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Sample records for bat rhinolophus monoceros

  1. 中国大陆菊头蝠科一新纪录——单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros,Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)%New record of Formosan lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) in Mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江; 杨天友

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2008年7月至2009年2月在贵州省松桃县进行翼手目动物生物多样性研究中,于平头乡埁字村仙人洞(北纬28°01'20.5",东经109°05'22.8",海拔582 m),获得一号菊头蝠标本,经鉴定为单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen,1905).

  2. Coexistence of two sympatric and mOrpho1ogically similar bat species Rhinolophus affnis and Rhinolophus pearsoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinglei Jiang; Jiang Feng; Keping Sun; Jing Wang

    2008-01-01

    Ecologists have long focused on the coexistence of sympatric species.Here,we investigated two horseshoe bat species,Rhinolophus affinis and Rhinolophus pearsoni inhabited in the same cave,for their foraging strategies,niche differentiation,prey selection,and their coexistence status.These two species of horseshoe bats were ditierent in the dominant frequency of their echolocation calls.but similar in their morphology.We found evidence for prey selectivity although there was a high degree of overlap in prey categories and sizes.R affinis and R pearsoni foraged on 16 and 7 categories insects,respectively,with Pyralidae,Geometridae,Melolonthidae dominating their diets.The degree of trophic niche overlap was 0.69.Pairwise comparisons suggested that there was no obvious differentiation in prey categories and size.However,high prey availability in the environment(Simpson diversity index=0.79 and Margalef richness index=4.121 contributed to their coexistence by dampening the interspecific competition.Since there are one or more mechanisms facilitating species coexistence in a community,our results suggest that the spatial niche differentiation in foraging microhabitats and in foraging habitats at landscape scale may promote the coexistence of the two bat species.However,additional field data are needed to confirm this speculation.

  3. Processing of acoustic motion in the auditory cortex of the rufous horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi

    OpenAIRE

    Firzlaff, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the representation of acoustic motion in different fields of auditory cortex of the rufous horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. Motion in horizontal direction (azimuth) was simulated using successive stimuli with dynamically changing interaural intensity differences presented via earphones. The mechanisms underlying a specific sensitivity of neurons to the direction of motion were investigated using microiontophoretic application of γ-aminobutyric acid (GAB...

  4. Lineage Divergence and Historical Gene Flow in the Chinese Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus sinicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuguang Mao; Guimei He; Junpeng Zhang; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Shuyi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Closely related taxa living in sympatry provide good opportunities to investigate the origin of barriers to gene flow as well as the extent of reproductive isolation. The only two recognized subspecies of the Chinese rufous horseshoe bat Rhinolophus sinicus are characterized by unusual relative distributions in which R. s. septentrionalis is restricted to a small area within the much wider range of its sister taxon R. s. sinicus. To determine the history of lineage divergence and gene flow be...

  5. Identification of SARS-like coronaviruses in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaric, Danijela; Hostnik, Peter; Steyer, Andrej; Grom, Joze; Toplak, Ivan

    2010-04-01

    Bats have been identified as a natural reservoir for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as Hendra virus, Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, rabies and other lyssaviruses. Recently, a large number of viruses closely related to members of the genus Coronavirus have been associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and detected in bat species. In this study, samples were collected from 106 live bats of seven different bat species from 27 different locations in Slovenia. Coronaviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 14 out of 36 horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) fecal samples, with 38.8% virus prevalence. Sequence analysis of a 405-nucleotide region of the highly conserved RNA polymerase gene (pol) showed that all coronaviruses detected in this study are genetically closely related, with 99.5-100% nucleotide identity, and belong to group 2 of the coronaviruses. The most closely related virus sequence in GenBank was SARS bat isolate Rp3/2004 (DQ071615) within the SARS-like CoV cluster, sharing 85% nucleotide identity and 95.6% amino acid identity. The potential risk of a new group of bat coronaviruses as a reservoir for human infections is highly suspected, and further molecular epidemiologic studies of these bat coronaviruses are needed. PMID:20217155

  6. Karyotype evolution in Rhinolophus bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) illuminated by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers. PMID:17899409

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen. PMID:25740216

  8. Foraging strategies in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) on Lepidoptera in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Longru; FENG Jiang; SUN Keping; LIU Ying; WU Lei; LI Zhenxin; ZHANG Xichen

    2005-01-01

    The diet of the bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was studied at the Zhi'an Village of Ji'an City in China, from June to August 2004. The bats were trained in a laboratory (volume: 9×4×4 m3). Foraging strategies of the bat were ob- served at night and prey remains were collected and identi- fied. The results showed that the diet consisted mainly of Lepidoptera in summer, including 11 families, more than 30 species of moths, such as Noctuidae (36.6% by number), Sphingidae (24.1%), Geometridae (13.4%) and Limacodidae (9.5%). The length of culled wings ranged from 10―40 mm (97.7%). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the bat R. ferrumequinum foraged their prey selectively, but not op- portunistically. From field studies, two ways were observed in which the bats retrieved their prey including aerial hawk- ing during peak active period of the insects and flycatching during the insects' non-peak activity period. The bats never gleaned prey from the ground, though they appeared to be well able to detect fluttering moths on the ground.

  9. Size, dynamics and structure of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) winter aggregations in central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierangelo Crucitti; Luca Cavalletti

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents a study regarding the aggregations of the Lesser Horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in Latium, Central Italy, based on data collected during 27 years in natural caves (limestone) and artificial buildings (abandoned mines, ancient monuments and others). Furthermore some parameters including size, dynamics, sex ratio and age structures are investigated. The number of bats that occur at the hibernacula in winter i...

