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Sample records for bat tick carios

  1. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  2. Characterization of a Novel Relapsing Fever Spirochete in the Midgut, Coxal Fluid, and Salivary Glands of the Bat Tick Carios kelleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Gill, James S.; Piesman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bat ticks, Carios kelleyi, from Iowa were examined for the presence of relapsing fever group borreliae. A novel spirochete was characterized by DNA sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplicons for the 16S rRNA, flaB, and glpQ genes in either triturated tick pools or single ticks. All loci and the concatenated DNA sequence of 3,289 bases identified the Carios bacterium as a relapsing fever spirochete most closely related to, but distinct from, Borrelia turicatae. Spirochetes reactive with a Borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody were observed microscopically in the coxal fluid and salivary glands from one tick. These data confirm the presence of a novel species of relapsing fever spirochete in bat ticks and the potential for new enzootic foci for endemic relapsing fever that warrants further investigation. The name Borrelia johnsonii is proposed for this novel spirochete in honor of Dr. Russell C. Johnson. PMID:19281412

  3. Carios mimon (Acari: Argasidae): description of adults and redescription of larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Marcili, Arlei; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2011-05-01

    Carios mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera, originally described from larvae collected on bats Mimon crenulatum from Bolivia and Eptesicus brasiliensis from Uruguay. Later it was also registered from Argentina and recently included among the Brazilian tick fauna. In Brazil, this species is very aggressive to man, resulting in intense inflammatory response and pain. It is known only by the larval description and its morphology resembles that from other species currently included into the genus Carios, formerly classified into the subgenus Alectorobius, genus Ornithodoros. Here we describe adults and redescribe the larva of C. mimon, based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Remarks about its morphological similarity with other species of this genus are also discussed. Molecular analysis inferred from a portion of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene placed C. mimon in a cluster supported by maximal bootstrap value (100%) with other argasid species (mostly bat parasites in the New World), which have been classified into either the genus Ornithodoros or Carios, depending on the Argasidae classification adopted by different authors. PMID:21161720

  4. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  5. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  6. Description of a new tick species, Ixodes collaris n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), from bats (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő

    2016-01-01

    Background In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Findings Ixodid bat ticks (two female...

  7. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species.

  8. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species. PMID:27305604

  9. Description of a new species of bat-associated argasid tick (Acari: Argasidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Venzal, José M; Bernardi, Leopoldo F O; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Onofrio, Valéria C; Marcili, Arlei; Bermúdez, Sergio E; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-02-01

    A new species of argasid tick (Acari: Argasidae) is described from immature and adult specimens collected from several localities in Brazil. A complete morphological account is provided for all postembryonic life stages, i.e., larva, nymph, female, and male. Ornithodoros cavernicolous n. sp. is the 113(th) in the genus. Morphologically, the new species shares common features, e.g., presence of well-developed cheeks and legs with micromammillate cuticle, with other bat-associated argasid ticks included in the subgenus Alectorobius. In particular, the new species is morphologically related to Ornithodoros azteci Matheson, with which it forms a species group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences supports the placement of the new species within a large clade that includes other New World bat-associated argasids. However, the new species seems to represent an independent lineage within the genus Ornithodoros. PMID:21955330

  10. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrelia garinii was found in one tick parasitizing Myotis daubentonii. These pathogens were recorded for the first time in hard ticks that parasitized bats. PMID:26833325

  11. Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Avoiding Ticks Preventing tick bites Preventing ticks on your pets ... ticks in the yard New materials for this tick season: Medscape Expert Commentary — Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: ...

  12. [Taxonomy of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Entebbe bat virus group) isolated from bats (Vespertilio pipistrellus Schreber, 1774), ticks (Argasidae Koch, 1844), and birds in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Samokhvalov, E I; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of the Sokuluk virus (SOKV) isolated in Kyrgyzstan from bats Vespertilio pipistrellus and their obligatory parasites--Argasidae Koch, 1844, ticks was carried out. SOKV was classified as attributed to the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus. The maximum homology (71% for nucleotide and 79% for amino acid sequences) was detected with respect to the Entebbe bat virus (ENTV). ENTV and SOKV form a group joining to the yellow fever virus (YFV) within the limits of the mosquito flavivirus branch. Close relation of SOKV with bat covers and human housings permits to assume SOKV potentially patogenic to human health.

  13. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrel...

  14. Description of a new argasid tick (Acari: Ixodida) from bat caves in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Venzal, Jose M; Terassini, Flavio A; Mangold, Atilio J; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-12-01

    Nothoaspis amazoniensis n. sp. (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) is described from adult and immature ticks (nymph II, nymph I, larva) collected from bat caves in the Brazilian Amazon. Also, 16S rDNA sequences are provided. The diagnostic characters for adults are the presence of false shield or nothoaspis, an anteriorly projecting hood covering the capitulum, a medial extension of palpal article I (flaps), genital plate extending from coxa I to IV, absence of 2 setae on the internal margin of the flaps, a minute hypostome without denticles, presence of a central pore in the base of hypostome, and a reticulate surface pattern on the posterior half of the nothoaspis in males. The nymph II stage is characterized by a hood that is small in relation to the capitulum, short coxal setae, palpal flaps lacking setae on the internal margin, long hypostome, pointed with dentition 4/4 apically, and the anterior half of the body is covered by a cell-like configuration. Nymph I stage is characterized by a hood, small in relation to the capitulum, dorsum of the body covered by a cell-like configuration, venter integument covered by a cell-like configuration, and hypostome dentition 4/4 with apices that are "V"-shaped. Diagnostic characters of the larvae are the number and size of dorsal setae, and the shape of scutum and hypostome. The new species appears to have a life cycle with a larva that feeds on bats, a non-feeding nymphal stage (nymph I), a feeding nymphal stage (nymph II), and adults that probably represent non-feeding stages. PMID:21158616

  15. Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Faulde, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The most common vector-borne diseases in both Europe and North America are transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne bacterial zoonosis, is the most highly prevalent. Other important tick-borne diseases include TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Europe, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North America, and numerous less common tick-borne bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases on both continents. The major etiological agent of LB is Borrelia burgdorferi in North America, while in Europe several related species of Borrelia can also cause human illness. These Borrelia genospecies differ in clinical manifestations, ecology (for example, some have primarily avian and others primarily mammalian reservoirs), and transmission cycles, so the epizootiology of LB is more complex in Europe than in North America. Ticks dwell predominantly in woodlands and meadows, and in association with animal hosts, with only limited colonization of human dwellings by a few species. Therefore, suburbanization has contributed substantially to the increase in tick-borne disease transmission in North America by fostering increased exposure of humans to tick habitat. The current trend toward suburbanization in Europe could potentially result in similar increases in transmission of tick-borne diseases. Incidence of tick-borne diseases can be lowered by active public education campaigns, targeted at the times and places of greatest potential for encounter between humans and infected ticks. Similarly, vaccines (e.g., against TBE) are most effective when made available to people at greatest risk, and for high-prevalence diseases such as LB. Consultation with vector-borne disease experts during the planning stages of new human developments can minimize the potential for residents to encounter infected ticks (e.g., by appropriate dwelling and landscape design). Furthermore, research on tick vectors, pathogens, transmission ecology, and on

  16. Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  17. Tick Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  18. Tick Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician’s Resources Contact About The Foundation Select Page Tick Paralysis Menu What is Tick Paralysis? Where is ... How to Remove a Tick Deer Tick Ecology Tick-Borne Diseases Anaplasmosis Babesiosis Borrelia myamotoi Infections Colorado ...

  19. Tick bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Lyme disease, erythema migrans Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Ticks Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick, deer - adult female Deer and dog ...

  20. Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  1. The high genetic variation of viruses of the genus Nairovirus reflects the diversity of their predominant tick hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus

  2. Detection of a novel Rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2015-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks.

  3. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J.; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed ‘tick-only’ viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

  4. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, M Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-06-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed 'tick-only' viruses inhabiting tick cell lines.

  5. Pesky Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-09

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of ticks and how to protect yourself from them.  Created: 4/9/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/9/2013.

  6. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  7. Bat Bonanza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  8. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  9. Tick Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Tick Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Tick Bites ... find on the skin. Signs and Symptoms Of Tick-Related Diseases: a red bump ringed by an ...

  10. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A.; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%–42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%–7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  11. Evidence for widespread infection of African bats with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Devignot, Stéphanie; Lattwein, Erik; Corman, Victor Max; Maganga, Gaël D; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Vallo, Peter; Emmerich, Petra; Cottontail, Veronika M; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Drexler, Jan Felix; Weber, Friedemann; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The geographic range of human CCHF cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. However, highly similar CCHFV lineages occur in geographically distant regions. Tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. Bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from CCHFV. In order to assess the presence of CCHFV in a wide range of bat species over a wide geographic range, we analyzed 1,135 sera from 16 different bat species collected in Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Germany, and Panama. Using a CCHFV glycoprotein-based indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT), we identified reactive antibodies in 10.0% (114/1,135) of tested bats, pertaining to 12/16 tested species. Depending on the species, 3.6%-42.9% of cave-dwelling bats and 0.6%-7.1% of foliage-living bats were seropositive (two-tailed t-test, p = 0.0447 cave versus foliage). 11/30 IIFT-reactive sera from 10 different African bat species had neutralizing activity in a virus-like particle assay. Neutralization of full CCHFV was confirmed in 5 of 7 sera. Widespread infection of cave-dwelling bats may indicate a role for bats in the life cycle and geographic dispersal of CCHFV. PMID:27217069

  12. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Geographic distribution of ticks that bite humans Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and may be difficult to identify. American dog tick ( Dermacentor variabilis ) Where found: Widely distributed east of ...

  13. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  14. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  15. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael S.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley [University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, UNC School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, NC (United States); Hamrick, Harvey J. [University of North Carolina Hospitals, Department of Pediatrics, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  16. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  17. Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

  18. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease When warm weather arrives, ... to protect yourself and your loved ones from ticks that often lurk in tall grass, thick brush, ...

  19. DEET, Showers, and Tick Checks Can Stop Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Stop Ticks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What to Do if You Find an Attached Tick Remove the attached tick as soon as you ...

  20. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Preventing ticks on your pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! Kill Ticks on Dogs A pesticide product that kills ticks ...

  1. Tick-Host Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogstraal, H.; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-01-01

    A review the various patterns of tick-host relationships are discussed in detail in order to answer the following questions : 1. How, when and where did host specificity of each parasite group evolve ? 2. How strict is specificity in each case ? 3. Why and under what circumstances does specificity break down ? The authors present several definitions which characterize the various degrees of parasitic specificity existing today between ticks and their hosts. Tick-host relationships are ...

  2. Bat consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases.Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to under...

  3. Tick vaccines and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Blouin, E F

    2007-08-01

    Ticks transmit pathogens that cause diseases which greatly impact both human and animal health. Vaccines developed against Boophilus spp. using Bm86 and Bm95 tick gut antigens demonstrated the feasibility of using vaccines for control of tick infestations. These vaccines also reduced transmission of tick-borne pathogens by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts to ticks. The recently discovered tick antigens, 64P putative cement protein and subolesin involved in the regulation of tick feeding and reproduction, were also shown to reduce tick infestations. These antigens, together with the TROSPA receptor for Burrelia burgdorferi OspA were effective against tick-borne pathogens by reducing the infection levels in ticks and/or the transmission of the pathogen. Development of a vaccine targeted at both the tick vector and pathogen would contribute greatly to the control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases. These results have demonstrated that tick vaccines can be developed for control tick infestations and show promise for the prevention of the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:17682852

  4. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Domingos; Sandra Antunes; Lara Borges; Virgilio Estolio do Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a co...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF BAT ECTOPARASITE LEPTOCIMEX INORDINATUS FROM BAT-DWELLING CAVE, KANCHANABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2016-01-01

    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  6. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays cdcinfo@cdc.gov Bats Learning about bats and rabies Coming in contact with ...

  7. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed. PMID:27076303

  8. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Domingos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the first commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry.

  9. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Ana; Antunes, Sandra; Borges, Lara; Rosário, Virgílio Estólio do

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the fi rst commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry. PMID:23559344

  10. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  11. Ticks and Diseases: Bite Fright!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Bite Fright! Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... can bring on serious health problems. What Are Ticks? If you spend any time outdoors, you've ...

  12. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....

  13. Rickettsia spp. in Ticks, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski, Tomasz; Podsiadly, Edyta; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanislawa

    2009-01-01

    Ticks are recognized as the main vectors and reservoirs of spotted fever group rickettsiae. We searched for the most prevalent Rickettsia spp. in Poland and found R. slovaca and R. helvetica bacteria in ticks in southern and central Poland; R. raoulti was found in ticks in all parts of Poland.

  14. It's Open Season on Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    It’s Open Season on Ticks Protect yourself from tickborne disease this hunting season Ticks feed on the blood of animals (such as rodents, rabbits, deer, and birds), but will bite humans too. Ticks live in grassy or wooded areas, or on ...

  15. A hybrid bat algorithm:

    OpenAIRE

    Fister, Iztok; Yang, Xin-She; Fister, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is a very powerful technique to be used for optimization purposes. In this paper we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, based on the bat algorithm. The Bat algorithm is hybridized with differential evolution strategies. Besides showing very promising results of the standard benchmark functions, this hybridization also significantly improves the original bat algorithm.

  16. Ornithodoros peropteryx (Acari: Argasidae) in Bolivia: an argasid tick with a single nymphal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Terassini, Flavio A; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-10-01

    By the end of the 1960s, the argasid tick Ornithodoros peropteryx was described from larval specimens collected from the bat Peropteryx macrotis in Colombia. Since its original description, no additional record of O. peropteryx has been reported, and its post-larval stages have remained unknown. During July 2010, 18 larvae were collected from 9 bats (Centronycteris maximiliani), resulting in a mean infestation of 2.0 ± 2.2 ticks per bat (range 1-8). These bats were captured in a farm in northeastern Bolivia close to Guaporé River in the border with Brazil. Morphological examinations of the larvae revealed them to represent the species O. peropteryx. One engorged larva that was kept alive in the laboratory moulted to a nymph after 9 days. Fourteen days after the larval moulting, the nymph moulted to an adult female without taking any blood meal during the nymphal period. This adult female was used for a morphological description of the female stage of O. peropteryx. In addition, the larvae were used for a morphological redescription of this stage. One larva and two legs extirpated from the adult female were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, which yielded DNA sequences at least 11 % divergent from any available argasid sequence in Genbank. We show that O. peropteryx ontogeny is characterized by a single, non-feeding, nymphal stage. This condition has never been reported for ticks. PMID:23543273

  17. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Ellison

    Full Text Available Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%. Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus. RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S. The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation.

  18. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  19. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens.

  20. [Rabies in bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans. PMID:27450525

  1. [Rabies in bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans.

  2. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  3. More Trouble from Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-18

    Dr. Chris Paddock, a rickettsiologist and infectious disease pathologist discusses a tick-transmitted bacterium, Rickettsia parkeri.  Created: 8/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/18/2011.

  4. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  5. Tick paralysis in spectacled flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground-dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra G Buettner

    Full Text Available When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF (Pteropus conspicillatus, a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus, resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum, had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998-2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host.

  6. Tick imbedded in the skin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a close-up photograph of a tick embedded in the skin. Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others.

  7. Host specificity in bat ectoparasites: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sampath S; Fernando, H Chandrika; Udagama-Randeniya, Preethi V

    2009-07-15

    We undertook a field study to determine patterns of specialisation of ectoparasites in cave-dwelling bats in Sri Lanka. The hypothesis tested was that strict host specificity (monoxeny) could evolve through the development of differential species preferences through association with the different host groups. Three species of cave-dwelling bats were chosen to represent a wide range of host-parasite associations (monoxeny to polyxeny), and both sympatric and allopatric roosting assemblages. Of the eight caves selected, six caves were "allopatric" roosts where two of each housed only one of the three host species examined: Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus rouxi and Hipposideros speoris (Rhinolophidae). The remaining two caves were "sympatric" roosts and housed all three host species. Thirty bats of each species were examined for ectoparasites in each cave, which resulted in a collection of nycteribiid and streblid flies, an ischnopsyllid bat flea, argasid and ixodid ticks, and mites belonging to three families. The host specificity of bat parasites showed a trend to monoxeny in which 70% of the 30 species reported were monoxenous. Odds ratios derived from chi(2)-tests revealed two levels of host preferences in less-specific parasites (i) the parasite was found on two host species under conditions of both host sympatry and host allopatry, with a preference for a single host in the case of host sympatry and (ii) the preference for a single host was very high, hence under conditions of host sympatry, it was confined to the preferred host only. However, under conditions of host allopatry, it utilized both hosts. There appears to be an increasing prevalence in host preferences of the parasites toward confinement to a single host species. The ecological isolation of the bat hosts and a long history of host-parasite co-existence could have contributed to an overall tendency of bat ectoparasites to become specialists, here reflected in the high percentage

  8. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-08

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.  Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/17/2006.

  9. A Tick on the Move?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-04

    CDC’s tick expert, Dr. Christopher Paddock, discusses ticks found in a new location.  Created: 8/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2016.

  10. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  11. Comparison of various ways of tick infection with the tick-borne encephalitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    VÝLETOVÁ, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis was to compare various methods of Ixodes ricinus tick infection with the tick-borne encephalitis virus. For infection by immersion method, less virulent TBE virus strain Neudoerfl was used resulting in 5 % of infected ticks. Using more virulent strain Hypr provided 60 % of infected ticks. 75 % of ticks became infected with the Neudoerfl virus by capillary feeding. Infection of ticks by feeding on viraemic mice was unsuccessful. Applicability of tested methods fo...

