement of sRNAs in this process is not well understood. We have used RNA sequencing to map sRNA expression in E. coli under chemical stress and high cell density fermentation conditions with the aim of identifying sRNAs involved in the transcriptional response and those with potential...... roles in stress tolerance....

  1. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS, was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale biohydrogen production process.

  2. Unix Commands and Batch Processing for the Reluctant Librarian or Archivist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Cocciolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unix environment offers librarians and archivists high-quality tools for quickly transforming born-digital and digitized assets, such as resizing videos, creating access copies of digitized photos, and making fair-use reproductions of audio recordings. These tools, such as ffmpeg, lame, sox, and ImageMagick, can apply one or more manipulations to digital assets without the need to manually process individual items, which can be error prone, time consuming, and tedious. This article will provide information on getting started in using the Unix environment to take advantage of these tools for batch processing.

  3. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-01-01

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  4. Multivariate fault isolation of batch processes via variable selection in partial least squares discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengbing; Kuang, Te-Hui; Yao, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, multivariate statistical monitoring of batch processes has become a popular research topic, wherein multivariate fault isolation is an important step aiming at the identification of the faulty variables contributing most to the detected process abnormality. Although contribution plots have been commonly used in statistical fault isolation, such methods suffer from the smearing effect between correlated variables. In particular, in batch process monitoring, the high autocorrelations and cross-correlations that exist in variable trajectories make the smearing effect unavoidable. To address such a problem, a variable selection-based fault isolation method is proposed in this research, which transforms the fault isolation problem into a variable selection problem in partial least squares discriminant analysis and solves it by calculating a sparse partial least squares model. As different from the traditional methods, the proposed method emphasizes the relative importance of each process variable. Such information may help process engineers in conducting root-cause diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving the development of event-driven control systems in the batch processing industry. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A; Rotstein, G; Alsop, N; Bromberg, J P; Gollain, C; Sorensen, S; Macchietto, S; Jakeman, C

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an academia-industry collaborative project whose main objective was to test novel techniques for the development of event-driven control systems in the batch processing (e.g., pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, food) industries. Proposed techniques build upon industrial standards and focus on (i) formal synthesis of phase control logic and its automatic translation into procedural code, and (ii) verification of the complete discrete-event control system via dynamic simulation. In order to test the techniques in an engineering environment, a complete discrete-event control system was produced for a benchmark batch process plant based on a standard development method employed by one of the industrial partners. The control system includes functional process specification, control architecture, distributed control system (DCS) proprietary programming code for procedural control at equipment, unit, and process cell levels, and human-machine interfaces: A technical assessment of the development method and the obtained control system was then carried out. Improvements were suggested using the proposed techniques in the specification, code generation and, verification steps. The project assessed the impact of these techniques from both an engineering and economic point of view. Results suggest that the introduction of computer aided engineering (CAE) practices based on the benchmarked techniques and a structured approach could effect a 75% reduction of errors produced in the development process. This translates into estimated overall savings of 7% for green-field projects. Figures were compared with other partners' experience. It is expected that the work load on a given project will shift, increasing the load on process engineers during the specification stage and decreasing the load on the software engineers during the code writing.

  6. Continuous bind-and-elute protein A capture chromatography: Optimization under process scale column constraints and comparison to batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; Diaz, Luis; Hu, Xiaochun; Shearer, Michael

    2016-07-08

    Recently, continuous downstream processing has become a topic of discussion and analysis at conferences while no industrial applications of continuous downstream processing for biopharmaceutical manufacturing have been reported. There is significant potential to increase the productivity of a Protein A capture step by converting the operation to simulated moving bed (SMB) mode. In this mode, shorter columns are operated at higher process flow and corresponding short residence times. The ability to significantly shorten the product residence time during loading without appreciable capacity loss can dramatically increase productivity of the capture step and consequently reduce the amount of Protein A resin required in the process. Previous studies have not considered the physical limitations of how short columns can be packed and the flow rate limitations due to pressure drop of stacked columns. In this study, we are evaluating the process behavior of a continuous Protein A capture column cycling operation under the known pressure drop constraints of a compressible media. The results are compared to the same resin operated under traditional batch operating conditions. We analyze the optimum system design point for a range of feed concentrations, bed heights, and load residence times and determine achievable productivity for any feed concentration and any column bed height. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:938-948, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Batch statistical process control of a fluid bed granulation process using in-line spatial filter velocimetry and product temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, A; Van den Kerkhof, T; Hellings, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2011-04-18

    Fluid bed granulation is a batch process, which is characterized by the processing of raw materials for a predefined period of time, consisting of a fixed spraying phase and a subsequent drying period. The present study shows the multivariate statistical modeling and control of a fluid bed granulation process based on in-line particle size distribution (PSD) measurements (using spatial filter velocimetry) combined with continuous product temperature registration using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. Via the continuous in-line monitoring of the PSD and product temperature during granulation of various reference batches, a statistical batch model was developed allowing the real-time evaluation and acceptance or rejection of future batches. Continuously monitored PSD and product temperature process data of 10 reference batches (X-data) were used to develop a reference batch PLS model, regressing the X-data versus the batch process time (Y-data). Two PLS components captured 98.8% of the variation in the X-data block. Score control charts in which the average batch trajectory and upper and lower control limits are displayed were developed. Next, these control charts were used to monitor 4 new test batches in real-time and to immediately detect any deviations from the expected batch trajectory. By real-time evaluation of new batches using the developed control charts and by computation of contribution plots of deviating process behavior at a certain time point, batch losses or reprocessing can be prevented. Immediately after batch completion, all PSD and product temperature information (i.e., a batch progress fingerprint) was used to estimate some granule properties (density and flowability) at an early stage, which can improve batch release time. Individual PLS models relating the computed scores (X) of the reference PLS model (based on the 10 reference batches) and the density, respectively, flowabililty as Y-matrix, were developed. The scores of the 4 test

  8. USE OF EXCEL WORKSHEETS WITH USER-FRIENDLY INTERFACE IN BATCH PROCESS (PSBP TO MINIMIZE THE MAKESPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Peterson da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the chemical industry, the necessity for scheduling is becoming more pronounced, especially in batch production mode. Nowadays, planning industrial activities is a necessity for survival. Intense competition requires diversified products and delivery in accordance with the requirements of consumers. These activities require quick decision making and the lowest possible cost, through an efficient Production Scheduling. So, this work addresses the Permutation Flow Shop scheduling problem, characterized as Production Scheduling in Batch Process (PSBP, with the objective of minimizing the total time to complete the schedule (Makespan. A method to approach the problem of production scheduling is to turn it into Mixed Integer Linear Programming- MILP, and to solve it using commercial mathematical programming packages. In this study an electronic spreadsheet with user-friendly interface (ESUFI was developed in Microsoft Excel. The ease of manipulation of the ESUFI is quite evident, as with the use of VBA language a user-friendly interface could be created between the user and the spreadsheet itself. The results showed that it is possible to use the ESUFI for small problems.

  9. Cell-controlled hybrid perfusion fed-batch CHO cell process provides significant productivity improvement over conventional fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Gregory W; Ovalle, Ana Maria; Gagnon, Matthew P; Curran, Meredith L; Wang, Wenge

    2017-07-01

    A simple method originally designed to control lactate accumulation in fed-batch cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells has been modified and extended to allow cells in culture to control their own rate of perfusion to precisely deliver nutritional requirements. The method allows for very fast expansion of cells to high density while using a minimal volume of concentrated perfusion medium. When the short-duration cell-controlled perfusion is performed in the production bioreactor and is immediately followed by a conventional fed-batch culture using highly concentrated feeds, the overall productivity of the culture is approximately doubled when compared with a highly optimized state-of-the-art fed-batch process. The technology was applied with near uniform success to five CHO cell processes producing five different humanized monoclonal antibodies. The increases in productivity were due to the increases in sustained viable cell densities. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1438-1447. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy......We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction...

  11. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process during batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguercia, I.; Solomon, S.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for the denitration of radioactive sodium nitrate-based liquid waste found throughout Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in the United States. In the present investigation, two reaction systems were studied. The first utilized only sodium nitrate as the substrate for the aluminum. The second consisted of the multication composition of waste forms located at the Hanford facility. Studies were carried out on the batch reaction at three different starting nitrate ion concentrations, each at three different temperatures. For each of these conditions, the rate of nitrate depletion was determined, and rate constants were calculated. The reaction did not demonstrate simple kinetics; rather, it appeared to involve two zero order reactions. Certain generalities were obtained in both the batch reaction and in the continuous process, nonetheless. It was found that the conversion of nitrate to ammonia seemed to be most efficient at the lowest temperature studied, 50 degrees C. This behavior was more obvious in the case of the unadulterated nitrate solution than with the Hanford simulant. To elaborate a practical, marketable product, it was necessary to develop a process that could be carried out in a continuous matter, whereby reactants were continuously fed into a reactor while the products of the reaction were simultaneously removed. Thus, the objective has been to develop the prototype procedures for carrying out this continuous reaction. As a corollary of this research, it was first necessary to define the characteristics of the reaction with respect to rate, conversion efficiency, and safety. To achieve this end, reactions were run under various batch conditions, and an attempt was made to measure the rates of the depletion of nitrate and the production of ammonia and hydrogen as well as pH and temperature changes

  12. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  13. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitz, Andrea; Sagmeister, Patrick; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph; Langemann, Timo

    2016-03-24

    The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs) from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8-10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  14. Production of Polystyrene Open-celled Microcellular Foam in Batch Process by Super Critical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Enayati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Open-celled foams are capable to allow the passage of fluids through their structure, because of interconnections between the open cells or bubbles and therefore these structures can be used as a membrane and filter. In thiswork, we have studied the production of polystyrene open-celled microcellular foam by using CO2 as blowing agent. To achieve such structures, it is necessary to control the stages of growth in such a way that the cells would connect to each other through the pores without any coalescence. The required processing condition to achieve open-celled structures is predictable by a model theory of opened-cell. This model suggests that at least a 130 bar saturation pressure and foaming time between 9 and 58 s are required for this system. The temperature range has been selected for to be both higher than polymer glass transition temperature and facilitating the foaming process. Experimental results in the batch foaming process has verified the model quite well. The SEM and mercury porousimetry tests show the presence of pores between the cells with open-celled structure. Experimental results show that by increasing the saturation pressure and the foaming temperature, there is a drop in the time required for open-celled structure formation. A 130 bar saturation pressure, 150o C foaming temperature and 60 s foaming time, suggest the attainment of open-celled microcellular foam based on polystyrene/CO2 system in the batch process.

  15. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial Ghost (BG platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  16. Activity of fuel batches processed through Hanford separations plants, 1944 through 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, R.A.; Wootan, D.W.

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a printout of the ``Fuel Activity Database`` (version U6) generated by the Hanford DKPRO code and transmitted to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for input to their ``Hanford Defined Waste`` model of waste tank inventories. This fuel activity file consists of 1,276 records--each record representing the activity associated with a batch of spent reactor fuel processed by month (or shorter period) through individual Hanford separations plants between 1944 and 1989. Each record gives the curies for 46 key radionuclides, decayed to a common reference date of January 1, 1994.

  17. Effect of batch-process solar disinfection on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; McGuigan, K G

    2005-03-01

    The results of batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water are reported. Oocyst suspensions were exposed to simulated sunlight (830 W m(-2)) at 40 degrees C. Viability assays (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]/propidium iodide and excystation) and infectivity tests (Swiss CD-1 suckling mice) were performed. SODIS exposures of 6 and 12 h reduced oocyst infectivity from 100% to 7.5% (standard deviation = 2.3) and 0% (standard deviation = 0.0), respectively.

  18. Estimation of Temperature Dependent Parameters of a Batch Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Atala, Daniel I. P.; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a procedure was established to develop a mathematical model considering the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics. Experiments were performed in batch mode in temperatures from 30 to 38°C. The microorganism used was Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the culture media, sugarcane molasses. The objective is to assess the difficulty in updating the kinetic parameters when there are changes in fermentation conditions. We conclude that, although the re-estimation is a time-consuming task, it is possible to accurately describe the process when there are changes in raw material composition if a re-estimation of parameters is performed.

  19. Comparisons between continuous and batch processing to produce clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Baptista-Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare CA production in continuous culture with and without cell recycling and in batch process by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Continuous cultivations with high cell concentration using cell recycling were performed utilizing a hollow fiber ultrafiltration module to separate cells from the filtrate broth. The continuous cultures without cell recycling and the batch cultivations were performed conventionally. The highest productivity was attained in the continuous cultivation with cell recycling (22.2 mg.L-1.h-1. The highest CA concentration was obtained in the batch process (470 mg.L-1.h-1.O ácido clavulânico (AC é um importante inibidor de beta-lactamases, enzimas que degradampartir do metabolismo secundário do Streptomyces clavuligerus, bactéria filamentosa e estritamente aeróbia. Considerando que a velocidade de produção de metabólitos secundários está ligada à concentração celular, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a produção de AC nos processos contínuos com e sem reciclo celular e em batelada, realizando cultivos dessa bactéria com alta densidade celular. Para cumprir com o objetivo proposto, foram realizados experimentos em biorreator operando na forma contínua com reciclo utilizando-se um módulo de filtração tangencial de fibra oca para a separação celular. Os processos contínuos sem reciclo e em batelada foram realizados de forma convencional. A produtividade em AC no cultivo contínuo com reciclo celular (22,2 mg.L-1h-1 foi superior aos processos convencionais, apesar de obter-se maior concentração do produto (470 mg.L-1 em batelada.

  20. Improved design of constrained model predictive tracking control for batch processes against unknown uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Jin, Qibing; Zhang, Ridong; Zhang, Junfeng; Gao, Furong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, an improved constrained tracking control design is proposed for batch processes under uncertainties. A new process model that facilitates process state and tracking error augmentation with further additional tuning is first proposed. Then a subsequent controller design is formulated using robust stable constrained MPC optimization. Unlike conventional robust model predictive control (MPC), the proposed method enables the controller design to bear more degrees of tuning so that improved tracking control can be acquired, which is very important since uncertainties exist inevitably in practice and cause model/plant mismatches. An injection molding process is introduced to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MPC approach in comparison with conventional robust MPC. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality-by-Design approach to monitor the operation of a batch bioreactor in an industrial avian vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largoni, Martina; Facco, Pierantonio; Bernini, Donatella; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano

    2015-10-10

    Monitoring batch bioreactors is a complex task, due to the fact that several sources of variability can affect a running batch and impact on the final product quality. Additionally, the product quality itself may not be measurable on line, but requires sampling and lab analysis taking several days to be completed. In this study we show that, by using appropriate process analytical technology tools, the operation of an industrial batch bioreactor used in avian vaccine manufacturing can be effectively monitored as the batch progresses. Multivariate statistical models are built from historical databases of batches already completed, and they are used to enable the real time identification of the variability sources, to reliably predict the final product quality, and to improve process understanding, paving the way to a reduction of final product rejections, as well as to a reduction of the product cycle time. It is also shown that the product quality "builds up" mainly during the first half of a batch, suggesting on the one side that reducing the variability during this period is crucial, and on the other side that the batch length can possibly be shortened. Overall, the study demonstrates that, by using a Quality-by-Design approach centered on the appropriate use of mathematical modeling, quality can indeed be built "by design" into the final product, whereas the role of end-point product testing can progressively reduce its importance in product manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  3. Contaminants in groundwater: Chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.A.; Gillham, R.W.; Barker, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The movement of most toxic contaminants in groundwater is affected by chemical reactions that cause transfer of contaminant mass between the liquid and solid phases or conversion of dissolved species from one form to another. The chemical attenuation of inorganic contaminants occurs mainly by adsorption, precipitation, oxidation, or reduction. organic contaminants can be adsorbed or degraded by microbiological processes, but at present little is known about their behavior, particularly under the anaerobic conditions that are common in contaminated groundwater. Field and laboratory studies have established that various toxic heavy metals, transition metals, metalloids, radionuclides, and other inorganic species can be mobile or immobile in the groundwater zone, depending on the hydrogeochemical conditions represented by the pH, the redox condition, the ionic strength, the mineralogy, the solid-phase surface area, and the complexing capacity. Although the importance of chemical reactions in the attenuation of contaminants is widely recognized, the capabilities for attenuation predictions are not well developed. This is the case because the chemical processes within dynamic groundwater systems are complex; consequently, many of the geochemical parameters in predictive models are problematic. The prediction problem is complicated by the fact that the chemical processes are continually influenced by the redistribution of dissolved species caused by molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion. The complexities of these mixing processes contribute to the difficulties in developing reliable methods for predicting the chemical behavior of contaminants in the groundwater zone

  4. Constructing regions of attainable sizes and achieving target size distribution in a batch cooling sonocrystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Stutee; Sarkar, Debasis

    2018-04-01

    The application of ultrasound to a crystallization process has several interesting benefits. The temperature of the crystallizer increases during ultrasonication and this makes it difficult for the temperature controller of the crystallizer to track a set temperature trajectory precisely. It is thus necessary to model this temperature rise and the temperature-trajectory tracking ability of the crystallizer controller to perform model-based dynamic optimization for a given cooling sonocrystallization set-up. In our previous study, we reported a mathematical model based on population balance framework for a batch cooling sonocrystallization of l-asparagine monohydrate (LAM). Here we extend the previous model by including energy balance equations and a Generic Model Control algorithm to simulate the temperature controller of the crystallizer that tracks a cooling profile during crystallization. The improved model yields very good closed-loop prediction and is conveniently used for studies related to particle engineering by optimization. First, the model is used to determine the regions of attainable particle sizes for LAM batch cooling sonocrystallization process by solving appropriate dynamic optimization problems. Then the model is used to determine optimal operating conditions for achieving a target crystal size distribution. The experimental evidence clearly demonstrates the efficiency of the particle engineering approach by optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Use of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control without Parameter Adaptation for Batch Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Binette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimization techniques are typically used to improve economic performance of batch processes, while meeting product and environmental specifications and safety constraints. Offline methods suffer from the parameters of the model being inaccurate, while re-identification of the parameters may not be possible due to the absence of persistency of excitation. Thus, a practical solution is the Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC without parameter adaptation, where the measured states serve as new initial conditions for the re-optimization problem with a diminishing horizon. In such schemes, it is clear that the optimum cannot be reached due to plant-model mismatch. However, this paper goes one step further in showing that such re-optimization could in certain cases, especially with an economic cost, lead to results worse than the offline optimal input. On the other hand, in absence of process noise, for small parametric variations, if the cost function corresponds to tracking a feasible trajectory, re-optimization always improves performance. This shows inherent robustness associated with the tracking cost. A batch reactor example presents and analyzes the different cases. Re-optimizing led to worse results in some cases with an economical cost function, while no such problem occurred while working with a tracking cost.

  6. Chemical Process Modeling and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartusiak, R. Donald; Price, Randel M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the features of Lehigh University's (Pennsylvania) process modeling and control program. Highlights the creation and operation of the Chemical Process Modeling and Control Center (PMC). Outlines the program's philosophy, faculty, technical program, current research projects, and facilities. (TW)

  7. Time Series Analysis of Fed-batch Fermentation Process for L-valine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fed-batch fermentation processes are some of the most efficient and wildly applied types of cultivation for industrial production of most amino acids including L-valine. Time series analysis is an important tool for description of the experimental data. This article deals with statistical inference from the time series analysis of generalised stoichiometric equations as a hypothesis for modelling and optimisation. The aim of the article is to develop some time series models of generalized stoichiometric equations. The identification procedure includes the following steps: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; model structure selection for each stoichiometric equation; estimation of the model's parameters; verification of the derived models.

  8. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... are often encountered in the food industry. However, the extent to which PI is utilized is much smaller than the number of potential applications. The present paper will address this topic, give some reasons for the underuse of PI, and indicate some principles, methods, and directions that, when applied......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  9. Mathematical technique for the design of near-zero-effluent batch processess

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimisation in chemical processes has always been the privilege of continuous rather than batch plants. However, this situation is steadily changing, since batch plants have a tendency to generate much more toxic effluent compared...

  10. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  11. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  12. Image processing in digital pathology: an opportunity to solve inter-batch variability of immunohistochemical staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eycke, Yves-Rémi; Allard, Justine; Salmon, Isabelle; Debeir, Olivier; Decaestecker, Christine

    2017-02-21

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used technique in pathology to evidence protein expression in tissue samples. However, this staining technique is known for presenting inter-batch variations. Whole slide imaging in digital pathology offers a possibility to overcome this problem by means of image normalisation techniques. In the present paper we propose a methodology to objectively evaluate the need of image normalisation and to identify the best way to perform it. This methodology uses tissue microarray (TMA) materials and statistical analyses to evidence the possible variations occurring at colour and intensity levels as well as to evaluate the efficiency of image normalisation methods in correcting them. We applied our methodology to test different methods of image normalisation based on blind colour deconvolution that we adapted for IHC staining. These tests were carried out for different IHC experiments on different tissue types and targeting different proteins with different subcellular localisations. Our methodology enabled us to establish and to validate inter-batch normalization transforms which correct the non-relevant IHC staining variations. The normalised image series were then processed to extract coherent quantitative features characterising the IHC staining patterns.

  13. Image processing in digital pathology: an opportunity to solve inter-batch variability of immunohistochemical staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eycke, Yves-Rémi; Allard, Justine; Salmon, Isabelle; Debeir, Olivier; Decaestecker, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used technique in pathology to evidence protein expression in tissue samples. However, this staining technique is known for presenting inter-batch variations. Whole slide imaging in digital pathology offers a possibility to overcome this problem by means of image normalisation techniques. In the present paper we propose a methodology to objectively evaluate the need of image normalisation and to identify the best way to perform it. This methodology uses tissue microarray (TMA) materials and statistical analyses to evidence the possible variations occurring at colour and intensity levels as well as to evaluate the efficiency of image normalisation methods in correcting them. We applied our methodology to test different methods of image normalisation based on blind colour deconvolution that we adapted for IHC staining. These tests were carried out for different IHC experiments on different tissue types and targeting different proteins with different subcellular localisations. Our methodology enabled us to establish and to validate inter-batch normalization transforms which correct the non-relevant IHC staining variations. The normalised image series were then processed to extract coherent quantitative features characterising the IHC staining patterns. PMID:28220842

  14. Alcoholic fermentation with flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidini, Carla Zanella; Marquez, Líbia Diniz Santos; de Almeida Silva, Helisângela; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio

    2014-02-01

    Studies have been conducted on selecting yeast strains for use in fermentation for ethanol production to improve the performance of industrial plants and decrease production costs. In this paper, we study alcoholic fermentation in a fed-batch process using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain with flocculant characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal combination of the variables involved, with the sucrose concentration of 170 g/L, a cellular concentration in the inoculum of 40% (v/v), and a filling time of 6 h, which resulted in a 92.20% yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity for 92.75% and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K(I) and K(s) values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).

  15. Performance of Continuous Micro Photo Reactor – Comparison with Batch Process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drhová, Magdalena; Hejda, S.; Křišťál, Jiří; Klusoň, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, SI (2012), s. 1365-1372 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague, 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : continuous microreactor * photooxidation * phtalocyanine Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach for modeling Zn(II) adsorption in batch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Sayiter [Engineering Faculty, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkmenistan)

    2017-09-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to predict adsorption efficiency of peanut shells for the removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Effects of initial pH, Zn(II) concentrations, temperature, contact duration and adsorbent dosage were determined in batch experiments. The sorption capacities of the sorbents were predicted with the aid of equilibrium and kinetic models. The Zn(II) ions adsorption onto peanut shell was better defined by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, for both initial pH, and temperature. The highest R{sup 2} value in isotherm studies was obtained from Freundlich isotherm for the inlet concentration and from Temkin isotherm for the sorbent amount. The high R{sup 2} values prove that modeling the adsorption process with ANN is a satisfactory approach. The experimental results and the predicted results by the model with the ANN were found to be highly compatible with each other.

  17. Application of batch tests to assess antibiotic loads in anaerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diana C; Londoño, Yudy A; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-05-01

    The presence of antibiotics in drinking water and wastewater has not been widely studied because the sanitary engineering sector mainly focuses on the removal of organic matter and nutrients. There is a lack of environmental regulations for pollutants like antibiotics. Batch tests analyse biodegradability to measure the anaerobic degradation potential of the substrate, or they can be used as toxicity tests. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol (FLO), ceftiofur (CEF) and penicillin G (PEN), commonly used in Colombia for the treatment of livestock diseases, were added in different concentrations to anaerobic sludge contained in serological glass bottles. The production of methane stored in the empty spaces of the bottles was monitored in order to determine the effect of the aforementioned antibiotics on the anaerobic process. It was found that CEF did not have any inhibitory effect on methanogenic activity, while PEN showed inhibition at all concentrations evaluated.

  18. Evaluation of Lip Prints on Different Supports Using a Batch Image Processing Algorithm and Image Superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Lara Maria; Fernandes, Clemente Maia da Silva; Serra, Mônica da Costa

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to assess an algorithm to facilitate lip print visualization, and to digitally analyze lip prints on different supports, by superimposition. It also aimed to classify lip prints according to sex. A batch image processing algorithm was developed, which facilitated the identification and extraction of information about lip grooves. However, it performed better for lip print images with a uniform background. Paper and glass slab allowed more correct identifications than glass and the both sides of compact disks. There was no significant difference between the type of support and the amount of matching structures located in the middle area of the lower lip. There was no evidence of association between types of lip grooves and sex. Lip groove patterns of type III and type I were the most common for both sexes. The development of systems for lip print analysis is necessary, mainly concerning digital methods. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Lotfi, F. Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms. PMID:24883359

  20. Fast lithographic source optimization using a batch-processing sequential least square estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Lin, Haijun; Jiao, Guoli; Li, Yanqiu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2017-07-20

    This paper proposes a fast source optimization (SO) method for lithography systems to improve the imaging performance of different hotspots on the fullchip layout. Hotspots are referred to as the critical locations on the layout that are difficult to print. A fullchip layout usually includes numerous hotspots with different geometric characteristics. Current SO approaches collect all of the data from different hotspots before the optimization, and then try to calculate the common optimal source for all hotspots. If any new data from unaccounted hotspots become available, the optimal source has to be recalculated. This paper first develops a batch-processing sequential least square estimator, and then uses it to iteratively modify the source pattern based on the ongoing hotspot data. The optimized source for one hotspot can be updated to suit others without redundant computation. Simulations show that the proposed method can significantly accelerate the SO procedure, while improving the imaging performance of multiple hotspots.