  10. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Adwan Shehab; Inrahim Mamkhair; Zuhair Amr

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  11. Laryngeal Nerve Activity During Pulse Emission in the CF-FM Bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. II. The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Rübsamen, R.; Schuller, Gerd

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) was recorded in the greater horseshoe bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. Respiration, vocalization and nerve discharges were monitored while vocalizations were elicted by stimulation of the central gray matter. This stimulation evoked either expiration or expiration plus vocalization depending on the stimulus strength. When vocalization occurred it always took place during expiration. Recordings from the RLN during respiration showed activity...

  12. Convergence of reference frequencies by multiple CF-FM bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) during paired flights evaluated with onboard microphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Yuto; Hiryu, Shizuko; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    The constant frequency component of the second harmonic (CF(2)) of echolocation sounds in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon were measured using onboard telemetry microphones while the bats exhibited Doppler-shift compensation during flights with conspecifics. (1) The CF(2) frequency of pulses emitted by individual bats at rest (F (rest)) showed a long-term gradual decline by 0.22 kHz on average over a period of 3 months. The mean neighboring F (rest) (interindividual differences in F (rest) between neighboring bats when the bats were arranged in ascending order according to F (rest)) ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 kHz among 18 bats in a laboratory colony. (2) The standard deviation of observed echo CF(2) (reference frequency) for bats during paired flights ranged from 50 to 90 Hz, which was not significantly different from that during single flights. This finding suggests that during paired flights, bats exhibit Doppler-shift compensation with the same accuracy as when they fly alone. (3) In 60% (n = 29) of the cases, the difference in the reference frequency between two bats during paired flights significantly decreased compared to when the bats flew alone. However, only 15% of the cases (n = 7) showed a significant increase during paired flights. The difference in frequency between two bats did not increase even when the reference frequencies of the individuals were not statistically different during single flights.

  13. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. PMID:26809101

  14. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus.

  15. Lineage divergence and historical gene flow in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuguang Mao

    Full Text Available Closely related taxa living in sympatry provide good opportunities to investigate the origin of barriers to gene flow as well as the extent of reproductive isolation. The only two recognized subspecies of the Chinese rufous horseshoe bat Rhinolophus sinicus are characterized by unusual relative distributions in which R. s. septentrionalis is restricted to a small area within the much wider range of its sister taxon R. s. sinicus. To determine the history of lineage divergence and gene flow between these taxa, we applied phylogenetic, demographic and coalescent analyses to multi-locus datasets. MtDNA gene genealogies and microsatellite-based clustering together revealed three divergent lineages of sinicus, corresponding to Central China, East China and the offshore Hainan Island. However, the central lineage of sinicus showed a closer relationship with septentrionalis than with other lineages of R. s. sinicus, in contrary to morphological data. Paraphyly of sinicus could result from either past asymmetric mtDNA introgression between these two taxa, or could suggest septentrionalis evolved in situ from its more widespread sister subspecies. To test between these hypotheses, we applied coalescent-based phylogenetic reconstruction and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. We found that septentrionalis is likely to be the ancestral taxon and therefore a recent origin of this subspecies can be ruled out. On the other hand, we found a clear signature of asymmetric mtDNA gene flow from septentrionalis into central populations of sinicus yet no nuclear gene flow, thus strongly pointing to historical mtDNA introgression. We suggest that the observed deeply divergent lineages within R. sinicus probably evolved in isolation in separate Pleistocene refugia, although their close phylogeographic correspondence with distinct eco-environmental zones suggests that divergent selection might also have promoted broad patterns of population genetic structure.

  16. First amplification of Eimeria hessei DNA from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) and its phylogenetic relationships with Eimeria species from other bats and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Eve; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tournant, Pierline; Capelli, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Although coccidian parasites of the genus Eimeria are among the best-documented parasites in bats, few Eimeria species found in bats have been characterised using molecular tools, and none of the characterised species are found in European countries. Phylogenetic relationships of Eimeria species that parasitise bats and rodents can be related to the morphology of oocysts, independently from host range, suggesting that these species are derived from common ancestors. In the present study, we isolated a partial sequence of the Eimeria hessei 18S rRNA gene from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros), a European bat species. Droppings from lesser horseshoe bats were collected from 11 maternity roosts located in France that were positive for the presence of the parasite. Through morphological characterisation, the oocysts detected in the lesser horseshoe bat droppings were confirmed to be E. hessei. The unique E. hessei sequence obtained through molecular analysis belonged to a clade that includes both rodent and bat Eimeria species. However, the E. hessei oocysts isolated from the bat droppings did not show morphological similarities to rodent Eimeria species. PMID:24594259

  17. Ecomorphology, differentiated habitat use, and nocturnal activities of Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species in East Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Fu; Kuo, Yen-Min; Chu, Wen-Chen; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the wing morphology and foraging distributions of sympatric Rhinolophus and Hipposideros species by acoustic sampling, measuring wing parameters, and observing bats in different settings of tropical East Asian forests, to evaluate their flexibility in habitat use and edge sensitivity. R. formosae and H. terasensis were more abundant at edges/in open habitats and shared the highest overlap, with R. formosae displaying the greatest breadth in habitat use, whereas R. monoceros had a higher abundance and feeding efficiency in forest interiors with a continuous canopy. H. terasensis was significantly larger and had higher wing loading and aspect ratio than R. formosae and R. monoceros, while R. formosae had higher wing loading but a lower aspect ratio than the smaller-sized R. monoceros. Shrubs and herbs were higher at sites where bats were captured than at those without bat captures, and R. monoceros and R. formosae were associated with greater canopy and ground coverage, respectively. R. monoceros always foraged while flying at lower heights close to the herb/shrub layers, while H. terasensis and R. formosae used perching to different extents, with R. formosae preferably using fly-catching techniques and appearing farther from the path in open forests rather than in forest interiors. Our results indicate that differences in wing parameters account for the different degrees of flexibility in habitat use, yet the deviations of call frequency from the expected values in R. formosae and H. terasensis suggest additional adaptations accounting for their flexibility in exploring habitats. PMID:22230387

  18. A New Species of Horseshoe Bat of the Genus Rhinolophus from China (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi; MOTOKAWA, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.