  12. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and South America. Does bat flu pose a threat to human health? Preliminary laboratory research at CDC ... a flu virus to attach to and gain entry into a human respiratory tract cell. Likewise, NA ...

  13. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  14. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Carter; Lauren Leffer

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus...

  15. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  16. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... muscle pain. The red-spotted rash usually happens 2 to 5 days after the fever begins. Antibiotics ...

  17. Ancestral reconstruction of tick lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Ben J; de Castro, Minique H; Pienaar, Ronel; de Klerk, Daniel; Gaven, Philasande; Genu, Siyamcela; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-06-01

    Ancestral reconstruction in its fullest sense aims to describe the complete evolutionary history of a lineage. This depends on accurate phylogenies and an understanding of the key characters of each parental lineage. An attempt is made to delineate our current knowledge with regard to the ancestral reconstruction of the tick (Ixodida) lineage. Tick characters may be assigned to Core of Life, Lineages of Life or Edges of Life phenomena depending on how far back these characters may be assigned in the evolutionary Tree of Life. These include housekeeping genes, sub-cellular systems, heme processing (Core of Life), development, moulting, appendages, nervous and organ systems, homeostasis, respiration (Lineages of Life), specific adaptations to a blood-feeding lifestyle, including the complexities of salivary gland secretions and tick-host interactions (Edges of Life). The phylogenetic relationships of lineages, their origins and importance in ancestral reconstruction are discussed. Uncertainties with respect to systematic relationships, ancestral reconstruction and the challenges faced in comparative transcriptomics (next-generation sequencing approaches) are highlighted. While almost 150 years of information regarding tick biology have been assembled, progress in recent years indicates that we are in the infancy of understanding tick evolution. Even so, broad reconstructions can be made with relation to biological features associated with various lineages. Conservation of characters shared with sister and parent lineages are evident, but appreciable differences are present in the tick lineage indicating modification with descent, as expected for Darwinian evolutionary theory. Many of these differences can be related to the hematophagous lifestyle of ticks. PMID:26868413

  18. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, N.A.; Morón, S.V.; Berciano, José M.; Nicolas, O.; López, C.A.; Nevado, C.R.; Juste, Javier; Setién, A.A.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  19. New Adenovirus in Bats, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Michael; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats.

  20. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putat

  1. Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

  2. MetaBAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool

  3. Looking in ticks for human bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases and the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic- and wild animals. A number of emerging tick-borne pathogens are already discovered; however, the proportion of undiagnosed infectious diseases, especially in tropical regions, may suggest that there are still more pathogens associated with ticks. Moreover, the identification of bacteria associated with ticks may provide new tool for th...

  4. Transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be...

  5. Vaccinomics, the new road to tick vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Merino, Octavio

    2013-12-01

    Ticks are a threat to human and animal health worldwide. Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, the most important vectors of diseases that affect cattle industry worldwide and important vectors of diseases affecting pets. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. These premises stress the need for developing improved tick vaccines in a more efficient way. In this context, development of improved vaccines for tick-borne diseases will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick–host–pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of new candidate vaccine antigens for the control of tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission requires the development of effective screening platforms and algorithms that allow the analysis and validation of data produced by systems biology approaches to tick research. Tick vaccines that affect both tick infestations and pathogen transmission could be used to vaccinate human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vectorial capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health worldwide. PMID:24396872

  6. Isolation of Tacaribe virus, a Caribbean arenavirus, from host-seeking Amblyomma americanum ticks in Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Sayler

    Full Text Available Arenaviridae are a family of single stranded RNA viruses of mammals and boid snakes. Twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and in Central and South America. Humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. Tacaribe virus (TCRV is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surveillance survey conducted in Trinidad from 1956 to 1958. Tacaribe virus is unusual because it has never been associated with a rodent host and since that one time isolation, the virus has not been isolated from any vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. We report the re-isolation of the virus from a pool of 100 host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks collected in a Florida state park in 2012. TCRV was isolated in two cell lines and its complete genome was sequenced. The tick-derived isolate is nearly identical to the only remaining isolate from Trinidad (TRVL-11573, with 99.6% nucleotide identity across the genome. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to test for viral RNA in host-seeking ticks collected from 3 Florida state parks. Virus RNA was detected in 56/500 (11.2% of surveyed ticks. As this virus was isolated from ticks that parasitize humans, the ability of the tick to transmit the virus to people should be evaluated. Furthermore, reservoir hosts for the virus need to be identified in order to develop risk assessment models of human infection.

  7. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  8. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Remondegui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tick paralysis (TP occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. The clinical manifestations range from mild or nonspecific symptoms to manifestations similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, bulbar involvement, and death in 10% of the patients. The diagnosis of TP is clinical. To our knowledge, there are no formal reports of TP in humans in South America, although clusters of TP among hunting dogs in Argentina have been identified recently. In this paper, clinical features of two cases of TP occurring during 1994 in Jujuy Province, Argentina, are described.

  9. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Sandra; Merino, Octavio; Mosqueda, Juan; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Weisheit, Sabine; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Alberdi, Pilar; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundTicks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographi...

  10. Amitraz: a tick and flea repellent and tick detachment drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, S D; Ash, K A; Conder, G A; Rector, D L

    1986-06-01

    A topical formulation of amitraz (Mitaban Liquid Concentrate, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan, U.S.A.) was evaluated as a tick repellent and detachment agent, and flea repellent. The diluted liquid concentrate (250 p.p.m. active drug) was topically applied as a single treatment to dogs; the concentration was identical to the rate recommended for treatment of demodicosis and scabies. Brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) populations were eliminated and repelled. Repellent activity (92-95%) was observed against R. sanguineus for 2 weeks post-treatment; the treatment was moderately active (63%) during the third week, and at 4 weeks post-treatment the drug was inactive. Established R. sanguineus populations were also treated, and the diluted liquid concentrate had 100% tick-detachment efficacy. Repellent activity (99%) was also detected against D. variabilis; the activity was monitored for only 7 days. The ectoparasiticide had low to moderate flea (Ctenocephalides felis) repellent activity (42%) for 4 days post-treatment; thereafter the treatment was ineffective. Side-effects were not observed in any of the dogs treated with amitraz, or the placebo.

  11. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  12. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  13. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  14. Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well ...

  15. BAT-26 and BAT-40 Instability in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas and Germline Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Samowitz, Wade S.; Slattery, Martha L.; Potter, John D.; Leppert, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the mononucleotide repeats BAT-26 and BAT-40 has reportedly revealed significant microsatellite instability in sporadic colorectal adenomas, whereas studies with dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats have not. In addition, BAT-26 has been reported to be “quasimonomorphic” in the germline. We evaluated BAT-26 and BAT-40 in a series of colorectal tumors previously analyzed with a panel of tetranucleotide repeats. Instability in BAT-26 or BAT-40 was significantly associated with t...

  16. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Schatz; Conrad Martin Freuling; Ernst Auer; Hooman Goharriz; Christine Harbusch; Nicholas Johnson; Ingrid Kaipf; Thomas Christoph Mettenleiter; Kristin Mühldorfer; Ralf-Udo Mühle; Bernd Ohlendorf; Bärbel Pott-Dörfer; Julia Prüger; Hanan Sheikh Ali; Dagmar Stiefel

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study t...

  17. Known and potential ticks and tick-borne pathogens of Micronesia

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Velde, N.; Vander Velde, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ticks have long been known to be the vectors of diseases, to both humans and animals. Yet very little work has been done regarding tick species found in Micronesia, and much of that is now decades old. Many parts of Micronesia have long undergone considerable change by outside influences and hence the natural and social environments have undergone major upheavals. Ticks as vectors of veterinary disease have long been documented in Micronesia, but ticks connected with human disease are often p...

  18. A contribution to the development of anti-tick vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases seriously affect animal and human health worldwide with the highest economic losses occurring in livestock production in the developing world. The control of ticks and the diseases they transmit depends mainly on chemical tick control using acaricides. The development of acaricide resistance, concerns about environmental pollution and pesticide residues in food products result in the need for alternative tick control methods such as anti-tick vaccines. Commercial...

  19. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  20. Ticks from a Morelet's crocodile in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; Robbins, R G; McMurry, S T

    2001-10-01

    Parasitism of crocodilians by ticks has rarely been reported, and to our knowledge only seven published accounts exist. On 3 July 1999, we collected four ticks from a subadult Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) captured in northern Belize. These were identified as Amblyomma dissimile (one female), and Amblyomma sp. (two nymphs, one larva). The crocodile was captured on land approximately 100 m from water, and all four ticks were attached to loose skin on the lateral surface of the tail. Crocodilians are most susceptible to terrestrial ectoparasites, including ticks, during overland movements. However, most such movements occur in response to drought, when tick questing activity is suppressed, which likely accounts for the small numbers of tick specimens recorded from crocodilians and the absence of any noticeable impact of parasitism on host fitness. PMID:11763751

  1. Tick Genome Assembled: New Opportunities for Research on Tick-Host-Pathogen Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Sattelle, David B.; Hill, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    As tick-borne diseases are on the rise, an international effort resulted in the sequence and assembly of the first genome of a tick vector. This result promotes research on comparative, functional and evolutionary genomics and the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions to improve human, animal and ecosystem health on a global scale. PMID:27695689

  2. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Anna J; Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395

  3. Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K.; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  5. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  6. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  7. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  8. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  9. Vaccinomics Approach to Tick Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marinela; Villar, Margarita; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropod ectoparasites that transmit disease-causing pathogens to humans and animals worldwide. Vaccines using tick antigens have proven to be cost-effective and environmental friendly for the control of vector infestations and pathogen infection and transmission. However, new strategies are needed to identify tick protective antigens for development of improved vaccines. These strategies will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick-host-pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of tick antigens that affect both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission could be used for vaccines targeting human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vector capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health. In this chapter, we describe methods of the vaccinomics platform using transcriptomics and proteomics for the identification of candidate protective antigens in Ixodes scapularis, the vector for human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and Lyme disease.

  10. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens - methodological principles and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín eEstrada-Peña

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial status of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. Such harmonization in protocols and terms should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  11. The aural anatomy of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pye, Ade

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the intern

  12. Vampire bat control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, U.; Greenhall, A.M.; Lopez-Forment, W.

    1970-01-01

    Though usually beneficial, bats sometimes are a nuisance to humans (Greenhall & Stell, 1960), or may even constitute serious economic problems and health hazards. Most important in this respect are the vampire bats, especially of the genus Desmodus, which are abundant from northern Argentina through

  13. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ri...

  14. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E. Escobar; A. Townsend Peterson; Myriam Favi; Verónica Yung; Gonzalo Medina-Vogel

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75...

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Bat Lyssaviruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinney, L.M.; Marston, D.A.; Leech, S.; Freuling, C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Echevarria, J.; Vazquez-Moron, S.; Horton, D.L.; Müller, T.; Fooks, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being attrib

  16. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1,107 ticks were collected by tick dragging from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico. PMID:26726019

  17. Rickettsia helvetica in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Dobec, Marinko; Golubic, Dragutin; Punda-Polic, Volga; Kaeppeli, Franz; Sievers, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We report on the molecular evidence that Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Croatia are infected with Rickettsia helvetica (10%) or Rickettsia slovaca (2%) or co-infected with both species (1%). These findings expand the knowledge of the geographic distribution of R. helvetica and D. reticulatus ticks.

  18. Rickettsiae in Gulf Coast Ticks, Arkansas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Trout, Rebecca; Steelman, C Dayton; Szalanski, Allen L.; Williamson, Phillip C

    2010-01-01

    To determine the cause of spotted fever cases in the southern United States, we screened Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) collected in Arkansas for rickettsiae. Of the screened ticks, 30% had PCR amplicons consistent with Rickettsia parkeri or Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.

  19. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  20. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During seve...

  1. Bat monitoring in ECN Cairngorm Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Jan; Andrews, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work associated with bat monitoring conducted at the ECN Cairngorm site and set that in the context of the wider ECN bat monitoring. We briefly describe the bats found at ECN sites as recorded on the ECN website and history of bat monitoring at ECN Cairngorm site. The deployment of a Song meter (SM2BAT, 192Khz) commissioned March 2011 is describe and preliminary results presented.

  2. BGD: A Database of Bat Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfei Fang; Xuan Wang; Shuo Mu; Shuyi Zhang; Dong Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we establi...

  3. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mam...

  4. A contribution to the development of anti-tick vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases seriously affect animal and human health worldwide with the highest economic losses occurring in livestock production in the developing world. The control of ticks and the diseases they transmit depends mainly on chemical tick control using acaricides. The development o

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knap Nataša

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ticks act as vectors of many pathogens of domestic animals and humans. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Europe is transmitted by the ixodid tick vector Ixodes ricinus. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts. A great genetic diversity of the groESL operon of A. phagocytophilum has been found in ticks elsewhere. In Slovenia, the variety of the groESL operon was conducted only on deer samples. In this study, the prevalence of infected ticks was estimated and the diversity of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated. On 8 locations in Slovenia, 1924 and 5049 (6973 I. ricinus ticks were collected from vegetation in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. All three feeding stages of the tick's life cycle were examined. The prevalence of ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in the year 2005 and in the year 2006 was 0.31% and 0.63%, respectively, and it did not differ considerably between locations. The similarity among the sequences of groESL ranged from 95.6% to 99.8%. They clustered in two genetic lineages along with A. phagocytophilum from Slovenian deer. One sequence formed a separate cluster. According to our study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks is comparable to the findings in other studies in Europe, and it does not vary considerably between locations and tick stages. According to groESL operon analysis, two genetic lineages have been confirmed and one proposed. Further studies on other genes would be useful to obtain more information on genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia.

  6. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe

    2016-09-30

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico. PMID:26726019

  7. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Torres, Javier; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe

    2016-09-30

    Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (TBRD) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. The control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. The geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. A total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 states of Mexico. Collected ticks were placed in 1.5 mL cryovials containing 70% ethanol and were identified to species. Ticks were pooled according to location/host of collection, date of collection, sex, and stage of development. A total of 51 ticks were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm species identification using morphological methods. A total of 477 pools of ticks were assayed using PCR techniques for selected tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was the most commonly detected pathogen (45 pools), followed by, Ehrlichia (E.) canis (42), Rickettsia (R.) rickettsii (11), E. chaffeensis (8), and R. amblyommii (1). Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the tick most frequently positive for selected pathogens. Overall, our results indicate that potential tick vectors positive for rickettsial pathogens are distributed throughout the area surveyed in Mexico.

  8. An attempt of rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Oczko-Grzesik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are reservoir and transmission vectors of many bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are pathogenic for humans. Early and correct tick removal is crucial as prevention of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study is an attempt at rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister®. In practice, it should enable people to use Tick Twister® in all circumstances contributing to the improvement of efficiency in tick-borne diseases prevention, and as a result, to a decrease in their frequency and after effects.

  9. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in s...

  10. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    International audience The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat viru...

  11. Influence of the biotope on the tick infestation of cattle and on the tick-borne pathogen repertoire of cattle ticks in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Hornok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vector-borne infections occur in the tropics, including Africa, but molecular eco-epidemiological studies are seldom reported from these regions. In particular, most previously published data on ticks in Ethiopia focus on species distribution, and only a few molecular studies on the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens or on ecological factors influencing these. The present study was undertaken to evaluate, if ticks collected from cattle in different Ethiopian biotopes harbour (had access to different pathogens. METHODS: In South-Western Ethiopia 1032 hard ticks were removed from cattle grazing in three kinds of tick biotopes. DNA was individually extracted from one specimen of both sexes of each tick species per cattle. These samples were molecularly analysed for the presence of tick-borne pathogens. RESULTS: Amblyomma variegatum was significantly more abundant on mid highland, than on moist highland. Rhipicephalus decoloratus was absent from savannah lowland, where virtually only A. cohaerens was found. In the ticks Coxiella burnetii had the highest prevalence on savannah lowland. PCR positivity to Theileria spp. did not appear to depend on the biotope, but some genotypes were unique to certain tick species. Significantly more A. variegatum specimens were rickettsia-positive, than those of other tick species. The presence of rickettsiae (R. africae appeared to be associated with mid highland in case of A. variegatum and A. cohaerens. The low level of haemoplasma positivity seemed to be equally distributed among the tick species, but was restricted to one biotope type. CONCLUSIONS: The tick biotope, in which cattle are grazed, will influence not only the tick burden of these hosts, but also the spectrum of pathogens in their ticks. Thus, the presence of pathogens with alternative (non-tick-borne transmission routes, with transstadial or with transovarial transmission by ticks appeared to be associated with the biotope

  12. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Cozma, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans). Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals. PMID:21554736

  13. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  14. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Shyma; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2013-01-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of in...

  15. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed. PMID:27048511

  16. Host specialisation in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Denise Mccoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialisation should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialisation does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.

  17. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. ...

  18. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  19. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  20. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.

  1. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Fang

    Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  2. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  3. [Behavioral therapy of ticks with negative reinforcement in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabieva, T N; Mukhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two children suffering from motor and vocal ticks exhibited weakness and distonia of ticks-prone muscles were examined. Based on the results obtained earlier, a complex of physical exercises has been worked out and conducted for 20 days. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1st (n = 10) group did the exercises daily for training the ticks-prone muscles; the 2nd one (n = 10) exercised only after tick's appearance--negative reinforcement; 3rd group (n = 12) did exercises after tick's appearance as well but on irregular basis--probable negative reinforcement. In the 1st group, the exercising resulted in muscle strengthening and decrease of tick's number. The patients of the 2nd group got rid of ticks for 20 days. The probable tick's reinforcement in children of the 3rd group did not change pathological muscle activity. The central mechanisms of cortical plasticity in behavioral therapy of ticks are discussed.