  1. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  2. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  3. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Click, D.; Jones, M.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) confirms applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples.1 DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem (CC) Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). In addition to the CC method confirmation, the DWPF lab's mercury (Hg) digestion method was also evaluated for applicability to SB6 (see DWPF procedure 'Mercury System Operating Manual', Manual: SW4-15.204. Section 6.1, Revision 5, Effective date: 12-04-03). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples. For validation of the DWPF lab's Hg method, only SRAT receipt material was used and compared to AR digestion results. The SB6 SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB6 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), to form the SB6 Blend composition. In addition to the 16 elements currently measured by the DWPF, this report includes Hg and thorium (Th) data (Th comprising {approx}2.5 - 3 Wt% of the total solids in SRAT Receipt and SRAT Product, respectively) and provides specific details of ICP-AES analysis of Th. Thorium was found to interfere with the U 367.007 nm emission line, and an inter-element correction (IEC) had to be applied to U

  4. Batch process solar disinfection is an efficient means of disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Shigella dysenteriae type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, S C; Barer, M R; Devlin, L O; McGuigan, K G

    2004-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity rate caused by Shigella dysenteriae type I infection is increasing in the developing world each year. In this paper, the possibility of using batch process solar disinfection (SODIS) as an effective means of disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Sh. dysenteriae type I is investigated. Phosphate-buffered saline contaminated with Sh. dysenteriae type I was exposed to simulated solar conditions and the inactivation kinetics of this organism was compared with that of Sh. flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhimurium. Recovery of injured Sh. dysenteriae type I may be improved by plating on medium supplemented with catalase or pyruvate. Sh. dysenteriae type I is very sensitive to batch process SODIS and is easily inactivated even during overcast conditions. Batch process SODIS is an appropriate intervention for use in developing countries during Sh. dysenteriae type I epidemics.

  5. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-03-10

    A majority of industrial fermentation processes are operated in fed-batch mode. In this case, the rate of feed addition to the system is a focus for optimising the process operation, as it directly impacts metabolic activity, as well as directly affecting the volume dynamics in the system. This review covers a range of strategies which have been employed to use the feed rate as a manipulated variable in a control strategy. The feed rate is chosen as the focus for this review, as it is seen that this variable may be used towards many different objectives depending on the process of interest, the characteristics of the strain, or the product being produced, which leads to different drivers for process optimisation. This review summarises the methods, as well as focusing on the different objectives for the controllers, and the choice of measured variables involved in the strategy. The discussion includes a summary of considerations for control strategy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  8. State observers for a biological wastewater nitrogen removal process in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, K M; Roqueiro, N; Coelho, M A; Araújo, O Q

    2001-08-01

    Biological removal of nitrogen is a two-step process: aerobic autotrophic microorganisms oxidize ammoniacal nitrogen to nitrate, and the nitrate is further reduced to elementary nitrogen by heterotrophic microorganisms under anoxic condition with concomitant organic carbon removal. Several state variables are involved which render process monitoring a demanding task, as in most biotechnological processes, measurement of primary variables such as microorganism, carbon and nitrogen concentrations is either difficult or expensive. An alternative is to use a process model of reduced order for on-line inference of state variables based on secondary process measurements, e.g. pH and redox potential. In this work, two modeling approaches were investigated: a generic reduced order model based on the generally accepted IAWQ No. 1 Model [M. Henze, C.P.L., Grady, W., Gujer, G.V.R., Marais, T., Matsuo, Water Res. 21 (5) (1987) 505-515]-generic model (GM), and a reduced order model specially validated with the data acquired from a benchscale sequential batch reactor (SBR) specific model (SM). Model inaccuracies and measurement errors were compensated for with a Kalman filter structure to develop two state observers: one built with GM, the generic observer (GO), and another based on SM, the specific observer (SO). State variables estimated by GM, SM, GO and SO were compared to experimental data from the SBR unit. GM gave the worst performance while SM predictions presented some model to data mismatch. GO and SO, on the other hand, were both in very good agreement with experimental data showing that filters add robustness against model errors, which reduces the modeling effort while assuring adequate inference of process variables.

  9. Supercritical fluids in chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertz, A.; Charton, F.

    2011-01-01

    When the pressure and temperature of a fluid are simultaneously higher than their critical point values, the fluid is said to be supercritical. Supercritical fluids have unique physico-chemical properties, in particular they have specific gravity close to that of liquids and viscosity close to that of gases. Carbon dioxide CO 2 (P c = 73.8 bars, T c = 31 C. degrees) is the most widely used compound in supercritical processes. In the nuclear field, chemistry inspired by liquid phase extraction has been developed for the supercritical CO 2 used as a diluent in association with extractant systems such as organo-phosphorus compounds or β-dike-tones. The Japanese Super-DIREX (Supercritical fluid Direct Extraction) process exploits the supercritical CO 2 - tri-n-butyl phosphate - nitric acid chemical system to extract actinides from spent fuel. In the United States, the same chemical system is utilized in an industrial facility to recover enriched uranium from incineration ash. Supercritical water H 2 O (P c = 221 bars, T c = 374 C. degrees) exhibits solvation properties close to those of organic solvents and can solubilise organic compounds that are insoluble in liquid water. In the nuclear field, CEA is studying oxidation in supercritical water, also called hydrothermal oxidation, for the mineralization of contaminated organic solvents. (A.C.)

  10. Production optimization for concentration and volume-limited fed-batch reactors in biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Xinggao; Zhang, Zeyin; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Chunhua; Gui, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Since a very slight violation of constraint could cause process safety and product quality problems in biochemical processes, an adaptive approach of fed-batch reactor production optimization that can strictly satisfy constraints over the entire operating time is presented. In this approach, an improved smooth function is proposed such that the inequality constraints can be transformed into smooth constraints. Based on this, only an auxiliary state is needed to monitor violations in the augmented performance index. Combined with control variable parameterization (CVP), the dynamic optimization is executed and constraint violations are examined by calculating the sensitivities of states to ensure that the inequality constraints are satisfied everywhere inside the time interval. Three biochemical production optimization problems, including the manufacturing of ethanol, penicillin and protein, are tested as illustrations. Meanwhile, comparisons with pure penalty CVP method, famous dynamic optimization toolbox DOTcvp and literature results are carried out. Research results show that the proposed method achieves better performances in terms of optimization accuracy and computation cost.

  11. Cell-recycle batch process of Scheffersomyces stipitis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culture for second generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Selim; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    To achieve an optimized co-culture ratio of Scheffersomyces stipitis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of second generation bioethanol under a cell-recycle batch process. Three Sacc. cerevisiae strains were evaluated in co-culture with Sch. stipitis CBS 5773 at different ratios using synthetic medium containing glucose and xylose. Bioreactor trials indicated that the optimal condition for ethanol production using Sacc. cerevisiae EC1118 and Sch. stipitis co-culture was 1 % of O2 concentration. To increase ethanol production with Sacc. cerevisiae/Sch. stipitis co-culture a cell-recycle batch process was evaluated. Using this process, the maximum ethanol production (9.73 g l(-1)) and ethanol yield (0.42 g g(-1)) were achieved exhibiting a tenfold increase in ethanol productivity in comparison with batch process (2.1 g l(-1) h(-1)). In these conditions a stabilization of the cells ratio Sacc. cerevisiae/Sch. stipitis (1:5) at steady state condition was obtained. Batch cells recycling fermentation is an effective process to use Sch. stipitis/Sacc. cerevisiae co-culture for second generation ethanol production.

  12. Modelling and synthesis of pharmaceutical processes: moving from batch to continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil

    Research in pharmaceutical process development has gained a lot of interest over the last years. Long development times, increasing R&D costs, increasing competition, and short patent duration are some of the driving forces for the increased research efforts in the field. Increased process...... understanding of the pharmaceutical process has resulted in major improvements in the field. Process systems engineering (PSE) approaches, which have been successfully applied in the design, analysis and optimization of chemical and petrochemical processes, might be also important for the improvement...... of pharmaceutical processes by providing systematic and structured solutions for the stages of the pharmaceutical process development. In this PhD thesis, the objective is to systematize the pharmaceutical process development in order to enhance process understanding by creating a data-rich environment...

  13. Anaerobic sediment potential acidification and metal release risk assessment by chemical characterization and batch resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanno, M.P. di [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; Curutchet, G. [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ratto, S. [Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Catedra de Edafologia

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Sediments act as a sink for toxic substances (heavy metals, organic pollutants) and, consequently, dredged materials often contain pollutants which are above safe limits. In polluted anaerobic sediments, the presence of sulphides and redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulphide oxidation to sulphate, resulting in potential toxic metal release. The oxidation reaction is catalyzed by several microorganisms. Some clean up measures, such as dredging, can initiate the process. The aim of the present work is to assess the acidification and metal release risk in the event of sediment dredging and also to compare two different acid base account techniques with the resuspension results. The oxidation mechanism by means of inoculation with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The sediments were chemically characterized (pH; organic oxidizable carbon; acid volatile sulphides; total sulphur; moisture; Cr, Cu and Zn aqua regia contents). A metal sequential extraction procedure (Community Bureau of Reference, BCR technique) was applied to calculate the Acid Producing Potential (APP) and Acid Consuming Capacity (ACC) of the sediment samples through Fe, Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} measurements. The acid base account was also performed by the Sobek methodology (Acid producing potential - AP - calculated with total sulphur and neutralization potential - NP - by titration of the remaining acid after a reaction period with the sample). Fresh sediments were placed in agitated shake flasks and samples were taken at different times to evaluate pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe{sup 2+} concentration. Some of the systems were inoculated with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain to assess the biological catalysis on sulphide oxidation. Results: Sediment chemical characterization showed high organic matter content (5.4-10.6%), total sulphur (0.36-0.86%) and equivalent CaCO{sub 3

  14. Brunovsky Normal Form of Monod Kinetics Models and Growth Rate Control of a Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Y.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical methodology that gives assistance to design of fed-batch stabilization and control is presented. The methodology is based both on Utility theory and optimal Control theory. The Utility theory deals with the expressed subjective preferences and allows for the expert preferences to be taken in consideration in complex biotechnological systems as criteria for control and optimization. The Control theory is used for parameters stabilization of a fed-batch cultivation process. The control is written based on information of the growth rate. The simulations show good efficiency of the control laws.

  15. A low-cost batch process for high-performance melt-textured GdBaCuO pellets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muralidhar, M.; Tomita, M.; Suzuki, K.; Jirsa, Miloš; Fukumoto, .Y.; Ishihara, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2010), 045033/1-045033/7 ISSN 0953-2048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : superconducting magnet * GdBaCuO * batch process * high-Tc bulk Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2010

  16. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 5 Table 5 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting...

  17. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating

    2009-01-01

    (lactate and osmolality). The proportionalities of nutritional consumption were determined by direct analysis. And the robust, metabolically responsive feeding strategy was based on the off-line measurement of glucose. The fed-batch process was shown to perform equivalently in GS-CHO and GS-NS0 culture...

  18. Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Bashir, Mohammed J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, landfill leachate was treated by using the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. Two types of the SBR, namely non-powdered activated carbon and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR) were used. The influence of aeration rate and contact time on SBR and PAC-SBR performances was investigated. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total dissolved salts (TDS), and sludge volume index (SVI) were monitored throughout the experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for experimental design, analysis and optimization. Based on the results, the PAC-SBR displayed superior performance in term of removal efficiencies when compared to SBR. At the optimum conditions of aeration rate of 1 L/min and contact time of 5.5 h the PAC-SBR achieved 64.1%, 71.2%, 81.4%, and 1.33% removal of COD, colour, NH 3 -N, and TDS, respectively. The SVI value of PAC-SBR was 122.2 mL/g at optimum conditions.

  19. Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Bashir, Mohammed J.K. [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-05-15

    In this study, landfill leachate was treated by using the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. Two types of the SBR, namely non-powdered activated carbon and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR) were used. The influence of aeration rate and contact time on SBR and PAC-SBR performances was investigated. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), total dissolved salts (TDS), and sludge volume index (SVI) were monitored throughout the experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for experimental design, analysis and optimization. Based on the results, the PAC-SBR displayed superior performance in term of removal efficiencies when compared to SBR. At the optimum conditions of aeration rate of 1 L/min and contact time of 5.5 h the PAC-SBR achieved 64.1%, 71.2%, 81.4%, and 1.33% removal of COD, colour, NH{sub 3}-N, and TDS, respectively. The SVI value of PAC-SBR was 122.2 mL/g at optimum conditions.

  20. Biodegradation of pulp and paper mill effluent by co-culturing ascomycetous fungi in repeated batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Deepika; Paliwal, Rashmi; Rai, J P N

    2017-08-31

    The competence of novel fungal consortium, consisting of Nigrospora sp. LDF00204 (accession no. KP732542) and Curvularia lunata LDF21 (accession no. KU664593), was investigated for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent. Fungal consortium exhibited enhanced biomass production under optimized medium conditions, i.e., glucose as carbon (C), sodium nitrate as nitrogen (N), C/N 1.5:0.5, pH 5, temperature 30 °C, and agitation 140 rpm, and significantly reduced biochemical oxygen demand (85.6%), chemical oxygen demand (80%), color (82.3%), and lignin concentration (76.1%) under catalytic enzyme activity; however, unutilized ligninolytic enzymes, such as laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP), were observed to be 13.5, 11.4, and 9.4 U/ml after the third cycle of effluent treatment in repeated batch process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fungal consortium revealed their compatibility through intermingled hyphae and spores, while the FTIR spectra confirmed the alteration of functional groups ensuring structural changes during the effluent treatment. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis showed the reduction of complex compounds and development of numerous low-molecular-weight metabolites, such as 1-3-dimethyl benzene, 2-chloro-3-methyl butane, pentadecanoic acid, and 1-2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, during the treatment, demonstrating the massive potential of the novel fungal consortium to degrade recalcitrant industrial pollutants.

  1. Application showcases for a small scale membrane contactor for fine chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, C.P.M.; Ngene, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from batch to continuous processing in fine-chemicals industries offers many advantages; among these are a high volumetric productivity, improved control over reaction conditions resulting in a higher yield and selectivity, a small footprint and a safer process due to a smaller

  2. Modelling of spectroscopic batch process data using grey models to incorporate external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Bijlsma, S.; Smilde, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    In both analytical and process chemistry, one common aim is to build models describing measured data. In cases where additional information about the chemical system is available, this can be incorporated into the model with the aim of improving model fit and interpretability. A model which consists

  3. Systematic Modelling and Crystal Size Distribution Control for Batch Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    Crystallization processes form an important class of separation methods that are frequently used in the chemical, the pharmaceutical and the food industry. The specifications of the crystal product are usually given in terms of crystal size, shape and purity. In order to predict the desired cryst...

  4. Control of chemical chaos through medium viscosity in a batch ferroin-catalysed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroni, Marcello A; Calabrese, Ilaria; Miele, Ylenia; Rustici, Mauro; Marchettini, Nadia; Rossi, Federico

    2017-12-13

    In this paper we show that the active interplay of nonlinear kinetics and transport phenomena in a chemical oscillator can be exploited to induce and control chaos. To this aim we use as a model system the ferroin-catalysed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction, which is known to evolve to characteristic chaotic transient dynamics when carried out under batch and unstirred conditions. In particular, chemical chaos was found to appear and disappear by following a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse (RTN) scenario. Here we use medium viscosity as a bifurcation parameter to tune the reaction-diffusion-convection (RDC) interplay and force the reaction in a specific sequence of dynamical regimes: either (i) periodic → quasi-periodic → chaotic or (ii) periodic → quasi-periodic or (iii) only periodic. The medium viscosity can be set by adding different amounts of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate), known to have a little impact on the reaction mechanism, above its critical micelle concentration. Experimental results are supported by means of numerical simulations of a RDC model, which combines self-sustained oscillations to the related chemically-induced buoyancy convection.

  5. Adsorption of Chrysoidine R by using fly ash in batch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheswaran, Manickam; Karunanithi, Thirugnanam

    2007-01-01

    This investigation deals with effective utilization of fly ash as adsorbent for the removal of Chrysoidine R from the aqueous solution. The fly ash is a major byproduct generated in coal-based thermal power plants and has good potential for use as an adsorbent. A series of experiments were carried out in a batch adsorption technique to obtain the effect of process variables viz. contact time, pH (2, 4, 6 and 8) initial concentration of the dye (400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L -1 ), amount of the adsorbent (125, 250, 375 and 500 mg L -1 ), and temperature (303, 313, 323 and 333 K) on adsorption. The concentration of dye was determined by spectrophotometer. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly; higher adsorption percentage was observed at lower concentration of chrysoidine. The adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption was found to obey pseudo-first order kinetics. An intra particle diffusion model was used to fit the experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption have been calculated. Adsorption of Chrysoidine R on fly ash was found to be an exothermic reaction

  6. Slide Set: Reproducible image analysis and batch processing with ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanes, Benjamin A

    2015-11-01

    Most imaging studies in the biological sciences rely on analyses that are relatively simple. However, manual repetition of analysis tasks across multiple regions in many images can complicate even the simplest analysis, making record keeping difficult, increasing the potential for error, and limiting reproducibility. While fully automated solutions are necessary for very large data sets, they are sometimes impractical for the small- and medium-sized data sets common in biology. Here we present the Slide Set plugin for ImageJ, which provides a framework for reproducible image analysis and batch processing. Slide Set organizes data into tables, associating image files with regions of interest and other relevant information. Analysis commands are automatically repeated over each image in the data set, and multiple commands can be chained together for more complex analysis tasks. All analysis parameters are saved, ensuring transparency and reproducibility. Slide Set includes a variety of built-in analysis commands and can be easily extended to automate other ImageJ plugins, reducing the manual repetition of image analysis without the set-up effort or programming expertise required for a fully automated solution.

  7. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubel, Mateusz

    2016-03-01

    It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit's heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  8. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit’s heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  9. Natural soil mediated photo Fenton-like processes in treatment of pharmaceuticals: Batch and continuous approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changotra, Rahil; Rajput, Himadri; Dhir, Amit

    2017-12-01

    This paper manifests the potential viability of soil as a cost-free catalyst in photo-Fenton-like processes for treating pharmaceuticals at large scale. Naturally available soil without any cost intensive modification was utilized as a catalyst to degrade pharmaceuticals, specifically ornidazole (ORZ) and ofloxacin (OFX). Soil was characterized and found enriched with various iron oxides like hematite, magnetite, goethite, pyrite and wustite, which contributes toward enhanced dissolution of Fe 3+ than Fe 2+ in the aqueous solution resulting in augmented rate of photo-Fenton reaction. The leached iron concentration in solution was detected during the course of experiments. The degradation of ORZ and OFX was assessed in solar induced batch experiments using H 2 O 2 as oxidant and 95% ORZ and 92% OFX removal was achieved. Elevated efficiencies were achieved due to Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ cycling, producing more hydroxyl radical leading to the existence of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions simultaneously. The removal efficiency of solar photo-Fenton like process was also compared to photo-Fenton process with different irradiation sources (UV-A and UV-B) and were statistically analysed. Continuous-scale studies were conducted employing soil either in the form of soil beads or as a thin layer spread on the surface of baffled reactor. Soil beads were found to have satisfactory reusability and stability. 84 and 79% degradation of ORZ and OFX was achieved using soil as thin layer while with soil beads 71 and 68% degradation, respectively. HPLC and TOC study confirmed the efficient removal of both the compounds. Toxicity assessment demonstrates the inexistence of toxic intermediates during the reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of a repeated fed-batch process for the production of chitin-glucan complex by Komagataella pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Inês; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-07-25

    The yeast Komagataella pastoris was cultivated under different fed-batch strategies for the production of chitin-glucan complex (CGC), a co-polymer of chitin and β-glucan. The tested fed-batch strategies included DO-stat mode, predefined feeding profile and repeated fed-batch operation. Although high cell dry mass and high CGC production were obtained under the tested DO-stat strategy in a 94h cultivation (159 and 29g/L, respectively), the overall biomass and CGC productivities were low (41 and 7.4g/Lday, respectively). Cultivation with a predefined profile significantly improved both biomass and CGC volumetric productivity (87 and 10.8g/Lday, respectively). Hence, this strategy was used to implement a repeated fed-batch process comprising 7 consecutive cycles. A daily production of 119-126g/L of biomass with a CGC content of 11-16wt% was obtained, thus proving this cultivation strategy is adequate to reach a high CGC productivity that ranged between 11 and 18g/Lday. The process was stable and reproducible in terms of CGC productivity and polymer composition, making it a promising strategy for further process development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2to chemicals: CO2as a next generation feedstock for electricity-driven bioproduction in batch and continuous modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J N; Strik, David P B T B; Pant, Deepak

    2017-09-21

    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO 2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO 2 to multi-carbon organic compounds using the reducing equivalents produced at the electrically-polarized cathode. The use of CO 2 as a feedstock for chemicals is gaining much attention, since CO 2 is abundantly available and its use is independent of the food supply chain. MES based on CO 2 reduction produces acetate as a primary product. In order to elucidate the performance of the bioelectrochemical CO 2 reduction process using different operation modes (batch vs. continuous), an investigation was carried out using a MES system with a flow-through biocathode supplied with 20 : 80 (v/v) or 80 : 20 (v/v) CO 2  : N 2 gas. The highest acetate production rate of 149 mg L -1 d -1 was observed with a 3.1 V applied cell-voltage under batch mode. While running in continuous mode, high acetate production was achieved with a maximum rate of 100 mg L -1 d -1 . In the continuous mode, the acetate production was not sustained over long-term operation, likely due to insufficient microbial biocatalyst retention within the biocathode compartment (i.e. suspended micro-organisms were washed out of the system). Restarting batch mode operations resulted in a renewed production of acetate. This showed an apparent domination of suspended biocatalysts over the attached (biofilm forming) biocatalysts. Long term CO 2 reduction at the biocathode resulted in the accumulation of acetate, and more reduced compounds like ethanol and butyrate were also formed. Improvements in the production rate and different biomass retention strategies (e.g. selecting for biofilm forming micro-organisms) should be investigated to enable continuous biochemical production from CO 2 using MES. Certainly, other process optimizations will be

  12. Combining mechanistic and data-driven approaches to gain process knowledge on the control of the metabolic shift to lactate uptake in a fed-batch CHO process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, Dénes; Koczka, Krisztina; Párta, László; Wechselberger, Patrick; Klein, Tobias; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of knowledge is available on the cellular regulation of overflow metabolism in mammalian hosts of recombinant protein production. However, to develop strategies to control the regulation of overflow metabolism in cell culture processes, the effect of process parameters on metabolism has to be well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of pH and temperature shift timing on lactate metabolism in a fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) process by using a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach. The metabolic switch to lactate consumption was controlled in a broad range by the proper timing of pH and temperature shifts. To extract process knowledge from the large experimental dataset, we proposed a novel methodological concept and demonstrated its usefulness with the analysis of lactate metabolism. Time-resolved metabolic flux analysis and PLS-R VIP were combined to assess the correlation of lactate metabolism and the activity of the major intracellular pathways. Whereas the switch to lactate uptake was mainly triggered by the decrease in the glycolytic flux, lactate uptake was correlated to TCA activity in the last days of the cultivation. These metabolic interactions were visualized on simple mechanistic plots to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Taken together, the combination of knowledge-based mechanistic modeling and data-driven multivariate analysis delivered valuable insights into the metabolic control of lactate production and has proven to be a powerful tool for the analysis of large metabolic datasets. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Technologies and Principles of Hot Recycling and Investigation of Preheated Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Batching Process in an Asphalt Mixing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrikas Sivilevičius

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available More and more recycled asphalt mixtures with high reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP content are used in road pavement. Having determined and evaluated RAP composition (aged bitumen content and aggregate gradation and properties, a suitable recycling agent and virgin materials are selected in the design process. The gradation of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture that is recycled in an asphalt mixing plant (AMP shall correspond to its optimal gradation set out in its job-mix formula (JMF. When RAP is recycled in an AMP, inevitable systematic and random errors of performed technological operations and inhomogeneity of virgin materials and RAP have a significant influence. These factors influence the variation of components quantities of recycled hot mix asphalt (RHMA mixture and deviations from JMF. In this study, the principles of asphalt pavement hot recycling are systematized, which allows analysis of the factors of components’ interaction influencing the results of the recycling process. The paper also presents and analyses asphalt recycling technologies in AMP and their comparative analysis. During the season of asphalt mixture production in 2014, statistical parameters were calculated according to the data obtained from one of the companies, which collected and systematized RAP batch masses, when before batching it was pre-dried and pre-heated in an additional dryer. These parameters of batch mass and RAP content in RHMA position and variation were used when evaluating the accuracy and precision of the recycling process in AMP. The obtained data showed that when RHMA mixtures are produced in a modern batch-type AMP, RAP is batched accurately, but not precisely enough.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  15. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v was chosen for bioreactor experiments. Batch, and fed-batch cultures with linear ascending feeding for 25 (FB25, 35 (FB35, and 50 (FB50 hours, were performed. FB35 and FB50 produced the highest beta-galactosidase specific activities (around 1,800 U/g cells, and also the best productivities (180 U/L.h. Results show the potential use of fed-batch cultures of recombinant S. cerevisiae on industrial applications using supplemented whey as substrate.

  16. Assessing Chemical Process Sustainability with GREENSCOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENSCOPE is a sustainability assessment tool used to evaluate and assist in the design of chemical processes. The goal is to minimize resource use, prevent or reduce releases, and increase the economic feasibility of a chemical process.