  19. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwan Shehab

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.

  20. Echolocation in the bat, Rhinolophus capensis: the influence of clutter, conspecifics and prey on call design and intensity

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    Kayleigh Fawcett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats are exposed not only to the echoes of their own calls, but often the signals of conspecifics and other bats. For species emitting short, frequency modulated signals e.g. vespertilionoids, adjustments in both the frequency and time domain have been observed in such situations. However, bats using long duration, constant frequency calls may confront special challenges, since these bats should be less able to avoid temporal and frequency overlap. Here we investigated echolocation call design in the highduty cycle bat, Rhinolophus capensis, as bats flew with either a conspecific or heterospecific in a large outdoor flight-room. We compared these recordings to those made of bats flying alone in the same flight-room, and in a smaller flight room, alone, and hunting tethered moths. We found no differences in duty cycle or peak frequency of the calls of R. capensis across conditions. However, in the presence of a conspecific or the vespertilionoid, Miniopterus natalensis, R. capensis produced longer frequency-modulated downward sweeps at the terminus of their calls with lower minimum frequencies than when flying alone. In the presence of the larger high-duty cycle bat, R. clivosus, R. capensis produced shorter calls than when flying alone or with a conspecific. These changes are similar to those of vespertilionoids when flying from open to more cluttered environments. They are not similar to those differences observed in vespertilionoids when flying with other bats. Also unlike vespertilinoids, R. capensis used calls 15 dB less intense in conspecific pairs than when alone.

  1. Size, dynamics and structure of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros winter aggregations in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents a study regarding the aggregations of the Lesser Horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in Latium, Central Italy, based on data collected during 27 years in natural caves (limestone and artificial buildings (abandoned mines, ancient monuments and others. Furthermore some parameters including size, dynamics, sex ratio and age structures are investigated. The number of bats that occur at the hibernacula in winter is low over the whole territory of this region, the most numerous aggregations being 18 individual bats with an average of about 4 bats/visit. In the shelters of the area, the highest numbers of R. hipposideros, a stenotherm thermophilous species, is reached at the end of January, while at the beginning of spring (April few bats are generally observed. As in many other European populations, males are more commonly represented in winter samples; some caves harbour only adult males over a long time span, about 20 years. The results would suggest that some conservation measures should be introduced to protect this widespread but uncommon and threatened species.

  2. Conservation of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros Bechstein, 1800) (Mammalia : Chiroptera) in Belgium. A case study of feeding habitat requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, G.; Libois, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the habitat use of the last important Belgian colony of Rhinolophus hipposideros, Bechstein, 1800, one of the most endangered bat species in Europe. During 71 evenings from April to August 1998, ultrasound detection was performed and, in late August, a female horseshoe bat was caught and fitted with a radio transmitter. The results showed that hedgerows and woodlands with bushes and coppice are key foraging habitats. They also highlight the importance of...

  3. Sensory Drive Mediated by Climatic Gradients Partially Explains Divergence in Acoustic Signals in Two Horseshoe Bat Species, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Rhinolophus simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumi, Gregory L; Jacobs, David S; Winker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Geographic variation can be an indicator of still poorly understood evolutionary processes such as adaptation and drift. Sensory systems used in communication play a key role in mate choice and species recognition. Habitat-mediated (i.e. adaptive) differences in communication signals may therefore lead to diversification. We investigated geographic variation in echolocation calls of African horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus simulator and R. swinnyi in the context of two adaptive hypotheses: 1) James' Rule and 2) the Sensory Drive Hypothesis. According to James' Rule body-size should vary in response to relative humidity and temperature so that divergence in call frequency may therefore be the result of climate-mediated variation in body size because of the correlation between body size and call frequency. The Sensory Drive Hypothesis proposes that call frequency is a response to climate-induced differences in atmospheric attenuation and predicts that increases in atmospheric attenuation selects for calls of lower frequency. We measured the morphology and resting call frequency (RF) of 111 R. simulator and 126 R. swinnyi individuals across their distributional range to test the above hypotheses. Contrary to the prediction of James' Rule, divergence in body size could not explain the variation in RF. Instead, acoustic divergence in RF was best predicted by latitude, geography and climate-induced differences in atmospheric attenuation, as predicted by the Sensory Drive Hypothesis. Although variation in RF was strongly influenced by temperature and humidity, other climatic variables (associated with latitude and altitude) as well as drift (as suggested by a positive correlation between call variation and geographic distance, especially in R. simulator) may also play an important role.

  4. Reproduction in the Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros hipposideros Bechstein, 1800)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaisler, Jiří

    1966-01-01

    The present paper gathers the results of a morphological study on 149 specimens of Rhinolophus hipposideros, and of ecological investigations on additional material, incl. some 5,000 banded individuals of the same species. Brief description of the reproductive organs of both sexes is given. The repr

  5. Female mate choice can drive the evolution of high frequency echolocation in bats: a case study with Rhinolophus mehelyi.