  4. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  5. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  6. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird–Tick Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the

  7. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  8. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  9. Beware of Ticks … & Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ten by them. &LymeDisease This is important because Lyme disease, an infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia ... is transmitted via the bite of infected ticks. Lyme disease is named after a town in Connecticut ...

  10. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  11. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  12. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  13. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  14. Mechanism of Immunity to Tick infestation in Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Ranjan Maharana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunological interaction at the tick host interface involves both innate and acquired host defenses against infestation and Immunomodulatory countermeasures by thetick. Acquired resistance to tick infestation involves humoral and cellular immlmoregulatory effector pathways. Tick-borne disease-causing agentspr exploit tick suppression of host defenses during transmission and initiation of infection. Because of the public health importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases, it is crucial that we understand these interactions and exploit them in novel immunological control. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 131-135

  15. Risk of Lyme disease development after a tick bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred

  16. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  17. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  18. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin J Olival; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Jonathan H Epstein; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

  19. Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

    This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

  20. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  1. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2015-03-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of inducing host resistance to ticks. Selection for disease resistance provide alternate method for sustainable control of TTBDs. Domestic livestock manifests tick-resistance by skin thickness, coat type, coat color, hair density and skin secretions etc. Zebu cattle have, on average, greater tick resistance than either European cattle or African cattle. Heritability for tick burden in cattle has been shown to range about 0.30, which is sufficient to result in the success of some programs of selection for tick resistance in cattle. To select animals at younger age, to reduce generation interval and to increase genetic gain, marker assisted selection is an important tool. There are also various MHC molecules which are associated with resistance to TTBDs. PMID:25698850

  2. Known and potential ticks and tick-borne pathogens of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Velde, N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticks have long been known to be the vectors of diseases, to both humans and animals. Yet very little work has been done regarding tick species found in Micronesia, and much of that is now decades old. Many parts of Micronesia have long undergone considerable change by outside influences and hence the natural and social environments have undergone major upheavals. Ticks as vectors of veterinary disease have long been documented in Micronesia, but ticks connected with human disease are often presumed not to exist. Hence another look would seem justified. This paper provides an initial review of information on tick species reported from Micronesia. Some diseases that such ticks transmit are presented, along with some hypothetical consideration of other diseases potentially associated with ticks of Micronesia. As this information on the ecology of ticks in Micronesia and the environments and circumstances allowing for the possibility of transmission of disease to humans come together, there emerges an intriguing picture of an often-overlooked part of the environment in which humans live in Micronesia.

  3. Induction and suppression of tick cell antiviral RNAi responses by tick-borne flaviviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, E.; Tykalova, H.; Watson, M.; Sharma, M.; Sterken, M.G.; Obbard, D.J.; Lewis, S.H.; McFarlane, M.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Barry, G.; Weisheit, S.; Best, S.M.; Kuhn, R.J.; Pijlman, G.P.; Chase-Topping, M.E.; Gould, E.A.; Grubhoffer, L.; Fazakerley, J.K.; Kohl, A.

    2014-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by distantly related arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes (class Insecta) and ticks (class Arachnida). RNA interference (RNAi) is the major antiviral mechanism in arthropods against arboviruses. Unlike in mosquitoes, tick antiviral RNAi is not understood, although this in

  4. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus. PMID:26847630

  5. Mixtures of compound Poisson processes as models of tick-by-tick financial data

    CERN Document Server

    Scalas, E

    2006-01-01

    A model for the phenomenological description of tick-by-tick share prices in a stock exchange is introduced. It is based on mixtures of compound Poisson processes. Preliminary results based on Monte Carlo simulation show that this model can reproduce various stylized facts.

  6. Mixtures of compound Poisson processes as models of tick-by-tick financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalas, Enrico

    2007-10-01

    A model for the phenomenological description of tick-by-tick share prices in a stock exchange is introduced. It is based on mixtures of compound Poisson processes. Preliminary results based on Monte Carlo simulation show that this model can reproduce various stylized facts.

  7. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of  I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

  8. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223

  9. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  10. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2010-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306

  11. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  12. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  13. Novel Coronaviruses and Astroviruses in Bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel K. W. Chu; J. S. Malik Peiris; Leo L. M. Poon

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic transmissions of emerging pathogens from wildlife to human have shaped the history of mankind. These events have also highlighted our poor understanding of microorganisms circulated in wild animals. Coronaviruses and astroviruses, which can be found from a wide range of mammals, were recently detected in bats. Strikingly, these bat viruses are genetically highly diverse and these interesting findings might help to better understand the evolution and ecology of these viruses. The discoveries of these novel bats viruses not only suggested that bats are important hosts for these virus families, but also reiterated the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses that might pose a zoonotic threat to human health.

  14. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  15. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A; Buttke, Danielle E; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  16. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  17. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A.; Buttke, Danielle E.; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  18. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikel, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg), B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission? PMID:24312085

  19. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eWikel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg , B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission?

  20. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  1. Tick repellents and acaricides of botanical origin: a green roadmap to control tick-borne diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Arthropods are dangerous vectors of agents of deadly diseases, which may hit as epidemics or pandemics in the increasing world population of humans and animals. Among them, ticks transmit more pathogen species than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide. Thus, the effective and eco-friendly control of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. A number of novel routes have been attempted to prevent and control tick-borne diseases, including the development of (i) vaccines against viruses vectored by ticks; (ii) pheromone-based control tools, with special reference to the "lure and kill" techniques; (iii) biological control programmes relying on ticks' natural enemies and pathogens; and (iv) the integrated pest management practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock. However, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remains the two most effective and ready-to-use strategies. Unfortunately, the first one is limited by the rapid development of resistance in ticks, as well as by serious environmental concerns. On the other hand, the exploitation of plants as sources of effective tick repellents is often promising. Here, we reviewed current knowledge concerning the effectiveness of plant extracts as acaricides or repellents against tick vectors of public health importance, with special reference to Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes persulcatus, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. Eighty-three plant species from 35 botanical families were selected. The most frequent botanical families exploited as sources of acaricides and repellents against ticks were Asteraceae (15 % of the selected studies), Fabaceae (9 %), Lamiaceae (10 %), Meliaceae (5 %), Solanaceae (6

  2. An economic evaluation of tick line deregulation in Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Chudleigh, Fred; Franco-Dixon, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle tick, is widely distributed across many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has been identified as the most economically important species of tick across a number of countries. Quarantine boundaries currently limit the spread of the cattle tick into northern New South Wales, parts of South East Queensland, the central parts of the Northern Territory and northern parts of Western Australia. The Queensland tick line (or quarantine boundary) larg...

  3. Assessment of Polymicrobial Infections in Ticks in New York State

    OpenAIRE

    Tokarz, Rafal; Jain, Komal; Bennett, Ashlee; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. A single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. We determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in New York State where Lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a MassTag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at lea...

  4. Upcoming and future strategies of tick control: a review

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ghosh, P. Azhahianambi & M.P. Yadav

    2007-01-01

    Ticks are distributed worldwide and significantly impact human and animal health. Due to severeproblems associated with the continuous use of acaricides on animals, integrated tick management isrecommended. Increasing public health concern over the tick-borne diseases demands the strategiccontrol of ticks on animals that transmit diseases to human beings. Immunological control of tickvector of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) on cattle and other wild reservoir hosts is one of thepossible alterna...

  5. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm...... and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...... will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency...

  6. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schatz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2, and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV. As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT. The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus. However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii. These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  7. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  8. Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide KidsHealth > For Parents > Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide Print A ... isn't a freckle at all. It's a tick. What should you do? First, don't panic. ...

  9. Failure of Ixodes Ticks To Inherit Borrelia afzelii Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Schinkel, Thomas W.; Klug, Birte; Spielman, Andrew; Richter, Dania

    1998-01-01

    To define conditions promoting inherited infection by Lyme disease spirochetes in Ixodes ticks, we variously infected ticks with Borrelia afzelii and examined their progenies by dark-field microscopy, immunofluorescence, PCR, and serial passage. No episode of inherited infection was evident, regardless of instar or gender infected or frequency of exposure. We suggest that these spirochetes rarely, if ever, are inherited by vector ticks.

  10. Lignite coke moving bed adsorber for cement plants - BAT or beyond BAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, H. [European Commission, Seville (Spain). Joint Research Center

    2011-06-15

    The IPPC Directive requires permits which must contain emission limit values and other conditions based on BAT. The BAT are characterised and the terms 'conditional BAT' and 'beyond BAT' are defined and explained. The borderline between BAT and beyond BAT is explained by means of an outstanding example which is the lignite coke moving bed adsorber for the abatement of the waste gas from a cement plant where waste for co-incineration is fed to a considerable extent is described in detail. Worldwide, this technique has been successfully applied at one cement plant for sixteen years.

  11. Identification of Ticks on Tortoises (Testudo graeca) and Investigation of Some Pathogens in these Ticks in Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KİRECCİ, Ekrem; Özer, Ali; BALKAYA, İbrahim; TANIŞ, Hüseyin; DEVECİ, Sümeyra

    2013-01-01

     Abstract: This study was made to identify the tick types causing infestation in tortoises living in orchards in the city centre of Kahramanmaraş and the microorganisms they carried. Eighty-four tortoises were included in the study. Species determination of ticks collected from animals in which infestation was seen and their microbiological analyses were conducted. Species determination of 272 ticks on 60 of 84 (71.4%) tortoises taken for the study was made. The tick supernatants were us...

  12. Of ticks, mice and men - shaping the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Baden-Württemberg

    OpenAIRE

    Littwin, Nina-Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Ticks cause more vector-borne diseases than any other blood-feeding arthropod in Europe; and their abundance is increasing. Influential US studies show that small mammals are key hosts regulating ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP), serving as blood meal hosts and TBP reservoirs. The relevance of these studies to Europe is, however, unknown. Therefore, my aim was the determination of the relative influence of small mammal hosts and environmental factors on the dynamics of ticks and TBPs in BW.

  13. Detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Areas in Switzerland Where Tick-Borne Fever Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli

    1998-01-01

    A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive.

  14. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  15. Henipavirus RNA in African bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Felix Drexler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

  16. Tick cell culture isolation and growth of Rickettsia raoultii from Dutch Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, M Pilar; Nijhof, Ard M; Jongejan, Frans; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-12-01

    Tick cell lines play an important role in research on ticks and tick-borne pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. In an attempt to derive continuous Dermacentor reticulatus cell lines, embryo-derived primary cell cultures were set up from eggs laid by field ticks originally collected as unfed adults in The Netherlands and maintained for up to 16 months. After several months, it became evident that cells in the primary cultures were infected with a Rickettsia-like intracellular organism. Supernatant medium containing some D. reticulatus cells was inoculated into cultures of 2 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus cell lines, BME/CTVM2 and BME/CTVM23, where abundant growth of the bacteria occurred intracellularly on transfer to both cell lines. Bacterial growth was monitored by light (live, inverted microscope, Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears) and transmission electron microscopy revealing heavy infection with typical intracytoplasmic Rickettsia-like bacteria, not present in uninfected cultures. DNA was extracted from bacteria-infected and uninfected control cultures, and primers specific for Rickettsia 16S rRNA, ompB, and sca4 genes were used to generate PCR products that were subsequently sequenced. D. reticulatus primary cultures and both infected tick cell lines were positive for all 3 Rickettsia genes. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 99-100% identity with published Rickettsia raoultii sequences. The R. raoultii also grew abundantly in the D. nitens cell line ANE58, poorly in the D. albipictus cell line DALBE3, and not at all in the D. andersoni cell line DAE15. In conclusion, primary tick cell cultures and cell lines are useful systems for isolation and propagation of fastidious tick-borne microorganisms. In vitro isolation of R. raoultii from Dutch D. reticulatus confirms previous PCR-based detection in field ticks, and presence of the bacteria in the tick eggs used to initiate the primary cultures confirms that transovarial transmission of this

  17. Ixodid ticks on dogs in southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Neves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of ticks infesting domestic dogs in southern Mozambique. To this end 89 collections were taken from dogs and the geographic coordinates of the localities at which they were made noted. Fifty-eight of these collections were from animals in the city of Maputo and 16 from animals at rural settlements close to Maputo. A further 15 collections were made from dogs in rural environments north of Maputo. Ten ixodid tick species, of which one was only identified to genus level, were recovered. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most numerous of the ten species, and its prevalence and intensity of infestation were significantly higher on city dogs than on rural dogs (P< 0.01, whereas the converse was true for Haemaphysalis leachi (P< 0.01. Including the city of Maputo, the exact localities at which nine tick species were collected, were recorded.

  18. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estima...

  19. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  20. The origins and diversity of bat songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, Michael; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Smarsh, Grace; Bohn, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Singing plays an important role in the social lives of several disparate bat species, but just how significant the behavior may be among bats generally is unknown. Recent discoveries suggest singing by bats might be surprisingly more diverse and widespread than anticipated, but if true then two questions must be addressed: firstly why has singing been so rarely documented among bats, and secondly do bats sing for the same reasons as songbirds? We address the first question by reviewing how sampling bias and technical constraints may have produced a myopic view of bat social communication. To address the second question, we review evidence from 50 years of batsong literature supporting the supposition that bat singing is linked to the same constellation of ecological variables that favored birdsong, including territoriality, polygyny, metabolic constraints, migratory behaviors and especially powered flight. We propose that bats sing like birds because they fly like birds; flight is energetically expensive and singing reduces time spent flying. Factoring in the singular importance of acoustic communication for echolocating bats, it seems likely that singing may prove to be relatively common among certain groups of bats once it becomes clear when and where to look for it. PMID:27350360

  1. Bats in Agroecosytems around California's Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.

  2. Evaluation of Certain Insecticides and Repellents Against Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kapoor

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of two commonly occurring species of Ixodid ticks viz., the cattle tick, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Koch and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latr to certain newer insecticdes was investigated under controlled environmental conditions. The repellency of diethyl toluamide (Deet to the two species of ticks was also investigated by a specially devised laboratory technique. It was found that based on LC/sub 50/ values, the two species were most susceptible to pyrethrins followed by carbaryl whereas malathion was found least toxic to the ticks.

  3. Research Progress of Ticks and Tick-borne Disease%蜱及蜱传病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪; 王伟利; 孟庆峰

    2013-01-01

    对蜱的种属、生物学特性和传播疾病及诊断方法进行了综述.针对蜱及常见蜱传病的特性,有助于找到切实有效的方法,从根本上消灭蜱所带来的危害.%The genus, biological characteristics of tick and diagnosis methods for tick-borne disease were reviewed. Aiming at characteristics of tick and several common tick-bome diseases, effective methods were easy to found, so as to eliminate damages brought by tick.

  4. Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Qin; Liu, Ji-Qi; Xu, Bian-Li; Lv, Shan; Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks can transmit a number of pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Tick borne diseases (TBDs), which may lead to organ failure and death have been recently reported in China. 98.75% of the total cases (>1000) in Henan provinces have been reported in Xinyang city. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the fauna of ticks and detect the potential pathogens in ticks in Xinyang, the region of central China. Methods Ticks were collected from 10 villages of Xinyang f...

  5. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in African bats

    OpenAIRE

    Maganga, Gaël D.; Mathieu Bourgarel; Peter Vallo; Dallo, Thierno D.; Carine Ngoagouni; Jan Felix Drexler; Christian Drosten; Nakouné, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M; Serge Morand

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which...

  6. Distribution of catecholamine fibers in the cochlear nucleus of horseshoe bats and mustache bats

    OpenAIRE

    Kössl, M.; Vater, M; Schweizer, Hermann

    1988-01-01

    The glyoxylic-acid-induced fluorescence technique was applied to demonstrate patterns of catecholaminergic innervation within the auditory brainstem of echolocating bats and the house mouse. In the cochlear nucleus of the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi) and the mustache bat (Pteronotus parnelli), species-specific catecholaminergic innervation patterns are found that contrast with the relatively homogeneous innervation in the rodent. In both bats the subnuclei of the cochlear nucl...

  7. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  8. How the bat got its buzz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies...... its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field...... tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects....

  9. Detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in Danish Daubenton’s bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.;

    European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...

  10. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of t

  11. Worldwide distribution and diversity of seabird ticks: implications for the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; McCoy, Karen D

    2011-05-01

    The ubiquity of ticks and their importance in the transmission of pathogens involved in human and livestock diseases are reflected by the growing number of studies focusing on tick ecology and the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. Likewise, the involvement of wild birds in dispersing pathogens and their role as reservoir hosts are now well established. However, studies on tick-bird systems have mainly focused on land birds, and the role of seabirds in the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens is rarely considered. Seabirds typically have large population sizes, wide geographic distributions, and high mobility, which make them significant potential players in the maintenance and dispersal of disease agents at large spatial scales. They are parasitized by at least 29 tick species found across all biogeographical regions of the world. We know that these seabird-tick systems can harbor a large diversity of pathogens, although detailed studies of this diversity remain scarce. In this article, we review current knowledge on the diversity and global distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with seabirds. We discuss the relationship between seabirds, ticks, and their pathogens and examine the interesting characteristics of these relationships from ecological and epidemiological points of view. We also highlight some future research directions required to better understand the evolution of these systems and to assess the potential role of seabirds in the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:20874222

  12. Finite-Length Analysis of BATS Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shenghao; Ng, Tsz-Ching; Yeung, Raymond W.

    2013-01-01

    BATS codes were proposed for communication through networks with packet loss. A BATS code consists of an outer code and an inner code. The outer code is a matrix generation of a fountain code, which works with the inner code that comprises random linear coding at the intermediate network nodes. In this paper, the performance of finite-length BATS codes is analyzed with respect to both belief propagation (BP) decoding and inactivation decoding. Our results enable us to evaluate efficiently the...