  17. Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Forgione , Marco; Birpoutsoukis , Georgios; Bombois , Xavier; Mesbah , Ali; Daudey , Peter; Van Den Hof , Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Two batch-to-batch model update strategies for model-based control of batch cooling crystallization are presented. In Iterative Learning Control, a nominal process model is adjusted by a non-parametric, additive correction term which depends on the difference between the measured output and the model prediction in the previous batch. In Iterative Identification Control, the uncertain model parameters are iteratively estimated using the measured batch data. Due to the d...

  18. Control of continuous fed-batch fermentation process using neural network based model predictive controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, A Uma Maheshwar; Jana, Asim Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Cell growth and metabolite production greatly depend on the feeding of the nutrients in fed-batch fermentations. A strategy for controlling the glucose feed rate in fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation and a novel controller was studied. The difference between the specific carbon dioxide evolution rate and oxygen uptake rate (Qc - Qo) was used as controller variable. The controller evaluated was neural network based model predictive controller and optimizer. The performance of the controller was evaluated by the set point tracking. Results showed good performance of the controller.

  19. Treatment of rinse water from zinc phosphate coating by batch and continuous electrocoagulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobya, M; Demirbas, E; Dedeli, A; Sensoy, M T

    2010-01-15

    Treatment of spent final rinse water of zinc phosphating from an automotive assembly plant was investigated in an electrochemical cell equipped with aluminum or iron plate electrodes in a batch mode by electrocoagulation (EC). Effects of the process variables such as pH, current density, electrode material and operating time were explored with respect to phosphate and zinc removal efficiencies, electrical energy and electrode consumptions. The optimum operating conditions for removal of phosphate and zinc were current density of 60.0 A/m(2), pH 5.0 and operating time of 25.0 min with Al electrode and current density of 60.0 A/m(2), pH 3.0 and operating time of 15.0 min with Fe electrode, respectively. The highest phosphate and zinc removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were 97.7% and 97.8% for Fe electrode, and 99.8% and 96.7% for Al electrode. The electrode consumptions increased from 0.01 to 0.35 kg electrode/m(3) for Al electrode and from 0.20 to 0.62 kg electrode/m(3) for Fe electrode with increasing current density from 10.0 to 100.0 A/m(2). The energy consumptions were 0.18-11.29 kWh/m(3) for Al electrode and 0.24-8.47 kWh/m(3) for Fe electrode in the same current density range. Removal efficiencies of phosphate and zinc were found to decrease when flow rate was increased from 50 to 400 mL/min in continuous mode of operation. The morphology and elements present in the sludge was also characterized by using SEM and EDX.

  20. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  1. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  2. Antifoam Degradation Products in Off Gas and Condensate of Sludge Batch 9 Simulant Nitric-Formic Flowsheet Testing for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-14

    Ten chemical processing cell (CPC) experiments were performed using simulant to evaluate Sludge Batch 9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on eight of the ten. The other two were SRAT cycles only. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has previously shown antifoam decomposes to form flammable organic products, (hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), trimethylsilanol (TMS), and propanal), that are present in the vapor phase and condensate of the CPC vessels. To minimize antifoam degradation product formation, a new antifoam addition strategy was implemented at SRNL and DWPF to add antifoam undiluted.

  3. High Level Waste Feed Delivery AZ-101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC

  4. Development of a chemically defined platform fed-batch culture media for monoclonal antibody-producing CHO cell lines with optimized choline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, Shinobu; Miyakawa, Ichiko; Doi, Tomohiro

    2018-01-11

    A chemically defined platform basal medium and feed media were developed using a single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Cell line A, which showed a peak viable cell density of 5.9 × 10 6  cells/mL and a final mAb titer of 0.5 g/L in batch culture, was selected for the platform media development. Stoichiometrically balanced feed media were developed using glucose as an indicator of cell metabolism to determine the feed rates of all other nutrients. A fed-batch culture of cell line A using the platform fed-batch medium yielded a 6.4 g/L mAb titer, which was 12-fold higher than that of the batch culture. To examine the applicability of the platform basal medium and feed media, three other cell lines (A16, B, and C) that produce mAbs were cultured using the platform fed-batch medium, and they yielded mAb titers of 8.4, 3.3, and 6.2 g/L, respectively. The peak viable cell densities of the three cell lines ranged from 1.3 × 10 7 to 1.8 × 10 7  cells/mL. These results show that the nutritionally balanced fed-batch medium and feeds worked well for other cell lines. During the medium development, we found that choline limitation caused a lower cell viability, a lower mAb titer, a higher mAb aggregate content, and a higher mannose-5 content. The optimal choline chloride to glucose ratio for the CHO cell fed-batch culture was determined. Our platform basal medium and feed media will shorten the medium-development time for mAb-producing cell lines.

  5. Evaluation of moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR) in operating A2O process with emphasis on biological removal of nutrients existing in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedsalehi, M.; Jaafari, J.; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the performance of moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor in operating the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) process for treatment of wastewaters containing nitrogen and phosphorous was evaluated. For this purpose, a pilot system with two bench-scale sequencing batch reactors with a...

  6. Operational conditions for successful partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Kim, Mingu; Nakhla, George

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using kinetic models. During the 4-month operation, dissolved oxygen (DO) and influent ammonia concentration were selected as operating variables to evaluate nitrite accumulation. Stable partial nitrification was observed with two conditions, influent ammonia concentration of 190 mg N/L and a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg/L as well as influent ammonia concentration of 100 mg N/L and a DO of 0.15-2.0 mg/L with intermittent aeration. At a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg O 2 /L and influent ammonia concentration of 90 mg N/L, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria growth was not suppressed. Kinetic parameters were determined or estimated with batch tests and model simulation. The kinetic model predicted the SBR performance well.

  7. CMOS-compatible batch processing of monolayer MoS2 MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Kuanchen; Kim, Hyun; Marstell, Roderick J.; Göritz, Alexander; Wipf, Christian; Li, Lei; Park, Ji-Hoon; Luo, Xi; Wietstruck, Matthias; Madjar, Asher; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.; Kaynak, Mehmet; Lee, Young Hee; Hwang, James C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Thousands of high-performance 2D metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated on wafer-scale chemical vapor deposited MoS2 with fully-CMOS-compatible processes such as photolithography and aluminum metallurgy. The yield was greater than 50% in terms of effective gate control with less-than-10 V threshold voltage, even for MOSFETs having deep-submicron gate length. The large number of fabricated MOSFETs allowed statistics to be gathered and the main yield limiter to be attributed to the weak adhesion between the transferred MoS2 and the substrate. With cut-off frequencies approaching the gigahertz range, the performances of the MOSFETs were comparable to that of state-of-the-art MoS2 MOSFETs, whether the MoS2 was grown by a thin-film process or exfoliated from a bulk crystal.

  8. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  9. Ochratoxin A contamination of coffee batches from Kenya in relation to cultivation methods and post-harvest processing treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Daniel; Mburu, Joseph K; Durand, Noël; Clarke, Renata; Frank, John M; Guyot, Bernard

    2010-06-01

    This study set out to assess the relative importance of sound and unsound beans in a batch of coffee with regard to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. Initially, unsound beans were found to account for 95% of contamination in a batch of coffee, whatever the methods used for post-harvest processing. It was also found that beans displaying traces of attacks by Colletotrichum kahawae were the greatest contributors to OTA contamination. In a second stage, the study compared the contamination of sound beans with that of beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae. On average, beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae had a statistically higher OTA content than sound beans (18.0 microg kg(-1) as opposed to 1.2 microg kg(-1)). In addition, the average OTA content in unsound beans varied depending on growing conditions.

  10. Polyethylene ionomer-based nano-composite foams prepared by a batch process and MuCell injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hidetomo; Mori, Tomoki; Okamoto, Masami; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To understand the correlation between foamability and melt rheology of polyethylene-based ionomers having different degrees of the neutralization and corresponding nano-composites, we have conducted the foam processing via a batch process in an autoclave and microcellular foam injection molding (FIM) process using the MuCell technology. We have discussed the obtainable morphological properties in both foaming processes. All cellular structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The competitive phenomenon between the cell nucleation and the cell growth including the coalescence of cell was discussed in light of the interfacial energy and the relaxation rate as revealed by the modified classical nucleation theory and rheological measurement, respectively. The FIM process led to the opposite behavior in the cell growth and coalescence of cell as compared with that of the batch process, where the ionic cross-linked structure has significant contribution to retard the cell growth and coalescence of cell. The mechanical properties of the structural foams obtained by FIM process were discussed.

  11. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document

  12. A novel process-based model of microbial growth: self-inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aerobic fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Landi, Carmine; Cartenì, Fabrizio; de Alteriis, Elisabetta; Giannino, Francesco; Paciello, Lucia; Parascandola, Palma

    2015-07-30

    Microbial population dynamics in bioreactors depend on both nutrients availability and changes in the growth environment. Research is still ongoing on the optimization of bioreactor yields focusing on the increase of the maximum achievable cell density. A new process-based model is proposed to describe the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured on glucose as carbon and energy source. The model considers the main metabolic routes of glucose assimilation (fermentation to ethanol and respiration) and the occurrence of inhibition due to the accumulation of both ethanol and other self-produced toxic compounds in the medium. Model simulations reproduced data from classic and new experiments of yeast growth in batch and fed-batch cultures. Model and experimental results showed that the growth decline observed in prolonged fed-batch cultures had to be ascribed to self-produced inhibitory compounds other than ethanol. The presented results clarify the dynamics of microbial growth under different feeding conditions and highlight the relevance of the negative feedback by self-produced inhibitory compounds on the maximum cell densities achieved in a bioreactor.

  13. Effects of Processing on Some Chemical Properties of the Leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of boiling and drying on some chemical properties of the drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera) were determined. One batch of fresh Moringa leaves was boiled in distilled water, while another batch was dried in the shade, at a temperature of 30 – 34oC. Both batches were milled and some chemical properties ...

  14. Cycle-time determination and process control of sequencing batch membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a method to determine the cycle time for sequencing batch membrane bioreactors (SBMBRs) is introduced. One of the advantages of SBMBRs is the simplicity of adapting them to varying wastewater composition. The benefit of this flexibility can only be fully utilised if the cycle times are optimised for the specific inlet load conditions. This requires either proactive and ongoing operator adjustment or active predictive instrument-based control. Determination of the cycle times for conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR) plants is usually based on experience. Due to the higher mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations in SBMBRs and the limited experience with their application, a new approach to calculate the cycle time had to be developed. Based on results from a semi-technical pilot plant, the paper presents an approach for calculating the cycle time in relation to the influent concentration according to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 and the German HSG (Hochschulgruppe) Approach. The approach presented in this paper considers the increased solid contents in the reactor and the resultant shortened reaction times. This allows for an exact calculation of the nitrification and denitrification cycles with a tolerance of only a few minutes. Ultimately the same approach can be used for a predictive control strategy and for conventional SBR plants.

  15. Commercial application of freezing-irradiation combination process for pasteurization of two specific batches of cooked, peeled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    In 1978 microbiological standards for pre-cooked, peeled frozen shrimps imported into Australia were abruptly amended and made more stringent. Large consignments of shrimps failed to meet the new specifications and were placed in quarantine on arrival. Two importers affected by the change in policy obtained permission to investigate the feasibility of using ionizing radiation to reduce to an acceptable level the microbial load on two batches of frozen shrimps. Trial irradiations established that doses of 6 or 8 kGy (600 or 800 krad) reduced microbial levels at least 100-fold, thus enabling these batches to meet the new microbiological standard. Applications to State regulatory authorities resulted in approvals being granted to the importers to irradiate: (1) in New South Wales 47 tonnes of imported frozen shrimps at 6 kGy, using the Research Establishment's facilities; and (2) in Victoria 14.3 tonnes at 8 kGy using ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd's commercial radiation plant at Dandenong. Approvals applied solely to these two batches and marketing of the irradiated shrimps were confined to the State in which they were irradiated. The microbiological basis for the choice of dose, dosimetry, technology, legal aspects, economics and public acceptance of this first limited commercial use in Australia of radiation for food preservation are described. It is suggested that in standards for irradiation of specific foods, dose limits should be flexible enough to take into account the relationships between the physical state of food, temperature during irradiation, the extent of chemical change likely to occur at that temperature, and the dose required to produce the desired microbiological effect. (author)

  16. Differential expression of small RNAs under chemical stress and fed-batch fermentation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rau, Martin Holm; Bojanovic, Klara; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are often expressed in response to changing environmental conditions and function to modulate gene expression. Although chemical stress is routinely encountered in microbial processing applications, the cellular response and the involvement of sRNAs in t......Introduction: Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are often expressed in response to changing environmental conditions and function to modulate gene expression. Although chemical stress is routinely encountered in microbial processing applications, the cellular response and the involvement of s......RNAs in this process is poorly understood. We have used RNA sequencing to map the Escherichia coli sRNome during chemical stress and high cell density fermentations with the aim of identifying sRNAs involved in the stress response and those with potential roles in stress tolerance.Methods: RNA sequencing libraries...... were prepared from RNA isolated from E. coli MG1655 cells subjected to chemical stress with twelve compounds. The strain was also grown under high cell density fermentation conditions, where cells were harvested in four growth phases.Results: We have discovered over 250 novel intergenic transcripts...

  17. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  18. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  19. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  20. A Genetic Algorithm for Feeding Trajectory Optimisation of Fed-batch Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a genetic algorithm is proposed with the purpose of the feeding trajectory optimization during a fed-batch fermentation of E. coli. The feed rate profiles are evaluated based on a number of objective functions. Optimization results obtained for different feeding trajectories demonstrate that the genetic algorithm works well and shows good computational performance. Developed optimal feed profiles meet the defined criteria. The ration of the substrate concentration and the difference between actual cell concentration and theoretical maximum cell concentration is defined as the most appropriate objective function. In this case the final cell concentration of 43 g·l-1 and final product concentration of 125 g·l-1 are achieved and there is not significant excess of substrate.

  1. The Misselhorn Cycle: Batch-Evaporation Process for Efficient Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gleinser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the Misselhorn cycle is introduced as a power cycle that aims for efficient waste heat recovery of temperature sources below 100 °C. The basic idea shows advantages over a standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in overall efficiency and utilization of the heat source. The main characteristic of this cycle is the use of at least three parallel batch evaporators instead of continuous heat exchangers. The operational phases of the evaporators are shifted so that there is always one vaporizer in discharge mode. A transient MATLAB® model (The MathWorks: Natick, MA, USA is used to simulate the achievable performance of the Misselhorn cycle. The calculations of the thermodynamic states of the system are based on the heat flux, the equations for energy conservation and the equations of state found in the NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties - REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD, USA. In the isochoric batch evaporation, the pressure and the corresponding boiling temperature rise over time. With a gradually increasing boiling temperature, no pinch point limitation occurs. Furthermore, the heat source medium is passed through the evaporators in serial order to obtain a quasi-counter flow setup. It could be shown that these features offer the possibility to gain both high thermal efficiencies and an enhanced utilization of the heat source at the same time. A basic model with a fixed estimated heat transfer coefficient promises a possible system exergy efficiency of 44.4%, which is an increase of over 60% compared to a basic ORC with a system exergy efficiency of only 26.8%.

  2. Life-cycle and cost of goods assessment of fed-batch and perfusion-based manufacturing processes for mAbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnak, Phumthep; Allmendinger, Richard; Ramasamy, Sri V; Lettieri, Paola; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2016-09-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment tool that quantifies the environmental impact associated with a product or a process (e.g., water consumption, energy requirements, and solid waste generation). While LCA is a standard approach in many commercial industries, its application has not been exploited widely in the bioprocessing sector. To contribute toward the design of more cost-efficient, robust and environmentally-friendly manufacturing process for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a framework consisting of an LCA and economic analysis combined with a sensitivity analysis of manufacturing process parameters and a production scale-up study is presented. The efficiency of the framework is demonstrated using a comparative study of the two most commonly used upstream configurations for mAb manufacture, namely fed-batch (FB) and perfusion-based processes. Results obtained by the framework are presented using a range of visualization tools, and indicate that a standard perfusion process (with a pooling duration of 4 days) has similar cost of goods than a FB process but a larger environmental footprint because it consumed 35% more water, demanded 17% more energy, and emitted 17% more CO 2 than the FB process. Water consumption was the most important impact category, especially when scaling-up the processes, as energy was required to produce process water and water-for-injection, while CO 2 was emitted from energy generation. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the perfusion process can be made more environmentally-friendly than the FB process if the pooling duration is extended to 8 days. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1324-1335, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Chemical process control using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Chun; Kim, Raeh Yeon; Kim, Yang Su; Oh, Min; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Jung, Yeon Su

    2001-07-01

    This book is about chemical process control, which includes the basis of process control with conception, function, composition of system and summary, change of laplace and linearization, modeling of chemical process, transfer function and block diagram, the first dynamic property of process, the second dynamic property of process, the dynamic property of combined process, control structure of feedback on component of control system, the dynamic property of feedback control loop, stability of closed loop control structure, expression of process, modification and composition of controller, analysis of vibration response and adjustment controller using vibration response.

  4. A low-cost batch process for high-performance melt-textured GdBaCuO pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, M.; Tomita, M.; Suzuki, K.; Jirsa, M.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.

    2010-04-01

    High-Tc superconducting magnets promise a variety of industrial, medical, public, and research applications. However, the potential large-scale applications of these materials need excellent and uniform properties and a cheap production method. The batch process developed for the fabrication of GdBa2Cu3Oy pellets in air fulfils all of these requirements. The samples were melt-processed using a cold seeding method with thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. We used self-made Gd-123 and Gd-211 powders mixed with 0.1 wt% of Pt. Up to 1-1.5 kg of melt-grown Gd-123 bulks could be prepared in one run. XRD analysis confirmed that all of the bulks were c-axis oriented. The superconducting and magnetic performance of the pellets was checked on several small test samples cut out at various standard positions within the bulk. The values were reasonably uniform and the performance was similar to the oxygen-controlled melt-grown Gd-123 samples. The average trapped field at 77 K in the 24 mm diameter batch samples was between 0.8 and 0.9 T, close to the maximum value of 1 T reported so far for Gd-123 single grains processed in air. The present results prove that a high-performance good-quality LREBa2Cu3Oy material can be scaled up from laboratory to industrial production.

  5. A new divided-wall heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) for batch processing: Feasibility and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel heat integrated configuration is proposed for batch distillation. • The shell is divided into two closed semi-cylinders by a metal wall. • An open-loop variable manipulation policy is formulated. • The column improves its energy efficiency and economic performance. - Abstract: This work introduces a new heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) for batch processing. Under this scheme, the entire cylindrical shell is proposed to divide vertically by a metal wall into two closed semi-cylinders. Aiming to generate an internal heat source, a heat pump system is employed over the left hand division to elevate the pressure of the right hand part with the application of HIDiC concept. This new divided-wall HIDiC column utilizes its own energy source by transferring heat from the high pressure (HP) to low pressure (LP) side, thereby reducing the utility consumption in both the still and condenser. To make this thermal integration technology more effective, a typical tray configuration is proposed in both sides of the divided-wall. Unlike the continuous flow distillation, the batch column shows unsteady state process characteristics that make its operation more challenging. With this, an open-loop variable manipulation policy is formulated so that the dynamics of the heat integrated column remain close, if not same, with its conventional counterpart. This is a necessary condition required for a fair comparison between them. Finally, the proposed configuration is illustrated by a binary column, showing an improvement in energy savings, entropy generation and cost over its conventional analogous. This thermally integrated configuration is relatively simple than the traditional HIDiC in terms of design and operation.

  6. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Brigitte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. Results We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. Conclusion The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  7. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michael; Kühleitner, Manfred; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2006-12-11

    Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  8. Plasma-chemical processes and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro B, J.

    1987-01-01

    The direct applications of plasma technology on chemistry and metallurgy are presented. The physical fundaments of chemically active non-equilibrium plasma, the reaction kinetics, and the physical chemical transformations occuring in the electrical discharges, which are applied in the industry, are analysed. Some plasma chemical systems and processes related to the energy of hydrogen, with the chemical technology and with the metallurgy are described. Emphasis is given to the optimization of the energy effectiveness of these processes to obtain reducers and artificial energetic carriers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Design of problem-specific evolutionary algorithm/mixed-integer programming hybrids: two-stage stochastic integer programming applied to chemical batch scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urselmann, Maren; Emmerich, Michael T. M.; Till, Jochen; Sand, Guido; Engell, Sebastian

    2007-07-01

    Engineering optimization often deals with large, mixed-integer search spaces with a rigid structure due to the presence of a large number of constraints. Metaheuristics, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), are frequently suggested as solution algorithms in such cases. In order to exploit the full potential of these algorithms, it is important to choose an adequate representation of the search space and to integrate expert-knowledge into the stochastic search operators, without adding unnecessary bias to the search. Moreover, hybridisation with mathematical programming techniques such as mixed-integer programming (MIP) based on a problem decomposition can be considered for improving algorithmic performance. In order to design problem-specific EAs it is desirable to have a set of design guidelines that specify properties of search operators and representations. Recently, a set of guidelines has been proposed that gives rise to so-called Metric-based EAs (MBEAs). Extended by the minimal moves mutation they allow for a generalization of EA with self-adaptive mutation strength in discrete search spaces. In this article, a problem-specific EA for process engineering task is designed, following the MBEA guidelines and minimal moves mutation. On the background of the application, the usefulness of the design framework is discussed, and further extensions and corrections proposed. As a case-study, a two-stage stochastic programming problem in chemical batch process scheduling is considered. The algorithm design problem can be viewed as the choice of a hierarchical decision structure, where on different layers of the decision process symmetries and similarities can be exploited for the design of minimal moves. After a discussion of the design approach and its instantiation for the case-study, the resulting problem-specific EA/MIP is compared to a straightforward application of a canonical EA/MIP and to a monolithic mathematical programming algorithm. In view of the

  10. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, May 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-06-21

    Pu production from separation plants during May was 116% commitments. UO{sub 3} production and shipments met schedules. Button output and shape production was 97 and 121% of schedule/forecast. Recuplex (product recovery) operated at record rates. Processing at Purex was carried out with the HS column bypassed. Palm processing resulted in excellent product quality but with low yield. A sample of fission products was prepared for Curtiss-Wright. Piping modifications were made to the Purex Pu ion exchange units. One Redox feed batch was prepared with dichromate oxidation; the U and Pu streams increased (Ru) as anticipated. Containers and casks were designed for fission product recovery. Design of installation for subassembly of Pit 65 weapon components was begun.

  11. Production of a potential liquid plant bio-stimulant by immobilized Piriformospora indica in repeated-batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina; Flor-Peregrin, Elena; Martos, Vanessa; Reyes, Antonia; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhizal-like fungus able to establish associations with roots of a wide range of plants, supporting plant nutrition and increasing plant resistance and tolerance to stress, was shown to solubilise phosphate applied in the form of animal bone char (HABO) in fermentation systems. The process of P solubilisation was caused most likely by proton extrusion and medium pH lowering. The fungal mycelium was successfully immobilized/retained in a polyurethane foam carrier. Further employment of the immobilized mycelium in repeated-batch fermentation process resulted in at least 5 cycles of P solubilization. The concentration of soluble P increased during the experiment with 1.0 and 3.0 g HABO l -1 and at the end of the 5th batch cycle reached 40.8 and 120 mg l -1 , respectively. The resulting final liquid product, without or with solubilized phosphate, was found to significantly increase plant growth and P plant uptake. It can be used as a biostimulant containing microbial plant growth-promoting substances and soluble P derived from renewable sources (HABO) thus supporting the development of sustainable agro-ecosystems.

  12. Recipe Development Process Re-Design with ANSI/ISA-88 Batch Control Standard in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita De Minicis

    2014-11-01

    which must be appropriately shared among local laboratories and plants. To this extent, the ANSI/ISA-88 batch manufacturing standard, rising in the context of process control and automation, is rapidly becoming widely used in pharmaceutical companies. This paper presents a step-by-step approach to assessing the compliance to the ANSI/ISA-88 standard along with a BPM-oriented methodology applicable to the re-design of any generic recipe development process. Redesigning a recipe development process is a complex activity and can mask several pitfalls and criticalities. Thus, along with the methodology, some general evidence and suggestions are provided based on the experience of a project carried out in a large multinational pharmaceutical company.

  13. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  14. Combined coagulation-flocculation and sequencing batch reactor with phosphorus adjustment for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate: experimental kinetics and chemical oxygen demand fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Matar, F; Hashisho, J

    2013-05-01

    The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is challenging and relatively limited. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 7,760-11,770 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]: 2,760-3,569 mg/L, total nitrogen [TN] = 980-1,160 mg/L) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) preceded by a coagulation-flocculation process with phosphorus nutritional balance under various mixing and aeration patterns. Simulations were also conducted to define kinetic parameters and COD fractionation. Removal efficiencies reached 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD, and 72% for TN, similar to and better than reported studies, albeit with a relatively lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT). The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap toward managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications. The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate, which is challenging and relatively limited, was demonstrated using a combined coagulation-flocculation with SBR technology and nutrient balance adjustment. The most suitable coagulant, kinetic design parameters, and COD fractionation were defined using coupled experimental and simulation results contributing in filling a gap toward managing high-strength leachate by providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications and anticipating potential constraints related to the non-biodegradable COD fraction. In this context, while the combined coagulation-flocculation and SBR process improved removal efficiencies, posttreatment may be required for high-strength leachate, depending on discharge standards and ultimate usage of the treated leachate.

  15. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  16. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-22

    This report for June 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  17. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, November 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-12-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for November 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee-relations, and waste management.

  18. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-04-21

    This report for March 1961, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  19. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-11-22

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: production operation; purex and redox operation; finished products operation; maintenance; financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  20. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, January 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-02-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for January 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  1. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  2. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David C.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Baich, Mark A.

    2005-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is in the process of investigating factors suspected of impacting catalytic hydrogen generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, Chemical Process Cell, CPC. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation in simulation work constrains the allowable acid addition operating window in DWPF. This constraint potentially impacts washing strategies during sludge batch preparation. It can also influence decisions related to the addition of secondary waste streams to a sludge batch. Catalytic hydrogen generation data from 2002-2005 were reviewed. The data came from process simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, and Slurry Mix Evaporator, SME. Most of the data was from the development work for the Sludge Batch 3 process flowsheet. This included simulant and radioactive waste testing. Preliminary Sludge Batch 4 data were also reviewed. A statistical analysis of SB3 simulant hydrogen generation data was performed. One factor considered in the statistical analysis was excess acid. Excess acid was determined experimentally as the acid added beyond that required to achieve satisfactory nitrite destruction.