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    Sébastien J Puechmaille

    Full Text Available Animals employ an array of signals (i.e. visual, acoustic, olfactory for communication. Natural selection favours signals, receptors, and signalling behaviour that optimise the received signal relative to background noise. When the signal is used for more than one function, antagonisms amongst the different signalling functions may constrain the optimisation of the signal for any one function. Sexual selection through mate choice can strongly modify the effects of natural selection on signalling systems ultimately causing maladaptive signals to evolve. Echolocating bats represent a fascinating group in which to study the evolution of signalling systems as unlike bird songs or frog calls, echolocation has a dual role in foraging and communication. The function of bat echolocation is to generate echoes that the calling bat uses for orientation and food detection with call characteristics being directly related to the exploitation of particular ecological niches. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that echolocation has been shaped by ecology via natural selection. Here we demonstrate for the first time using a novel combined behavioural, ecological and genetic approach that in a bat species, Rhinolophus mehelyi: (1 echolocation peak frequency is an honest signal of body size; (2 females preferentially select males with high frequency calls during the mating season; (3 high frequency males sire more off-spring, providing evidence that echolocation calls may play a role in female mate choice. Our data refute the sole role of ecology in the evolution of echolocation and highlight the antagonistic interplay between natural and sexual selection in shaping acoustic signals.

  6. Evidence for two karyotypic variants of the lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus hipposideros , Chiroptera, Mammalia) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volleth, M; Biedermann, M; Schorcht, W; Heller, K-G

    2013-01-01

    Three different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 54, 56 and 58) have been reported in the lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros. Asia Minor and the Middle East are inhabited by R. hipposideros specimens with 58 chromosomes. In Europe, specimens with 56 chromosomes have been recorded from several localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy and Greece. Up to now, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and possibly from Switzerland. With the record of 54 chromosomes in specimens from Germany presented here, the distributional area of this variant is expanded into Central Europe. According to the cytogenetic data presently available, we presume that the European R. hipposideros population is divided into a western form (from Spain to Germany) with a 2n = 54 karyotype and an eastern form (from the Czech Republic to Greece) with a 2n = 56 karyotype. This study presents banded karyotypes for the 2n = 54 and 2n = 56 variants for the first time. In addition, chromosomal arm homology to the vespertilionid bat species Myotis myotis revealed by chromosome painting is reported. Whether the variants could represent separate species is also discussed. PMID:23635426

  7. Differential expression analysis of Liprin-α2 in hibernating bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-based subtractive hybridization technique was used to identify genes up-regulated in the hibernating bat brain to explore the molecular mechanism of hibernation. Three genes, Liprin-α2, PTP4A2 and CAMKKβ were differentially expressed in hibernating bat brain tissue compared to active bat brain tissue. One of them, Liprin-α2, which has recently been shown to have the key function in the organization of presynaptic and postsynaptic multiprotein complexes was studied in detail. We demonstrated that the expression level of Liprin-α2 was up-regulated almost 4-fold in hibernating bat brains by RT-PCR compared to levels in active bats. The differential expression pattern of Liprin-α2 was also detected in muscle, fat, brain and heart tissue of hibernating bats by real-time quantitative PCR. The result indicated that Liprin-α2 was over-expressed in brain and heart tissue and down-regulated in muscle and fat. In brain tissue of hibernating bats, Liprin-α2 expression was statistically significantly higher than in brain tissue of active controls (P = 0.029).The precise control of transcriptional level and the distinctively differential expression pattern of Liprin-α2 in different organs during circannual hibernation may have important physiological significance, not only in maintaining normal function of many key organs but also in effectively conserving limited energy resources without physiological damage.

  8. Pleistocene climatic cycling drives intra-specific diversification in the intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiu Guang; Zhu, Guang Jian; Zhang, Shuyi; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2010-07-01

    The repeated formation and loss of land-bridges during the Pleistocene have had lasting impacts on population genetic structure. In the tropics, where island populations persisted through multiple glacial cycles, alternating periods of isolation and contact are expected to have driven population and taxonomic divergence. Here, we combine mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data with microsatellites to dissect the impact of Pleistocene climate change on intra-specific diversification in the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus affinis. This taxon shows considerable morphological and acoustic variation: two parapatric subspecies (himalayanus and macrurus) occur on mainland China and a third (hainanus) on Hainan Island. Our phylogeographic reconstruction and coalescent analyses suggest the island subspecies formed from an ancestral population of himalayanus via two colonization events c. 800,000 years before present. R. a. hainanus then recolonized the mainland, forming macrurus and thus a secondary contact zone with himalayanus. Finally, macrurus recolonized Hainan following the LGM. We found that all three biological events corresponded to known periods of land-bridge formation. Evidence of introgression was detected between macrurus and both its sister taxa, with geographical proximity rather than length of separation appearing to be the biggest determinant of subsequent genetic exchange. Our study highlights the important role of climate-mediated sea level changes have had in shaping current processes and patterns of population structure and taxonomic diversification.

  9. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Taylor

    Full Text Available Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens. Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe. A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya. Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2, these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2 at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz represents the

  10. Lectin histochemistry of gastrointestinal glycoconjugates in the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber, 1774).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Zizza, Sara; Liquori, Giuseppa Esterina; Ferri, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    Mucins in the gastrointestinal tract of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were investigated by histochemistry and lectin histochemistry to evaluate morphofunctional variations of different regions and their possible physiological and evolutionary implications. Histochemical methods included periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) at pH 2.5 and 1.0 and high-iron-diamine AB pH 2.5. Binding of lectins Con A, DBA, WGA, LTA, LFA, PNA and SBA; LFA, PNA and SBA with prior sialidase treatment; and paradoxical Con A were evaluated. The oesophagus lacked glands. The stomach was divided into a short cardias, a wide fundus and a brief pylorus. The surface muciparous cells secreted sulpho- and sialomucins with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues, N-acetyllactosamine and (beta1,4 N-acetylglucosamine)(n) chains. Towards the pylorus, N-acetylgalactosamine residues disappeared and acidity decreased. Cardiac glands, neck cells in the fundic glands, pyloric and duodenal Brunner's glands all shared neutral, stable class-III mucins, mainly with N-acetylgalactosamine sequences. The intestine was divided into a duodenum, a jejuno-ileum and a short rectum. The goblet cells produced sulpho- and sialomucins with sialylated N-acetylgalactosamine sequences, (beta1,4 N-acetylglucosamine)(n) and N-acetyllactosamine, whose sialylation increased towards the rectum. The main features of the mucins are probably associated with the requirements of fast absorption and food passage and in protection against mechanical and pathogenic injuries.