  13. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  14. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  15. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2:...

  16. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  17. Exposed and concealed antigens as vaccine targets for controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, P A; Trimnell, A R; Kazimirova, M; Labuda, M

    2006-04-01

    Tick vaccines derived from Bm86, a midgut membrane-bound protein of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are currently the only commercially available ectoparasite vaccines. Despite its introduction to the market in 1994, and the recognized need for alternatives to chemical pesticides, progress in developing effective antitick vaccines (and ectoparasite vaccines in general) is slow. The primary rate-limiting step is the identification of suitable antigenic targets for vaccine development. Two sources of candidate vaccine antigens have been identified: 'exposed' antigens that are secreted in tick saliva during attachment and feeding on a host and 'concealed' antigens that are normally hidden from the host. Recently, a third group of antigens has been distinguished that combines the properties of both exposed and concealed antigens. This latter group offers the prospect of a broad-spectrum vaccine effective against both adults and immature stages of a wide variety of tick species. It also shows transmission-blocking and protective activity against a tick-borne pathogen. With the proliferation of molecular techniques and their application to vaccine development, there are high hopes for new and effective antitick vaccines that also control tick-borne diseases. PMID:16542317

  18. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Johnson; Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos; Alvaro Aguilar-Setien

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding a...

  19. How the bat got its buzz

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, John M.; Elemans, Coen P.H.; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the ‘terminal buzz’, has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s−1. The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase—buzz II—defined by a large dr...

  20. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  1. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  2. Wind power and bats : Ontario guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section

    2008-07-01

    None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.

  3. What's eating you? tick bite alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Leonard C; Sutton, Elizabeth; Wilke, Marke S

    2016-08-01

    Tick bite alopecia is seldom reported in the literature. The condition usually presents as a solitary oval zone of alopecia with a central eschar. Histologic findings are not well described but generally indicate dense perifollicular lymphocytic inflammation. The mechanism for hair loss is poorly understood, but the prognosis for hair regrowth appears to be favorable. PMID:27622251

  4. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Methods Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Results Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Conclusions Based on molecular

  5. [Trematode parasites of Italian bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, M

    1995-12-01

    Data are presented on bat trematodes in Italy, whose previous list included only the following five species: Plagiorchis vespertilionis, Plagiorchis asper, Mesotretes peregrinus, Prosthodendrium chilostomum, Prosthodendrium longiforme. Between 1945 and 1981, 289 bats were examined belonging to 13 species. A total of twelve trematode species were identified, nine of which are recorded for the first time in Italy: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Lecithodendrium granulosum, Lecithodendrium rotundum, Prosthodendrium herardovae, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Prosthodendrium parvouterus, Pycnoporus heteroporus, Matovius rhinolophi, Parabascus lepidotus. For each parasite species, hosts, localities and number of specimens/host are reported. Special attention is devoted to P. vespertilionis with description of specimens remarkably different from the type form, to L. linstowi for peculiar specimens from Rhinolophus hipposideros, and to M. rhinolophi with additions to the original description especially concerning the vitelline glands' structure. Pycnoporus macrolaimus, identified in a collection of bat trematodes of the Institute of Parasitology of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome, is also recorded for the first time in Italy. PMID:8778660

  6. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cristin C W; Olival, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007-2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  7. Clinical and neurophysiological features of tick paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan-Smith, P J; Morris, J G; Johnston, H M; Yiannikas, C; Malik, R; Russell, R; Ouvrier, R A

    1997-11-01

    The clinical and neurophysiological findings in six Australian children with generalized tick paralysis are described. Paralysis is usually caused by the mature female of the species Ixodes holocyclus. It most frequently occurs in the spring and summer months but can be seen at any time of year. Children aged 1-5 years are most commonly affected. The tick is usually found in the scalp, often behind the ear. The typical presentation is a prodrome followed by the development of an unsteady gait, and then ascending, symmetrical, flaccid paralysis. Early cranial nerve involvement is a feature, particularly the presence of both internal and external ophthalmoplegia. In contrast to the experience with North American ticks, worsening of paralysis in the 24-48 h following tick removal is common and the child must be carefully observed over this period. Death from respiratory failure was relatively common in the first half of the century and tick paralysis remains a potentially fatal condition. Respiratory support may be required for > 1 week but full recovery occurs. This is slow with several weeks passing before the child can walk unaided. Anti-toxin has a role in the treatment of seriously ill children but there is a high incidence of acute allergy and serum sickness. Neurophysiological studies reveal low-amplitude compound muscle action potentials with normal motor conduction velocities, normal sensory studies and normal response to repetitive stimulation. The biochemical structure of the toxin of I. holocyclus has not been fully characterized but there are many clinical, neurophysiological and experimental similarities to botulinum toxin. PMID:9397015

  8. The role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-06-01

    Ticks, as obligate hematophagous ectoparasites, impact greatly on animal and human health because they transmit various pathogens worldwide. Over the last decade, several cystatins from different hard and soft ticks were identified and biochemically analyzed for their role in the physiology and blood feeding lifestyle of ticks. All these cystatins are potent inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases, but not of legumain. Tick cystatins were either detected in the salivary glands and/or the midgut, key tick organs responsible for blood digestion and the expression of pharmacologically potent salivary proteins for blood feeding. For example, the transcription of two cystatins named HlSC-1 and Sialostatin L2 was highly upregulated in these tick tissues during feeding. Vaccinating hosts against Sialostatin L2 and Om-cystatin 2 as well as silencing of a cystatin gene from Amblyomma americanum significantly inhibited the feeding ability of ticks. Additionally, Om-cystatin 2 and Sialostatin L possessed strong host immunosuppressive properties by inhibiting dendritic cell maturation due to their interaction with cathepsin S. These two cystatins, together with Sialostatin L2 are the first tick cystatins with resolved three-dimensional structure. Sialostatin L, furthermore, showed preventive properties against autoimmune diseases. In the case of the cystatin Hlcyst-2, experimental evidence showed its role in tick innate immunity, since increased Hlcyst-2 transcript levels were detected in Babesia gibsoni-infected larval ticks and the protein inhibited Babesia growth. Other cystatins, such as Hlcyst-1 or Om-cystatin 2 are assumed to be involved in regulating blood digestion. Only for Bmcystatin was a role in tick embryogenesis suggested. Finally, all the biochemically analyzed tick cystatins are powerful protease inhibitors, and some may be novel antigens for developing anti-tick vaccines and drugs of medical importance due to their stringent target specificity.

  9. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  10. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D; Hayman, David T S; O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Gilbert, Amy T; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Mills, James N; Timonin, Mary E; Willis, Craig K R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E; Wood, James L N; Webb, Colleen T

    2013-04-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  11. Molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kamani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%, Ehrlichia canis (12.7%, Rickettsia spp. (8.8%, Babesia rossi (6.6%, Anaplasma platys (6.6%, Babesia vogeli (0.6% and Theileria sp. (0.6% was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%, H. canis (21.1%, Rickettsia spp. (10.5%, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3% and A. platys (1.9% was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents.

  12. Phylogeographic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from patients, rodents and ticks in Slovenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Fajs

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a

  13. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in ticks and small mammals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Min; Yi, Ying-Hua; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Mi-Jin; Cho, Mae-Rim; Desai, Atul R; Shringi, Smriti; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Lee, In-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Foley, Janet; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2006-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne infectious agents among ticks, ticks comprising five species from two genera (Hemaphysalis spp. and Ixodes spp.) were screened using molecular techniques. Ticks (3,135) were collected from small wild-caught mammals or by dragging/flagging in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and were pooled into a total of 1,638 samples (1 to 27 ticks per pool). From the 1,638 tick samples, species-specific fragments of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1 sample), Anaplasma platys (52 samples), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (29 samples), Ehrlichia ewingii (2 samples), Ehrlichia canis (18 samples), and Rickettsia rickettsii (28 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. Twenty-one pooled and individual tick samples had mixed infections of two (15 samples) or three (6 samples) pathogens. In addition, 424 spleen samples from small captured mammals (389 rodents, 33 insectivores, and 2 weasels) were screened for selected zoonotic pathogens. Species-specific DNA fragments of A. phagocytophilum (110 samples), A. platys (68 samples), E. chaffeensis (8 samples), E. ewingii (26 samples), E. canis (51 samples), and Rickettsia sp. (22 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. One hundred thirty small mammals had single infections, while 4, 14, and 21 striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) had mixed infections of four, three, and two pathogens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence comparison also revealed that Korean strains of E. chaffeensis clustered closely with those from China and the United States, while the Rickettsia (rOmpA) sequences clustered within a clade together with a Chinese strain. These results suggest that these agents should be considered in differential diagnosis while examining cases of acute febrile illnesses in humans as well as animals in the ROK.

  14. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2015-12-01

    We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID) meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus) to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity), tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades) and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates). The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current) human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general. PMID:26835253

  15. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity, tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates. The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.

  16. Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks as Reservoir and Vector of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Li-Mei; Zhao, Li; Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhang, Zhen-Tang; Liu, Jian-Wei; Fang, Li-Zhu; Xue, Zai-Feng; Ma, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Ding, Shu-Jun; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Xue-jie

    2015-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered phlebovirus. The Haemaphysalis longicornis tick has been suspected to be the vector of SFTSV. To determine whether SFTSV can be transmitted among ticks, from ticks to animals, and from animals to ticks, we conducted transmission studies between developmental stages of H. longicornis ticks and between ticks and mice. Using reverse transcription PCR, ...

  17. Elimination of Lyme Disease Spirochetes from Ticks Feeding on Domestic Ruminants▿

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether and which spirochetes are cleared from Ixodes ricinus ticks during feeding on ruminants, ticks were removed from goats and cattle grazing on tick-infested pastures. Although about a quarter of ticks questing on the pasture were infected by spirochetes, no molted ticks that had previously engorged to repletion on ruminants harbored Lyme disease spirochetes. Borrelia miyamotoi spirochetes, however, appear not to be eliminated. Thus, the more subadult ticks are diverted from...

  18. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  19. Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  20. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  1. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  2. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  3. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management.

  4. Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia.

  5. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  6. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.

  7. Tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the selected hilly areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.K. Mohanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the hilly areas of Bangladesh, an attempt was made to collect tick and blood samples from cattle, goat and gayal (Bos frontalis from different areas of the three hill districts. In this study, two species of ticks namely, Boophilus microplus (92% and Amblyomma testudinarium (21.6% and two species of blood protozoa like Babesia bigemina (16.63% and Anaplasma marginale (14.94% were recorded. Seasonal prevalence of ticks was highest in summer (97% in comparison to rainy (95% and winter (86% season. On the other hand, the seasonal prevalence of blood protozoa was highest in rainy season (45.45% in comparison to summer (27.87% and winter (16.55%. Again, animals aged more than 2 (two years of age (52% found to be more susceptible to blood protozoan diseases than animals aged between 1-2 years of age (33.97%. But none of the animals under one year of age were found to be infected with blood protozoan diseases.

  8. Epidemiology of tick-borne borreliosis in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'Hammed; BELGHYTI, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background: The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings: Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF ...

  9. Experimental Infection of Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks with Rickettsia rickettsii

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, Marcelo B.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Soares, João F.; Martins, Thiago F.; Soares, Herbert S.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A.; Almeida, Aliny P.; Pinter, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally infected Amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). These ticks are a vector for RMSF in Brazil. R. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. However, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to R. rickettsii infection. Therefore, ...

  10. SFTS Virus in Ticks in an Endemic Area of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Jiandong; Niu, Guoyu; Wang, Xianjun; Ding, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuan; Zhang, Quanfu; Liang, Mifang; BI, ZHENQIANG; Li, Dexin

    2015-01-01

    In total, 3,145 ticks of the species Haemaphysalis longicornis (3,048; 96.9%), R. microplus (82; 2.6%), H. campanulata (9; 0.3%), and Dermacentor sinicus (5; 0.2%) were collected from animals and vegetation at Yantai in Shandong Province. Both adult and immature ticks were obtained, and all ticks collected from vegetation were unfed. Eggs were obtained from 22 blood-fed female ticks through maintenance at room temperature after collection. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SF...

  11. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  12. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  13. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-12-02

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  14. To beat or not to beat a tick: comparison of DNA extraction methods for ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D.; Zolnik, Christine P.; Daniels, Thomas J.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) are important disease vectors in the United States, known to transmit a variety of pathogens to humans, including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Their importance as a disease vector necessitates reliable and comparable methods for extracting microbial DNA from ticks. Furthermore, to explore the population genetics or genomics of this tick, appropriate DNA extraction techniques are needed for both the vector and its microbes. Although a few s...

  15. Changing distributions of ticks: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Elsa; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vial, Laurence; Chevillon, Christine; McCoy, Karen D

    2013-02-01

    Today, we are witnessing changes in the spatial distribution and abundance of many species, including ticks and their associated pathogens. Evidence that these changes are primarily due to climate change, habitat modifications, and the globalisation of human activities are accumulating. Changes in the distribution of ticks and their invasion into new regions can have numerous consequences including modifications in their ecological characteristics and those of endemic species, impacts on the dynamics of local host populations and the emergence of human and livestock disease. Here, we review the principal causes for distributional shifts in tick populations and their consequences in terms of the ecological attributes of the species in question (i.e. phenotypic and genetic responses), pathogen transmission and disease epidemiology. We also describe different methodological approaches currently used to assess and predict such changes and their consequences. We finish with a discussion of new research avenues to develop in order to improve our understanding of these host-vector-pathogen interactions in the context of a changing world. PMID:23015121

  16. Pattern of tick aggregation on mice: larger than expected distribution tail enhances the spread of tick-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ferreri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy. The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB, Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN, and Power-Law (PL. The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation.

  17. Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Firth, Cadhla; Conte, Juliette M; Williams, Simon H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Anthony, Simon J.; Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Recuenco, Sergio; Markotter, Wanda; Breiman, Robert F.; Kalemba, Lems

    2013-01-01

    Although there are over 1,150 bat species worldwide, the diversity of viruses harbored by bats has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife surveillance. Such surveys are of importance in determining the potential for novel viruses to emerge in humans, and for optimal management of bats and their habitats. To enhance our knowledge of the viral diversity present in bats, we initially surveyed 415 sera from African and Central American bats. Unbiased high-throughput sequen...

  18. Seasonal Dynamics and Distribution of Ticks in Rwanda: Implications for Tick Control Strategy in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Mutandwa; Nshimiyimana Juvenal

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to examine the dynamics and seasonal distribution of tick species in Rwanda in three agro-ecological zones namely high altitude (Gishwati), the mid altitude (Huye) and the lower altitude zones (Nyagatare). Ten cows per zone were identified and used for collecting ticks m onthly on a period covering the short dry season and long rainy season from December 2002 to June 2003. These animals were not treated and remained on pasture land. The results revealed t...

  19. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates.

  20. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates. PMID:26729934

  1. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  2. Development of vaccines against Ornithodoros soft ticks: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Obolo-Mvoulouga, Prosper; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are parasites of great medical and veterinary importance since they are vectors of numerous pathogens that affect humans, livestock and pets. Among the argasids, several species of the genus Ornithodoros transmit serious diseases such as tick-borne human relapsing fever (TBRF) and African Swine Fever (ASF). In particular, Ornithodoros erraticus is the main vector of these two diseases in the Mediterranean while O. moubata is the main vector in Africa. The presence of these Ornithodoros ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments may greatly hinder the eradication of TBRF and ASF from endemic areas. In addition, there is a constant threat of reintroduction and spreading of ASF into countries from where it has been eradicated (Spain and Portugal) or where it was never present (the Caucasus, Russia and Eastern Europe). In these countries, the presence of Ornithodoros vectors could have a tremendous impact on ASF transmission and long-term maintenance. Therefore, elimination of these ticks from at least synanthropic environments would contribute heavily to the prevention and control of the diseases they transmit. Tick control is a difficult task and although several methods for such control have been used, none of them has been fully effective against all ticks and the problems they cause. Nevertheless, immunological control using anti-tick vaccines offers an attractive alternative to the traditional use of acaricides. The aim of the present paper is to offer a brief overview of the current status in control measure development for Ornithodoros soft ticks, paying special attention to the development of vaccines against O. erraticus and O. moubata. Thus, our contribution includes an analysis of the chief attributes that the ideal antigens for an anti-tick vaccine should have, an exhaustive compilation and analysis of the scant anti-soft tick vaccine trials carried out to date using both concealed and salivary antigens and, finally, a brief description of the

  3. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  4. Multi-Swarm Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majid Taha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new Bat Algorithm (BA based on multi-swarm technique called the Multi-Swarm Bat Algorithm (MSBA is proposed to address the problem of premature convergence phenomenon. The problem happens when search process converges to non-optimal solution due to the loss of diversity during the evolution process. MSBA was designed with improved ability in exploring new solutions, which was essential in reducing premature convergence. The exploration ability was improved by having a number of sub-swarms watching over the best local optima. In MSBA, when the quality of best local optima does not improve after a pre-defined number of iterations, the population is split equally into several smaller sub-swarms, with one of them remains close to the current best local optima for further exploitation while the other sub-swarms continue to explore for new local optima. The proposed algorithm has been applied in feature selection problem and the results were compared against eight algorithms, which are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Tabu Search (TS, Scatter Search (SS, Great Deluge Algorithm (GDA and stander BA. The results showed that the MSBA is much more effective that it is able to find new best solutions at times when the rest of other algorithms are not able to.