  3. Enhanced ammonia nitrogen removal using consistent ammonium exchange of modified zeolite and biological regeneration in a sequencing batch reactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun Xia; Ye, Zheng Fang; Wang, Yao Long; Ma, Ming Guang; Li, Yan Feng

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing preferential ion exchange of the modified zeolite, the zeo-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is recommended for a new nitrogen removal process. In this study, natural zeolite was modified by sodium chloride to enhance sorption capacity for ammoniacal nitrogen. The untreated and treated zeolite was characterized by XPS and XRD techniques. The sorption isotherm tests showed that equilibrium sorption data were better represented by the Langmuir model than by the Freundlich model. Treatment of natural zeolite by sodium chloride increased the sorption capacity for ammoniacal nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions. As a result of the continuous bioregeneration of ammonium saturated zeolite-floc in the SBR, the nitrogen removal efficiency of the zeo-SBR was relatively ideal. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that microbes were abundant in the zeo-SBR process.

  4. Efficient soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentations on chemically defined minimal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąciarz, Anna; Khatri, Narendar Kumar; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Saaranen, Mirva J; Uchida, Yuko; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2017-06-15

    The production of recombinant proteins containing disulfide bonds in Escherichia coli is challenging. In most cases the protein of interest needs to be either targeted to the oxidizing periplasm or expressed in the cytoplasm in the form of inclusion bodies, then solubilized and re-folded in vitro. Both of these approaches have limitations. Previously we showed that soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible at shake flask scale with a system, known as CyDisCo, which is based on co-expression of a protein of interest along with a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide bond isomerase. With CyDisCo it is possible to produce disulfide bonded proteins in the presence of intact reducing pathways in the cytoplasm. Here we scaled up production of four disulfide bonded proteins to stirred tank bioreactors and achieved high cell densities and protein yields in glucose fed-batch fermentations, using an E. coli strain (BW25113) with the cytoplasmic reducing pathways intact. Even without process optimization production of purified human single chain IgA 1 antibody fragment reached 139 mg/L and hen avidin 71 mg/L, while purified yields of human growth hormone 1 and interleukin 6 were around 1 g/L. Preliminary results show that human growth hormone 1 was also efficiently produced in fermentations of W3110 strain and when glucose was replaced with glycerol as the carbon source. Our results show for the first time that efficient production of high yields of soluble disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli with the reducing pathways intact is feasible to scale-up to bioreactor cultivations on chemically defined minimal media.

  5. Analysis of Process Capability on the Digital Control Board Batch Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jiang SHUAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a process control method and analysis procedure. Current data for the digital control single board was obtained with the Statistical Process Control method for a TD outdoor base station. The pass rate and quality of the digital single board was obtained through a production process capability analysis. The improvements associated with the single board method have been put forward here in order to lay a foundation for the enhancement of the quality of several indices. Indices here include the index for process capability and processing accuracy.

  6. Investigation on hemolytic effect of poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles synthesized using continuous flow and batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libi, Sumit; Calenic, Bogdan; Astete, Carlos E.; Kumar, Challa; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract

    With the increasing interest in polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, there is a need for continuous flow methodologies that allow for the precise control of nanoparticle synthesis. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with diameters of 220–250 nm were synthesized using a lab-on-a-chip, exploiting the precise flow control offered by a millifluidic platform. The association and the effect of PLGA nanoparticles on red blood cells (RBCs) were compared for fluorescent PLGA nanoparticles made by this novel continuous flow process using a millifluidic chip and smaller PLGA nanoparticles made by a batch method. Results indicated that all PLGA nanoparticles studied, independent of the synthesis method and size, adhered to the surface of RBCs but had no significant hemolytic effect at concentrations lower than 10 mg/ml.

  7. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-22

    The September, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.

  9. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-21

    The May, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.(MB)

  10. Chemical processes during irradiated silver azide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabykh, S.M.; Konovalova, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processes taking place in course of irradiated AgN 3 dissolution in aqueous solutionns of ammonia, Na 2 S 23 and diluted HNO 3 are studied. Proceeding of the development reaction upon small particles of radiolytic silver resulting in the increase of the particle size is detected. Characteristics of the process are determined, sizes of the particles being evaluated

  11. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, November 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-21

    The November 1956 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed was the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operations. (MB)

  13. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  14. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  15. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, April 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-05-21

    Production of Pu from separations plants was only 58% of April commitment because of Purex difficulties. UO{sub 3} production, shipments met schedules. Pu shape production and shipments exceeded forecast by 14%. Purex HS column, repaired Oct 1958, developed another leak and was bypassed April 18, resulting in Pu and U that required reprocessing. A Palm recovery run at Purex with all- reducing flowsheet, resulted in 87% recovery and excellent decontamination of product. The prototype dual-pass silver reactor in Purex C-cell plugged with offgases. Processing of unclarified feed through Purex solvent extraction continued. Redox dissolver batch sizes for E-metal processing were increased from 1.75 to 2.0 tons. Testing of first extraction cycle acidic flowsheet at Redox continued, with Np losses to HAW being below detection limit. Ru in 1AFS stream increased 10-fold F.P. activity but was removed in acid deficient U cycles. A sulfamic acid process is being explored for dissolving Pu metal. Scope design of Redox dissolver and RMA line replacement at Z plant was completed. Shielding effectiveness of medium and high density x-ray lead glass was compared.

  16. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  17. Metabolic Control in Mammalian Fed-Batch Cell Cultures for Reduced Lactic Acid Accumulation and Improved Process Robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakovsky, Viktor; Clemens, Christoph; Müller, Markus Michael; Bechmann, Jan; Berger, Martina; Schlatter, Stefan; Herwig, Christoph

    2016-01-11

    Biomass and cell-specific metabolic rates usually change dynamically over time, making the "feed according to need" strategy difficult to realize in a commercial fed-batch process. We here demonstrate a novel feeding strategy which is designed to hold a particular metabolic state in a fed-batch process by adaptive feeding in real time. The feed rate is calculated with a transferable biomass model based on capacitance, which changes the nutrient flow stoichiometrically in real time. A limited glucose environment was used to confine the cell in a particular metabolic state. In order to cope with uncertainty, two strategies were tested to change the adaptive feed rate and prevent starvation while in limitation: (i) inline pH and online glucose concentration measurement or (ii) inline pH alone, which was shown to be sufficient for the problem statement. In this contribution, we achieved metabolic control within a defined target range. The direct benefit was two-fold: the lactic acid profile was improved and pH could be kept stable. Multivariate Data Analysis (MVDA) has shown that pH influenced lactic acid production or consumption in historical data sets. We demonstrate that a low pH (around 6.8) is not required for our strategy, as glucose availability is already limiting the flux. On the contrary, we boosted glycolytic flux in glucose limitation by setting the pH to 7.4. This new approach led to a yield of lactic acid/glucose (Y L/G) around zero for the whole process time and high titers in our labs. We hypothesize that a higher carbon flux, resulting from a higher pH, may lead to more cells which produce more product. The relevance of this work aims at feeding mammalian cell cultures safely in limitation with a desired metabolic flux range. This resulted in extremely stable, low glucose levels, very robust pH profiles without acid/base interventions and a metabolic state in which lactic acid was consumed instead of being produced from day 1. With this contribution

  18. Metabolic Control in Mammalian Fed-Batch Cell Cultures for Reduced Lactic Acid Accumulation and Improved Process Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Konakovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and cell-specific metabolic rates usually change dynamically over time, making the “feed according to need” strategy difficult to realize in a commercial fed-batch process. We here demonstrate a novel feeding strategy which is designed to hold a particular metabolic state in a fed-batch process by adaptive feeding in real time. The feed rate is calculated with a transferable biomass model based on capacitance, which changes the nutrient flow stoichiometrically in real time. A limited glucose environment was used to confine the cell in a particular metabolic state. In order to cope with uncertainty, two strategies were tested to change the adaptive feed rate and prevent starvation while in limitation: (i inline pH and online glucose concentration measurement or (ii inline pH alone, which was shown to be sufficient for the problem statement. In this contribution, we achieved metabolic control within a defined target range. The direct benefit was two-fold: the lactic acid profile was improved and pH could be kept stable. Multivariate Data Analysis (MVDA has shown that pH influenced lactic acid production or consumption in historical data sets. We demonstrate that a low pH (around 6.8 is not required for our strategy, as glucose availability is already limiting the flux. On the contrary, we boosted glycolytic flux in glucose limitation by setting the pH to 7.4. This new approach led to a yield of lactic acid/glucose (Y L/G around zero for the whole process time and high titers in our labs. We hypothesize that a higher carbon flux, resulting from a higher pH, may lead to more cells which produce more product. The relevance of this work aims at feeding mammalian cell cultures safely in limitation with a desired metabolic flux range. This resulted in extremely stable, low glucose levels, very robust pH profiles without acid/base interventions and a metabolic state in which lactic acid was consumed instead of being produced from day 1. With

  19. Optimal Control of a Fed-batch Fermentation Process by Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ilkova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method for optimal control of a fermentation process is presented, that is based on an approach for optimal control - Neuro-Dynamic programming. For this aim the approximation neural network is developed and the decision of the optimization problem is improved by an iteration mode founded on the Bellman equation. With this approach computing time and procedure are decreased and quality of the biomass at the end of the process is increased.

  20. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  1. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set......The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... of batch indicators for batch operations has been developed and added to the methodology so that a wide range of processes that operate in continuous mode, in semi-continuous and/or in batch modes can be improved. The principal calculation steps of the methodology for applications to continuous and batch...

  2. Batch processing images in Adobe Photoshop using a script written in JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Сергеевна Дидык

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to consider the possibility of automating the processing of a series of photographs. Particular attention is paid to the use of scripts written in the programming language Java Script for Adobe Photoshop. Java Script scenarios are dynamic and have significant advantages over a simple-to-use Action.

  3. Utilisation of factorial experiments for the UV/H O process in a batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... as is predicted by factorial experiments. On the other hand, initial H2O2 concentration, initial phenol concentration and temperature significantly influenced the efficiency of the process. Optimal values were determined: a temperature of about 20°C and a. CH2O2/Cphenol ratio of 120 (mg/mg). Introduction.

  4. Optimization of a semi-batch tablet coating process for a continuous manufacturing line by design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, Shirin; Šibanc, Rok; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-01-29

    The aim of the study was to optimize a tablet coating process for a continuous manufacturing line. High throughputs should be achieved while inter-tablet coating variability should be as small as possible. Drug-free cores were coated with a colored suspension. All processes were monitored in-line with Raman spectroscopy. A statistical design of experiment was performed to find optimum process parameters. Tablet loading, spray rate and drum rotation speed were studied. Image analysis was performed using a computer scanner. Tablet hue and saturation were evaluated to obtain information about the inter-tablet color variabilities and the numbers of outliers. Low variabilities could be achieved using low spray rates and high rotation speeds and they were independent from the tablet batch sizes in the studied factor space. For the prediction of the coating thickness, univariate analysis was compared to PLS-regression. Calibration models were built based on the three center points of the statistical design of experiment resulting in RMSEC of 1.07% of sprayed suspension with R 2 of 0.9989 and Q 2 of 0.9987. Model prediction was possible independent from loading, spray rate and drum rotation speed. The experiment with lowest color variability was conducted with a desired throughput rate of 25 kg/h and with a RMSEP of 2.5%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility of bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor and filtration-adsorption process for complex agrochemical effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Biswas, Rima; Urewar, Chaitali; Pal, Sukdeb; Nandy, Tapas

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the feasibility of a bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor (BTSSBR) followed by filtration-adsorption process was investigated to treat the agrochemical effluent by overcoming factor affecting process stability such as microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. An air stripper stripped 90% of toxic ammonia, and combined with other streams for bio-oxidation and filtration-adsorption. The BTSSBR system achieved bio-oxidation at 6 days hydraulic retention time by fending off microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. The maximum reduction in COD and BOD by heterotrophic bacteria in the first reactor was 87% and 90%, respectively. Removal of toxic ammoniacal-nitrogen by autotrophic bacteria in a post-second stage bio-oxidation was 97%. The optimum filtration and adsorption of pollutants were achieved at a filtration rate of 10 and 9 m(3)m(-2)h(-1), respectively. The treatment scheme comprising air stripper, BTSSBR and filtration-adsorption process showed a great promise for treating the agrochemical effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of a batch process for production of biopolymers using low-cost feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Gil, Alejandro; D'Alessio Cagnone, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    During the last century, the preoccupation concerning the environment has increased. This fact is due to the high consumption of products from non-renewables sources which processing, seriously damages the ecosystem. One of the most important non-renewables sources nowadays remains petroleum. Petroleum is used, mostly, as a raw material for obtaining energy. According to the International Energy Agency, in 2013 the world consumption of energy was 1,894.28 kg of oil equivalent p...

  7. Optimization of a batch process for production of biopolymers using low cost feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    D'alessio Cagnone, Guillermo Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    During the last century, the preoccupation concerning the environment has increased. This fact is due to the high consumption of products from non-renewables sources which processing, seriously damages the ecosystem. One of the most important non-renewables sources nowadays remains petroleum. Petroleum is used, mostly, as a raw material for obtaining energy. According to the International Energy Agency, in 2013 the world consumption of energy was 1,894.28 kg of oil equivalent p...

  8. MRI of chemical reactions and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Melanie M

    2017-08-01

    As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can spatially resolve a wealth of molecular information available from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), it is able to non-invasively visualise the composition, properties and reactions of a broad range of spatially-heterogeneous molecular systems. Hence, MRI is increasingly finding applications in the study of chemical reactions and processes in a diverse range of environments and technologies. This article will explain the basic principles of MRI and how it can be used to visualise chemical composition and molecular properties, providing an overview of the variety of information available. Examples are drawn from the disciplines of chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental science, physics, electrochemistry and materials science. The review introduces a range of techniques used to produce image contrast, along with the chemical and molecular insight accessible through them. Methods for mapping the distribution of chemical species, using chemical shift imaging or spatially-resolved spectroscopy, are reviewed, as well as methods for visualising physical state, temperature, current density, flow velocities and molecular diffusion. Strategies for imaging materials with low signal intensity, such as those containing gases or low sensitivity nuclei, using compressed sensing, para-hydrogen or polarisation transfer, are discussed. Systems are presented which encapsulate the diversity of chemical and physical parameters observable by MRI, including one- and two-phase flow in porous media, chemical pattern formation, phase transformations and hydrodynamic (fingering) instabilities. Lastly, the emerging area of electrochemical MRI is discussed, with studies presented on the visualisation of electrochemical deposition and dissolution processes during corrosion and the operation of batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  10. Demonstration of a batch vacuum thermal desorption process on hazardous and mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.R.; McElwee, M.; Meyers, G.

    1995-01-01

    Many different waste streams have been identified at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities as having both hazardous organic and radioactive contaminants. There is presently only one permitted facility in which to manage these materials, and that facility has only limited capacity to process solid wastes. Over the past two years, Rust has been pilot testing a new thermal desorption process that is very well suited to these wastes, and has begun permitting and design of a unit for commercial operation. This paper presents both historic and recent pilot test data on the treatment of hazardous and mixed waste. Also described is the commercial unit. Rust's patented VAC*TRAX technology takes advantage of high vacuum to reduced operating temperature for the thermal desorption of organic contaminants from waste soils, sludges and other contaminated solids. This allows for economical thermal separation on relatively small sites (30 to 5,000 m 3 of waste). VAC*TRAX employs indirect heating; this, combined with a very low carrier gas flow, results in a vent flow rate of approximately 1 m 3 /min which allows for the use of control devices that would not be practical with conventional thermal technology. The unit is therefore ideally suited to processing mixed waste, since zero radioactive emissions can be maintained. An additional benefit of the technology is that the low operating temperature allows highly effective separation to be performed well below the degradation point for the solid components of a trash type waste stream, which constitutes a large fraction of the present mixed waste inventory

  11. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  12. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatment: A laboratory batch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Liu, Gang; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-10-01

    H 2 O 2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H 2 O 2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H 2 O 2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%. A H 2 O 2 dosage of 0.25 mg/L did not impact microbial activity (as measured by ATP) while high H 2 O 2 dosages, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L, resulted in reduced microbial activity of 23%, 37% and 37% respectively. Therefore, DOC removal was promoted by the increase of H 2 O 2 dosage while microbial activity was reduced. The pyrosequencing results illustrated that bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria. The presence of H 2 O 2 showed clear influence on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities, which became more diverse under 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 but conversely less diverse when the dosage increased to 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 . Anaerobic bacteria were found to be most sensitive to H 2 O 2 as their growth in batch reactors was limited by both 0.25 and 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 (17-88% reduction). In conclusion, special attention should be given to effects of AOPs residuals on microbial ecology before introducing AOPs as a pre-treatment to biological (sand) processes. Additionally, the guideline on the maximum allowable H 2 O 2 concentration should be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Model-Based Comparison of Antibody Dimerization in Continuous and Batch-Wise Downstream Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sellberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies are generally produced using a generic platform approach in which several chromatographic separations assure high purity of the product. Dimerization can occur during the fermentation stage and may occur also during the downstream processing. We present here simulations in which a traditional platform approach that consist of protein A capture, followed by cation-exchange and anion-exchange chromatography for polishing is compared to a continuous platform in which dimer removal and virus inactivation are carried out on a size-exclusion column. A dimerization model that takes pH, salt concentration and the concentration of antibodies into account is combined with chromatographic models, to be able to predicted both the separation and the degree to which dimers are formed. Purification of a feed composition that contained 1% by weight of dimer and a total antibody concentration of 1 g/L was modeled using both approaches, and the amount of antibodies in the continuous platform was at least 4 times lower than in the traditional platform. The total processing time was also lower, as the cation-exchange polish could be omitted.

  14. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.

    1965-11-12

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  15. catalysis of chemical processes: particular teaching aspects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    of catalysis is included in the majority of textbooks covering, in particular, general chemistry, industrial processes and technologies, biochemistry and biotechnology[7-16]. Catalysis understood as an acceleration of a chemical reaction in approaching the equilibrium state is extremely important at the stage of obtaining the ...

  16. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  17. Bioleaching of uranium in batch stirred tank reactor: Process optimization using Box–Behnken design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisapour, M.; Keshtkar, A.; Moosavian, M.A.; Rashidi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High amount of uranium recovery achieved using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. ► ANOVA shows individual variables and their squares are statistically significant. ► The model can accurately predict the behavior of uranium recovery. ► The model shows that pulp density has the greatest effect on uranium recovery. - Abstract: To design industrial reactors, it is important to identify and optimize the effective parameters of the process. Therefore, in this study, a three-level Box–Behnken factorial design was employed combining with a response surface methodology to optimize pulp density, agitation speed and aeration rate in uranium bioleaching in a stirred tank reactor using a pure native culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A mathematical model was then developed by applying the least squares method using the software Minitab Version 16.1.0. The second order model represents the uranium recovery as a function of pulp density, agitation speed and aeration rate. An analysis of variance was carried out to investigate the effects of individual variables and their combined interactive effects on uranium recovery. The results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of variables were statistically significant whilst the interaction terms were statistically insignificant. The model estimated that a maximum uranium extraction (99.99%) could be obtained when the pulp density, agitation speed and aeration rate were set at optimized values of 5.8% w/v, 510 rpm and 250 l/h, respectively. A confirmatory test at the optimum conditions resulted in a uranium recovery of 95%, indicating a marginal error of 4.99%. Furthermore, control tests were performed to demonstrate the effect of A. ferrooxidans in uranium bioleaching process and showed that the addition of this microorganism greatly increases the uranium recovery

  18. An improved solution of local window parameters setting for local singularity analysis based on Excel VBA batch processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daojun; Cheng, Qiuming; Agterberg, Frits; Chen, Zhijun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper Excel VBA is used for batch calculation in Local Singularity Analysis (LSA), which is for the information extracting from different kinds of geoscience data. Capabilities and advantages of a new module called Batch Tool for Local Singularity Index Mapping (BTLSIM) are: (1) batch production of series of local singularity maps with different settings of local window size, shape and orientation parameters; (2) local parameter optimization based on statistical tests; and (3) provision of extra output layers describing how spatial changes induced by parameter optimization are related to spatial structure of the original input layers.

  19. Chemical Aspects of the Impact Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, T.

    2007-12-01

    Impact cratering plays an integral role in the evolution and formation of planetary systems. Chemical anomalies are accepted phenomena at impact sites, but few, if any, published models adequately describe the kinetics and thermodynamics of impact-induced chemical changes. Utilizing XRF, ICP-MS, GDMS,and SHIRMP-RG, this study analyzed the trace chemical composition of shock- metamorphosed granite and obtained quantitative data, which were further analyzed using parametric frequentist statistics and resampling techniques. The concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Rb, and Sc changed in a statistically significant manner at the 99% confidence level. Based on chemical and thin section analyses, a cohesive model was developed to describe how impact-induced chemical changes form. As the impactor collides with the target material, most of the impactor melts. As the shock waves and subsequent rarefaction waves move through the target, partial melting of mineral phases begins. Material from the impacting body combines with the partial melt, thereby amalgamating an extraterrestrial component into the target. Characteristics of the amalgamation process are related to the partitioning coefficients, ionic radii, ionic charges, and electron configurations of the involved components. Ongoing work focuses on the determination of the relationship between chemical composition and proximity to interstitial boundaries.

  20. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors operated as static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dechao; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Tianjing; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-09-01

    An innovative static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) activated sludge process characterized by static phase as a substitute for conventional anaerobic stage was developed to enhance biological nutrient removal (BNR) with influent ammonia of 20 and 40 mg/L in R1 and R2 reactors, respectively. The results demonstrated that static phase could function as conventional anaerobic stage. In R1 lower influent ammonia concentration facilitated more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) growth, but secondary phosphorus release occurred due to NOx(-) depletion during post-anoxic period. In R2, however, denitrifying phosphorus removal proceeded with sufficient NOx(-). Both R1 and R2 saw simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. Glycogen was utilized to drive post-denitrification with denitrification rates in excess of typical endogenous decay rates. The anoxic stirring duration could be shortened from 3 to 1.5h to avoid secondary phosphorus release in R1 and little adverse impact was found on nutrients removal in R2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Plant Leaves: Batch Processing with LAMINA and Continuous Symmetry Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike landmark methods for estimating object asymmetry, continuous symmetry measures (CSM can be used to measure the symmetry distance (ds of inconsistent objects, such as plant leaves. Inconsistent objects have no homologous landmarks, no consistent topology, no quantitative consistency, and sometimes no matching points. When CSM is used in conjugation with LAMINA Leaf Shape Determination software, one can quickly and efficiently process a large number of scanned leaves. LAMINA automatically generates equally-spaced points around the perimeter of each leaf and the resulting x-y coordinates are normalized to average centroid size prior to estimating ds using a fold, average, unfold algorithm. We estimated shape asymmetry of leaves of three species of flowering plants: Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet, Rubus cuneifolius (blackberry, and Perilla frutescens (Perilla, as well as individual leaves from a few species of oaks (Quercus and maples (Acer. We found that 100 to 200 equally-spaced points worked well for all three of the main species. Measurement error accounted for a small proportion of the asymmetry variation. Nevertheless, measurement error was great enough to generate some negative size scaling after normalization to average centroid size.

  2. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  3. Membrane technology in chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    The technology developments in current century will mainly focus on the energy, safe and effective utilization of available natural resources and environment. Production and effective use of water resource at industrial level will directly affect the environment. Similarly the various means of energy production and its consumption will also bear a direct impact on environment. In any chemical industry a large portion of energy consumption goes to separation process which in turn affect the cost of production as well as total cost of the plant. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption, finding out new nondestructive separation technology and reutilization of all recovered process streams are the new thrust area for chemical industries. In view of this, a comparatively new separation technology, 'Membrane Science and Technology' is available to the chemical industry. The potential of this technology is immense because of its simple operation, less chemical additives requirement, less energy consumption and easy adoptability to the existing process. This technology is often considered as energy efficient, environmentally benign and clean technology

  4. Chemical computing with reaction-diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, J; Gizynski, K; Guzowski, J; Gorecka, J N; Garstecki, P; Gruenert, G; Dittrich, P

    2015-07-28

    Chemical reactions are responsible for information processing in living organisms. It is believed that the basic features of biological computing activity are reflected by a reaction-diffusion medium. We illustrate the ideas of chemical information processing considering the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and its photosensitive variant. The computational universality of information processing is demonstrated. For different methods of information coding constructions of the simplest signal processing devices are described. The function performed by a particular device is determined by the geometrical structure of oscillatory (or of excitable) and non-excitable regions of the medium. In a living organism, the brain is created as a self-grown structure of interacting nonlinear elements and reaches its functionality as the result of learning. We discuss whether such a strategy can be adopted for generation of chemical information processing devices. Recent studies have shown that lipid-covered droplets containing solution of reagents of BZ reaction can be transported by a flowing oil. Therefore, structures of droplets can be spontaneously formed at specific non-equilibrium conditions, for example forced by flows in a microfluidic reactor. We describe how to introduce information to a droplet structure, track the information flow inside it and optimize medium evolution to achieve the maximum reliability. Applications of droplet structures for classification tasks are discussed. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Glan Devadhas G; Dr.Pushpakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system) tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based ...

  7. Redesign of a Grignard-Based Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Batch Synthesis to a Flow Process for the Preparation of Melitracen HCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael J.; Skovby, Tommy; Mealy, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A Grignard-based batch process, for the preparation of Melitracen HCl, has been redesigned to fit a continuous reactor system. The Grignard addition is carried out at room temperature, with subsequent hydrolysis of the magnesium alkoxide intermediate followed by dehydration of the resulting alcoh...