  11. A New Record of Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus) in Shaanxi Province%陕西省翼手类新纪录——大菊头蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴俊峰

    2011-01-01

    One male specimen, collected from one cave ( N31° 47' 17. 83", E109° 31' 19. 13", H: 1 120 m altitude) in Zhenping County, Ankang City, Shaanxi Province, on 16 April 2010, is identified as Woolly Horseshoe Bat ( Rhinolophus luctus) which is new to Shaanxi Province. The specimen is kept in the Shaanxi Institute of Zoology. This bat species is the largest Rhinolophus in China. Anterior horseshoe broad, covering the muzzle, but without a supplementary leaflet at the side;the expansion of the base of the sella forms a cup-like structure with wing-like outgrowths. The pelage is peculiar in being dark smoky in color and woolly. The morphological measurement, distribution and protective status were presented.%2010年4月16日,在陕西省安康市镇坪县的一无名岩洞获得1号蝙蝠标本.该标本为雄性,体型较大.马蹄叶发达、覆盖上唇且两侧无小附叶.鞍状叶呈三角形,向两侧明显扩张成翼状.体毛细长柔软而稍卷曲.经鉴定为大菊头蝠(Rhinolophus luctus),属陕西省翼手类新纪录.标本保存于陕西省动物研究所标本室.本文报道了这种蝙蝠的特征和相关测量数据,并对其分布和保护现状进行了探讨.

  12. The karyotype and 5S rRNA genes from Spanish individuals of the bat species Rhinolophus hipposideros (Rhinolophidae; Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerma, Eva; Acosta, Manuel J; Barragán, Maria José L; Martínez, Sergio; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Bullejos, Mónica; Sánchez, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    The karyotype of individuals of the species Rhinolophus hipposideros from Spain present a chromosome number of 2n = 54 (NFa = 62). The described karyotype for these specimens is very similar to another previously described in individual from Bulgaria. However, the presence of one additional pair of autosomal acrocentric chromosomes in the Bulgarian karyotype and the differences in X chromosome morphology indicated that we have described a new karyotype variant in this species. In addition, we have analyzed several clones of 1.4 and 1 kb of a PstI repeated DNA sequence from the genome of R. hipposideros. The repeated sequence included a region with high identity with the 5S rDNA genes and flanking regions, with no homology with GenBank sequences. Search for polymerase III regulatory elements demonstrated the presence of type I promoter elements (A-box, Intermediate Element and C-box) in the 5S rDNA region. In addition, upstream regulatory elements, as a D-box and Sp1 binding sequences, were present in flanking regions. All data indicated that the cloned repeated sequences are the functional rDNA genes from this species. Finally, FISH demonstrated the presence of rDNA in nine chromosome pairs, which is surprising as most mammals have only one carrier chromosome pair. PMID:18066670

  13. Differential Expression of Hepatic Genes of the Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum between the Summer Active and Winter Torpid States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Xiao

    Full Text Available Hibernation is one type of torpor, a hypometabolic state in heterothermic mammals, which can be used as an energy-conservation strategy in response to harsh environments, e.g. limited food resource. The liver, in particular, plays a crucial role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. Studies on ground squirrels and bears reveal that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during hibernation. Especially, the genes involved in carbohydrate catabolism are down-regulated during hibernation, while genes responsible for lipid β-oxidation are up-regulated. However, there is little transcriptional evidence to suggest physiological changes to the liver during hibernation in the greater horseshoe bat, a representative heterothermic bat. In this study, we explored the transcriptional changes in the livers of active and torpid greater horseshoe bats using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 1358 genes were identified as differentially expressed during torpor. In the functional analyses, differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic depression, shifts in the fuel utilization, immune function and response to stresses. Our findings provide a comprehensive evidence of differential gene expression in the livers of greater horseshoe bats during active and torpid states and highlight potential evidence for physiological adaptations that occur in the liver during hibernation.

  14. Neurophysiological investigations in the colliculus inferior of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuweiler, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    The horseshoe-bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum is the best known representative of those bats using constant frequency sounds for echolocation. Schnitzler (1968) has shown, that horseshoe-bats compensate Dopplershifts during flight by lowering the emitted constant frequency so that the heard echofreque

  15. Co-distribution of glycoconjugates and H(+), K(+)-ATPase in the parietal cells of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber, 1774).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mastrodonato, Maria; Liquori, Giuseppa Esterina; Ferri, Domenico

    2010-05-01

    Histochemical, lectin-histochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on parietal cells of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, to clarify the composition and distribution of oligosaccharide chains in the beta-subunit of the protonic pump H(+),K(+)-ATPase. PAS, Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) and Alcian Blue (pH 1.0) stainings detected only neutral glycoconjugates. Lectin-binding analyses included LTA, UEA-I, ConA, SBA, BSI-B4, AAA, DBA, PNA, and WGA. WGA-and PNA-bindings were also tested after beta-elimination to detect O-linked glycans. Parietal cells were negative for binding to LTA and UEA-I, and to PNA and WGA after beta-elimination, indicating the lack of (1,2) fucosylated residues and of N-linked glycans, respectively. Immunohistochemical tests with anti-alpha- and anti-beta-H(+),K(+)-ATPase were positive. Two alternative patterns of glycoconjugate distribution were found, i.e. a perinuclear and a diffuse one, indicating localization in the intracellular canaliculus and in the tubulovesicular system of the parietal cells, respectively. Both the subunits of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase and the galactosyl/galactosaminyl residues were co-distributed in both the perinuclear and the diffuse patterns, suggesting that the residues are part of the protonic pump. Glycosyl/glycosaminyl and mannosyl groups were concentrated in the tubulovesicular system, and fucosylated residues were found almost exclusively in the intracellular canaliculi; thus they are probably not included in the oligosaccharide chains of beta-H(+),K(+)-ATPase. These findings indicate that the oligosaccharide chains linked to the beta-H(+),K(+)-ATPase subunit in R. ferrumequinum have distinct features compared to the other mammals studied and confirms the taxon specificity of the chains in the proton pump.