  5. Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2013-02-01

    We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

  6. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra-Cobo

    Full Text Available Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii. Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2. EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7% ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July. EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  7. Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

  8. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    OpenAIRE

    Marc López-Roig; Hervé Bourhy; Rachel Lavenir; Jordi Serra-Cobo

    2014-01-01

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuh...

  9. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naive bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  10. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.;

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Ea...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  11. A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many tough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic method, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also intend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat algorithm. After a detailed formulation and explanation of its implementation, we will then compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms, and further studies are also discussed.

  12. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Banyard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations.

  13. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2R...

  14. Beware of Ticks (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-14

    Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of blacklegged ticks and affects up to 300,000 Americans each year. This podcast discusses ways to prevent tick bites.  Created: 5/14/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/14/2015.

  15. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) appe

  16. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  17. The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Cory A; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Mason, Kathleen L; Mousel, Michelle; Noh, Susan M; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-08-01

    Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically different susceptibilities to A. marginale was characterized. In this study, the microbiome was disrupted and then ticks were exposed to A. marginale or Francisella novicida to determine whether the microbiome correlated with pathogen susceptibility. Our study showed that an increase in proportion and quantity of Rickettsia bellii in the microbiome was negatively correlated to A. marginale levels in ticks. Furthermore, a decrease in Francisella endosymbionts was associated with lower F. novicida infection levels, demonstrating a positive pathogen-endosymbiont relationship. We demonstrate that endosymbionts and pathogens have varying interactions, and suggest that microbiome manipulation may provide a possible method for biocontrol by decreasing pathogen susceptibility of ticks. PMID:26882265

  18. Tick Genomics: The Ixodes genome project and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks and mites (subphylum Chelicerata; subclass Acari) are important pests of animals and plants worldwide. The Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) genome sequencing project marks the beginning of the genomics era for the field of acarology. This project is the first to sequence the genome of a...

  19. Transmembrane proteins--Mining the cattle tick transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Sabine A; Stutzer, Christian; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Managing the spread and load of pathogen-transmitting ticks is an important task worldwide. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, not only impacts the economy through losses in dairy and meat production, but also raises concerns for human health in regards to the potential of certain transmitted pathogens becoming zoonotic. However, novel strategies to control R. microplus are hindered by lack of understanding tick biology and the discovery of suitable vaccine or acaricide targets. The importance of transmembrane proteins as vaccine targets are well known, as is the case in tick vaccines with Bm86 as antigen. In this study, we describe the localization and functional annotation of 878 putative transmembrane proteins. Thirty proteins could be confirmed in the R. microplus gut using LC-MS/MS analysis and their roles in tick biology are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, 19 targets have not been reported before in any proteomics study in various tick species and the possibility of using the identified proteins as targets for tick control are discussed. Although tissue expression of identified putative proteins through expansive proteomics is necessary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using bioinformatics for the identification of targets for further evaluation in tick control strategies. PMID:26096851

  20. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  1. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L

    2013-12-22

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts' function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  2. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-01

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  3. 76 FR 8709 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... to eliminate bovine babesiosis, a severe and often fatal cattle disease, from the U.S. cattle... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick... cattle fever ticks and southern cattle ticks out of tick-free areas beyond the permanent quarantine...

  4. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in Europe

  5. High Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Christova, Iva; Schouls, Leo; van de Pol, Ingrid; Park, Jinho; Panayotov, Stefan; Lefterova, Viktoria; Kantardjiev, Todor; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Bulgarian Ixodes ricinus ticks were examined for Ehrlichia and Borrelia coinfection: 34 and 32% of adult ticks and at least 2 and 10% of nymphs were positive for these infections, respectively. Coinfections and dual or triple Borrelia infections were frequent, although Ehrlichia phagocytophila heterogeneity was minimal. Multiple tick-borne bacteria coexist in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Europe.

  6. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  7. Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from western Indian Ocean islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  8. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    % of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  9. Identification and Characterization of Ixodes scapularis Antigens That Elicit Tick Immunity Using Yeast Surface Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Schuijt; S. Narasimhan; S. Daffre; K. Deponte; J.W.R. Hovius; C. van 't Veer; T. van der Poll; K. Bakhtiari; J.C.M. Meijers; E.T. Boder; A.P. van Dam; E. Fikrig

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary a

  10. RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy T; McCracken, Gary F; Sheeler, Lorinda L; Muller, Lisa I; O'Rourke, Dorcas; Kelch, William J; New, John C

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) infects multiple bat species in the Americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. In recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the US. In Tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) RABV variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (P. subflavus/Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV variant. From 1996 to 2010, 2,039 bats were submitted for rabies testing in Tennessee. Among 1,943 bats in satisfactory condition for testing and with a reported diagnostic result, 96% (1,870 of 1,943) were identified to species and 10% (196 of 1,943) were rabid. Big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored, and eastern red (Lasiurus borealis) bats comprised 77% of testable bat submissions and 84% of rabid bats. For species with five or more submissions during 1996-2010, the highest proportion of rabid bats occurred in hoary (Lasiurus cinereus; 46%), unspecified Myotis spp. (22%), and eastern red (17%) bats. The best model to predict rabid bats included month of submission, exposure history of submission, species, and sex of bat. PMID:26251992

  11. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  12. North American Bat Ranges - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays our current understanding of the distributions of United States and Canadian bat species during the past 100-150 years. The specimen and...

  13. Bat Monitoring across SE National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anabat surveys of bats are being coordinated across National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeast as part of a larger effort to monitor trends in abundance and...

  14. Molecular survey of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodid ticks collected from hunted wild animals in Tuscany, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Barbara; Turchi; Dario; Filogari; Domenico; Cerri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feeding ticks removed from hunted wild animals. Methods: PCR was executed on DNA extracted from 77 tick pools to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. Results: A total of 432 ticks were collected: 30(6.94%) Haemaphysalis punctata, 72(16.7%) Dermacentor marginatus and 330(76.38%) Ixodes ricinus. For each animal one or two pools of 3 ticks of the same species was constituted. Seventy-seven tick pools were examined by PCR: 58(75.32%) resulted infected and among them 14(18.18%) showed co-infections. In particular, 29(37.66%) pools were positive for Bartonella spp., 23(29.87%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 16(20.78%) for Rickettsia spp., and 5(6.49%) for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. All samples were negative for Coxiella burnetii. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the presence of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in the studied area, and underline the risk of exposure to infections for hunters not only during the outdoor activity, but also when they manipulate hunted animals infested by infected ticks.

  15. Research Strategies to Reduce Tick Densities and the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission through Host-Targeted Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    While white-tailed deer are not reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, they are the keystone host animal on which adult female blacklegged ticks engorge on blood that is essential to production of tick eggs and completion of the life cycle. This session explores current re...

  16. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  17. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  18. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  19. A list of ectoparasites of Colombian bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkelle, C J; Grose, E S

    1981-07-01

    Of 3,860 Colombian bats, belonging to 109 species, 1,235 individuals (32%) of 100 species were infected with ectoparasites. A total of 3,545 ectoparasites pertaining to 88 species were obtained (Mesostigmata: 1 Halarachnidae; 19 Macronyssidae; 4 Spelaeorhynchidae; 104 Spinturnicidae. Ixodides: 449 Argasidae. Trombidiformes: 1 Spelognathidae; 340 Trombiculidae. Sarcoptiformes: 170 Listrophoridae. Hemiptera: 16 Cimidae; 4 Polyctenidae. Diptera: 7 Nycteribiidae; 2405 Streblidae, Siphonaptera: 25 Pulicidae). No ectoparasites were recovered from 9 species of bats. PMID:7339714

  20. MICROSTRIP COUPLER DESIGN USING BAT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EzgiDeniz Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and swarm algorithms have found many applications in design problems since todays computing power enables these algorithms to find solutions to complicated design problems very fast. Newly proposed hybridalgorithm, bat algorithm, has been applied for the design of microwave microstrip couplers for the first time. Simulation results indicate that the bat algorithm is a very fast algorithm and it produces very reliable results.

  1. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Raina K. Plowright; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Wayne L. Bryden; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient...

  2. Sexual Segregation in Iberian Noctule Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Guillén, Antonio; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.; Juste, Javier; Schreur, Godfried; Cordero, Ana I.; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual segregation during the breeding season is common in many temperate bat species, and may be related to sex-specific thermoregulatory, microclimatic, or energetic requirements. We compiled capture data for 3 species of Nyctalus (noctule bats) obtained over .20 years to study reproductive and migratory strategies of these species in southwestern Europe. Within the Iberian Peninsula, several different strategies regarding sex distribution and migratory behavior were observed within each o...

  3. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  4. Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA#s Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8#) x 1.2 m (4#) coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 square cm area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool #batdrmgen# which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey.

  5. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  6. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock FENTON

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].

  7. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen eWikel

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex seque...

  8. AMD也要“Tick-Tock”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Intel的“Tick-Tock”策略即制程工艺及架构隔年交替更新,巩固了Intel在CPU市场上的地位,并给了AMD巨大的压力。现在,AMD似乎打算借鉴这个策略,不过与Intel有所不同,AMD将采用APU、CPU交替更新的方式,并且每个周期内APU都能提前于CPU发布,并且CPU性能会强于APU,毕竟面对的市场不同。

  9. First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Joris A; Reimerink, Johan H J; Voorn, G Paul; Bij de Vaate, Elisabeth A; de Vries, Ankje; Rockx, Barry; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hira, Vishal

    2016-08-18

    In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. PMID:27562931

  10. Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlough, J E; Madigan, J E; Kramer, V. L.; Clover, J R; Hui, L T; Webb, J P; Vredevoe, L K

    1997-01-01

    A total of 1,246 ixodid ticks collected in 1995 and 1996 from seven California counties were examined for the presence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae by using a nested PCR technique. Of 1,112 adult Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls ticks tested, nine pools, each containing five ticks, were positive (minimum percentage of ticks harboring detectable ehrlichiae, 0.8%). Positive ticks were limited to four of the seven counties (Sonoma, El Dorado, Santa Cruz, and Orange). In San...

  11. The ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (Tamias ochrogenys)

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern California. The range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis. Chipmunks have high Anaplasma phagocytophilum PCR- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of Ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for Borrelia burgdorferi. We hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease...

  12. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an increas

  13. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  14. Experimental Transmission of Karshi (Mammalian Tick-Borne Flavivirus Group Virus by Ornithodoros Ticks >2,900 Days after Initial Virus Exposure Supports the Role of Soft Ticks as a Long-Term Maintenance Mechanism for Certain Flaviviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Turell

    Full Text Available Members of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group, including tick-borne encephalitis virus, are responsible for at least 10,000 clinical cases of tick-borne encephalitis each year. To attempt to explain the long-term maintenance of members of this group, we followed Ornithodoros parkeri, O. sonrai, and O. tartakovskyi for >2,900 days after they had been exposed to Karshi virus, a member of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group.Ticks were exposed to Karshi virus either by allowing them to feed on viremic suckling mice or by intracoelomic inoculation. The ticks were then allowed to feed individually on suckling mice after various periods of extrinsic incubation to determine their ability to transmit virus by bite and to determine how long the ticks would remain infectious. The ticks remained efficient vectors of Karshi virus, even when tested >2,900 d after their initial exposure to virus, including those ticks exposed to Karshi virus either orally or by inoculation.Ornithodoros spp. ticks were able to transmit Karshi virus for >2,900 days (nearly 8 years after a single exposure to a viremic mouse. Therefore, these ticks may serve as a long-term maintenance mechanism for Karshi virus and potentially other members of the mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group.

  15. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well.

  16. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well. PMID:24861806

  17. Epidemiology of tick-borne borreliosis in Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Diatta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2% of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6% of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco.

  18. Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Borreliosis in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2%) of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6%) of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. Conclusions/Significance Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco. PMID:23029574

  19. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi

    Full Text Available Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers.A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013.A total of 151 (72.2% out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91 reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05 a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2 from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1 from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1 farms, (2 job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers, (3 perceived severity of tick bites, and (4 perceived barriers to tick bite prevention.A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived barriers of tick bite prevention.

  20. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived

  1. Contaminant studies on endangered bats in northeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three federally listed endangered bat species are known to inhabit Oklahoma. The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) is probably the most abundant, and is presently known...

  2. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Towner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1% bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  3. Report of bat survey Walnut Creek Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bats are an integral and significant part of the mammalian fauna of Iowa (Bowles 1975, Clark et al. 1987). In particular, the nine species of bats in Iowa are...

  4. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  5. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  6. Ticks and tick-borne novel bunyavirus collected from the natural environment and domestic animals in Jinan city, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Yongming; Yang, Guoliang; Liu, Huiyuan; Xin, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Since 2011, 73 cases of the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, a novel tick-borne disease, have been reported in Jinan city through information system for disease control and prevention. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the species, distribution, host animals of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. A total of 722 ticks were collected from two types of natural environment and six kinds of domestic animal in Jinan city. All the sampled ticks belonged to the same species, namely Haemaphysalis longicornis, and 94.7% of them were adult. The density of free-living ticks in grassland was nearly six times that in shrub. The prevalence of the goat (53.3%) was highest among the domestic animals. The host body region most frequently parasitized by H. longicornis was the head (77.8%), especially ears and periocular region. Novel bunyavirus was detected on the free-ranging goats in Jinan city. Acaricide treatment with a higher concentration on the ears, periocular region and the groin of domestic animals should be recommended to control the ticks effectively.

  7. Tick infestation patterns in free ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer): Effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2013-12-01

    Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick

  8. A coronavirus detected in the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Brandão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the identification of a group 2 coronavirus (BatCoV DR/2007 in a Desmodus rotundus vampire bat in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF1b revealed that BatCoV DR/2007 originates from a unique lineage in the archetypical group 2 coronaviruses, as described for bat species elsewhere with putative importance in Public Health.

  9. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer; Emmanuelle Robardet; Laurent Arthur; Gérald Larcher; Christine Harbusch; Alexandre Servat; Florence Cliquet

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed p...

  10. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Kitzes; Adina Merenlender

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyz...

  11. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  12. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  13. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  14. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  15. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  16. Monitoring bat activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.

    2015-01-01

    IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was monitore

  17. Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Jonathan H.; Prakash, Vibhu; Craig S Smith; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B.; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

  18. Interspecific acoustic recognition in two European bat communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Milena Dorado Correa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats emit echolocation calls for spatial orientation and foraging. These calls are often species-specific and are emitted at high intensity and repetition rate. Therefore, these calls could potentially function in intra- and/or inter-specific bat communication. For example, bats in the field approach playbacks of conspecific feeding buzzes, probably because feeding buzzes indicate an available foraging patch. In captivity, some species of bats recognize and distinguish the echolocation calls of different sympatric species. However, it is still unknown if and how acoustic species-recognition mediates interspecific interactions in the field. Here we aim to understand eavesdropping on bat echolocation calls within and across species boundaries in wild bats. We presented playbacks of conspecific and heterospecific search calls and feeding buzzes to four bat species with different foraging ecologies. The bats were generally more attracted by feeding buzzes than search calls and more by the calls of conspecifics than their heterospecifics. Furthermore, bats showed differential reaction to the calls of the heterospecifics. In particular, Myotis capaccinii reacted equally to the feeding buzzes of conspecifics and to ecologically more similar heterospecifics. Our results confirm eavesdropping on feeding buzzes at the intraspecific level in wild bats and provide the first experimental quantification of potential eavesdropping in European bats at the interspecific level. Our data support the hypothesis that bat echolocation calls have a communicative potential that allows interspecific, and potentially intraspecific, eavesdropping in the wild.

  19. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  20. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  1. Multiple mortality events in bats: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.

  2. Sexually selected infanticide in a polygynous bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knörnschild

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species.

  3. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus. PMID:25123871

  4. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Pérez de la Lastra, José Manuel; Kocan, Katherine M; Willadsen, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in Australia, Cuba, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Commercial tick vaccines for cattle based on the Boophilus microplus Bm86 gut antigen have proven to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of acaricides. Commercial tick vaccines reduced tick infestations on cattle and the intensity of acaricide usage, as well as increasing animal production and reducing transmission of some tick-borne pathogens. Although commercialization of tick vaccines has been difficult owing to previous constraints of antigen discovery, the expense of testing vaccines in cattle, and company restructuring, the success of these vaccines over the past decade has clearly demonstrated their potential as an improved method of tick control for cattle. Development of improved vaccines in the future will be greatly enhanced by new and efficient molecular technologies for antigen discovery and the urgent need for a tick control method to reduce or replace the use of acaricides, especially in regions where extensive tick resistance has occurred. PMID:17692140

  5. Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.

  6. Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Selden, D; Parsons, G; Healy, D; Brookes, S M; McElhinney, L M; Hutson, A M; Fooks, A R

    2003-03-29

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) has been isolated once previously from a bat in the UK in June 1996. In September 2002, a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in Lancashire developed abnormal behaviour, including unprovoked aggression, while it was in captivity. Brain samples from the bat were tested for virus of the Lyssavirus genus, which includes EBLV-2 (genotype 6), and classical rabies virus (genotype 1). A positive fluorescent antibody test confirmed that it was infected with a lyssavirus, and PCR and genomic sequencing identified the virus as an EBLV-2a. Phylogenetic comparisons with all the published sequences from genotype 6 showed that it was closely related to the previous isolate of EBLV-2 in the UK and suggested links to isolates from bats in The Netherlands. The isolation of EBLV-2 from a bat found on the west coast of England provides evidence that this virus may be present within the UK Daubenton's bat population at a low prevalence level.