  8. Supporting chemical process design under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wechsung

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in chemical process design is to make design decisions based on partly incomplete or imperfect design input data. Still, process engineers are expected to design safe, dependable and cost-efficient processes under these conditions. The complexity of typical process models limits intuitive engineering estimates to judge the impact of uncertain parameters on the proposed design. In this work, an approach to quantify the effect of uncertainty on a process design in order to enhance comparisons among different designs is presented. To facilitate automation, a novel relaxation-based heuristic to differentiate between numerical and physical infeasibility when simulations do not converge is introduced. It is shown how this methodology yields more details about limitations of a studied process design.

  9. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I.W.; Yoon, K.S.; Cho, B.W. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Quantifying Porosity through Automated Image Collection and Batch Image Processing: Case Study of Three Carbonates and an Aragonite Cemented Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Buckman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern scanning electron microscopes often include software that allows for the possibility of obtaining large format high-resolution image montages over areas of several square centimeters. Such montages are typically automatically acquired and stitched, comprising many thousand individual tiled images. Images, collected over a regular grid pattern, are a rich source of information on factors such as variability in porosity and distribution of mineral phases, but can be hard to visually interpret. Additional quantitative data can be accessed through the application of image analysis. We use backscattered electron (BSE images, collected from polished thin sections of two limestone samples from the Cretaceous of Brazil, a Carboniferous limestone from Scotland, and a carbonate cemented sandstone from Northern Ireland, with up to 25,000 tiles per image, collecting numerical quantitative data on the distribution of porosity. Images were automatically collected using the FEI software Maps, batch processed by image analysis (through ImageJ, with results plotted on 2D contour plots with MATLAB. These plots numerically and visually clearly express the collected porosity data in an easily accessible form, and have application for the display of other data such as pore size, shape, grain size/shape, orientation and mineral distribution, as well as being of relevance to sandstone, mudrock and other porous media.

  11. Key Process Conditions for Production of C4 Dicarboxylic Acids in Bioreactor Batch Cultures of an Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Rintze M.; de Hulster, Erik; Kloezen, Wendy; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent effort to improve malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of metabolic engineering resulted in a strain that produced up to 59 g liter−1 of malate at a yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)−1 in calcium carbonate-buffered shake flask cultures. With shake flasks, process parameters that are important for scaling up this process cannot be controlled independently. In this study, growth and product formation by the engineered strain were studied in bioreactors in order to separately analyze the effects of pH, calcium, and carbon dioxide and oxygen availability. A near-neutral pH, which in shake flasks was achieved by adding CaCO3, was required for efficient C4 dicarboxylic acid production. Increased calcium concentrations, a side effect of CaCO3 dissolution, had a small positive effect on malate formation. Carbon dioxide enrichment of the sparging gas (up to 15% [vol/vol]) improved production of both malate and succinate. At higher concentrations, succinate titers further increased, reaching 0.29 mol (mol glucose)−1, whereas malate formation strongly decreased. Although fully aerobic conditions could be achieved, it was found that moderate oxygen limitation benefitted malate production. In conclusion, malic acid production with the engineered S. cerevisiae strain could be successfully transferred from shake flasks to 1-liter batch bioreactors by simultaneous optimization of four process parameters (pH and concentrations of CO2, calcium, and O2). Under optimized conditions, a malate yield of 0.48 ± 0.01 mol (mol glucose)−1 was obtained in bioreactors, a 19% increase over yields in shake flask experiments. PMID:20008165

  12. The improvement of the quality of polluted irrigation water through a phytoremediation process in a hydroponic batch culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningdyah, Catur

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a phytoremediation process using some local hydro macrophytes to reduce fertilizer residue in irrigation water in order to support healthy agriculture and to prevent eutrophication and algae bloom in water. A phytoremediation process was carried out in a hydroponic floating system by using transparent plastic bags of 1 m in diameter and 1 m in height that were placed in collecting ponds before they were used for agricultural activities. Paddy soils were used as substrates in this system. The irrigation water was treated with nutrient enrichment (Urea and SP-36 fertilizers). Then, the system was planted with remediation actors (Azolla sp., Ipomoea aquatica, Limnocharis flava, Marsilea crenata, polyculture of those hydro macrophytes and control). The improvement of the water quality as a result of the phytoremediation process was characterized by a decline in the concentration of some physicochemical parameters, which were measured at 7 days after incubation, as well as an increase in the plankton diversity index value. The results showed that all of the hydro macrophytes used in this research, which was grown in the hydroponic batch culture system for a period of 7 days, were able to significantly improve the irrigation water quality, which was enriched by the synthetic fertilizers Urea and SP36. This was reflected by a significant decrease in the concentration of water TSS, nitrate, BOD, COD and total phosphate and an increase in the value of water DO at 7 days after incubation. Improvement of the water quality is also reflected in the increasing plankton diversity index value as a bioindicator of water pollution indicating a change in the pollution status from moderately polluted to slightly polluted at 7 days after incubation.

  13. Physical and Chemical Processes in Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    used a constant-pressure, fan -stirred combustion chamber to investigate the propagation of a spherically expanding flame (Fig. 1.1). Chambers based...radius, closer to the fans . However during flame expansion, the mean radial flow adjacent to the flame is radially outward in nature shown by the...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0136 Physical and Chemical Processes in Turbulent Flames Chung Law TRUSTEES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Final Report 06/23/2015

  14. Quantitative evaluation of yeast's requirement for glycerol formation in very high ethanol performance fed-batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevoigt Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol is the major by-product accounting for up to 5% of the carbon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation. Decreasing glycerol formation may redirect part of the carbon toward ethanol production. However, abolishment of glycerol formation strongly affects yeast's robustness towards different types of stress occurring in an industrial process. In order to assess whether glycerol production can be reduced to a certain extent without jeopardising growth and stress tolerance, the yeast's capacity to synthesize glycerol was adjusted by fine-tuning the activity of the rate-controlling enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH. Two engineered strains whose specific GPDH activity was significantly reduced by two different degrees were comprehensively characterized in a previously developed Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP fed-batch process. Results The prototrophic strain CEN.PK113-7D was chosen for decreasing glycerol formation capacity. The fine-tuned reduction of specific GPDH activity was achieved by replacing the native GPD1 promoter in the yeast genome by previously generated well-characterized TEF promoter mutant versions in a gpd2Δ background. Two TEF promoter mutant versions were selected for this study, resulting in a residual GPDH activity of 55 and 6%, respectively. The corresponding strains were referred to here as TEFmut7 and TEFmut2. The genetic modifications were accompanied to a strong reduction in glycerol yield on glucose; the level of reduction compared to the wild-type was 61% in TEFmut7 and 88% in TEFmut2. The overall ethanol production yield on glucose was improved from 0.43 g g-1 in the wild type to 0.44 g g-1 measured in TEFmut7 and 0.45 g g-1 in TEFmut2. Although maximal growth rate in the engineered strains was reduced by 20 and 30%, for TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 respectively, strains' ethanol stress robustness was hardly affected; i.e. values for final ethanol concentration (117 ± 4 g

  15. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  16. Chemical processes in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Research into the radiation chemical effects of neutron capture therapy are described. In the use of neutron capture therapy for the treatment of brain tumours, compounds containing an activatable nuclide are selectively concentrated within tumour tissue and irradiated with neutrons. Target compounds for use in therapy must accumulate selectively in high concentrations in the tumour and must be non toxic to the patient. The most suitable of these are the boron hydrides. Radiation dosages, resulting from neutron capture in normal tissue constituents are tabulated. As part of the program to study the radiation-induced chemical processes undergone by boron target compounds, the radiolytic degredation of boron hydride and phenyl boric acid system was investigated. No direct dependence between the yield of the transient radiolytic species and the concentration of the B-compound was observed. (author)

  17. Investigation of vinegar production using a novel shaken repeated batch culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, bioprocesses are developed or optimized on small scale. Also, vinegar industry is motivated to reinvestigate the established repeated batch fermentation process. As yet, there is no small-scale culture system for optimizing fermentation conditions for repeated batch bioprocesses. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a new shaken culture system for parallel repeated batch vinegar fermentation. A new operation mode - the flushing repeated batch - was developed. Parallel repeated batch vinegar production could be established in shaken overflow vessels in a completely automated operation with only one pump per vessel. This flushing repeated batch was first theoretically investigated and then empirically tested. The ethanol concentration was online monitored during repeated batch fermentation by semiconductor gas sensors. It was shown that the switch from one ethanol substrate quality to different ethanol substrate qualities resulted in prolonged lag phases and durations of the first batches. In the subsequent batches the length of the fermentations decreased considerably. This decrease in the respective lag phases indicates an adaptation of the acetic acid bacteria mixed culture to the specific ethanol substrate quality. Consequently, flushing repeated batch fermentations on small scale are valuable for screening fermentation conditions and, thereby, improving industrial-scale bioprocesses such as vinegar production in terms of process robustness, stability, and productivity. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Development of interactive graphic user interfaces for modeling reaction-based biogeochemical processes in batch systems with BIOGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Li, M.; Yeh, G.

    2010-12-01

    The BIOGEOCHEM numerical model (Yeh and Fang, 2002; Fang et al., 2003) was developed with FORTRAN for simulating reaction-based geochemical and biochemical processes with mixed equilibrium and kinetic reactions in batch systems. A complete suite of reactions including aqueous complexation, adsorption/desorption, ion-exchange, redox, precipitation/dissolution, acid-base reactions, and microbial mediated reactions were embodied in this unique modeling tool. Any reaction can be treated as fast/equilibrium or slow/kinetic reaction. An equilibrium reaction is modeled with an implicit finite rate governed by a mass action equilibrium equation or by a user-specified algebraic equation. A kinetic reaction is modeled with an explicit finite rate with an elementary rate, microbial mediated enzymatic kinetics, or a user-specified rate equation. None of the existing models has encompassed this wide array of scopes. To ease the input/output learning curve using the unique feature of BIOGEOCHEM, an interactive graphic user interface was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio and .Net tools. Several user-friendly features, such as pop-up help windows, typo warning messages, and on-screen input hints, were implemented, which are robust. All input data can be real-time viewed and automated to conform with the input file format of BIOGEOCHEM. A post-processor for graphic visualizations of simulated results was also embedded for immediate demonstrations. By following data input windows step by step, errorless BIOGEOCHEM input files can be created even if users have little prior experiences in FORTRAN. With this user-friendly interface, the time effort to conduct simulations with BIOGEOCHEM can be greatly reduced.

  19. Response surface modeling and optimization of chromium(VI) removal from aqueous solution using Tamarind wood activated carbon in batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, J N; Acharya, Jyotikusum; Meikap, B C

    2009-12-30

    The present paper discusses response surface methodology (RSM) as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of chromium adsorption on developed activated carbon. In this work the application of RSM is presented for optimizing the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqua solutions using activated carbon as adsorbent. All experiments were performed according to statistical designs in order to develop the predictive regression models used for optimization. The optimization of adsorption of chromium on activated carbon was carried out to ensure a high adsorption efficiency at low adsorbent dose and high initial concentration of Cr(VI). While the goal of adsorption of chromium optimization was to improve adsorption conditions in batch process, i.e., to minimize the adsorbent dose and to increase the initial concentration of Cr(VI). In the adsorption experiments a laboratory developed Tamarind wood activated carbon made of chemical activation (zinc chloride) was used. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design experimental design was employed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value (R(2)=0.928) and satisfactory prediction second-order regression model was derived. Maximum chromium removal efficiency was predicted and experimentally validated. The optimum adsorbent dose, temperature, initial concentration of Cr(VI) and initial pH of the Cr(VI) solution were found to be 4.3g/l, 32 degrees C, 20.15 mg/l and 5.41 respectively. Under optimal value of process parameters, high removal (>89%) was obtained for Cr(VI).

  20. SAPHYR: A new chemical stabilisation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratto, Gilles; Fernandes, Paulo; Patria; Lucie; Cretenot, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Odour control and dewaterability are the key criteria during biosolids storage either for use on land or incineration. In the case of use on land, stabilisation/sanitisation are also part of the key criteria. Vivendi Water Systems developed the SAPHYR process to answer those three requirements. The SAPHYR process principle is based on an acidification of biosolids associated to the addition of nitrite. The main results are a noticeable odour control lasting other periods of 6 to 9 months, an improved dewaterability (2 to 4 points of dryness) and depending on chemical dosages a stabilisation or a sanitisation of biosolids. Another characteristic is that biosolids conditioned with the Saphyr process can be used both on land or for incineration. After several demonstrations on more than 5 different plants throughout France on a 10 000 p.e. unit, the first industrial reference of the process was installed on a 50 000 population equivalent wastewater treatment plant in 2002 and has been in operation since december 2002. A close monitoring of the process operation, the biosolids quality and its storage and spreading on land is planned from November 2002 to spring 2003. A comparison with lime addition will take place on the same plant. The present paper will produce a presentation of the SAPHYR process, its operation on a 50 000 pe WWTP and its different applications for biosolids storage.

  1. Model-based intensification of a fed-batch microbial process for the maximization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penloglou, Giannis; Vasileiadou, Athina; Chatzidoukas, Christos; Kiparissides, Costas

    2017-08-01

    An integrated metabolic-polymerization-macroscopic model, describing the microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Azohydromonas lata bacteria, was developed and validated using a comprehensive series of experimental measurements. The model accounted for biomass growth, biopolymer accumulation, carbon and nitrogen sources utilization, oxygen mass transfer and uptake rates and average molecular weights of the accumulated PHB, produced under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions. Model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The validated model was subsequently utilized to calculate optimal operating conditions and feeding policies for maximizing PHB productivity for desired PHB molecular properties. More specifically, two optimal fed-batch strategies were calculated and experimentally tested: (1) a nitrogen-limited fed-batch policy and (2) a nitrogen sufficient one. The calculated optimal operating policies resulted in a maximum PHB content (94% g/g) in the cultivated bacteria and a biopolymer productivity of 4.2 g/(l h), respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated that different PHB grades with weight average molecular weights of up to 1513 kg/mol could be produced via the optimal selection of bioprocess operating conditions.

  2. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement, or engineering assessment, emissions from a batch cycle shall be calculated in accordance with... maximum design production). (iii) The single highest-HAP recipe for a product means the recipe of the... direct measurement as specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Engineering assessment may also be...

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  4. GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Efficiency, and Energy, can evaluate processes with over a hundred different indicators. These indicators provide a means for realizing the principles of green chemistry and green engineering in the context of sustainability. Development of the methodology has centered around three focal points. One is a taxonomy of impacts that describe the indicators and provide absolute scales for their evaluation. The setting of best and worst limits for the indicators allows the user to know the status of the process under study in relation to understood values. Thus, existing or imagined processes can be evaluated according to their relative indicator scores, and process modifications can strive towards realizable targets. A second area of focus is in advancing definitions of data needs for the many indicators of the taxonomy. Each of the indicators has specific data that is necessary for their calculation. Values needed and data sources have been identified. These needs can be mapped according to the information source (e.g., input stream, output stream, external data, etc.) for each of the bases. The user can visualize data-indicator relationships on the way to choosing selected ones for evalua

  5. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the act, the processed food will not be...

  6. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the Act, the processed food will not be...

  7. Characterization of tank 51 sludge samples (HTF-51-17-44/ HTF-51-17-48) in support of sludge batch 10 processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The two Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in May of 2017. These two tank 51 sludge samples were combined into one composite sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids and aluminum hydroxides (gibbsite and boehmite) by x-ray diffraction.

  8. Characterization of Tank 51 Sludge Slurry Samples (HTF-51-17-67, -68, -69, -74, -75, and -76) in Support of Sludge Batch 10 Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The six Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in August of 2017. These six Tank 51 sludge samples, after undergoing physical characterizations which included rheology, weight percent total solid, dissolved solids and density measurements, were combined into one composite Tank 51 sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids.

  9. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  10. Production of pullulan by a thermotolerant aureobasidium pullulans strain in non-stirred fed batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjan; Gaur, Rajeeva; Tiwari, Soni; Gaur, Manogya Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l) at 42(o)C, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with the 2 liters in two successive batches at 5 h interval into the fermentor. The sterile air was supplied only for 10h at the rate of 0.5 vvm.

  11. Production of pullulan by a thermotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans strain in non-stirred fed batch fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l at 42ºC, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with the 2 liters in two successive batches at 5 h interval into the fermentor. The sterile air was supplied only for 10h at the rate of 0.5 vvm.

  12. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Physical-chemical properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in design and analysis of chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...... such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... modeling tools in design and analysis of chemical product-process design, including biochemical processes will be highlighted....

  13. A comparative study of the physical and chemical properties of nano-sized ZnO particles from multiple batches of three commercial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Coleman, Victoria A.; Casey, Phil S.; Angel, Brad; Catchpoole, Heather J.; Waddington, Lynne; McCall, Maxine J.

    2015-02-01

    Given the broad commercial applications for ZnO nanomaterials, accurate attribution of physicochemical characteristics that induce toxic effects is particularly important. We report on the physicochemical properties of three commercial nano-ZnO products: Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 from BASF, and Nanosun from Micronisers, and, for reference, "bulk" ZnO from Sigma-Aldrich. Z-COTE, Nanosun and "bulk" consist of uncoated particles with different sizes, while Z-COTE HP1 consists of nanoparticles with a hydrophobic coating. Specific batches of these ZnO products were included in the OECD Sponsorship Programme to test manufactured nanomaterials. In order to identify properties potentially susceptible to variations between production runs, three additional batches of Z-COTE and Nanosun and two additional batches of Z-COTE HP1 were also investigated here. In general, all products showed little variation between batches for properties measured from powdered samples, but batch variations in the amount of surface coating were evident for the coated Z-COTE HP1. Properties measured with samples dispersed in liquids (agglomeration, photocatalytic activity, dissolution) were highly dependent on dispersion protocols, and this made it difficult to differentiate between differences due to dispersion and due to batches. However, batch-sensitive properties did appear to be present in Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 (photocatalytic activity), and Nanosun (dissolution). Intra-batch time and/or storage-dependent changes in the applied surface coating, noted specifically for the OECD batch of Z-COTE HP1, highlight the need for best practice when storing and accessing stocks of nano products. Awareness of inter-batch and intra-batch variability is essential for commercial applications and for nanotoxicological studies aimed at identifying links between physicochemical properties and any adverse effects in biological systems.

  14. A novel method to recover inclusion body protein from recombinant E. coli fed-batch processes based on phage ΦX174-derived lysis protein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgartner, Daniela; Sagmeister, Patrick; Langemann, Timo; Meitz, Andrea; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Production of recombinant proteins as inclusion bodies is an important strategy in the production of technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical products. So far, protein from inclusion bodies has been recovered from the cell factory through mechanical or chemical disruption methods, requiring additional cost-intensive unit operations. We describe a novel method that is using a bacteriophage-derived lysis protein to directly recover inclusion body protein from Escherichia coli from high cell density fermentation process: The recombinant inclusion body product is expressed by using a mixed feed fed-batch process which allows expression tuning via adjusting the specific uptake rate of the inducing substrate. Then, bacteriophage ΦX174-derived lysis protein E is expressed to induce cell lysis. Inclusion bodies in empty cell envelopes are harvested via centrifugation of the fermentation broth. A subsequent solubilization step reveals the recombinant protein. The process was investigated by analyzing the impact of fermentation conditions on protein E-mediated cell lysis as well as cell lysis kinetics. Optimal cell lysis efficiencies of 99% were obtained with inclusion body titers of >2.0 g/l at specific growth rates higher 0.12 h -1 and inducer uptake rates below 0.125 g/(g × h). Protein E-mediated cell disruption showed a first-order kinetics with a kinetic constant of -0.8 ± 0.3 h -1 . This alternative inclusion body protein isolation technique was compared to the one via high-pressure homogenization. SDS gel analysis showed 10% less protein impurities when cells had been disrupted via high-pressure homogenization, than when empty cell envelopes including inclusion bodies were investigated. Within this contribution, an innovative technology, tuning recombinant protein production and substituting cost-intensive mechanical cell disruption, is presented. We anticipate that the presented method will simplify and reduce the production costs of inclusion body

  15. Processing method of chemical decontamination liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, Masami; Yaita, Yumi; Fujihata, Kenji; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    A method of processing spent chemical decontamination liquid wastes containing an aminocarboxylic acid type chelating agent comprises a combination of a step of decomposing the chelating agent in the decontamination liquid wastes to gaseous carbon dioxide, water and an ammonium ion, a step of separating the ammonium ion and a step of neutralizing and solidifying the decontamination liquid wastes from which the ammonium ion is separated and removed. The decomposition is conducted by using an oxidizing means such as anodic oxidation, irradiation of UV rays, ozone or sodium peroxide. The ammonium ion is separated from the decontamination liquid wastes by an electrolytic (electric) dialysis method. Decomposition of EDTA and separation/removal of the ammonium ion as a decomposed product can be conducted simultaneously by the electrolytic dialysis. (N.H.)

  16. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  17. Quantum Chemical Strain Analysis For Mechanochemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Tim; Dreuw, Andreas

    2017-04-18

    The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching. However, the influence of mechanical force on single molecules is still not understood at a fundamental level, which limits the applicability of mechanochemistry. As a result, many chemists still resort to rules of thumb when it comes to conducting mechanochemical syntheses. In this Account, we show that comprehension of mechanochemistry at the molecular level can be tremendously advanced by quantum chemistry, in particular by using quantum chemical force analysis tools. One such tool is the JEDI (Judgement of Energy DIstribution) analysis, which provides a convenient approach to analyze the distribution of strain energy in a mechanically deformed molecule. Based on the harmonic approximation, the strain energy contribution is calculated for each bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle, thus providing a comprehensive picture of how force affects molecules. This Account examines the theoretical foundations of quantum chemical force analysis and provides a critical overview of the performance of the JEDI analysis in various mechanochemical applications. We explain in detail how this analysis tool is to be used to identify the "force-bearing scaffold" of a distorted molecule, which allows both the rationalization and the optimization of diverse mechanochemical processes. More precisely, we show that the inclusion of every bond, bending and torsion of a molecule allows a particularly insightful discussion of the distribution of mechanical

  18. Controle multivariado de processos em batelada com duração variável Multivariate statistical control of unsynchronized batch processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio S. Fogliatto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Processos em batelada são utilizados em diversos setores industriais (por exemplo, na manufatura de alimentos e fármacos. Nesses processos, matérias-primas são carregadas em uma unidade de processamento e submetidas a uma série de transformações até a obtenção do produto final. O desempenho do processo é descrito por variáveis, monitoradas ao longo da batelada. Dados resultantes desses processos tendem a apresentar uma estrutura de correlação e autocorrelação significativa, sendo usualmente monitorados usando cartas de controle baseadas na análise de componentes principais (CCPs. Neste artigo, investiga-se o caso especial, bastante freqüente na prática, de bateladas com duração variável, as quais não podem ser diretamente monitoradas através das CCPs. Para tanto, propõe-se uma nova estratégia de controle multivariado da qualidade. No procedimento proposto, bateladas não são alinhadas ou time warped relativamente a suas trajetórias, mas completadas utilizando um esquema de fácil implementação prática. Desta forma, preserva-se toda a informação sobre a variabilidade ao longo do eixo do tempo nos perfis das variáveis de processo. O conjunto de dados completados é analisado utilizando o método Statis e o monitoramento do desempenho da batelada é realizado diretamente nos gráficos de planos fatoriais, a partir dos quais cartas de controle não-paramétricas são derivadas. Um exemplo utilizando dados simulados ilustra a proposta metodológica.Batch processes are widely used in several industrial sectors, such as food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. In a typical batch, raw materials are loaded in the processing unit and submitted to a series of transformations, yielding the final product. Process performance is described by variables which are monitored as the batch progresses. Data arising from such processes are likely to display a strong correlation-autocorrelation structure, and are usually monitored using

  19. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  20. Green and Sustainable Solvents in Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Coby J; Tu, Wei-Chien; Levers, Oliver; Bröhl, Andreas; Hallett, Jason P

    2018-01-24

    Sustainable solvents are a topic of growing interest in both the research community and the chemical industry due to a growing awareness of the impact of solvents on pollution, energy usage, and contributions to air quality and climate change. Solvent losses represent a major portion of organic pollution, and solvent removal represents a large proportion of process energy consumption. To counter these issues, a range of greener or more sustainable solvents have been proposed and developed over the past three decades. Much of the focus has been on the environmental credentials of the solvent itself, although how a substance is deployed is as important to sustainability as what it is made from. In this Review, we consider several aspects of the most prominent sustainable organic solvents in use today, ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents, supercritical fluids, switchable solvents, liquid polymers, and renewable solvents. We examine not only the performance of each class of solvent within the context of the reactions or extractions for which it is employed, but also give consideration to the wider context of the process and system within which the solvent is deployed. A wide range of technical, economic, and environmental factors are considered, giving a more complete picture of the current status of sustainable solvent research and development.

  1. Treatment of food-agro (sugar industry wastewater with copper metal and salt: Chemical oxidation and electro-oxidation combined study in batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Tiwari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry is one of the major industries which have been included in the polluting industries list by the World Bank. Different pollution monitoring agencies like State and National Pollution Control Boards have been made compulsory for each industry to set up a waste water treatment plants. In treatment system, single treatments of effluent are not effective to manage the dischargeable limit. So an attempted has been made to treat sugar industry wastewater with electrochemical and chemical process by using copper as electrode and chemical. Electrochemical process shows 81% chemical oxygen demand and 83.5% color reduction at pH 6, electrode distance 20 mm, current density 178 A m−2 and 120 min treatment time. The combined treatment results show 98% chemical oxygen demand and 99.5% color removal at 8 mM mass loading and pH 6 with copper sulphate.

  2. Production of pullulan by a thermotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans strain in non-stirred fed batch fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ranjan; Gaur, Rajeeva; Tiwari, Soni; Gaur, Manogya Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l) at 42ºC, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with th...