  16. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  17. Research on Morphological Characteristics of Big-eared Horseshoe BatRhinolophus macrotis) in Hunan Province%湖南省翼手目新纪录大耳菊头蝠形态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇清; 张佑祥; 胡德夫

    2012-01-01

    From November to December, 2009,a survey on cave-dewelling bats in Majiaotong Cave of Fenghuang County and Tangle Cave of Jishou City was made ,both sites locate in the western part of Hunan Province,totally six horseshoe bat were collected. Measuring the morphological characteristics and the skull datas,meanwhile,eomparing with two documented subspecies of Rhinolophus macrotis ,they were identified as the subspecies R. macrotis episcopus ,which was first recorded in Hunan Province. A brief account on the current situation and distribution of R. macrotis was presented in this paper. All of the specimens were kept in the animal collections of Jishou University.%2009年11—12月,在湘西凤凰县水打乡马脚通洞和吉首市堂乐洞进行翼手类调查时,采集到6号菊头蝠标本。对其外形和头骨进行测量,并与文献记载的大耳菊头蝠2个亚种的特征进行比较,鉴定为大耳菊头蝠四川亚种(Rhinolophusmacrotizepiscopus),属湖南省翼手目新记录。标本保存于吉首大学动物标本室。

  18. Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  20. Iron Age to Medieval entomogamous vegetation and Rhinolophus hipposideros roost in south-eastern Wales (UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, SAG; Simms, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Karst cave systems are well developed in Wales (UK) and, in some instances, constitute important bat roosts. Ogof Draenen, near Blaenavon in south-east Wales, is the most recent major cave discovery (1994) with already > 70 km of passages explored spanning a vertical range of 148 m. With the exception of one small chamber (Siambre Ddu) located directly above the main Ogof Draenen system, very few bats have been noticed inside. Extensive accumulations of guano, attributable to Rhinolophus hipp...

  1. Phylogeography and postglacial recolonization of Europe by Rhinolophus hipposideros: evidence from multiple genetic markers

    OpenAIRE

    Dool, Serena E.; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Dietz, Christian; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Hulva, Pavel; Roué, Stéphane; Petit, Eric J.; Jones, Gareth; Russo, Danilo; Toffoli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The demographic history of Rhinolophus hipposideros (lesser horseshoe bat) was recon- structed across its European, North African and Middle-Eastern distribution prior to, during and following the most recent glaciations by generating and analysing a multi- marker data set. This data set consisted of an X-linked nuclear intron (Bgn; 543 bp), mitochondrial DNA(cytb-tRNA-control region; 1630 bp) and eight variable microsatel- lite loci for up to 373 individuals from 86 localities...

  2. High duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat Coelops frithii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Ho

    Full Text Available Laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (LDC echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (HDC echolocation. HDC echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. HDC echolocation is found only in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae in the Old World and in the New World mormoopid, Pteronotus parnellii. Here we report that the hipposiderid Coelops frithii, ostensibly an HDC bat, consistently uses an LDC echolocation strategy whether roosting, flying, or approaching a fluttering target rotating at 50 to 80 Hz. We recorded the echolocation calls of free-flying C. frithii in the field in various situations, including presenting bats with a mechanical fluttering target. The echolocation calls of C. frithii consisted of an initial narrowband component (0.5±0.3 ms, 90.6±2.0 kHz followed immediately by a frequency modulated (FM sweep (194 to 113 kHz. This species emitted echolocation calls at duty cycles averaging 7.7±2.8% (n = 87 sequences. Coelops frithii approached fluttering targets more frequently than did LDC bats (C.frithii, approach frequency  = 40.4%, n = 80; Myotis spp., approach frequency  = 0%, n = 13, and at the same frequency as sympatrically feeding HDC species (Hipposideros armiger, approach rate  = 53.3%, n = 15; Rhinolophus monoceros, approach rate  = 56.7%, n = 97. We propose that the LDC echolocation strategy used by C. frithii is derived from HDC ancestors, that this species adjusts the harmonic contents of its echolocation calls, and that it may use both the narrowband component and the FM sweep of echolocations calls to detect fluttering targets.