  7. Modeling habitat distributions of bats using GIS: wind energy and Indiana bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jason; Jansen, Erik; Friedel, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Post-construction monitoring indicates that commercial wind energy facilities are a source of bat mortality resulting from collisions or other negative interactions with operational turbines. An understanding of the potential distribution and movement of bats on the landscape is essential to minimizing these impacts. Using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems software, we present a modelling approach that evaluates the distribution of bat roosting and foraging habitat and potential flight paths at a landscape scale which may be used to assess the risk to bats from the development of a wind energy facility. Accurate assessment of these risks can minimize schedule delays and unexpected costs. Applied to the behaviour and ecology of the United States federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) at two hypothetical wind farms, this method predicts the areas where the species is likely to travel while foraging, thereby highlighting the riskiest areas within a project area. The results of our modelling indicate that risk to bats is not directly proportional to habitat availability or suitability, in part because risk is associated with areas where bats are travelling. This modelling approach will assist wind energy developers in making both large-scale (e.g., choosing between different development locations) and small-scale decisions (e.g., choosing where to locate turbines) aimed at minimizing impacts to bats. Using habitat models can provide a cost-effective method for evaluating bat risk, satisfying requirements of regulatory agencies, and limiting the more intensive survey methods to projects that absolutely require them. (Author)

  8. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, Theo; Bishop, Richard; Crampton, Michael; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, Alicja; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Miller, Robert; Mosqueda, Juan; Patarroyo, Joaquín; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Scoles, Glen A; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14-15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC). PMID:26911668

  9. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    OpenAIRE

    Schetters, Theo; Bishop, Richard; Crampton, Michael; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, Alicja; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Miller, Robert; Mosqueda, Juan; Patarroyo, Joaquín; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Scoles, Glen A.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14–15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC).

  10. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  11. Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, April D.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Robert J Rudd

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and C...

  12. Bats - findings and knowledge gaps in the field of bat behaviour; Perspektive Fledermaeuse - Erkenntnisse und Wissensluecken zum Verhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, F. [ecoda Umweltgutachten GbR, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    There may be conflicts between wind power utilisation and the behaviour patterns of bats resp. the need for bat protection. The subject should be discussed free of emotions. Research is still required as there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of wind power systems on bats. (orig.)

  13. Current Status and habitat associations of the endangered Indiana bat and three other bat species of special concern on the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim NRPC report Indiana bat for Rafinesque's big-eared bat Southeastern myotis, Northern long-eared bat to determine status, habitat use & preference....

  14. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  15. Transstadial Transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsa Kalmár; Vasile Cozma; Hein Sprong; Setareh Jahfari; Gianluca D'Amico; Mărcuțan, Daniel I.; Ionică, Angela M.; Cristian Magdaş; David Modrý; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pa...

  16. Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R; Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements are presented in this paper of the tradeoff between speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  17. Molecular evidence of potential novel spotted fever group rickettsiae, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in Amblyomma ticks parasitizing wild snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Tay, Sun Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background Amblyomma ticks parasitize a wide range of animals in tropical regions. This study describes the identification of Amblyomma ticks from wild snakes in Malaysia and the detection of potential human pathogens such as Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and bartonellae in the ticks. Findings Twenty one adult ticks (twelve A. varanense and nine Amblyomma helvolum ticks) identified from seven Python molurus snakes in Sepang and a pool of six A. helvolum ticks from a Naja sumatrana snake in...

  18. Evaluation and comparison of the potential of two ferritins as anti-tick vaccines against Haemaphysalis longicornis

    OpenAIRE

    Galay, Remil Linggatong; Miyata, Takeshi; UMEMIYA-SHIRAFUJI, Rika; Maeda, Hiroki; KUSAKISAKO, Kodai; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick control is an essential aspect of controlling the spread of tick-borne diseases affecting humans and animals, but it presently faces several challenges. Development of an anti-tick vaccine is aimed at designing cost-effective and environmentally friendly protection against ticks and tick-borne diseases as an alternative to the use of chemical acaricides. A single vaccine from the tick midgut protein Bm86 is currently available for field applications, but its efficacy is limite...

  19. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Almazan, C.; Lagunes, R.; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; R Rosario-Cruz; Jongejan, F; de la Fuente, J.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, ...

  20. Transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Kalmár

    Full Text Available Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%-100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity.

  1. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  2. Accelerated phenology of blacklegged ticks under climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Keesing, Felicia; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    The phenology of tick emergence has important implications for the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. A long lag between the emergence of tick nymphs in spring and larvae in summer should increase transmission of persistent pathogens by allowing infected nymphs to inoculate the population of naive hosts that can subsequently transmit the pathogen to larvae to complete the transmission cycle. In contrast, greater synchrony between nymphs and larvae should facilitate transmission of pathogens that do not produce long-lasting infections in hosts. Here, we use 19 years of data on blacklegged ticks attached to small-mammal hosts to quantify the relationship between climate warming and tick phenology. Warmer years through May and August were associated with a nearly three-week advance in the phenology of nymphal and larval ticks relative to colder years, with little evidence of increased synchrony. Warmer Octobers were associated with fewer larvae feeding concurrently with nymphs during the following spring. Projected warming by the 2050s is expected to advance the timing of average nymph and larva activity by 8-11 and 10-14 days, respectively. If these trends continue, climate warming should maintain or increase transmission of persistent pathogens, while it might inhibit pathogens that do not produce long-lasting infections.

  3. Accelerated phenology of blacklegged ticks under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Keesing, Felicia; Oggenfuss, Kelly; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The phenology of tick emergence has important implications for the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. A long lag between the emergence of tick nymphs in spring and larvae in summer should increase transmission of persistent pathogens by allowing infected nymphs to inoculate the population of naive hosts that can subsequently transmit the pathogen to larvae to complete the transmission cycle. In contrast, greater synchrony between nymphs and larvae should facilitate transmission of pathogens that do not produce long-lasting infections in hosts. Here, we use 19 years of data on blacklegged ticks attached to small-mammal hosts to quantify the relationship between climate warming and tick phenology. Warmer years through May and August were associated with a nearly three-week advance in the phenology of nymphal and larval ticks relative to colder years, with little evidence of increased synchrony. Warmer Octobers were associated with fewer larvae feeding concurrently with nymphs during the following spring. Projected warming by the 2050s is expected to advance the timing of average nymph and larva activity by 8–11 and 10–14 days, respectively. If these trends continue, climate warming should maintain or increase transmission of persistent pathogens, while it might inhibit pathogens that do not produce long-lasting infections. PMID:25688016

  4. Prevalence of Tick Infestation and Theileriosis in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.

  5. Molecular detection of Babesia spp. in ticks in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljica D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the prevalence rate of Babesia spp. in ticks collected from vegetation at seven localities in northern Serbia, tick samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 132 unfed adult ticks of five different species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna and Haemaphysalis punctata, were examined by PCR for the presence of Babesia spp. Out of the analyzed ticks, 10.61% (14/132 were positive for babesial DNA. The presence of babesiae was found at the localities Pančevački Rit, Titov Gaj, Makiš, PKB and Kljajićevo. Prevalence in D. reticulatus ticks was 21.57% (11/51 and in H. concinna ticks, 8.57% (3/35. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed a clustering of the obtained sequences with those of B. canis from the GenBank database. These results add to the knowledge of the distribution of babesial pathogens and their vectors in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173006

  6. An Immunosuppressant Peptide from the Hard Tick Amblyomma variegatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1–2 weeks to obtain blood meals. Thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts’ immune system. In the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of HLHMHGNGATQVFKPRLVLKCPNAAQLIQPGKLQRQLLLQ. A cDNA of the precursor peptide was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, USA. In rat splenocytes, amregulin exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors in vitro, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. In rat splenocytes, treated with amregulin, compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS alone, the inhibition of the above inflammatory factors was significant at all tested concentrations (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL. Amregulin shows strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL in vitro. Amregulin also significantly inhibits adjuvant-induced paw inflammation in mouse models in vivo. This peptide may facilitate the ticks’ successful blood feeding and may lead to host immunotolerance of the tick. These findings have important implications for the understanding of tick-host interactions and the co-evolution between ticks and the viruses that they bear.

  7. Bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) infesting cave-dwelling bats in Gabon: diversity, dynamics and potential role in Polychromophilus melanipherus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Rahola, Nil; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Yangari, Patrick; Prugnolle, Franck; Maganga, Gael Darren; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Fontenille, Didier; Ayala, Diego; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of haemosporidian infections in bats and bat flies has motivated a growing interest in characterizing their transmission cycles. In Gabon (Central Africa), many caves house massive colonies of bats that are known hosts of Polychromophilus Dionisi parasites, presumably transmitted by blood-sucking bat flies. However, the role of bat flies in bat malaria transmission remains under-documented. Methods An entomological survey was carried out in four caves in Gabon to investiga...

  8. A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host

  9. Biological and ecological characteristics of soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae and their impact for predicting tick and associated disease distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial L.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As evidence of global changes is accumulating, scientists are challenged to detect distribution changes of vectors, reservoirs and pathogens caused by anthropogenic and/or environmental changes. Statistical and mathematical distribution models are emerging for ixodid hard ticks whereas no prediction has ever been developed for argasid ones. These last organisms remain unknown and under-reported; they differ from hard ticks by many structural, biological and ecological properties, which complicate direct adaptation of hard tick models. However, investigations on bibliographic resources concerning these ticks suggest that distribution modelling based on natural niche concept and using environmental factors especially climate is also possible, bearing in mind the scale of prediction and their specificities including their nidicolous lifestyle, an indiscriminate host feeding and a short bloodmeal duration, as well as a flexible development cycle through diapause periods.

  10. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position...

  11. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  12. Bat Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2012-01-01

    Engineering optimization is typically multiobjective and multidisciplinary with complex constraints, and the solution of such complex problems requires efficient optimization algorithms. Recently, Xin-She Yang proposed a bat-inspired algorithm for solving nonlinear, global optimisation problems. In this paper, we extend this algorithm to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. The proposed multiobjective bat algorithm (MOBA) is first validated against a subset of test functions, and then applied to solve multiobjective design problems such as welded beam design. Simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm works efficiently.

  13. XMM Observations of 'New' Swift BAT Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Because the E> 15 keV band is unaffected by absorption this band offers the best hope of obtaining an unbiased sample of AGN. The Swift BAT survey has produced the first large sample of hard x-ray bright AGN in the local universe providing the data necessary to determine the true characteristics of the AGN population. However to use this data one needs to obtain the x-ray spectral properties of these objects.We will present the complete sample of x-ray spectra of the BAT objects and the implications of these data.

  14. Bats Use Geomagnetic Field: Behavior and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global geomagnetic field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the geomagnetic field intensity could drop to 10% during geomagnetic polarity reversals or geomagnetic excursions. Such dramatic changes of the geomagnetic field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local geomagnetic field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global geomagnetic field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the geomagnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying

  15. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  16. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  17. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the batbat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  19. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmaster, Eric; Vonk, Jennifer; Mies, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats. PMID:26784239

  20. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.

  1. Assessing the impacts of wind energy development on bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, E.B. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Research conducted by the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative in West Virginia was presented. Bats are key pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect predators. Bats also help to protect crops and play an important role in helping to reduce pesticide use. However, bats reproduce slowly and are susceptible to mortality factors. In 2003, between 1398 and 4031 bats were killed at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Facility in West Virginia. Possible explanations why bats are killed by wind turbines include the fact that wind farms form a linear corridor. Acoustics, echolocation failure, and electromagnetic-disorientation may also play a role in bat mortalities. Unifying patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities include the fact that fatalities are heavily skewed toward migratory bats. Peak turbine collision fatalities occur in mid-summer. Bat fatalities are highest during periods of low wind speed and seem to be related to climate variables associated with the passage of weather fronts. Studies have also shown that the changing cut-in speeds of turbines may also reduce bat fatalities. It was concluded that pre-construction assessments should be conducted to determine high risk areas. tabs., figs.

  2. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  3. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  4. Echolocating bats cry out loud to detect their prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2008-01-01

    Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has...... been largely neglected although intensity is a key factor determining echolocation range and interactions with other bats and prey. Differences in detection range, in turn, are thought to constitute a mechanism promoting resource partitioning among bats, which might be particularly important...... for the species-rich bat assemblages in the tropics. Here we present data on emitted intensities for 11 species from 5 families of insectivorous bats from Panamá hunting in open or background cluttered space or over water. We recorded all bats in their natural habitat in the field using a multi-microphone array...

  5. Assessing road effects on bats: the role of landscape, road features, and bat activity on road-kills

    OpenAIRE

    Medinas, Denis; Marques, João Tiago; Mira, António

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that roads can significantly impact bat populations. Though bats are one of the most threatened groups of European vertebrates, studies aiming to quantify bat mortality and determine the main factors driving it remain scarce. Between March 16 and October 31 of 2009, we surveyed road-killed bats daily along a 51-km-long transect that incorporates different types of roads in southern Portugal. We found 154 road-killed bats of 11 species. The two most common species in the...

  6. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Betty M Booker; Tara Friedrich; Mason, Mandy K.; VanderMeer, Julia E.; Jingjing Zhao; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Malcolm Logan; Nicola Illing; Katherine S Pollard; Nadav Ahituv

    2016-01-01

    Author Summary The limb is a classic example of vertebrate homology and is represented by a large range of morphological structures such as fins, legs and wings. The evolution of these structures could be driven by alterations in gene regulatory elements that have critical roles during development. To identify elements that may contribute to bat wing development, we characterized sequences that are conserved between vertebrates, but changed significantly in the bat lineage. We then overlapped...

  7. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although bat-strike reports indicated damage to USAF aircraft, cumulative damage for 1997 through 2007 totaled >$825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  8. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed. PMID:26443685

  9. The phenology of ticks and the effects of long-term prescribed burning on tick population dynamics in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Gleim

    Full Text Available Some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. Management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. One promising management strategy is prescribed burning. However, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a failure of some studies to simulate operational management scenarios and/or account for other predictors of tick abundance. Therefore, our study was conducted to increase knowledge of tick population dynamics relative to long-term prescribed fire management. Furthermore, we targeted a region, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida (USA, in which little is known regarding tick dynamics so that basic phenology could be determined. Twenty-one plots with varying burn regimes (burned surrounded by burned [BB], burned surrounded by unburned [BUB], unburned surrounded by burned [UBB], and unburned surrounded by unburned [UBUB] were sampled monthly for two years while simultaneously collecting data on variables that can affect tick abundance (e.g., host abundance, vegetation structure, and micro- and macro-climatic conditions. In total, 47,185 ticks were collected, of which, 99% were Amblyomma americanum, 0.7% were Ixodes scapularis, and fewer numbers of Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes brunneus, and Dermacentor variabilis. Monthly seasonality trends were similar between 2010 and 2011. Long-term prescribed burning consistently and significantly reduced tick counts (overall and specifically for A. americanum and I. scapularis regardless of the burn regimes and variables evaluated. Tick species composition varied according to burn regime with A. americanum dominating at UBUB, A. maculatum at BB, I. scapularis at UBB, and a more even composition at BUB. These data

  10. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty M Booker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  11. The wake of hovering flight in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L. Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  12. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  13. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  14. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  15. The distribution of bats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, S.

    1970-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already

  16. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  17. Bat-associated Rabies Virus in Skunks

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Mira J.; Messenger, Sharon; Rohde, Rodney E.; Smith, Jean; Cheshier, Ronald; Hanlon, Cathleen; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies was undetected in terrestrial wildlife of northern Arizona until 2001, when rabies was diagnosed in 19 rabid skunks in Flagstaff. Laboratory analyses showed causative rabies viruses associated with bats, which indicated cross-species transmission of unprecedented magnitude. Public health infrastructure must be maintained to address emerging zoonotic diseases.

  18. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Associated with Hyalomma marginatum Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Michelle, Caroline; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia aeschlimannii is a tick-associated human pathogen. We report here the draft genome of R. aeschlimannii strain MC16, isolated from Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks collected in Morocco.

  20. Sequence variation of Bm86 in cattle fever ticks isolated from outbreaks in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus cattle infestations have significantly expanded beyond the original quarantine zone established in south Texas as part of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Major obstacles for containment of ticks...

  1. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  2. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVII. Ticks of tortoises and other reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, I G; McKay, I.J.; B.T. Henen; Heloise Heyne; Margaretha D. Hofmeyer; A.L. De Villiers

    2006-01-01

    A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven speci...

  3. Repellent Compounds Used for Protection From Ticks and Their Toxicological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Oral DİNLER; Oğuzhan YAVUZ

    2010-01-01

    Ticks are vectors of very harmful diseases in humans and animals. Nine arbovirus, two rickettsia, two protozoa and one helminthic diseases are transmitted by ticks in different climatic and geographical zones. Twenty six tick species have been determined in Turkey until now. These tick species transmit tropical theileriosis and babesiosis, which are cause of important economical loses especially in farm animals, and lyme disease and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in humans. The control of ti...

  4. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Goz; Ali Bilgin-Yilmaz; Abdulalim Aydin; Yalçın Dicle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgeh...

  5. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Zabol County, Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ganjali; Mansour Dabirzadeh; Masoud Sargolzaie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012. Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethan...

  6. Identification of Ehrlichia chaffeensis by Nested PCR in Ticks from Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wu-Chun; Gao, Yu-Min; Zhang, Pan-He; Zhang, Xi-Tan; Dai, Qing-Hua; Dumler, J. Stephen; Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Hong

    2000-01-01

    A total of 717 ticks collected from southern China were examined by nested PCR for the presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Sixteen (55.2%) of 29 adult Amblyomma testudinarium ticks and 28 (11.7%) of 240 adult and at least 4.2% of 215 nymphal (pooled specimens) Haemaphysalis yeni ticks tested positive. Four other species of ticks were negative. Selected positive amplicons were confirmed by DNA sequencing.