  3. The optimal manufacturing batch size with rework under time-varying demand process for a finite time horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Sarah; Supadi, Siti Suzlin; Omar, Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Rework is one of the solutions to some of the main issues in reverse logistic and green supply chain as it reduces production cost and environmental problem. Many researchers focus on developing rework model, but to the knowledge of the author, none of them has developed a model for time-varying demand rate. In this paper, we extend previous works and develop multiple batch production system for time-varying demand rate with rework. In this model, the rework is done within the same production cycle.

  4. Discussion on Wastewater Treatment Process of Coal Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Lun, Weijie; Wei, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    Coal chemical wastewater has such characteristics as high concentration of oil, ammonia nitrogen and COD. In this paper, treatment process of coal chemical industry is described mainly, such as pretreatment process, biochemical treatment process and polishing process. Through the recovery of phenol and ammonia and the treatment of wastewater from abroad, the new technology of wastewater treatment in coal chemical industry was expounded. Finally, The development of coal chemical wastewater treatment technology is prospected, and the pretreatment technology is emphasized. According to the diversification and utilization of water, zero discharge of coal chemical wastewater will be fulfilled.

  5. Design of two-column batch-to-batch recirculation to enhance performance in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Oliver; Andersson, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2018-01-05

    Preparative liquid chromatography is a separation technique widely used in the manufacturing of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. A major drawback of traditional single-column batch chromatography step is the trade-off between product purity and process performance. Recirculation of impure product can be utilized to make the trade-off more favorable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usage of a two-column batch-to-batch recirculation process step to increase the performance compared to single-column batch chromatography at a high purity requirement. The separation of a ternary protein mixture on ion-exchange chromatography columns was used to evaluate the proposed process. The investigation used modelling and simulation of the process step, experimental validation and optimization of the simulated process. In the presented case the yield increases from 45.4% to 93.6% and the productivity increases 3.4 times compared to the performance of a batch run for a nominal case. A rapid concentration build-up product can be seen during the first cycles, before the process reaches a cyclic steady-state with reoccurring concentration profiles. The optimization of the simulation model predicts that the recirculated salt can be used as a flying start of the elution, which would enhance the process performance. The proposed process is more complex than a batch process, but may improve the separation performance, especially while operating at cyclic steady-state. The recirculation of impure fractions reduces the product losses and ensures separation of product to a high degree of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

  7. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for April 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.H.

    1958-05-21

    The separations plants operated on schedule, and Pu production exceeded commitment. UO{sub 3} production and shipments were also ahead of schedule. Purex operation under pseudo two-cycle conditions (elimination of HS and 1A columns, co-decontamination cycle concentrator HCP) was successful. Final U stream was 3{times} lower in Pu than ever before; {gamma} activity in recovered HNO{sub 3} was also low. Four of 6 special E metal batches were processed through Redox and analyzed. Boric acid is removed from solvent extraction process via aq waste. The filter in Task II hydrofluorinator was changed from carbon to Poroloy. Various modifications to equipment were made.

  9. Impact of traditional processing methods on some physico chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    preservation methods on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of fermented cassava flour (Kpor umilin) in some areas of. Benue State, Nigeria. The physical, chemical and organoleptic qualities of the traditionally processed.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of Mild Hypothermia and Specific Growth Rates in Batch and Chemostat Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vergara

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. In addition, mild hypothermia is one of the main strategies for maximising the productivity of these systems. However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum.In order to evaluate the effect of the mild hypothermia on processing/endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD processes, batch cultures of CHO cells producing recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rht-PA were carried out at two temperatures (37°C and 33°C and treated with specific inhibitors of glycosylation and ERAD I (Ubiquitin/Proteasome system or ERAD II (Autophagosoma/Lisosomal system pathways. The effect of mild hypothermia was analysed separately from its indirect effect on specific cell growth rate. To do this, chemostat cultures were carried out at the same incubation conditions as the batch cultures, controlling cell growth at high (0.017 h-1 and low (0.012 h-1 dilution rates. For a better understanding of the investigated phenomenon, cell behaviour was also analysed using principal component analysis (PCA.Results suggest that rht-PA is susceptible to degradation by both ERAD pathways studied, revealing that processing and/or ERAD processes are sensitive to temperature cultivation in batch culture. Moreover, by isolating the effect of culture temperature from the effect of cell growth rate verifyed by using chemostat cultures, we have found that processing and/or ERAD processes are more sensitive to reduction in specific growth rate than low temperature, and that temperature reduction may have a positive effect on protein processing. Interestingly, PCA indicated that the integrated performance displayed by CHO

  11. Enhancement of canthaxanthin production from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 in a fed-batch process using trace elements and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nasri Nasrabadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Under fed-batch process conditions, the statistical analysis of trace elements was performed by application of Plackett-Burman design (for screening tests and response surface methodology (for predicting the optimal points to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin production from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. Plackett-Burman design was conducted on eleven trace elements (i. e., aluminum, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, vanadium and zinc to select out elements that significantly enhance the canthaxanthin production of D. natronolimnaea HS-1. Plackett-Burman design revealed that Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions had the highest effect on canthaxanthin production of D. natronolimnaea HS-1 (P<0.05. These three elements were used for further optimization. By means of response surface methodology for the fed-batch process, the optimum conditions to achieve the highest level of canthaxanthin (8923±18 µg/L were determined as follow: Fe3+ 30 ppm, Cu2+ 28.75 ppm and Zn2+ 27 ppm.

  12. Optimization of Bioethanol In Silico Production Process in a Fed-Batch Bioreactor Using Non-Linear Model Predictive Control and Evolutionary Computation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanniel Ferreira Sarmento de Freitas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to growing worldwide energy demand, the search for diversification of the energy matrix stands out as an important research topic. Bioethanol represents a notable alternative of renewable and environmental-friendly energy sources extracted from biomass, the bioenergy. Thus, the assurance of optimal growth conditions in the fermenter through operational variables manipulation is cardinal for the maximization of the ethanol production process yield. The current work focuses in the determination of optimal control scheme for the fermenter feed rate and batch end-time, evaluating different parametrization profiles, and comparing evolutionary computation techniques, the genetic algorithm (GA and differential evolution (DE, using a dynamic real-time optimization (DRTO approach for the in silico ethanol production optimization. The DRTO was able to optimize the reactor feed rate considering disturbances in the process input. Open-loop tests results obtained for the algorithms were superior to several works presented in the literature. The results indicate that the interaction between the intervals of DRTO cycles and parametrization profile is more significant for the GA, both in terms of ethanol productivity and batch time. In general lines, the present work presents a methodology for control and optimization studies applicable to other bioenergy generation systems.

  13. Chemical aspects of radiation damage processes: radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of primary species and radiation chemical yields are discussed. In a section on chemical scavenging of primary species the author considers scavenging kinetics and competition reactions and gives a brief outline of some experimental methods. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions is discussed as an example for polar solvents. Cyclohexane is used as an example for non-polar solvents. The importance of excited states and energy transfer is considered. Reactions in the solid state are discussed and results on linear energy transfer and average ion pair formation for various kinds of radiation are surveyed. (B.R.H.)

  14. Material properties and processing in chemical product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in the first decade since the introduction of chemical product design and engineering as a new disciplinary element within the chemical engineering sciences. This opinion focuses on the differences between processes needed for the manufacture of specified chemicals

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of a series of industrial batch processes using a bilinear grey model

    OpenAIRE

    Van Sprang, ENM; Ramaker, HJ; Westerhuis, JA; Smilde, AK; Gurden, SP; Wienke, D

    2003-01-01

    A good process understanding is the foundation for process optimization, process monitoring, end-point detection, and estimation of the end-product quality. Performing good process measurements and the construction of process models will contribute to a better process understanding. To improve the process knowledge it is common to build process models. These models are often based on first principles such as kinetic rates or mass balances. These types of models are also known as hard or white...

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of a series of industrial batch processes using a bilinear grey model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sprang, Eric N. M.; Ramaker, Henk-Jan; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Smilde, Age K.; Gurden, Stephen P.; Wienke, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    A good process understanding is the foundation for process optimization, process monitoring, end-point detection, and estimation of the end-product quality. Performing good process measurements and the construction of process models will contribute to a better process understanding. To improve the

  17. Inside the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by De-Oiled Allspice Husk in batch and continuous processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Olivares, J.; Perez-Alonso, C. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N. C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Barrera-Diaz, C., E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez, G.; Balderas-Hernandez, P. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    A new adsorbent material for removing lead ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The residue of the allspice extraction process (De-Oiled Allspice Husk) was used on the removal of Pb(II) from water solutions. The lead sorption capacity of De-Olied Allspice Husk (DOAH) was studied in batch and continuous processes. It was found that percentage removals of Pb(II) depend on the pH and the initial lead concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake process was maximum at pH 5 in a range concentrations of 5-25 mg L{sup -1}. The overall sorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model under conditions of pH 5 (0.1 g adsorbent per 100 mL of contaminated solution) 0.001 mass/volume ratio and 25 deg. C. The sorption capacity of lead(II) onto DOAH in batch process was 5.00, 8.02, 11.59, 15.23 and 20.07 mg g{sup -1}, when the concentration solutions were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L{sup -1} respectively. These values are lower than obtained in continuous process, where lead was removed by 95% and the experimental results were appropriately fitted by the Yoon-Nelson model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information regarding the interactions between lead ions and the adsorbent surface indicating that the formation of 2 complexes depends on the functional groups associated.

  18. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b)

  19. Influence of alkaline (PH 8.3-12.0) and saline solutions on chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of two different bentonites - batch experiments at 25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikola, Tiina; Vuorinen, Ulla; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena; Korkeakoski, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Construction of a spent fuel repository deep in the bedrock will need supporting structures using cement materials. A part of them can be removed before closure but still it is estimated that about 1000 tonnes will remain in the host rock. Degradation of cementitious materials produces leachates of high pH. If such an alkaline plume reaches the bentonite buffer, it may induce mineralogical and chemical changes in bentonite over long term, and further affect the safety functions of the buffer. Laboratory experiments were done with the objective to gain data of possible alterations in mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of bentonites contacted with high-pH saline solutions. Two untreated, high grade, Na- and Ca-bentonites, were used in batch experiments, which were carried out in an anaerobic glove-box at 25±1 deg. C for 554 days. Each bentonite sample (20 g) was leached with approximately 3.8 L of leaching solution, which equals 190 mL/g of bentonite. The bentonites were leached with three types of simulated cement waters (pH 9.7, 11.3 and 12.0) and one saline groundwater simulate (pH 8.3) as a reference. The leaching solutions were 0.3 M, and contained NaCl and CaCl 2 , and trace amounts of SiO 2 , K, Br, Mg and SO 4 . Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed from leaching solutions before mixing of bentonite in PC bottles. The samples were placed on a platform shaker in order to allow better contact between bentonite and the leaching solution. The evolution of pH in the samples was followed by measuring the pH-value of each sample in the solution phase approximately twice a week and the solution was renewed when values of two to three consecutive measurements did not change. On average, the leaching solution was renewed once a month. For each renewal of the leaching solution the phases were separated, the reacted solution withdrawn, and the chemical composition analysed. Before analysis the

  20. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...... gained considerable interest. Renewable feedstocks usually cannot be converted into fuels and chemicals with existing process facilities due to the molecular functionality and variety of the most common renewable feedstock (biomass). Therefore new types of catalytic methods as well as new types...... of processes for converting renewable feedstocks to bulk and commodity chemicals are required. In the future, it seems increasingly likely that a combination of biocatalysts (in the form of enzymes) as well as chemical catalysts will be needed in the production of bulk chemicals from renewable feedstocks...

  1. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  2. Pilot scale study of a chemical treatment process for decontamination of aqueous radioactive waste of pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, F.; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, S.S.; Aslam, M.; Haq, E.U.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical treatment process for the low level liquid radioactive waste generated at PINSTECH was previously optimized on lab-scale making use of coprecipitation of hydrous oxides of iron in basic medium. Ferrous sulfate was used as coagulant. Batch wise application of this procedure on pilot scale has been tested on a 1200 L batch volume of typical PINSTECH liquid waste. Different parameters and unit operations have been evaluated. The required data for the construction of a small size treatment plant envisioned can be used for demonstration/teaching purpose as well as for the decontamination of the waste effluents of the Institute. The lab-scale process parameters were verified valid on pilot scale. It was observed that reagent doses can further be economized with out any deterioration of the Decontamination Factors (DF) achieved or of any other aspect of the process. This simple, cost- effective, DF-efficient and time-smart batch wise process could be coupled with an assortment of other treatment operations thus affording universal application. Observations recorded during this study are presented. (author)

  3. Biogenic Hydrogen Conversion of De-Oiled Jatropha Waste via Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation: Process Performance, Microbial Insights, and CO2 Reduction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L*d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55°C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L*d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30°C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of celluloytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR.

  4. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  5. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  6. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  7. Applications of Process Synthesis: Moving from Conventional Chemical Processes towards Biorefinery Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    be predicted to play a significant role in the design and commercialization of sustainable and cost-effective biorefinery processes. The main objective of this perspective paper is to elucidate the potential opportunities that biorenewables processing offers to optimal synthesis; challenges and future......Concerns about diminishing petroleum reserves, enhanced worldwide demand for fuels and fluctuations in the global oil market, together with climate change and national security have promoted many initiatives for exploring alternative, non-petroleum based processes. Among these initiatives......, biorefinery processes for converting biomass-derived carbohydrates into transportation fuels and chemicals are now gaining more and more attention from both academia and industry. Process synthesis, which has played a vital role for the development, design and operation of (petro) chemical processes, can...

  8. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  9. Continuous chemical processes in centrifugal contact separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwant, Gerard J.; Heeres, Hero

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of a centrifugal contact-separator for carrying out a non-radioactive reaction in a liquid-liquid emulsion formed from two immiscible liquids. The invention also relates to a process for carrying out a reaction in a centrifugal contact-separator, and to a process for

  10. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, October 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-11-21

    October performance of the plant production facilities was outstanding (915.2 tons U processed by Purex; 625.4 kg Pu separated by Redox/Purex). Redox processed three types of feed. Operation of incinerator furnace was resumed in Pu finishing processes. Capital cost estimates were prepared for several schemes for power reactor fuel reprocessing in Redox. Redox encased waste lines and line support system were found to be in good condition. H concentration in Redox dissolver off-gases occasionally exceeded lower flammable limits while sodium nitrate from high level waste storage tanks was used to suppress hydrogen.

  11. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, April 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-05-22

    Two new production records were set during April, for processed U and Pu production. 0.9 tons sheared NRX fuel were dissolved in Redox. Discrepancies in Pu yield are being studied. Alternate methods of recovering Np are being evaluated. The Purex prototype facility will be converted to the anion exchange process. Alternate designs for a Purex miniature service dissolver were reviewed. The Purex HA column will be replaced.

  12. Isotopic criteria in the characterization of aromatic molecules. 2. Influence of the chemical elaboration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gerard J; Heck, Georg; Djamaris-Zainal, Risnayeti; Martin, Maryvonne L

    2006-12-27

    Most valued natural aromatic molecules can be substituted by their low-cost chemical counterparts. Isotopic methods, which offer the most powerful tool to infer the origin of a molecule, are applied to the characterization of a large number of chemical aromatic species. Isotopic affiliation between precursors and products is investigated in several types of reactions: oxidation of benzyl chloride and benzyl alcohol and hydrolysis of benzylidene chloride and cinnamaldehyde. The isotopic parameters strongly depend not only on the type of process but, for a given process, on the experimental conditions of the reaction. Kinetic isotope effects occurring in several formylation reactions are estimated. It is shown that, in the drastic experimental conditions of many industrial processes, the benzenic hydrogen atoms may be affected by exchange phenomena. Consequently, the site-specific isotopic parameters of the ring fragment of chemical species are usually much less stable than those of the corresponding natural molecules biosynthesized in mild environments. The isotope ratios of substituents such as CH3, CH2Cl, and CHO are more resistant to exchange and provide useful criteria for characterizing both the raw materials and the process. It is shown in particular that radical hydrogen abstraction in toluene to produce benzyl chloride induces relatively moderate fractionation effects. In contrast, oxidation reactions frequently produce strong fractionation effects. In particular, industrial direct oxidation of toluene into benzaldehyde is characterized by deuterium enrichments at the formyl site, which may exceed 900 ppm. Taking into account the large magnitude and high variability of many fractionation effects occurring in chemical reactions, the isotopic fingerprint may provide unambiguous criteria, not only for excluding a natural origin and characterizing the type of process, but also for differentiating molecules synthesized by a given process in different industrial

  13. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of chemical process for synthesis of polyunsaturated esters

    OpenAIRE

    Vera LÃcia Viana do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to develop refining processes, chemical alcoholysis followed by separation of fatty acids using the complexation with urea technique for the synthesis of poly-unsaturated esters from waste of fish oils. The special crude fish oil was purchased from Company Campestre - SÃo Paulo. Initially this oil has undergone a process of physical and chemical refining. From the refined oil, an alcoholysis process was carried out to obtain the mixture of free fatty acids. From the hydrolyzed...

  15. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  16. Biomass composition, lipid characterization, and metabolic profile analysis of the fed-batch fermentation process of two different docosahexanoic acid producing Schizochytrium sp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liang; Ren, Lu-Jing; Li, Juan; Sun, Guan-Nan; Sun, Li-Na; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Huang, He

    2013-12-01

    Growth and fermentation characteristics, biomass composition, lipid characterization and metabolic profiling analysis of two different Schizochytrium sp. strains, the original strain and the industrial adaptive strain, were investigated in the fed-batch fermentation process. The final cell biomass, total lipids content, docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content and DHA productivity of the adaptive strain were much higher than those of the original strain. The metabolic distinctions which extensively existed between these two strains were revealed by the score plot of principal component analysis. In addition, potential biomarkers responsible for discriminating different strains were identified as myo-inositol, histidine, alanine, asparagine, cysteine, and oxalic acid. These findings provided new insights into the industrial strain screening and further improvement of DHA production by Schizochytrium sp.

  17. Microwave plasma emerging technologies for chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, Javier F.; Kiss, Anton A.; Radoiu, Marilena T.; Stefanidis, Georgios D.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave plasma (MWP) technology is currently being used in application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition and waste remediation. Specific advantages of the technology include the enablement of a high energy density source and a highly reactive medium,

  18. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  19. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  20. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification combined with chemometrics for the comparative analysis of different batches of raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi; Du, Yingshan; Su, Dandan; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry approach was established for the simultaneous determination of 4-caffeoylquinic acid, loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, loganin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, dipsacoside B, asperosaponin VI, and sweroside in raw and wine-processed Dipsacus asper. Chloramphenicol and glycyrrhetinic acid were employed as internal standards. The proposed approach was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery. Intra- and interassay variability for all analytes were 2.8-4.9 and 1.7-4.8%, respectively. The standard addition method determined recovery rates for each analytes (96.8-104.6%). In addition, the developed approach was applied to 20 batches of raw and wine-processed samples of Dipsacus asper. Principle component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed a clear separation between the raw group and wine-processed group. After wine-processing, the contents of loganic acid, chlorogenic acid, dipsacoside B, and asperosaponin VI were upregulated, while the contents of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, loganin, and sweroside were downregulated. Our results demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification combined with chemometrics is a viable method for quality evaluation of the raw Dipsacus asper and its wine-processed products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  2. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  3. Modelling of chemical reactions in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaci, M. Efe; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Iron-ore reduction has attracted much interest in the last three decades since it can be considered as a core process in steel industry. The iron-ore is reduced to iron with the use of blast furnace and fluidized bed technologies. To investigate the harsh conditions inside fluidized bed reactors, computational tools can be utilized. One such tool is the CFD-DEM method, in which the gas phase reactions and governing equations are calculated in the Eulerian (CFD) side, whereas the particle reac...

  4. GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis IN A TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR USING AMMONIUM NITRATE AS THE NITROGEN SOURCE IN A FED-BATCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNH4NO3 simultaneously provides a readily assimilable nitrogen source (ammonia and a reserve of nitrogen (nitrate, allowing for an increase in Arthrospira platensis biomass production while reducing the cost of the cultivation medium. In this study, a 22plus star central composite experimental design combined with response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of light intensity (I and the total amount of added NH4NO3 (Mt on a bench-scale tubular photobioreactor for fed-batch cultures. The maximum cell concentration (Xm, cell productivity (PX and biomass yield on nitrogen (YX/N were evaluated, as were the protein and lipid contents. Under optimized conditions (I = 148 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 9.7 mM NH4NO3, Xm = 4710 ±34.4 mg·L-1, PX = 478.9 ±3.8 mg·L-1·d-1 and YX/N = 15.87 ±0.13 mg·mg-1 were obtained. The best conditions for protein content in the biomass (63.2% were not the same as those that maximized cell growth (I = 180 μmol·photons·m-2·s-1 and Mt = 22.5 mM NH4NO3. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that ammonium nitrate is an interesting alternate nitrogen source for the cultivation of A. platensisin a fed-batch process and could be used for other photosynthetic microorganisms.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  6. Takagi-Sugeno model based analysis of EWMA RtR control of batch processes with stochastic metrology delay and mixed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wong, David Shan-Hill; Wang, Yan-Wei; Fang, Huajing

    2014-07-01

    In many batch-based industrial manufacturing processes, feedback run-to-run control is used to improve production quality. However, measurements may be expensive and cannot always be performed online. Thus, the measurement delay always exists. The metrology delay will affect the stability and performance of the process. Moreover, since quality measurements are performed offline, delay is not fixed but is stochastic in nature. In this paper, a modeling approach Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model is presented to handle stochastic metrology delay in both single-product and mixed-product processes. Based on the Markov characteristics of the delay, the membership of the T-S model is derived. Performance indices such as the mean and the variance of the closed-loop output of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control algorithm can be derived. A steady-state error of the process output always exists, which leads the output deviating from the target. To remove the steady-state error, an algorithm called compensatory EWMA run-to-run (COM-EWMA-RtR) algorithm is proposed. The validity of the T-S model analysis and the efficiency of the proposed COM-EWMA-RtR algorithm are confirmed by simulation.

  7. Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2010-01-01

    Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F. K.; Johnson, W. E.; MacCready, W. K.; Warren, J. H.; Schroeder, O. C.; Groswith, C. T.; Mobley, W. N.; LaFollette, T. G.; Grim, K. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Richards, R. B.; Roberts, D. S.

    1957-08-22

    This report, for July 1957 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following; Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  9. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  10. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-03-21

    This report from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation, purex operation, redox operation, finished products operation, power and general maintenance operation, financial operation, facilities engineering operation, research and engineering operation, and employee relations operation.

  11. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-08-22

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for July 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-03-20

    This report for February 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  13. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framewor...

  14. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  15. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  16. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    -process design. Illustrative examples highlighting the need for efficient model-based systems will be presented, where the need for predictive models for innovative chemical product-process design will be highlighted. The examples will cover aspects of chemical product-process design where the idea of the grand......The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......, which can be expensive and time consuming. An alternative approach is the use of a systematic model-based framework according to an established work-flow in product-process design, replacing some of the time consuming and/or repetitive experimental steps. The advantages of the use of a model...

  17. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  18. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  19. Key Process Conditions for Production of C4 Dicarboxylic Acids in Bioreactor Batch Cultures of an Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, R.M.; De Hulster, E.; Kloezen, W.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent effort to improve malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of metabolic engineering resulted in a strain that produced up to 59 g liter(-1) of malate at a yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)(-1) in calcium carbonate-buffered shake flask cultures. With shake flasks, process

  20. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCready, W.K.

    1959-07-22

    Production of Pu from separations plants and output of unfabricated Pu exceeded commitments. Purex plant set a new record high for U processed. Production and shipments of UO{sub 3} met schedules. Purex solvent extraction battery performed below normal, probably because of poor solvent quality. NaOH addition to Redox coating removal waste is being reduced. A 3fold improvement in Recuplex product Al impurity was achieved by means of a specific gravity difference > 0.15 between dilute aqueous feed and extractant. Sintered, high-silica crucibles are being tested in RMA production line in Finished Products Operation. Scope design of a fission product shipping cask was completed; powder temperature should be below 440 F for 1 MCi cerium-144 + impurities. Feasibility of using one outside Purex canyon entrance (stairwell opening) for relief damper opening was tested and found to be insufficient. A drawing of the 6-inch continuous centrifuge being evaluated as a vacuum drum filter on RMA button line was reviewed. Casks were designed for the NPR project. (DLC)

  1. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  2. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production - A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    continuous production line is still hampered by complex steps such as granulation and drying which are considered to be too inflexible to handle potential product change-overs. Granulation is necessary in order to achieve good flowability properties and better control of drug content uniformity. This paper...... reviews modelling and supporting measurement tools for the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process, which is an important granulation technique due to the inherent benefits and the suitability of this unit operation for the desired switch to continuous mode. For gaining improved insight...... into the complete system, particle-level mechanisms are required to be better understood, and linked with an appropriate meso- or macro-scale model. A brief review has been provided to understand the mechanisms of the granulation process at micro- or particle-level such as those involving wetting and nucleation...

  3. Ethanol effect on batch and fed-batch Arthrospira platensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Raquel P; Matsudo, Marcelo C; Pérez Mora, Lina S; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Arthrospira platensis to use ethanol as a carbon and energy source was investigated by batch process and fed-batch process. A. platensis was cultivated under the effect of a single addition (batch process) and a daily pulse feeding (fed-batch process) of pure ethanol, at different concentrations, to evaluate cell concentration (X) and specific growth rate (μ). A marked increase was observed in the cell concentration of A. platensis in runs with ethanol addition when compared to control cultures without ethanol addition. The fed-batch process using an ethanol concentration of 38 mg L(-1) days(-1) reached the maximum cell concentration of 2,393 ± 241 mg L(-1), about 1.5-fold that obtained in the control culture. In all experiments, the maximum specific growth rate was observed in the early exponential phase of cell growth. In the fed-batch process, μ decreased more slowly than in the batch process and control culture, resulting in the highest final cell concentration. Ethanol can be used as a feasible carbon and energy source for A. platensis growth via a fed-batch process.

  4. Process optimization at small and medium-sized enterprises: production of small and medium-sized batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettmer, J.