  3. High duty cycle to low duty cycle: echolocation behaviour of the hipposiderid bat Coelops frithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying-Yi; Fang, Yin-Ping; Chou, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Hsi-Chi; Chang, Hsueh-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeally echolocating bats avoid self-deafening (forward masking) by separating pulse and echo either in time using low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation, or in frequency using high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation. HDC echolocators are specialized to detect fluttering targets in cluttered environments. HDC echolocation is found only in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae in the Old World and in the New World mormoopid, Pteronotus parnellii. Here we report that the hipposiderid Coelops frithii, ostensibly an HDC bat, consistently uses an LDC echolocation strategy whether roosting, flying, or approaching a fluttering target rotating at 50 to 80 Hz. We recorded the echolocation calls of free-flying C. frithii in the field in various situations, including presenting bats with a mechanical fluttering target. The echolocation calls of C. frithii consisted of an initial narrowband component (0.5±0.3 ms, 90.6±2.0 kHz) followed immediately by a frequency modulated (FM) sweep (194 to 113 kHz). This species emitted echolocation calls at duty cycles averaging 7.7±2.8% (n = 87 sequences). Coelops frithii approached fluttering targets more frequently than did LDC bats (C.frithii, approach frequency  = 40.4%, n = 80; Myotis spp., approach frequency  = 0%, n = 13), and at the same frequency as sympatrically feeding HDC species (Hipposideros armiger, approach rate  = 53.3%, n = 15; Rhinolophus monoceros, approach rate  = 56.7%, n = 97). We propose that the LDC echolocation strategy used by C. frithii is derived from HDC ancestors, that this species adjusts the harmonic contents of its echolocation calls, and that it may use both the narrowband component and the FM sweep of echolocations calls to detect fluttering targets. PMID:23717396

  4. Echolocation calls and morphology in the Mehelyi’s (Rhinolophus mehelyi and mediterranean (R. euryale horseshoe bats: implications for resource partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhinolophus euryale and R. mehelyi are morphologically very similar species and their distributions overlap extensively in the Mediterranean basin. We modelled their foraging behaviour using echolocation calls and wing morphology and, assuming niche segregation occurs between the two species, we explored how it is shaped by these factors. Resting frequency of echolocation calls was recorded and weight, forearm length, wing loading, aspect ratio and wing tip shape index were measured. R. mehelyi showed a significantly higher resting frequency than R. euryale, but differences are deemed insufficient for dietary niche segregation. Weight and forearm length were significantly larger in R. mehelyi. The higher values of aspect ratio and wing loading and a lower value of wing tip shape index in R. melehyi restrict its flight manoeuvrability and agility. Therefore, the flight ability of R. mehelyi may decrease as habitat complexity increases. Thus, the principal mechanism for resource partitioning seems to be based on differing habitat use arising from differences in wing morphology. Riassunto Ecolocalizzazione e morfologia nei rinolofi di Mehely (Rhinolophus mehelyi e euriale (R. euryale: implicazioni nella segregazione delle risorse trofiche. Rhinolophus euryale e R. mehelyi sono specie morfologicamente molto simili, la cui distribuzione risulta largamente coincidente in area mediterranea. Il comportamento di foraggiamento delle due specie è stato analizzato in funzione delle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione e della morfologia alare, ed è stata valutata l’incidenza di questi fattori nell’ipotesi di una segregazione delle nicchie. È stata rilevata la frequenza a riposo dei segnali ultrasonori, così come il peso, la lunghezza dell’avambraccio, il carico alare, e due

  5. Distribution of catecholamine fibers in the cochlear nucleus of horseshoe bats and mustache bats

    OpenAIRE

    Kössl, M.; Vater, M; Schweizer, Hermann

    1988-01-01

    The glyoxylic-acid-induced fluorescence technique was applied to demonstrate patterns of catecholaminergic innervation within the auditory brainstem of echolocating bats and the house mouse. In the cochlear nucleus of the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi) and the mustache bat (Pteronotus parnelli), species-specific catecholaminergic innervation patterns are found that contrast with the relatively homogeneous innervation in the rodent. In both bats the subnuclei of the cochlear nucl...

  6. The Metallicity of the Monoceros Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Meisner, Aaron M; Juric, Mario; Finkbeiner, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    We present low-resolution MMT Hectospec spectroscopy of 594 candidate Monoceros stream member stars. Based on strong color-magnitude diagram overdensities, we targeted three fields within the stream's footprint, with 178 deg < l < 203 deg and -25 deg < b < 25 deg. By comparing the measured iron abundances with those expected from smooth Galactic components alone, we measure, for the first time, the spectroscopic metallicity distribution function for Monoceros. We find the stream to be chemically distinct from both the thick disk and halo, with [Fe/H] = -1, and do not detect a trend in the stream's metallicity with Galactic longitude. Passing from b = +25 deg to b = -25 deg the median Monoceros metallicity trends upward by 0.1 dex, though uncertainties in modeling sample contamination by the disk and halo make this a marginal detection. In each field, we find Monoceros to have an intrinsic [Fe/H] dispersion of 0.10-0.22 dex. From the CaII K line, we measure [Ca/Fe] for a subsample of metal poor pro...

  7. The patterns of seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Rhinolophus hipposideros in nursery colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of the long-legged bat tick Ixodes vespertilionis infestation on the lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in 2 nursery colonies roosting in attics. Out of a total of 810 lesser horseshoe bats examined, 217 (26.8%) were found to be infested with a total of 464 I. vespertilionis individuals. The developmental stage most frequently found was the larva, followed by the nymph, and the adult female. Bats were significantly more frequently infested with I. vespertilionis ticks in the period April to May than in other months. In these months, all tick developmental stages were observed. During summer and autumn, only immature developmental stages were recorded, whilst in September and October larvae predominated. Considerable differences in tick load between nursery colonies were observed. The length of seasonal presence on bats, prevalence, and infestation intensity of I. vespertilionis on lesser horseshoe bats were higher in the nursery colony situated in close vicinity of a cave than in the colony situated far from the caves. The results suggest that the pattern of seasonal infestation of ticks on bats roosting in nursery colonies coincides with the seasonal activity of Rh. hipposideros in the caves. The first case of mixed infestation of the lesser horseshoe bat with I. vespertilionis and I. ricinus were also recorded. PMID:24252260

  8. Trypanosoma livingstonei: a new species from African bats supports the bat seeding hypothesis for the Trypanosoma cruzi clade

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luciana; Espinosa-Álvarez, Oneida; Hamilton, Patrick B; Neves, Luis; Takata, Carmen SA; Campaner, Marta; Attias, Márcia; De Souza, Wanderley; Camargo, Erney P.; Teixeira, Marta MG

    2013-01-01

    Background Bat trypanosomes have been implicated in the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade, which comprises species from a wide geographic and host range in South America, Africa and Europe, including bat-restricted species and the generalist agents of human American trypanosomosis T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Methods Trypanosomes from bats (Rhinolophus landeri and Hipposideros caffer) captured in Mozambique, southeast Africa, were isolated by hemoculture. Barcoding was carried out throug...