  7. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Øines Øivind; Radzijevskaja Jana; Paulauskas Algimantas; Rosef Olav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR...

  8. An insight into the sialome of the soft tick, Ornithodorus parkeri

    OpenAIRE

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Mans, Ben J.; Meng, Zhaojing; Guderra, Nanda; Veenstra, Timothy D.; PHAM, VAN M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2007-01-01

    While hard ticks (Ixodidae) take several days to feed on their hosts, soft ticks (Argasidae) feed faster, usually taking less than one hour per meal. Saliva assists in the feeding process by providing a cocktail of anti-hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodullatory compounds. Saliva of hard ticks has been shown to contain several families of genes each having multiple members, while those of soft ticks are relatively unexplored.

  9. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, B; Socolovschi, C.; Tshilolo, L.; Raoult, Didier; Parola, P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2008, 12 Amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (Manis gigantea). Two Haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 African civets (Civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (Onotragus leche). A total of 111 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 Ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 C. felts fleas, and 5 Tri...

  10. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial...

  11. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  12. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  13. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  14. Theileria sp. OT3 and other tick-borne pathogens in sheep and ticks in Italy: molecular characterization and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Papini, R; Paoletti, B; Wijnveld, M; Jongejan, F

    2015-02-01

    PCR Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization and sequencing were used to determine the dynamics of infection with tick-borne pathogens in one hundred apparently healthy sheep in Italy. Blood samples were tested once prior to the onset of the grazing season (June 2010) and once after the end of the grazing season (August 2010). Ticks collected from sheep and from the vegetation were also tested by PCR/RLB. Before grazing, 56% of the sheep harbored several tick-borne pathogens: Anaplasma ovis was the most prevalent (41%), followed by A. ovis co-infected with Theileria sp. OT3 (14%). After grazing, 87% of sheep were positive for A. ovis alone (41%), co-infected with Theileria sp. OT3 (8%) or co-infected with Babesia motasi (5%). Other sheep were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum alone (20%), co-infected with B. motasi (7%) or with Theileria sp. OT3 (5%) (p<0.001). After grazing, sheep were significantly more infected with tick-borne pathogens than before grazing. Ticks collected were all Haemaphysalis punctata (n-89) and 36% were positive for A. ovis, Ehrlichia ovina and A. ovis combined with A. phagocytophilum. Phylogenetic analysis including isolates from countries in the Mediterranean Basin show circulation of the same variants of Theileria sp. OT3, whereas two different geographical origins for the isolates of A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum were identified. This is the first report from Italy of Theileria sp. OT3 in sheep, whereas the detection of Ehrlichia ovina in ticks is worth noting, and the presence of A. phagocytophilum in sheep and in ticks poses a potential public health risk. PMID:25448422

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  16. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.L.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.; Whitworth, U.G.; Markowski, D.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    2004-01-01

    Data on nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted by the public to the University of Rhode Island Tick Research Laboratory for testing from 1991 to 2000 were compared with human case data from the Rhode Island Department of Health to determine the efficacy of passive tick surveillance at assessing human risk of Lyme disease. Numbers of ticks submitted were highly correlated with human cases by county (r = 0.998, n = 5 counties) and by town (r = 0.916, n = 37 towns), as were the numbers of positive ticks submitted (r = 0.989 by county, r = 0.787 by town). Human cases were correlated with ticks submitted by town each year, and with positive ticks in all but 2 years. Thus, passive tick surveillance effectively assessed geographical risk of human Lyme disease. In contrast, tick submissions through time were not correlated with human cases from year to year. Dog seropositivity was significantly correlated with human cases by county in both years tested, but by town in only one of two years. Numbers of ticks submitted were correlated with dog seropositivity by county but not by town, apparently because of high variability among towns with small sample sizes. Our results suggest that passive tick surveillance, using ticks submitted by the public for Lyme spirochete testing, can be used to assess the geographical distribution of Lyme disease risk, but cannot reliably predict Lyme incidence from year to year.

  17. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Socolovschi, Cristina; Revelli, Paul; Gibert, Philippe; Marié, Jean-Lou; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Seventy-one Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the French Pyrenees were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella. Four ticks (6%) were positive for R. helvetica. The chamois carries infected ticks, and this enables the dissemination throughout the environment with this bacterium, a potential human pathogen.

  18. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan; Han, Myung Guk

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May–October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors.

  19. Identification of Residual Blood Proteins in Ticks by Mass Spectrometry Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Bunikis, Jonas; Wysocki, Vicki; Barbour, Alan G.

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometry–based proteomics of individual ticks demonstrated persistence of mammalian host blood components, including α- and β-globin chains, histones, and mitochondrial enzymes, in Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ticks for months after molting. Residual host proteins may identify sources of infection for ticks.

  20. Highly Prevalent Coxiella sp. Bacterium in the Tick Vector Amblyomma americanum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinskas, Algimantas; Zhong, Jianmin; Barbour, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory-reared and field-collected Amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a Coxiella sp. and a Rickettsia sp. While the Coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the Rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks. The Coxiella sp. showed evidence of a reduced genome and may be an obligate endosymbiont.

  1. Simultaneous transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti by individual nymphal Ixodes dammini ticks.

    OpenAIRE

    Piesman, J; Hicks, T.C.; Sinsky, R J; Obiri, G.

    1987-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes dammini ticks, selected from a group of ticks in which 22 of 31 (71%) contained dual Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti infections, simultaneously transmitted B. burgdorferi and B. microti to 4 of 7 (57%) hamsters exposed to individual ticks.

  2. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  3. Antialarmin effect of tick saliva during the transmission of Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Marchal; F. Schramm; A. Kern; B.J. Luft; X. Yang; T.J. Schuijt; T. Schuijt; J.W. Hovius; J. Hovius; B. Jaulhac; N. Boulanger

    2011-01-01

    Tick saliva has potent immunomodulatory properties. In arthropod-borne diseases, this effect is largely used by microorganisms to increase their pathogenicity and to evade host immune responses. We show that in Lyme borreliosis, tick salivary gland extract and a tick saliva protein, Salp15, inhibit

  4. Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna K P Lau; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in...

  5. Comparison of flagging, walking, trapping, and collecting from hosts as sampling methods for northern deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, and lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari:Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H S; Ewing, C P

    1989-09-01

    Ticks were sampled by flagging, collecting from the investigator's clothing (walking samples), trapping with dry-ice bait, and collecting from mammal hosts on Fire Island, NY, U.S.A. The habitat distribution of adult deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, was the same in simultaneous collections from the investigator's clothing and from muslin flags. Walking and flagging samples can both be biased by differences between investigators, so the same person should do comparative samples whenever possible. Walking samples probably give a more accurate estimate than flagging samples of the human risk of encountering ticks. However, ticks (such as immature I. dammini) that seek hosts in leaf litter and ground-level vegetation are poorly sampled by walking collections. These ticks can be sampled by flagging at ground level. Dry-ice-baited tick-traps caught far more lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, than deer ticks, even in areas where deer ticks predominated in flagging samples. In comparisons of tick mobility in the lab, nymphal A. americanum were more mobile than nymphal I. dammini in 84% of the trials. Therefore, the trapping bias may result from increased trap encounter due to more rapid movement by A. americanum, although greater attraction to carbon dioxide may also play a role. Tick traps are useful for intraspecific between-habitat comparisons. Early in their seasonal activity period, larval I. dammini were better represented in collections from mouse hosts than in flagging samples. Apparently, sampling from favored hosts can detect ticks at low population levels, but often cannot be used to get accurate estimates of pathogen prevalence in questing ticks. PMID:2806016

  6. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  7. Rickettsial infections in ticks from wild birds in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literak, Ivan; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-03-01

    Ticks were collected from wild birds at 3 locations in Paraguay during the South American winter in August and September 2012. In total, 480 birds belonging to 106 species were examined. Overall, 31 (6.5%) birds representing 21 species were found parasitized by ticks which were identified as Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (2 larvae, 20 nymphs), Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) (17 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma parvum Aragão (7 nymphs), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) (1 nymph), Amblyomma ovale Koch (1 nymph), Amblyomma tigrinum Koch (1 larva), and Amblyomma spp. (4 larvae). Ticks collected accidentally on humans at the study locations during field work included 1 nymph of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann and 54 nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius). Most ticks were individually tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing. Two (12%) out of 17 A. longirostre larvae were found infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 (33%) out of 6 A. parvum nymphs were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in Paraguayan ticks.

  8. Tick holocyclotoxins trigger host paralysis by presynaptic inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Kirat K.; Lee, Kah Meng; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Ijaz, Hina; Koehbach, Johannes; Clark, Richard J.; Lew-Tabor, Ala; Noakes, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of pathogens and secreted neurotoxins with approximately 69 out of 692 tick species having the ability to induce severe toxicoses in their hosts. The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is known to be one of the most virulent tick species producing a flaccid paralysis and fatalities caused by a family of neurotoxins known as holocyclotoxins (HTs). The paralysis mechanism of these toxins is temperature dependent and is thought to involve inhibition of acetylcholine levels at the neuromuscular junction. However, the target and mechanism of this inhibition remain uncharacterised. Here, we report that three members of the holocyclotoxin family; HT-1 (GenBank AY766147), HT-3 (GenBank KP096303) and HT-12 (GenBank KP963967) induce muscle paralysis by inhibiting the dependence of transmitter release on extracellular calcium. Previous study was conducted using extracts from tick salivary glands, while the present study is the first to use pure toxins from I. holocyclus. Our findings provide greater insight into the mechanisms by which these toxins act to induce paralysis. PMID:27389875

  9. Interaction of the Lyme disease spirochete with its tick vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimano, Melissa J; Drecktrah, Dan; Kung, Faith; Samuels, D Scott

    2016-07-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (along with closely related genospecies), is in the deeply branching spirochete phylum. The bacterium is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle that involves transmission from a tick vector to a vertebrate host and acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector. During its arthropod sojourn, B. burgdorferi faces a variety of stresses, including nutrient deprivation. Here, we review some of the spirochetal factors that promote persistence, maintenance and dissemination of B. burgdorferi in the tick, and then focus on the utilization of available carbohydrates as well as the exquisite regulatory systems invoked to adapt to the austere environment between blood meals and to signal species transitions as the bacteria traverse their enzootic cycle. The spirochetes shift their source of carbon and energy from glucose in the vertebrate to glycerol in the tick. Regulation of survival under limiting nutrients requires the classic stringent response in which RelBbu controls the levels of the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively termed (p)ppGpp), while regulation at the tick-vertebrate interface as well as regulation of protective responses to the blood meal require the two-component system Hk1/Rrp1 to activate production of the second messenger cyclic-dimeric-GMP (c-di-GMP). PMID:27147446

  10. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  11. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Brown, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

  12. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend`s big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  13. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend's big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  14. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, Kari M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  15. Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspensky, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques.

  16. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

  17. Wind turbines and bats: towards a peaceful coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important hazard for a bat is the collision with a rotating blade. The risk of collision depends on the wrong positioning of a wind turbine in the hunting area of a local population of bats and on the complex behaviour of bats. All the 34 species of bats living in France are protected species. Recommendations issued by the ministry of ecology include to perform preliminary impact studies on bat population before the installation of a wind turbine farm, to perform impact studies during wind turbine operations and to take measures to have the least impact as possible. The number of wind farms being on the rise, the knowledge of the behaviour of bats is getting more accurate through the use of dedicated instruments. (A.C.)

  18. Bat hepadnaviruses and the origins of primate hepatitis B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Andrea; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2016-02-01

    The origin of primate HBV (family Hepadnaviridae) is unknown. Hepadnaviruses are ancient pathogens and may have been associated with old mammalian lineages like bats for prolonged time. Indeed, the genetic diversity of bat hepadnaviruses exceeds that of extant hepadnaviruses in other host orders, suggesting a long evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats. Strikingly, a recently detected New World bat hepadnavirus is antigenically related to HBV and can infect human hepatocytes. Together with genetically diverse hepadnaviruses from New World rodents and a non-human primate, these viruses argue for a New World origin of ancestral orthohepadnaviruses. Multiple host switches of bat and primate viruses are evident and bats are likely sources of ancestral hepadnaviruses acquired by primates. PMID:26897577

  19. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  20. Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549

  1. Ethnoecological knowledge of ticks and treatment of tick-borne diseases among Maasai people in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kioko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to understand traditional knowledge of tick ecology and remedies for tick-borne diseases (TBDs among the Maasai people in northern Tanzania. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted among specific groups likely to be knowledgeable about tick ecology and TBDs in livestock among the Maasai people. Results: A total of 25 plant species belonging to 18 families were used to treat 8 different TBDs of livestock. Most of the plant species used were of Fabaceae and Burseraceae families. Aloe volkensii, Cissus grandifolia, and Terminalia brownii were the most commonly used plant species. The major plant growth form used was trees, while stems and bark were the main plant parts used. Most treatments were taken orally. Conclusion: Maasai people have substantial knowledge on tick ecology exemplified by their ability to differentiate between different tick species and the range of remedies for each of the TBDs. Because traditional ethnoveterinary remedies are frequently utilized, their effectiveness should be further investigated.

  2. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-05-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae.

  3. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, C.; Lema, C; DOHMEN, F. GURY; Beltran, F.; NOVARO, L.; S. Russo; Freire, M. C.; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V. A.; D. M. CISTERNA

    2014-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV vari...

  4. Vampire Bats Bite Lowland Tapirs in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos, Armando; Banegas, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the rainforest, vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) have large mammals such as tapirs, deer, peccaries, cattle, monkeys, birds, and sometimes humans, among their victims (Albuja et al., 2012; Tirira, 2007). Vampire bats have been listed as carriers and reservoir host of rabies (Streicker et al., 2012; Corrêa et al., 2014). Here, we report photographic evidence obtained from camera- traps of vampire bats feeding on lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris). 

  5. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animal...

  6. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  7. Detection of diverse astroviruses from bats in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hua Chen; Chu, Daniel K.W.; Liu, Wei; Dong, Bai Qing; Zhang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Jin Xia; Li, Li Feng; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Chen, Hong Lin; Leo L M Poon; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Guan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Astroviruses infect humans and many different animal species and are associated with gastroenteritis. Recent studies first detected the virus from bat species in Hong Kong. To understand astrovirus distribution in the wider region further, we examined the prevalence of this virus family in bat specimens collected from a large geographical region of mainland China. We collected 500 anal swabs from 20 bat species in 51 natural habitats from 11 provinces of China and tested these for astroviruse...

  8. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical functions of edge habitats for bats were studied: foraging areas, shelter from wind, shelter from avian predators, and acoustical landmarks.Both wind and food abundance were found to affect the occur...

  9. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Bats with White Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Liam P McGuire; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is an ascomycetous fungus responsible for the disease dubbed white nose syndrome (WNS) and massive mortalities of cave dwelling bats. The fungus infects bat epidermal tissue causing damage to integumentary cells and pilosebaceous units. Differences in epidermal lipid composition caused by P. destructans infection could have drastic consequences for a variety of physiological functions, including innate immune efficiency and water retention. While bat surface lipid...

  11. Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Schountz

    2014-01-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonot...

  12. Leishmania (L. mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Berzunza-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  13. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  14. Analysis of the Tick Size and the Impact of Varying Dollar Ticks on Market Quality – Evidence from the Sydney Futures Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the minimum price variation and marketquality variables for 3 interest rate futures contracts on the Sydney Futures Exchange.Intraday trade and quote data are obtained for the period 4 January 2000 and 1 February 2002,which includes the change in transparency on 19 January 2001. Analysis of the frequencydistributions of bid and ask quote variations show a high frequency of these variations postedat 1 tick in the sample periods. Analysis of the quoted bid-ask spreads also show a highfrequency of spreads posted at 1 tick. These evidence suggest that the tick sizes for thesefutures contracts are too large. Examination of the relationships between dollar spreads anddollar ticks provide further evidence that dollar spreads are constrained by the tick size. Dollarspreads are found to be positively related to dollar ticks, average quoted depth and trade pricevolatility, and negatively related to traded volume.

  15. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  16. Clinico-epidemiologichesky aspects of the mixed tick-borne infections in the endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Aleshkovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of clinico-epidemiological features of the mixed tick-borne infections – tick-borne Lyme disease and a human granulocytic anaplasmosis was the purpose of the conducted research. During the spring – summer period 146 patients with tick-borne borreliosis were surveyed. As a result at 45 (30,82% patients authentically diagnosed the mixed tick-borne infection. Features of clinical manifestations of a mixed tick-borne infection revealed: catarrhal phenomena (20%, liver defeats (33%, nephros (31, 7%, frequent secondary erythems (20%. Changes in haemogram defined: thrombocytopenia (42,2%, anemia (20%, leukopenia (13,3%.

  17. The effect of tick size on trading volume share in three competing stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagumo, Shota; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between tick sizes and trading volume share in two and three competing markets is studied theoretically. By introducing a simple model which is equipped with multiple markets and non-strategic traders, we analytically calculate the share. It is shown that share is shifted from a market with a larger tick size to a market with a smaller tick size, and the size of share-shift is determined by difference between tick sizes not by ratio between tick sizes in both cases of two markets and three markets.

  18. Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum ticks parasitizing Rhinella jimi from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Mauricio C; Saraiva, Danilo G; Oliveira, Glauber M B; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma rotundatum ticks collected from toads (Rhinella jimi) in the Brazilian Caatinga biome, an unique semiarid region of South America. Tick infestations were observed in 57.8% toads (26/45); mean infestation: 1.6 ticks/toad. DNA extraction from 42 ticks (6 larvae, 22 nymphs and 11 female adults) was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Rickettsia organisms, which were detected in 100% of the ticks. Amplicons' DNA sequences were identical to each other and 99% identical to Rickettsia bellii from GenBank. DNA samples extracted from the blood of the 45 toads were negative by rickettsia-PCR protocols.