    2017-06-01

    The organization of a company needs to refer to the production process and especially to the number of employees. Many enterprises which are growing, are primarily focused on the development of the technology and not on the development of the organization. This ends up in an increase of the turnover but in a reduced margin. For the development of the organization in growing companies there are two things necessary. The development of the staff to work systematically and coordinated in teams as well as the flow of the information and material between the teams. ERP - systems are required to install the material and information flow especially in the work floor. Unfortunately many enterprises don't use the ERP-systems to plan and control the material and information flow very detailed. In companies where the control of the material and information flow was installed, it could be demonstrated that the margin increased analog to it. The requirements to the development of the organization based on the increasing number of the employees are basically the same for most of the production processes like the production of metal sheet housings or the production of mirrors and lenses.

  5. Optimization of the process of methylic transesterification of palm oil an experimental plant in batches in RECOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Quesada, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The production process of biodiesel is optimized in the Laboratorio de Investigacion of RECOPE. A subprocess of raw material purification and finished product is implemented. Parameters of optimization for the experimental plant are established by a bibliographic search. Palm oil acquired by RECOPE is characterized. The optimization of the alkaline transesterification of palm oil with methanol is realized in the experimental plant of RECOPE, through a full factorial design of five variables on two levels: the effect of temperature, the relationship of catalyst-oil, the speed of agitation, the molar relationship alcohol-oil and the reaction time in the production of biodiesel. The operation optimal values of the experimental plant are obtained by ANOVA. The maximum quantity of soaps required is determined to saturate exchange resin used in the purification of the biodiesel. The parameters of optimum operating are proposed for the production process of methyl biodiesel of palm according to the conditions of the oil and in the test plant of RECOPE. The result of the analysis of control variables of the biodiesel as the density have been according to reported by the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano (RTCA). However, the measured variables to biodiesel as total glycerin, inflammability point, content of fatty acid methyl esters and acid number have indicated the necessity to implement pretreatment steps from the oil by acid esterification. Besides, the study has determined that biodiesel remains without comply with the standards established by the RTCA for its commercialization at national or international level [es

  6. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  7. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    distillation column. Next, these design methods are extended using element concept to also include ternary as well as multicomponent reactive distillation processes. The element concept is used to translate a ternary system of compounds (A + B ↔ C) to a binary system of elements (WA and WB). When only two...... elements are needed to represent the reacting system of more than two compounds, a binary element system is identified. In the case of multi-element reactive distillation processes (where more than two elements are encountered) the equivalent element concept is used to translate a multicomponent (multi......-element) system of compounds (A + B ↔ C + D) to a binary system of key elements (elements WHK and WLK). For an energy-efficient design, non-reactive driving force (for binary non-reactive distillation), reactive driving force (for binary element systems) and binary-equivalent driving force (for multicomponent...

  8. Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (KAC) was prepared from abundant Phoenix dactylifera L. stones by microwave- assisted KOH activation. The characteristics of KAC were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (LEV) antibiotic on KAC with surface area of 817m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.638cm 3 /g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. The equilibrium data collected by batch experiments were well fitted with Langmuir compared to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial LEV concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. High LEV adsorption capacity of 100.3mg/g was reported on KAC, thus being an efficient adsorbent for antibiotic pollutants to protect ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-06-17

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption.

  10. Achieving nitrite accumulation in a continuous system treating low-strength domestic wastewater: switchover from batch start-up to continuous operation with process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Jianhua; Horn, Harald; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Shuying

    2012-04-01

    Although biological nitrogen removal via nitrite is recognized as one of the cost-effective and sustainable biological nitrogen removal processes, nitrite accumulation has proven difficult to achieve in continuous processes treating low-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite was achieved and maintained in a lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating real domestic wastewater. During the start-up period, sludge with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) but no nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was obtained by batch operation with aeration time control. The nitrifying sludge with the dominance of AOB was then directly switched into continuous operation. It was demonstrated that partial nitrification to nitrite in the continuous system could be repeatedly and reliably achieved using this start-up strategy. The ratio of dissolved oxygen to ammonium loading rate (DO/ALR) was critical to maintain high ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation ratio. Over 85% of nitrite accumulation ratio and more than 95% of ammonium removal efficiency were achieved at DO/ALR ratios in an optimal range of 4.0-6.0 mg O(2)/g N d, even under the disturbances of ammonium loading rate. Microbial population shift was investigated, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria over NOB when stable partial nitrification was established.

  11. Development of partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process in a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) using Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) controlled by mixing regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Shortcut biological nitrogen removal is a non-conventional way of removing nitrogen from wastewater using two processes either nitrite shunt or deammonification. In the nitrite shunt process, the ammonia oxidation step stops at the nitrite stage, which is known as partial nitrification, then nitrite is directly reduced to nitrogen gas. Effective partial nitrification could be achieved by accumulating Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and inhibiting Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB). In this research, a novel control strategy has been developed to control the DO using the variable mixing regime in a suspended growth system using a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) in order to achieve a stable ammonia removal efficiency (ARE) and nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) at a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The new controlled SBR system has been successfully running at NLR up to 1.2kg/(m 3 .day) and achieved an ARE of 98.6±2.8% and NAR of 93.0±0.7%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-06-01

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption.

  13. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation ({lambda}{sub max} = 254 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Yargeau, Viviane [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Berk, Dimitrios, E-mail: dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation ({lambda} = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L{sup -1} of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L{sup -1} of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  14. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  15. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  16. Spectroscopic monitoring of batch reactions for on-line fault detection and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J. A.; Gurden, S. P.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the general methodology to use spectroscopic measurements directly for on-line process monitoring and detection and diagnosis of disturbances. An application of the on-line monitoring of a chemical batch reaction using UV-visible spectroscopy is discussed in detail. Successful

  17. Process optimization of batch biosorption of lead using Lactobacillius bulgaricus in an aqueous phase system using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Mostafa; Hassan, Sedky H A; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Ismail, Manal; Abdallah, Elgorban

    2012-05-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the effects of operating variable, mainly, pH, weight of biomass, and initial lead ion concentration on the lead adsorption capacity at ambient temperature using dried cells of Lactobacillius bulgaricus. Using RSM, quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting the percent of lead ion removal. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of pH and weight of dried biomass were concluded to be the key factors influencing the capacity of lead ion removal. At pH lower than 2 (high acidic condition) and in alkaline condition, there is no significant biosorption. The optimum percent of lead ion removal was found at pH of 6.78, biomass concentration of 6.58 g/l and initial lead concentration 36.22 ppm. In this condition, percent of lead ion removal was 86.21%. This study showed RSM effectiveness for modeling of biosorption process.

  18. Catalysis of chemical processes: Particular teaching aspects | Šima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is devoted to two main issues of catalysis from the viewpoint of teaching and learning activities. The first part deals with positive catalysis which treats the general features of catalytic processes and textbook imperfections. The second part focuses on decelerating or stopping-down chemical processes. It is shown ...

  19. Refresher Course on Lasers and Applications in Chemical Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Processes sponsored by Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore at National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Chennai. January 19-31,2004. A Refresher Course on Lasers and ... curriculum vitae (including name, date of birth, email and postal address, educational qualifications, teaching ...

  20. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for October 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    The October, 1956 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation. (MB)

  1. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  2. AN INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN GOLD RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık GÜNEŞ

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, investigations undertaken on different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposit plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in gold and other precious metals production. During recent years, studies on the discovery and growth of new gold deposits have been gradually progressing in many provinces of Turkey and this will undoubtedly contribute to development of new technologies in other metal mining industries. Recently, it has been established that approximately 15-20 % of gold recovery is realised by physical and 80-85 % of that is carried out by chemical and biological processes. Chemical and sometimes biological processes are prefered due to low cost and simplicity. This study gives a brief description on gold recovery methods with special reference to currently popular chemical processes.

  3. Applicability of chemical cleaning process to steam generator secondary side, (3). Effect of chemical cleaning on long term integrity of steam generator tube after chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Kanbe, Hiromi; Hirano, Hideo; Takiguchi, Hideki; Yoshino, Kouji; Yamamoto, Shuuichi; Shibata, Toshio; Ishigure, Kenkichi

    2006-01-01

    The application of the chemical cleaning process to dissolve and remove scales and sludge by chemicals is being planned at the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain a designed heat transfer condition and to prevent the steam generator (SG) tube degradation. In this paper, the affects of the EPRI process and the KWU process on the long term integrity of SG tubing were investigated under the simulated SG condition using a SG model boiler test facility. No adverse effect of the both chemical cleaning processes on the long term integrity of SG tubing were observed. (author)

  4. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  5. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  6. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    , its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack......Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product...

  7. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  8. Planejamento e programação da produção em plantas multipropósito operando em batelada na indústria química Short term planning and scheduling for multipurpose batch chemical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gimeno Latre

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, considera-se o problema de programação da produção a curto prazo em plantas químicas multipropósito operando em batelada, em que a produção da planta é determinada pela demanda a ser atendida. Nesta situação, a capacidade da planta não está bem definida porque depende do mix de produção. Propõe-se uma fase de planejamento que tem como objetivo a determinação do número de bateladas de cada tarefa necessárias para atender a produção, bem como a respectiva janela de tempo de processamento. Estas janelas permitem a análise do carregamento dos processadores e da factibilidade do plano, ou seja, o atendimento das datas de entrega, através de ferramentas desenvolvidas na área de Busca Orientada por Restrições. Esta análise é feita para uma atribuição fixa de tarefas a processadores introduzida pelo usuário. O sistema fornece informações para orientar o usuário na criação de diferentes cenários de atribuição. O resultado da fase de planejamento é formado por um conjunto de janelas de processamento que diminuem sensivelmente a dimensão do problema de programação da produção, como é discutido para duas abordagens: programação mista (Mixed Integer Linear Programming - MILP e Simulated Annealing.Short term scheduling in multipurpose batch chemical plants is specially complicated by the fact that plant capacity is not well defined due to the multipurpose nature of equipment units, allowing different routes. In order to reduce problem dimension, as well as allowing to analyze problem feasibility prior to spending time solving a large scheduling problem, a planning phase is proposed. At this level the objective is to determine a set of processing time windows for the batches necessary to fulfill final products' demand. The time windows allow analyzing equipment units load and plan feasibility in terms of satisfying final products due dates. To accomplish those tools from the area of Constrained

  9. High-Throughput Automation in Chemical Process Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekman, Joshua A; Qiu, Jun; Tran, Kristy; Stevens, Jason; Rosso, Victor; Simmons, Eric; Xiao, Yi; Janey, Jacob

    2017-06-07

    High-throughput (HT) techniques built upon laboratory automation technology and coupled to statistical experimental design and parallel experimentation have enabled the acceleration of chemical process development across multiple industries. HT technologies are often applied to interrogate wide, often multidimensional experimental spaces to inform the design and optimization of any number of unit operations that chemical engineers use in process development. In this review, we outline the evolution of HT technology and provide a comprehensive overview of how HT automation is used throughout different industries, with a particular focus on chemical and pharmaceutical process development. In addition, we highlight the common strategies of how HT automation is incorporated into routine development activities to maximize its impact in various academic and industrial settings.

  10. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  12. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  13. Comparison of three combined sequencing batch reactor followed by enhanced Fenton process for an azo dye degradation: Bio-decolorization kinetics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, A., E-mail: armina_84@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maknoon, R., E-mail: rmaknoon@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kowsari, E., E-mail: kowsarie@aut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Three combined advanced SBR and enhanced Fenton process as post treatment was compared. • Higher biomass concentration, dye, COD and metabolites removal was presented together. • Pseudo zero and pseudo first-order bio-decolorization kinetics were observed in all SBRs. • High reduction of AR18 to intermediate metabolites was monitored by HPLC. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to compare three combined sequencing batch reactor (SBR) – Fenton processes as post-treatment for the treatment of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Three combined treatment systems (CTS1, CTS2 and CTS3) were operated to investigate the biomass concentration, COD removal, AR18 dye decolorization and kinetics study. The MLSS concentration of CTS2 reached 7200 mg/L due to the use of external feeding in the SBR reactor of CTS2. The COD concentration remained 273 mg/L and 95 mg/L (initial COD = 3270 mg/L) at the end of alternating anaerobic–aerobic SBR with external feeding (An-A MSBR) and CTS2, respectively, resulting in almost 65% of Fenton process efficiency. The dye concentration of 500 mg/L was finally reduced to less than 10 mg/L in all systems indicating almost complete AR18 decolorization, which was also confirmed by UV–vis analysis. The dye was removed following two successive parts as parts 1 and 2 with pseudo zero-order and pseudo first-order kinetics, respectively, in all CTSs. Higher intermediate metabolites degradation was obtained using HPLC analysis in CTS2. Accordingly, a combined treatment system can be proposed as an appropriate and environmentally-friendly system for the treatment of the azo dye AR18 in wastewater.

  14. Production of exopolysaccharides by Acinetobacter strains in a controlled fed-batch fermentation process using soap stock oil (SSO) as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Y

    1990-04-01

    The production of two extracellular capsular heteropolysaccharides by two different Acinetobacter strains has been studied in separate controlled fermentation processes with a view to their industrial applications as specific dispersing agents. The first, emulsan, is an extracellular polyanionic amphipathic heteropolysaccharide (MW 10(6) D) made by A. calcoaceticus RAG-1. It forms and stabilizes oil in water emulsions. The other, biodispersan (PS-A2), is another extracellular zwitterionic heteropolysaccharide (MW 51 kD) made by A. calcoaceticus A2. This polysaccharide disperses big solid limestone granules forming micron-size water suspension. Both polysaccharides are synthesized within the cells, exported to their outer surface to form an extracellular cell-associated capsule and released subsequently into the growth medium. The polymers were produced in a computer-controlled fed-batch intensively aerated fermentation process. A commercially available and cheap fatty acids mixture (soap stock oil) served as the carbon source, and was fed in coordination with the required nitrogen. The coordinated feed of carbon and nitrogen was operated on the basis of two metabolic correlations: The first correlation related the cell protein produced and the ammonium nitrogen consumed with the outcoming coeffients of 24 and 21 mM NH3/g protein for the emulsan and the biodispersan fermentations respectively. The second correlation linked the consumption of the fatty acids with that of the nitrogen source dictating the appropriate C/N ratio of the feed into the operating fermentor. These ratios were 7.7 g C/g N for the emulsan fermentation and 8.5 gC/g N in the case of the biodispersan production process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Functional annotation of chemical libraries across diverse biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Li, Sheena C; Deshpande, Raamesh; Simpkins, Scott W; Nelson, Justin; Yashiroda, Yoko; Barber, Jacqueline M; Safizadeh, Hamid; Wilson, Erin; Okada, Hiroki; Gebre, Abraham A; Kubo, Karen; Torres, Nikko P; LeBlanc, Marissa A; Andrusiak, Kerry; Okamoto, Reika; Yoshimura, Mami; DeRango-Adem, Eva; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Brown, Grant W; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-genetic approaches offer the potential for unbiased functional annotation of chemical libraries. Mutations can alter the response of cells in the presence of a compound, revealing chemical-genetic interactions that can elucidate a compound's mode of action. We developed a highly parallel, unbiased yeast chemical-genetic screening system involving three key components. First, in a drug-sensitive genetic background, we constructed an optimized diagnostic mutant collection that is predictive for all major yeast biological processes. Second, we implemented a multiplexed (768-plex) barcode-sequencing protocol, enabling the assembly of thousands of chemical-genetic profiles. Finally, based on comparison of the chemical-genetic profiles with a compendium of genome-wide genetic interaction profiles, we predicted compound functionality. Applying this high-throughput approach, we screened seven different compound libraries and annotated their functional diversity. We further validated biological process predictions, prioritized a diverse set of compounds, and identified compounds that appear to have dual modes of action.

  16. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize the buildup of residual product during processing.

  17. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    The manufacturing of pharmaceutical dosage forms, which has traditionally been a batch-wise process, is now also transformed into a series of continuous operations. Some operations such as tabletting and milling are already performed in continuous mode, while the adaptation towards a complete continuous production line is still hampered by complex steps such as granulation and drying which are considered to be too inflexible to handle potential product change-overs. Granulation is necessary in order to achieve good flowability properties and better control of drug content uniformity. This paper reviews modelling and supporting measurement tools for the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process, which is an important granulation technique due to the inherent benefits and the suitability of this unit operation for the desired switch to continuous mode. For gaining improved insight into the complete system, particle-level mechanisms are required to be better understood, and linked with an appropriate meso- or macro-scale model. A brief review has been provided to understand the mechanisms of the granulation process at micro- or particle-level such as those involving wetting and nucleation, aggregation, breakage and consolidation. Further, population balance modelling (PBM) and the discrete element method (DEM), which are the current state-of-the-art methods for granulation modelling at micro- to meso-scale, are discussed. The DEM approach has a major role to play in future research as it bridges the gap between micro- and meso-scales. Furthermore, interesting developments in the measurement technologies are discussed with a focus towards inline measurements of the granulation process to obtain experimental data which are required for developing good models. Based on the current state of the developments, the review focuses on the twin-screw granulator as a device for continuous HSWG and attempts to critically evaluate the current process. As a result, a set of open

  18. Quality Assessment of Film Processing Chemicals in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the qualities of the four different processing chemicals (solutions). With EP 21 films (Ektaspeed plus film, Kodak Co., USA), nine unexposed and nine exposed films of a step wedge were processed utilizing automatic film processor (XR 24, Durr Co., Germany) for 5 days. During 5 days, the total number of processed films including out-patient's intraoral films were about 400-500 for each brand. Base plus fog density, film density, contrast of processed films were measured with densitometer (model 07-443 digital densitometer, Victoreen Co., USA). These measurements were analyzed for comparison. The results were as follows,1. For the base plus fog density, there was significant difference among the four chemicals (p<0.05). The sequence of the base plus fog densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Agfa and Konica. 2. For the film density, all chemicals showed useful range of photographic densities (0.25-2.5). The sequence of the film densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Konica and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of film density between X-dol and Kodak (p<0.05). 3. The sequence of the contrasts was in ascending order by Konica, X-dol 90, Kodak and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of contrast between X-dol and Konica (p<0.05). These results indicated that the four processing chemicals had the clinically useful film density and contrast, but only Kodak processing chemical had useful base plus fog density.

  19. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... of the CDIO standards – especially standard 3 – Integrated Curriculum - means that the course projects must draw on competences provided in other subjects which the students are taking in parallel with Process Design – specifically Process Control and Reaction Engineering. In each semester of the B...... Reaction Engineering. In order to incorporate reactor design into process design in a meaningful way, the teachers of the respective courses need to collaborate (Standard 9 – Enhancement of Faculty CDIO skills). The students also see that different components of the chemical engineering curriculum relate...

  20. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  1. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    is available, rigorous simulation is performed to validate the synthesis-design. Note that since the flowsheet is synthesized and the operations in the flowsheet designed to match a set of design targets, there are no iterations involved as the final flowsheet is among the best, if not the best. In this paper...... of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join...... and selected for further analysis. In the next stage, the design parameters for the operations of the flowsheet are established through reverse engineering approaches based on driving forces available for each operation. In the final stage, when all the necessary information for a rigorous process simulation...

  2. Aerobic Treatment of a Nitrogen-Limited Chemical Process Waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P E, Daniel P Smith Ph D

    1996-06-01

    Nitrogen transformations and their effect on aerobic suspended growth treatment of an industrial wastewater were studied in three parallel bench-scale reactors operated at 5 "C at mean cell residence times (MCRT) of 15, 30, and 60 days. In normal process wastewater, the bulk of influent nitrogen was in organic form, and the fraction transformed was almost totally incorporated into synthesized biomass. Assimilative control by heterotrophs maintained ammonianitrogen levels below permitted effluent levels, and nitrification was not significant. Although volatile suspended solids had a nitrogen content of only 5% to 8%, effective organics removal was maintained, and total organic carbon and filtered daily average five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODS) were below permitted effluent levels. A marked improvement in settleability and lower effluent total suspended solids was achieved by adding ammonia-nitrogen to the wastewater in excess of stoichiometric growth requirements. During a batch production cycle of a cationic chemical, the ratio of nitrogen to chemical oxygen demand and the fraction of the total influent nitrogen in soluble form increased in the wastewater. Reactor effluent ammonia levels increased to above permit levels at all three MCRTs during treatment of wastewater containing cationic production effluents. The magnitude of ammonia increase was greater for longer MCRTs, suggesting that synthesis of cell mass was not capable of assimilating the increased ammonia supply under these non-steady conditions. The experimental results suggest several potential strategies for operating the aerobic process at the treatment facility, including adding nitrogen to improve settleability and discontinuing these additions when wastewater contains a high ratio of nitrogen to chemical oxygen demand and an elevated soluble nitrogen fraction.

  3. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  4. Effects of processing methods on the chemical composition of flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of processing methods on the chemical composition of flour, moinmoin and akara from mucuna pruriens. ... that the parboiling and dehulling caused significant increase in the protein content of the bean flours (31.69% – 31.77%) relative to the control (29.87%). The dried akara (MA) balls however had significantly ...

  5. Physico-chemical, functional and processing attributes of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was generated from six commercial potato varieties and studied for their physical, chemical, functional and processing attributes. Lady Rosetta followed by Hermes was the most appreciable varieties concerning their physical attributes. A positive correlation (R = 0.765) existed between tuber firmness and specific ...

  6. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  7. Model Based Monitoring and Control of Chemical and Biochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    This presentation will give an overview of the work performed at the department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering related to process control. A research vision is formulated and related to a number of active projects at the department. In more detail a project describing model estimation...... and controller tuning in Model Predictive Control application is discussed....

  8. MIMO Self-Tuning Control of Chemical Process Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hallager, L.; Jørgensen, S. B.; Goldschmidt, L.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of selecting a feasible model structure for a MIMO self-tuning controller (MIMOSC) is addressed. The dependency of the necessary structure complexity in relation to the specific process operating point is investigated. Experimental results from a fixed-bed chemical reactor are used to illustrate the points.

  9. MIMO Self-Tuning Control of Chemical Process Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, L.; Jørgensen, S. B.; Goldschmidt, L.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of selecting a feasible model structure for a MIMO self-tuning controller (MIMOSC) is addressed. The dependency of the necessary structure complexity in relation to the specific process operating point is investigated. Experimental results from a fixed-bed chemical reactor are used...

  10. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D.

    1965-01-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [fr

  11. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...

  12. Methodology of Supervision by Analysis of Thermal Flux for Thermal Conduction of a Batch Chemical Reactor Equipped with a Monofluid Heating/Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Henini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermal behavior of a batch reactor to jacket equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system. Heating and cooling are provided respectively by an electrical resistance and two plate heat exchangers. The control of the temperature of the reaction is based on the supervision system. This strategy of management of the thermal devices is based on the usage of the thermal flux as manipulated variable. The modulation of the monofluid temperature by acting on the heating power or on the opening degrees of an air-to-open valve that delivers the monofluid to heat exchanger. The study shows that the application of this method for the conduct of the pilot reactor gives good results in simulation and that taking into account the dynamics of the various apparatuses greatly improves ride quality of conduct. In addition thermal control of an exothermic reaction (mononitration shows that the consideration of heat generated in the model representation improve the results by elimination any overshooting of the set-point temperature.

  13. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  14. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  15. A FRAMEWORK TO DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE CHEMICAL FLOODING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojdeh Delshad; Gary A. Pope; Kamy Sepehrnoori

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this proposed research is to provide an efficient and user friendly simulation framework for screening and optimizing chemical/microbial enhanced oil recovery processes. The framework will include (1) a user friendly interface to identify the variables that have the most impact on oil recovery using the concept of experimental design and response surface maps, (2) UTCHEM reservoir simulator to perform the numerical simulations, and (3) an economic model that automatically imports the simulation production data to evaluate the profitability of a particular design. Such a reservoir simulation framework is not currently available to the oil industry. The objectives of Task 1 are to develop three primary modules representing reservoir, chemical, and well data. The modules will be interfaced with an already available experimental design model. The objective of the Task 2 is to incorporate UTCHEM reservoir simulator and the modules with the strategic variables and developing the response surface maps to identify the significant variables from each module. The objective of the Task 3 is to develop the economic model designed specifically for the chemical processes targeted in this proposal and interface the economic model with UTCHEM production output. Task 4 is on the validation of the framework and performing simulations of oil reservoirs to screen, design and optimize the chemical processes.

  16. Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

    1988-02-01

    Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed.

  17. Laser isotope separation - a new class of chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, K.B.; Mannik, L.; O'Neill, J.A.; Mader, D.L.; Nickerson, S.B.; Robins, J.R.; Bartoszek, F.E.; Gratton, D.

    1983-01-01

    Lasers may soon find several applications in chemical processing. The applications that have attracted the most research funding to date involve isotope separation for the nuclear industry. These isotopes have an unusually high value (≥$1000/kg) compared to bulk chemicals (∼$1/kg) and are generally required in very large quantities. In a laser isotope separation process, light is used to convert a separation that is very difficult or even impossible by conventional chemical engineering techniques to one that is readily handled by conventional separation technology. For some isotopes this can result in substantial capital and energy savings. A uranium enrichment process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the closest to commercialization of the large scale laser isotope separation processes. Of particular interest to the Canadian nuclear industry are the laser separation of deuterium, tritium, zirconium-90 and carbon-14. In this paper, the basic principles behind laser isotope separation are reviewed and brief dscriptions of the more developed processes are given

  18. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    chemical processes is presented. The framework allows the use of appropriate computer-aided methods and tools in a hierarchical manner according to a developed work flow for a multilevel criteria analysis that helps generate competing and more sustainable process design options. The application......As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...... of the framework as well as the related computer-aided methods and tools are highlighted through a case study involving the production of bioethanol from various renewable raw materials....

  19. Dynamics of chemical elements in the fermentation process of ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil has become the largest producer of biomass ethanol derived from sugar cane. The industrial production is based on the fermentation of sugar cane juice by yeast, inside of large volume vats, in a fed-batch process that recycles yeast cells. To study the dynamics of chemical elements in each operating cycle, five stages of the fermentation process were considered: must, yeast suspension, wine, non-yeast wine and yeast cream. For this, a mass balance of the terrigenous elements, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Sc, Sm, and Th, and the sugar cane plant elements, Br, K, Rb, and Zn, were established in fermentation vats of an industrial scale unit, with sampling undertaken during different climatic conditions (dry and rainy periods). A similar distribution of the sugar cane characteristics elements was found for the stages analysed, while for the terrigenous elements a trend of accumulation in the yeast cream was observed. Preferential absorption of Br, K, Rb, and Zn by yeast cells was indicated by the smaller concentrations observed in yeast suspension than in yeast cream. (author)

  20. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  1. On-line batch production of ferrate with an chemical method and its potential application for greywater recycling with Al(III) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yarui; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Jianwei

    2017-02-01

    Ferrate(VI) salt is an oxidant and coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. It is considered as a possible alternative method in greywater treatment. However, challenges have existed in putting ferrate(VI) technology into full-scale practice in water and wastewater treatment due to the instability of ferrate solution and high production cost of solid ferrate products. This study demonstrated a new approach of greywater treatment with on-line batch production of Fe(VI) to which Fe(III) salt was oxidized at a weak acidity solution. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Fe(VI) on light greywater (total organic carbon (TOC)=19.5mg/L) and dark greywater (TOC=55mg/L) treatment under different conditions with varying pH and Fe(VI) doses. In addition, the combination use of Fe(VI) and Al(III) salts was proved to be more efficient than using the Fe(VI) salts alone at greywater recycling. The optimum dosage of Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts was 25/25mg/L for light greywater, 90/60mg/L for dark greywater, respectively. The TOC values of both light greywater and dark greywater were reduced to less than 3mg/L with the dosages. The cost for treating greywater was 0.06-0.2$/ton at ferrate(VI) dosage of 25-90mg/L and 0.008-0.024$/ton at AlCl 3 dosage of 25-60mg/L. The full operating cost needs further assessment before the Fe(VI)/Al(III) technology could be implemented in greywater treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Gráficos de controle multivariados para monitoramento de processos não lineares em bateladas Multivariate control charts for monitoring non-linear batch processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marcondes Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Processos industriais em bateladas são empregados com frequência na produção de certos itens. Tais processos disponibilizam uma estrutura de dados peculiar; diante disso, existe um crescente interesse no desenvolvimento de gráficos de controle multivariados mais apropriados para seu monitoramento. Investiga-se aqui uma abordagem recente que utiliza gráficos de controle baseados no método Statis. O Statis constitui-se em uma técnica exploratória que permite avaliar similaridade entre matrizes de dados. Entretanto, essa técnica considera a similaridade em um contexto linear, investigando estruturas de correlação lineares nos dados. Propõe-se neste artigo a utilização de gráficos de controle baseados no Statis em conjunto com kernels para monitoramento de processos com presença de não linearidades fortes. Através dos kernels, definem-se funções não lineares dos dados para melhor representação da estrutura a ser caracterizada pelo método Statis. Essa nova abordagem, denominada kernel-Statis, é desenvolvida e avaliada utilizando dados de um processo simulado.Industrial batch processes are widely used in the production of certain items. Such processes provide a peculiar data structure; therefore there is a growing interest in the development of customized multivariate control charts for their monitoring. We investigate a recent approach that uses control charts based on the Statis method. Statis is an exploratory technique for measuring similarities between data matrices. However, the technique only assesses similarities in a linear context, i.e. investigating structures of linear correlation in the data. In this paper we propose control charts based on the Statis method in conjunction with a kernel for monitoring processes in the presence of strong nonlinearities. Through kernels we define nonlinear functions of data for better representing the structure to be characterized by the Statis method. The new approach, named

  3. Supercritical Fluids Processing of Biomass to Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Norman K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-09-28

    The main objective of this project is to develop and/or enhance cost-effective methodologies for converting biomass into a wide variety of chemicals, fuels, and products using supercritical fluids. Supercritical fluids will be used both to perform reactions of biomass to chemicals and products as well as to perform extractions/separations of bio-based chemicals from non-homogeneous mixtures. This work supports the Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Platform Goals. Supercritical fluids are a thermochemical approach to processing biomass that, while aligned with the Biomass Program’s interests in gasification and pyrolysis, offer the potential for more precise and controllable reactions. Indeed, the literature with respect to the use of water as a supercritical fluid frequently refers to “supercritical water gasification” or “supercritical water pyrolysis.”

  4. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  5. Microphysical, chemical, and dynamical processes in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere]|[Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Hirschberg, M.; Fabian, P. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1997-12-01

    This project investigated theoretically microphysical and chemical processes in aircraft exhaust plumes during the first stages of wake dispersion. A suitable computational model has been developed, describing the two-dimensional (2D) turbulent mixing of a single jet of exhaust gas from aircraft engines with the atmosphere. The model has been used to work out general features of transport and conversion of exhaust effluents. It has also been employed to study the conditions in the jet that lead to the formation of ice contrails. The model has then been extended to include a set of all relevant chemical reactions in the gas phase and to study the chemical conversion of exhaust species with regard to the specific fluid dynamical conditions of the jet regime. A trajectory box model has been developed that is driven by turbulent mixing rates from the 2D jet model, and by parameterized mixing rates at later stages of wake dispersion. Further, a microphysical module has been designed and coupled to the box model, with which detailed investigations of adsorption, binary homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, heteromolecular condensation and evaporation, scavenging and coagulation, and homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in diluting aircraft exhaust plumes and contrails have been performed. The potential for heterogeneous chemical processing on/in plume and contrail aerosols has been investigated. The results have supported the analyses of in situ observations. Vice versa, model development took great advantages form the close collaborations with several experimental groups. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  6. Characterization of Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal Microorganisms in a Novel Two-Sludge Process by Combining Chemical with Microbial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the investigation of denitrifying phosphorus removal organisms (DPB in a novel two-sludge denitrifying phosphorus removal process by combining chemical with microbial analysis. When the two-sludge process operated stably over one year, good phosphorus (P release and P uptake performance of activated sludge samples collected from this process were present in anaerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively, via batch test, showing that the ratio of P release specific rate to P uptake specific rate was 1.31. The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS showed that P content of activated sludge samples collected at the end of anoxic phase was 12.3% of dry weight, further demonstrating the existence of microorganisms responsible for phosphorus removal in this two-sludge process. From polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis, the presence of microorganisms mostly belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria was observed, previously evidenced in the phosphorus removal wastewater treatment process. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH quantitative analysis showed that Accumulibacter responsible for phosphorus removal was dominant in this two-sludge process, accounting for 69.7% of all bacteria in activated sludge. These results obtained from chemical and microbial analysis in this study suggested that denitrifying phosphorus removal microorganisms were completely enriched in the two-sludge process proposed here.

  7. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  8. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  9. Economic model predictive control theory, formulations and chemical process applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Matthew; Christofides, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes. In addition to being...

  10. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  11. PROCESS CONTROL IN THE EDUCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Csontos, lstván; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics; Marosi, György; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics; Faigl, Ferenc; Department of Organic Chemical Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory practices for demonstrating the importance of advanced process control methods in the organic chemical technologies have been elaborated. It required the development of a system tha tintegrates the advantages of a reaction calorimeter and a model system of industrial controlled reactors. The hardware and software configuration support the transfer of elaborated control programs of reactions from laboratory level to the industrial technology. General control algorithms of diazotizat...

  12. Physical-chemical aspects of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedeli, E.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Frying is a very elaborate cooking procedure where the heat is distributed to the food by a medium, the oil or fat that intervenes in the process, interacting with the food itself. The interactions are depending on the quality of the oil or fat, the technology utilized and the nature of the substrate. In effect that last is a mixture of various chemical entities that behave differently toward the heat, between them and with the cooking fat. One of the most important component of the food is water and the hydration conditions are of great importance in determining the various step of the cooking operation and the type of interactions between the food itself and the oily phase. Chemical nature of the substrate is important in determining the type of secondary processes that develop during frying and in effect transformations of the lipidic medium are notably influenced. Main chemical reactions that occur during the frying process are of oxydative nature but their importance must not be overestimated and still frying conditions as well as chemical and physical nature of the food is important in determining the extent at which it occurs. Hydrolysis is another of the reactions that develop during frying. Interchange of fats occurs between the substrate and the lipidic phase, sometime bringing to healthier foods, provided a proper choice in the quality of the frying media has been done. Exchanges of many components, usually minor components occur and are of interest in the repeated frying because they have influence on the behaviour of the cooking operation. In general terms frying must be evaluated as a beneficial operation directed to enhance the nutritional value of a food, provided that the fundamental rules governing the process are observed.

  13. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  14. On-line process monitoring of coffee roasting by resonant laser ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: bridging the gap from industrial batch roasting to flavour formation inside an individual coffee bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, R; Dorfner, R; Yeretzian, C; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) enables the fast and sensitive on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during coffee roasting. On the one hand, REMPI-TOFMS was applied to monitor roasting gases of an industrial roaster (1500 kg/h capacity), with the aim of determining the roast degree in real-time from the transient chemical signature of VOCs. On the other hand, a previously developed μ-probe sampling device was used to analyse roasting gases from individual coffee beans. The aim was to explore fundamental processes at the individual bean level and link these to phenomena at the batch level. The pioneering single-bean experiments were conducted in two configurations: (1) VOCs formed inside a bean were sampled in situ, i.e. via a drilled μ-hole, from the interior, using a μ-probe (inside). (2) VOCs were sampled on-line in close vicinity of a single coffee bean's surface (outside). The focus was on VOCs originating from hydrolysis and pyrolytic degradation of chlorogenic acids, like feruloyl quinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid. The single bean experiments revealed interesting phenomena. First, differences in time-intensity profiles between inside versus outside (time shift of maximum) were observed and tentatively linked to the permeability of the bean's cell walls material. Second, sharp bursts of some VOCs were observed, while others did exhibit smooth release curves. It is believed that these reflect a direct observation of bean popping during roasting. Finally, discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora was demonstrated based on high-mass volatile markers, exclusively present in spectra of Coffea arabica. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  16. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  17. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  18. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  19. Catechol-Based Hydrogel for Chemical Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyoung Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Catechols offer diverse properties and are used in biology to perform various functions that range from adhesion (e.g., mussel proteins to neurotransmission (e.g., dopamine, and mimicking the capabilities of biological catechols have yielded important new materials (e.g., polydopamine. It is well known that catechols are also redox-active and we have observed that biomimetic catechol-modified chitosan films are redox-active and possess interesting molecular electronic properties. In particular, these films can accept, store and donate electrons, and thus offer redox-capacitor capabilities. We are enlisting these capabilities to bridge communication between biology and electronics. Specifically, we are investigating an interactive redox-probing approach to access redox-based chemical information and convert this information into an electrical modality that facilitates analysis by methods from signal processing. In this review, we describe the broad vision and then cite recent examples in which the catechol–chitosan redox-capacitor can assist in accessing and understanding chemical information. Further, this redox-capacitor can be coupled with synthetic biology to enhance the power of chemical information processing. Potentially, the progress with this biomimetic catechol–chitosan film may even help in understanding how biology uses the redox properties of catechols for redox signaling.

  20. Transfer from high-shear batch to continuous twin screw wet granulation: a case study in understanding the relationship between process parameters and product quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Paul; Wilson, David; Huang, Zhenyu; De Matas, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    A twin screw to high-shear batch granulation technology switch was evaluated for a pharmaceutical development project. Differences in granule (particle size distribution and porosity) and tablet (dissolution) quality attributes were analysed for both continuous and batch technologies. Liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, screw configuration and screw speed parameters on the twin screw granulator were varied, with output granule and tablet properties characterised. L/S and screw configuration were found to influence the granule particle size distribution, porosity and tablet dissolution. At 0.15 L/S, the particle size distribution showed a significant proportion of ungranulated material in the output granule. As the L/S is increased, the level of ungranulated material decreased. An increase in L/S and the number of kneader elements caused a decrease in granule porosity and tablet dissolution. Twin screw and batch granulation technologies generated different granule properties (size and shape) at a constant L/S. A lower L/S in twin screw granulation was needed to achieve similar tablet attributes. It is concluded that differences in liquid addition and therefore initial granule nucleation caused differences in granule properties, which impacted tablet attributes and manufacturability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, Colomba [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , P.le V. Tecchio, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    This review reports the state of the art in modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis. Chemical kinetics are critically discussed in relation to primary reactions, described by one- and multi-component (or one- and multi-stage) mechanisms, and secondary reactions of tar cracking and polymerization. A mention is also made of distributed activation energy models and detailed mechanisms which try to take into account the formation of single gaseous or liquid (tar) species. Different approaches used in the transport models are presented at both the level of single particle and reactor, together with the main achievements of numerical simulations. Finally, critical issues which require further investigation are indicated. (author)

  2. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  3. Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, C.J.; Frazer, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor

  4. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  5. Development of batch producible hot embossing 3D nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman scattering chip technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Shiuan

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a batch producible hot embossing 3D nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman chip technology for high sensitivity label-free plasticizer detection. This study utilizing the AAO self-assembled uniform nano-hemispherical array barrier layer as a template to create a durable nanostructured nickel mold. With the hot embossing technique and the durable nanostructured nickel mold, we are able to batch produce the 3D Nanostructured Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Chip with consistent quality. In addition, because of our SERS chip can be fabricated by batch processing, the fabrication cost is low. Therefore, the developed method is very promising to be widespread and extensively used in rapid chemical and biomolecular detection applications.

  6. A study on the thermo-chemical is process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saburo Shimizu; Hayato Nakajima; Shinji Kubo; Kaoru Onuki; Gab-Jin Hwang; Shunichi Higashi; Shintaro Ishiyama; Masatoshi Futakawa; Ikuo Ioka; Yuji Kurata; Norio Akino; Makoto Sakurai

    2001-01-01

    The present status of R and D at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on thermo-chemical IS process for large-scale hydrogen production is described. Following the successful demonstration of continuous hydrogen production by the process in laboratory, studies are being carried out on three topics, which is scheduled until 2004. First, a new glass-made apparatus is now being assembled in order to demonstrate hydrogen production under more efficient conditions and to acquire knowledge of the closed-cycle operation technique. Second, a process improvement using membrane technologies is under study for the hydrogen production step. Thirdly, selection and/or development of construction materials for scale-up are under study, mainly from the viewpoint of corrosion resistance. (author)

  7. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  8. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  9. Recommendation of ruthenium source for sludge batch flowsheet studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-13

    Included herein is a preliminary analysis of previously-generated data from sludge batches 7a, 7b, 8, and 9 sludge simulant and real-waste testing, performed to recommend a form of ruthenium for future sludge batch simulant testing under the nitric-formic flowsheet. Focus is given to reactions present in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank cycle, given that this cycle historically produces the most changes in chemical composition during Chemical Process Cell processing. Data is presented and analyzed for several runs performed under the nitric-formic flowsheet, with consideration given to effects on the production of hydrogen gas, nitrous oxide gas, consumption of formate, conversion of nitrite to nitrate, and the removal and recovery of mercury during processing. Additionally, a brief discussion is given to the effect of ruthenium source selection under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet. An analysis of data generated from scaled demonstration testing, sludge batch 9 qualification testing, and antifoam degradation testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is presented. Experimental parameters of interest under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet include N2O production, glycolate destruction, conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate, and the conversion of nitrite to nitrate. To date, the number of real-waste experiments that have been performed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is insufficient to provide a complete understanding of the effects of ruthenium source selection in simulant experiments with regard to fidelity to real-waste testing. Therefore, a determination of comparability between the two ruthenium sources as employed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is made based on available data in order to inform ruthenium source selection for future testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  10. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo D, M.; Ayala S, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  11. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect t...

  12. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  13. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  15. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  16. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  17. Combined Noncyclic Scheduling and Advanced Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Petersen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel formulation for combined scheduling and control of multi-product, continuous chemical processes is introduced in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and noncyclic continuous-time scheduling are efficiently combined. A decomposition into nonlinear programming (NLP dynamic optimization problems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problems, without iterative alternation, allows for computationally light solution. An iterative method is introduced to determine the number of production slots for a noncyclic schedule during a prediction horizon. A filter method is introduced to reduce the number of MILP problems required. The formulation’s closed-loop performance with both process disturbances and updated market conditions is demonstrated through multiple scenarios on a benchmark continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR application with fluctuations in market demand and price for multiple products. Economic performance surpasses cyclic scheduling in all scenarios presented. Computational performance is sufficiently light to enable online operation in a dual-loop feedback structure.

  18. Development of microforming process combined with selective chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshimizu Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microforming has been received much attention in the recent decades due to the wide use of microparts in electronics and medical purpose. For the further functionalization of these micro devices, high functional surface with noble metals and nanomaterials are strongly required in bio- and medical fields, such as bio-sensors. To realize the efficient manufacturing process, which can deform the submillimeter scale bulk structure and can construct the micro to nanometer scale structures in one process, the present study proposes a combined process of microforming for metal foils with a selective chemical vapor deposition (SCVD on the active surface of work materials. To clarify the availability of this proposed process, the feasibility of SCVD of functional materials to active surface of titanium (Ti was investigated. CVD of iron (Fe and carbon nanotubes (CNTs which construct CNTs on the patterned surface of active Ti and non-active oxidation layer were conducted. Ti thin films on silicon substrate and Fe were used as work materials and functional materials, respectively. CNTs were grown on only Ti surface. Consequently, the selectivity of the active surface of Ti to the synthesis of Fe particles in CVD process was confirmed.

  19. Producing nanofibres from carrots with a chemical-free process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Swambabu; Henzel, Leeav; Sharman, Scot; Batchelor, Warren; Garnier, Gil

    2018-03-15

    The production of nanofibres (NF) from fresh carrots residue was investigated with a mechanical process without using any pulping or bleaching chemicals. Refining with a PFI mill followed by mechanical fibrillation with a homogenizer was used to produce fine NF. Blanching with hot water was carried out to leach the extractives from carrot fibres prior to refining. The energy required to prepare carrot pulp is one order of magnitude lower than for wood pulp and the fibrillation of nanofibres from carrot residue is four times lower in energy than using wood pulp as feedstock. The average diameter and length of carrot NF are 18 nm and 5.1 μm, respectively. The chemical composition of the manufactured nanofibers, as measured by HPLC, was 53% glucose and 47% xylose. Translucent and strong flexible films were prepared from the carrot NF using a filtration based papermaking process. The strength and water vapor permeability of these carrot NF paper like composites are similar to those derived from wood-fibre of comparable dimensions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  1. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  2. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  3. Heat integration in multipurpose batch plants using a robust scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is becoming increasingly important in batch processing facilities. Multipurpose batch plants have become more popular than ever in the processing environment due to their inherent flexibility and adaptability to market conditions, even...

  4. Effects of immobilization, pH and reaction time in the modulation of α-, β- or γ-cyclodextrins production by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase: Batch and continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffer, Jéssie da Natividade; Matte, Carla Roberta; Charqueiro, Douglas Santana; de Menezes, Eliana Weber; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Hertz, Plinho Francisco

    2017-08-01

    This study reports the immobilization of a β-CGTase on glutaraldehyde pre-activated silica and its use to production of cyclodextrins in batch and continuous reactions. We were able to modulate the cyclodextrin production (α-, β- and γ-CD) by immobilization and changing the reaction conditions. In batch reactions, the immobilized enzyme reached to maximum productions of 4.9mgmL -1 of α-CD, 3.6mgmL -1 of β-CD and 3.5mgmL -1 of γ-CD at different conditions of temperature, pH and reaction time. In continuous reactor, varying the residence time and pH it was possible to produce at pH 4.0 and 141min of residence time preferentially γ-CD (0.75 and 3.36mgmL -1 of α- and γ-CD, respectively), or at pH 8.0 and 4.81min α- and β-CDs (3.44 and 3.51mgmL -1 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Process Equipment Failure Mode Analysis in a Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nasl Seraji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Prevention of potential accidents and safety promotion in chemical processes requires systematic safety management in them. The main objective of this study was analysis of important process equipment components failure modes and effects in H2S and CO2  isolation from extracted natural gas process.   Methods   This study was done in sweetening unit of an Iranian gas refinery. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA used for identification of process equipments failures.   Results   Totally 30 failures identified and evaluated using FMEA. P-1 blower's blade breaking and sour gas pressure control valve bearing tight moving had maximum risk Priority number (RPN, P-1 body corrosion and increasing plug lower side angle of reach DEAlevel control valve  in tower - 1 were minimum calculated RPN.   Conclusion   By providing a reliable documentation system for equipment failures and  incidents recording, maintaining of basic information for later safety assessments would be  possible. Also, the probability of failures and effects could be minimized by conducting preventive maintenance.

  7. Significant thermal energy reduction in lactic acid production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Edreder, Elmahboub A.; Emtir, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid is widely used as a raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers and in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The global market for lactic acid is expected to reach 259 thousand metric tons by the year 2012. For batch production of lactic acid, the traditional process includes the following steps: (i) esterification of impure lactic acid with methanol in a batch reactor to obtain methyl lactate (ester), (ii) separation of the ester in a batch distillation, (iii) hydrolysis of the ester with water in a batch reactor to produce lactic acid and (iv) separation of lactic acid (in high purity) in a batch distillation. Batch reactive distillation combines the benefit of both batch reactor and batch distillation and enhances conversion and productivity (Taylor and Krishna, 2000 ; Mujtaba and Macchietto, 1997 ). Therefore, the first and the last two steps of the lactic acid production process can be combined together in batch reactive distillation () processes. However, distillation (batch or continuous) is an energy intensive process and consumes large amount of thermal energy (via steam). This paper highlights how significant (over 50%) reduction in thermal energy consumption can be achieved for lactic acid production process by carefully controlling the reflux ratio but without compromising the product specification. In this paper, only the simultaneous hydrolysis of methyl lactate ester and the separation of lactic acid using batch reactive distillation is considered.

  8. Integration of process design and controller design for chemical processes using model-based methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel systematic model-based methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for chemical processes is presented. The methodology uses a decomposition method to solve the IPDC typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization with ...... that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights to the solution of IPDC problems in chemical engineering practice.......In this paper, a novel systematic model-based methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for chemical processes is presented. The methodology uses a decomposition method to solve the IPDC typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization...... with constraints) problem. Accordingly the optimization problem is decomposed into four sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification, which are relatively easier to solve. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process...

  9. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  10. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  11. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering

  12. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  14. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  15. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  16. Inactivation of bacterial contaminants in drinking water using a novel batch-process TiO2-assisted solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPC-DIS) reactor for use in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuigan, K. G.; Duffy, E. F.; Al Touati, F.; Kehoe, S. C.; McLoughlin, O. A.; Gill, L. W.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Reed, R. H.

    2004-07-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactor fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12 . Approximately 550J is required per litre of water to produce each 1-long-unit reduction in bacterial population within SPC-DIS reactors of the design described in this study. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. A Mathematical Model for Scheduling a Batch Processing Machine with Multiple Incompatible Job Families, Non-identical Job dimensions, Non-identical Job sizes, Non-agreeable release times and due dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramaniam, M; Mathirajan, M

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem scheduling a batch processing machine with multiple incompatible job families, non-identical job dimensions, non-identical job sizes and non-agreeable release dates to minimize makespan. The research problem is solved by proposing a mixed integer programming model that appropriately takes into account the parameters considered in the problem. The proposed is validated using a numerical example. The experiment conducted show that the model can pose significant difficulties in solving the large scale instances. The paper concludes by giving the scope for future work and some alternative approaches one can use for solving these class of problems.

  18. Economic-oriented stochastic optimization in advanced process control of chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process.

  19. Chemical catalysis in biodiesel production (I): enzymatic catalysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachmarian, I.; Dobroyan, M.; Veira, J.; Vieitez, I.; Mottini, M.; Segura, N.; Grompone, M.

    2009-01-01

    There are some well known advantages related with the substitution of chemical catalysis by enzymatic catalysis processes.Some commercial immobilized lipases are useful for the catalysis of bio diesel reaction, which permits the achievement of high conversions and the recovery of high purity products, like a high quality glycerine. The main disadvantage of this alternative method is related with the last inactivation of the enzyme (by both the effect of the alcohol and the absorption of glycerol on catalyst surface), which added to the high cost of the catalyst, produces an unfavourable economical balance of the entire process. In the work the efficiency of two commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme TL IM y Novozyme 435 NNovozymes-Dinamarca) in the catalysis of the continuous transesterification of sunflower oil with different alcohols was studied. The intersolubility of the different mixturesinvolving reactans (S oil/alkyl esters/alcohol) and products (P mixtures with a higher content of 1% of glycerol,while for ethanol homogeneous mixtures were obtained at 12% of glycerol (44.44 12).Using and ethanolic substrate at the proportion S=19:75:6 and Lipozyme TL IM, it was possible to achieve a 98% of convertion to the corresponding biodiesel.When Novozymes 435 catalyzed the process it was possible to increase the oil concentration in the substrateaccording to proportion S=35:30:35, and a 78% conversion was obtained. The productivity shown by the firt enzyme was 70mg biodiesel g enzime-1, hora-1 while with the second one the productivity increased to 230. Results suggested that the convenient adjustement of substrate composition with the addition of biodiesel to reactants offers an efficient method for maximizing the enzyme productivity, hence improving the profitability of the enzymatic catalyzed process. (author)

  20. Parameter Optimization of Nitriding Process Using Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Firat; Lippmann, Nils

    2016-12-01

    Using the dynamics of chemical kinetics, an investigation to search for an optimum condition for a gas nitriding process is performed over the solution space spanned by the initial temperature and gas composition of the furnace. For a two-component furnace atmosphere, the results are presented in temporal variations of gas concentrations and the nitrogen coverage on the surface. It seems that the exploitation of the nitriding kinetics can provide important feedback for setting the model-based control algorithms. The present work shows that when the nitrogen gas concentration is not allowed to exceed 6 pct, the Nad coverage can attain maximum values as high as 0.97. The time evolution of the Nad coverage also reveals that, as long as the temperature is above the value where nitrogen poisoning of the surface due to the low-temperature adsorption of excess nitrogen occurs, the initial ammonia content in the furnace atmosphere is much more important in the nitriding process than is the initial temperature.