  19. Determination of Novel Borrelia Genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A total of 301 adult questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of Sweden to determine the Borrelia genospecies diversity. Thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested PCR with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. Species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene. Five different Borrelia species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the Borrelia DNA found in ...

  20. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochetes in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job E. Lopez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Relapsing fever spirochetes are tick- and louse-borne pathogens that primarily afflict those in impoverished countries. Historically the pathogens have had a significant impact on public health, yet currently they are often overlooked because of the nonspecific display of disease. In this review, we discuss aspects of relapsing fever (RF spirochete pathogenesis including the: (1 clinical manifestation of disease; (2 ability to diagnose pathogen exposure; (3 the pathogen’s life cycle in the tick and mammal; and (4 ecological factors contributing to the maintenance of RF spirochetes in nature.

  1. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.; Daszak, Peter; Zhang, Shuyi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed mul...

  2. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  3. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  4. Estimating colony sizes of emerging bats using acoustic recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Blowers, Zelda; Branstetter, Brian; Ralston, Joel; Simmons, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The decline of bats demands more widespread monitoring of populations for conservation and management. Current censusing methods are either prone to bias or require costly equipment. Here, we report a new method using passive acoustics to determine bat count census from overall acoustic amplitude of the emerging bat stream. We recorded the video and audio of an emerging colony of Mexican free-tailed bats from two cave locations across multiple nights. Instantaneous bat counts were calculated from the video frames, and the bat stream’s acoustic amplitude corresponding to each video frame was determined using three different methods for calculating acoustic intensity. We found a significant link between all three acoustic parameters and bat count, with the highest R2 of 0.742 linking RMS pressure and bat count. Additionally, the relationship between acoustics and population size at one cave location could accurately predict the population size at another cave location. The data were gathered with low-cost, easy-to-operate equipment, and the data analysis can be easily accomplished using automated scripts or with open-source acoustic software. These results are a potential first step towards creating an acoustic model to estimate bat population at large cave colonies worldwide. PMID:27069667

  5. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  6. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity a...

  7. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  8. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-21

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  9. Discovery of a Novel Bat Gammaherpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Kurtis M; Damania, Blossom

    2016-01-01

    Zoonosis is the leading cause of emerging infectious diseases. In a recent article, R. S. Shabman et al. (mSphere 1[1]:e00070-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00070-15) report the identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus in a cell line derived from the microbat Myotis velifer incautus. This is the first report on a replicating, infectious gammaherpesvirus from bats. The new virus is named bat gammaherpesvirus 8 (BGHV8), also known as Myotis gammaherpesvirus 8, and is able to infect multiple cell lines, including those of human origin. Using next-generation sequencing technology, the authors constructed a full-length annotated genomic map of BGHV8. Phylogenetic analysis of several genes from BGHV8 revealed similarity to several mammalian gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). PMID:27303690

  10. Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    1984-03-01

    Behavioural reciprocity can be evolutionarily stable1-3. Initial increase in frequency depends, however, on reciprocal altruists interacting predominantly with other reciprocal altruists either by associating within kin groups or by having sufficient memory to recognize and not aid nonreciprocators. Theory thus suggests that reciprocity should evolve more easily among animals which live in kin groups. Data are available separating reciprocity from nepotism only for unrelated nonhuman animals4. Here, I show that food sharing by regurgitation of blood among wild vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) depends equally and independently on degree of relatedness and an index of opportunity for recipro cation. That reciprocity operates within groups containing both kin and nonkin is supported further with data on the availability of blood-sharing occasions, estimates of the economics of shar ing blood, and experiments which show that unrelated bats will reciprocally exchange blood in captivity.

  11. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.

  12. Vaccination with the variable tick protein of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii protects mice from infection by tick-bite

    OpenAIRE

    Krajacich, Benjamin J; Lopez, Job E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tick-borne relapsing fevers of humans are caused by spirochetes that must adapt to both warm-blooded vertebrates and cold-blooded ticks. In western North America, most human cases of relapsing fever are caused by Borrelia hermsii, which cycles in nature between its tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi and small mammals such as tree squirrels and chipmunks. These spirochetes alter their outer surface by switching off one of the bloodstream-associated variable major proteins (Vmps) they p...

  13. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  14. Survey of tick species parasiting domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr county, Mazandaran province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Vatandoost Hassan; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Morteza; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr county in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran.Methods:About361 sheep, 54 goats and10cattle of18 herds in several villages in Ghaemshahr were inspected for tick infestation. Separated ticks were preserved in70% alcohol and identified.Results:About323 ticks (207female,116 male) were collected, the occurrence of ticks on sheep, goats and cattle were28.3%, 22.2% and20.0%respectively. The mean number of ticks on each animal was low (3-5ticks per animal).Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata andHaemaphysalis numidiana were the tick species we found.Rhipicephalus sanguineus were the most abundant species in the study area. The largest number of ticks were generally present from April to July, mostly in animal ears and tails. Ixodes, Boophilus andHaemaphysalis occurred in mountainous areas of Ghaemshahr, whereas Rhipicephalus were present in both mountains and plains of the study area.Conclusions: The result of this study is a survey of tick species from domestic animals in Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks.

  15. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

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    Øines Øivind

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR, and sequence analysis. Results From a total of 1908 questing l. ricinus ticks, 17 (0.9% indicated the presence of Babesia spp. after realtime-PCR screening. Ixodes ricinus harbouring Babesia spp. was detected in 9 out of 22 localities. Further molecular analyses of DNA from these positive ticks indicate the presence of Babesia venatorum, B. divergens, B. capreoli and a currently undescribed Babesia in Norwegian ticks. The most prevalent was B. venatorum found in 71% of the positive ticks. Conclusions A total of 17 out of 1908 (0.9% ticks were positive for Babesia. Our data confirm that there are several Babesia species in ticks in Norway. Babesia venatorum was the most prevalent. This species has a zoonotic potential and may cause human babesiosis following a tick bite.

  16. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Zabol County, Eastern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ganjali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012.Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethanol, then transported to the laboratory of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Following examinations under stereomicroscope, ticks were identified using available taxonomic keys.In this study, a total number of 469 adult ticks (381 males and 88 females were collected. Ticks were classified into 2 genera and 9 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (17.3%, Hy. schulzei (1.8%, Hy. marginatum (0.5%, Hy. anatolicum excavatum (12.60%, Hy. anatolicum anatolicum (11.2%, Hy. asiaticum asiaticum (11.0%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (21.2%, Rh. bursa (10.2% and Rh. turacunis (13.911%. The frequency of genus Hyalomma (54.6% was higher than Rhipicephalus. Rh. sanguineus was the predominant tick species and accounted for 21.26% of the ticks. The ratio of males was more than the female ticks.Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species are commonly distributed in the study area. Further investigations are needed to identify the role of above tick species as vectors of pathogenic organisms.

  17. Identifying Hendra virus diversity in pteropid bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and/or agent and/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the natural bat host, as previously sequences have only been obtained from horses or humans following spillover events. In order to obtain an insight into possible variants of HeV circulating in flying foxes, collection of urine was undertaken in multiple flying fox roosts in Queensland, Australia. HeV was found to be geographically widespread in flying foxes with a number of HeV variants circulating at the one time at multiple locations, while at times the same variant was found circulating at disparate locations. Sequence diversity within variants allowed differentiation on the basis of nucleotide changes, and hypervariable regions in the genome were identified that could be used to differentiate circulating variants. Further, during the study, HeV was isolated from the urine of flying foxes on four occasions from three different locations. The data indicates that spillover events do not correlate with particular HeV isolates, suggesting that host and/or environmental factors are the primary determinants of bat-horse spillover. Thus future spillover events are likely to occur, and there is an on-going need for effective risk management strategies for both human and animal health.

  18. Distribution and status of bats in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbings, R.E.; Griffith, Francesca

    1986-01-01

    National and international agencies, societies and individuals are increasingly seeking information on the current distribution and status of bats in Europe. The stimulus to produce this report came in 1980 when the Environment and Consumer Protection Service of the Commission of the European Communities (EEC) requested information on the threatened flora and vertebrate fauna within the EEC. This was needed so that there could be a co-ordinated approach to the conservation o...

  19. Comparison of tick resistance of crossbred Senepol × Limousin to purebred Limousin cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Teurlai, Magali; Naves, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The comparison of resistance to natural tick infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) of crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle was investigated. The Senepol breed, originated from St Croix Island in the Caribbean is considered as a Bos taurus breed adapted to tropical conditions. Despite its B. taurus genetic background, it is believed to have a good tick resistance, but this resistance has never been assessed previously. Tick counts under natural infestation were carried out to investigate the difference of susceptibility between crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle. Mixed-effect models were used to assess the effect of the breed on the number of ticks. Results show that Senepol × Limousin are five times less infested by ticks than purebred Limousin. These results underline the opportunity to use Senepol cattle for crossing with susceptible B. taurus breeds in tick infested areas, to combine tick resistance with beef production abilities. PMID:24366717

  20. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild turkeys (Aves: Phasianidae) in eastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, D E; Applegate, R D; Fox, L B

    2001-01-01

    During the spring and fall turkey hunting seasons of 1999, hunters and Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks field personnel examined wild turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo L., for ticks and submitted them to us for identification. From springtime hunting, we received 113 ticks from 12 turkeys killed in nine counties, all in the eastern one-third of Kansas. Collectors reported examining three additional wild turkeys on which no ticks were found. All ticks were nymphal lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Of 11 wild turkeys examined in seven counties during October, one was parasitized by 30 A. americanum larvae. Data from this study and accounts from the published literature suggest that parasitism of wild turkeys by immature lone star ticks is commonplace wherever this host and ectoparasite are sympatric. Our study suggests that M. gallopavo may be an important host that supports lone star tick populations.

  1. Review: Importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; HU Song-hua; CHEN Wan-jun; ARIJO Abdullah G.; XIAO Chen-wen

    2006-01-01

    The medical and economic importance of ticks has long been recognized due to their ability to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Ticks cause great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. Loss of blood is a direct effect of ticks acting as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. Blood sucking by large numbers of ticks causes reduction in live weight and anemia among domestic animals, while their bites also reduce the quality of hides. However, major losses caused by ticks are due to their ability to transmit protozoan, rickettsial and viral diseases of livestock, which are of great economic importance world-wide. There are quite a few methods for controlling ticks, but every method has certain shortcomings. The present review is focused on ticks importance and their control.

  2. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF IXODES TICKS INFESTATION WITH TBEV IN KIROV REGION

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    E. A. Bessolitsyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objects of this study are Ixodes ticks which were collected in different areas of Kirov province. The aim of the study is to determine the proportion of TBEV infected ticks using the reverse transcription and PCR, dependingon time, place, and methods of collection in the Kirov province as well as of ticks specific and sexual identity. The study found that from the two tick species that were tested only taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus but not the meadow thick (Dermacentor reticulatus was the TBEV vector. Study also has shown that both males and females ticks can be the TBEV vectors. Moreover, it was proved the importance of ticks testing which were gathered not only from human but also from animals, primary from dogs, and from the plants.

  4. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hagman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV. Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. To investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northward from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV RNA. Methods: On the Mediterranean islands of Capri and Antikythira, a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusions: Most of the identified ticks (93% were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato (s.l., most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks, 729 were individually screened for WNV RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that H. marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe.

  5. The sialotranscriptome of Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma cajennense ticks, uncovered by 454-based RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Ribeiro, José Marcos; Anatriello, Elen; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Moreira, Higo Nasser Santanna; Mafra, Cláudio; Martins, Maria Marlene; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; de Miranda-Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira; Maruyama, Sandra Regina

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick salivary constituents antagonize inflammatory, immune and hemostatic host responses, favoring tick blood feeding and the establishment of tick-borne pathogens in hosts during hematophagy. Amblyomma triste, A. cajennense and A. parvum ticks are very important in veterinary and human health because they are vectors of the etiological agents for several diseases. Insights into the tick salivary components involved in blood feeding are essential to understanding vector-pathogen-ho...

  6. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtesh Sherifi; Daniel Cadar; Skender Muji; Avni Robaj; Salih Ahmeti; Xhevat Jakupi; Petra Emmerich; Andreas Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. ...

  7. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtesh Sherifi; Daniel Cadar; Skender Muji; Avni Robaj; Salih Ahmeti; Xhevat Jakupi; Petra Emmerich; Andreas Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. ...

  8. Trypanosoma livingstonei: a new species from African bats supports the bat seeding hypothesis for the Trypanosoma cruzi clade

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luciana; Espinosa-Álvarez, Oneida; Hamilton, Patrick B; Neves, Luis; Takata, Carmen SA; Campaner, Marta; Attias, Márcia; De Souza, Wanderley; Camargo, Erney P.; Teixeira, Marta MG

    2013-01-01

    Background Bat trypanosomes have been implicated in the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade, which comprises species from a wide geographic and host range in South America, Africa and Europe, including bat-restricted species and the generalist agents of human American trypanosomosis T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Methods Trypanosomes from bats (Rhinolophus landeri and Hipposideros caffer) captured in Mozambique, southeast Africa, were isolated by hemoculture. Barcoding was carried out throug...

  9. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

  10. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  11. Structures of bats; Komori no kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natori, M. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    This paper gives an outline of the structures of bats. Unlike birds, bats have a wing membrane structure. The membrane constituted of the skin is spread between five fingers to form the wing. The wing membrane is seen in the forelimbs and the tail. In the chest and the shoulder, the ligament sheet supports the muscles. The wing membrane is about 0.5mm in thickness, with a fiber net woven through reflecting a tension field in flying. The fiber net is composed of compound materials of elastin and collagen. The shoulder joints consists of the clavicle, scapula and humerus, which is close to human beings. The elbow joints rotate only inside the plane of the wings. The leg joints are hook-shaped, with the tendon sheath provided with ruggedness. The carpus is made up of eight bones and is characterized by the ability of spreading and storing the wings. At the time of storing the wing membrane, the finger joints are stored and, during the flight after the wings are spread, it forms the flapping wing plane. Lightweight and formation of the sturdy front edge are characteristics common to other flying creatures. The spreading and the storing are possible through the direct motion of the hands. The shoulder joints and the carpus of the human beings are closer to those of bats than to those of birds. (NEDO)

  12. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

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    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  13. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  14. Dynamics of biosonar systems in Horseshoe bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Horseshoe bats have an active ultrasonic sonar system that allows the animals to navigate and hunt prey in structure-rich natural environments. The physical components of this biosonar system contain an unusual dynamics that could play a key role in achieving the animals' superior sensory performance. Horseshoe bat biosonar employs elaborate baffle shapes to diffract the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic wave packets; ultrasound is radiated from nostrils that are surrounded by noseleaves and received by large outer ears. Noseleaves and pinnae can be actuated while ultrasonic diffraction takes place. On the emission side, two noseleaf parts, the anterior leaf and the sella, have been shown to be in motion in synchrony with sound emission. On the reception side, the pinnae have been shown to change their shapes by up to 20% of their total length within ˜100 milliseconds. Due to these shape changes, diffraction of the incoming and outgoing waves is turned into a dynamic physical process. The dynamics of the diffraction process results in likewise dynamic device characteristics. If this additional dynamic dimension was found to enhance the encoding of sensory information substantially, horseshoe bat biosonar could be a model for the use of dynamic physical processes in sensing technology.

  15. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  16. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  17. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, A. M.; Taoufik, A.; de la Fuente, M.R.; Kocan, K M; de Vries, E; Jongejan, F

    2007-01-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing w...

  18. The role of ultrasonic bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. FUREY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats account for 30 % of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindicators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fail to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89.1 % of calls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29 % (ten spp. of aerial insectivores of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11 % (two spp. of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods are indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55(5:–2009].

  19. The role of ultrasonic bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil M. FUREY; Iain J. MACKIE; Paul A. RACEY

    2009-01-01

    Bats account for 30% of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindieators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fall to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89. 1% of caLls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29% (ten spp. of aerial insectivores) of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11% ( two spp. ) of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods axe indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 327 - 341, 2009].

  20. Why are there so few Rickettsia conorii conorii-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the wild?

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    Cristina Socolovschi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia conorii conorii is the etiological agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, which is transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The relationship between the Rickettsia and its tick vector are still poorly understood one century after the first description of this disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An entomological survey was organized in Algeria to collect ticks from the houses of patients with spotted fever signs. Colonies of R. conorii conorii-infected and non-infected ticks were established under laboratory conditions. Gimenez staining and electron microscopy on the ovaries of infected ticks indicated heavy rickettsial infection. The transovarial transmission of R. conorii conorii in naturally infected Rh. sanguineus ticks was 100% at eleven generations, and the filial infection rate was up to 99% according to molecular analyses. No differences in life cycle duration were observed between infected and non-infected ticks held at 25°C, but the average weight of engorged females and eggs was significantly lower in infected ticks than in non-infected ticks. The eggs, larvae and unfed nymphs of infected and non-infected ticks could not tolerate low (4°C or high (37°C temperatures or long starvation periods. R. conorii conorii-infected engorged nymphs that were exposed to a low or high temperature for one month experienced higher mortality when they were transferred to 25°C than non-infected ticks after similar exposure. High mortality was observed in infected adults that were maintained for one month at a low or high temperature after tick-feeding on rabbits. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These preliminary results suggest that infected quiescent ticks may not survive the winter and may help explain the low prevalence of infected Rh. sanguineus in nature. Further investigations on the influence of extrinsic factors on diapaused R. conorii-infected and non-infected ticks are required.