  9. Detection and Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Bats in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Lelli; Ana Moreno; Andrej Steyer; Tina Nagliˇc; Chiara Chiapponi; Alice Prosperi; Francesca Faccin; Enrica Sozzi; Antonio Lavazza

    2015-01-01

    A renewed interest in mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) has emerged since new viruses related to bat MRV type 3, detected in Europe, were identified in humans and pigs with gastroenteritis. This study reports the isolation and characterization of a novel reassortant MRV from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros). The isolate, here designated BatMRV1-IT2011, was first identified by electron microscopy and confirmed using PCR and virus-neutralization tests. The full genome sequence...

  10. Some Factors Behind Density Dynamics Of Bat Flies (Diptera, Nycteribiidae) — Ectoparasites Of The Boreal Chiropterans: Omitted Predictors And Hurdle Model Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. V.; Kshnyasev I. A.; Orlov O. L.; Zhigalin A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated density dynamics of three bat flies species (Diptera, Nycteribiidae): Penicillidia monoceros Speiser, 1900, Nycteribia quasiocellata (Theodor, 1966), Basilia rybini (Hurka, 1969) parasitized on two host species: pond bat, Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825), and eastern water bat, Myotis petax Hollister, 1912. Females of M. dasycneme have 3.4 (95 % CI 1.4–8.3) times higher odds of being infested, and in 2.4 (1.5–3.7) times higher average number of P. monoceros than males. Similarly,...

  11. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  12. 河南省马铁菊头蝠肠道寄生吸虫%Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Intestinal Trematodes in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金友; 余燕; 卜艳珍

    2009-01-01

    2003年8月至2006年12月对河南省7个产地35只马铁菊头蝠肠道检查, 发现吸虫5种, 隶属于3科4属.即:软体肠前腺吸虫、长形肠前腺吸虫、软体亚睾吸虫、朝鲜斜睾吸虫和中孔吸虫未定种.马铁菊头蝠是软体亚睾吸虫的新宿主.软体肠前腺吸虫、长形肠前腺吸虫、软体亚睾吸虫是河南省蝙蝠寄生虫的首次报道.%Five species of trematodes belonging to four genera in three families were obtained through the examination of 35 specimens of horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, collected at seven localities in Henan Province, China from August 2003 to December 2006. The following trematodes were recovered in the intestinal tracts of the horseshoe bats: Prosthodendrium chilostomum (Mehlis, 1926) Macy, 1936; Prosthodendrium longiforme (Bhalerao, 1926) Macy, 1936; Postorchigenes duboisi Rohde, 1963; Plagiorchis koreanus Ogata, 1938, and Mesotretes sp. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum is newly recorded as a host bat to P. duboisi. P. chilostomum, P. longiforme and P. duboisi were first recorded in Henan Province.

  13. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.

  14. The Bats of the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out on 89 specimens representing 11 bat species, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, Myotis brandtii, M. bechsteinii, M. myotis, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Nyctalus leisleri, Plecotus auritus and Miniopterus schreibersii. The specimens were collected from the eastern Black Sea region between the 1992 and 1994. Some ecological features of the species and their localities are presented in this study.

  15. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  16. Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus beddomei, Rhinolophus rouxii, Hipposideros galeritus, Hipposideros speoris and Megaderma spasma were recorded with the following conservation status, four in Vulnerable and two in Least Concerned. Taphozous melanopogon was the most abundant, and had the largest population with the widest distribution at the study site. A Natural predator of bats, Paradoxurus hermaphoditus was recorded in one roosting site.

  17. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G.; Waters, D A

    2000-01-01

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing the...

  18. Quaternary fauna of bats in Spain: Paleoecologic and biogeographic interest

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1989-01-01

    The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...

  19. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy) (Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierangelo Crucitti; Marco Andreini; Roberto Morelli; Giovanni Rotella

    1998-01-01

    Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys) in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy) from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abu...

  20. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  1. Phylogeography and postglacial recolonization of Europe by Rhinolophus hipposideros: evidence from multiple genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Dietz, Christian; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Hulva, Pavel; Roué, Stéphane G; Petit, Eric J; Jones, Gareth; Russo, Danilo; Toffoli, Roberto; Viglino, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Rossiter, Stephen J; Teeling, Emma C

    2013-08-01

    The demographic history of Rhinolophus hipposideros (lesser horseshoe bat) was reconstructed across its European, North African and Middle-Eastern distribution prior to, during and following the most recent glaciations by generating and analysing a multimarker data set. This data set consisted of an X-linked nuclear intron (Bgn; 543 bp), mitochondrial DNA (cytb-tRNA-control region; 1630 bp) and eight variable microsatellite loci for up to 373 individuals from 86 localities. Using this data set of diverse markers, it was possible to determine the species' demography at three temporal stages. Nuclear intron data revealed early colonization into Europe from the east, which pre-dates the Quaternary glaciations. The mtDNA data supported multiple glacial refugia across the Mediterranean, the largest of which were found in the Ibero-Maghreb region and an eastern location (Anatolia/Middle East)-that were used by R. hipposideros during the most recent glacial cycles. Finally, microsatellites provided the most recent information on these species' movements since the Last Glacial Maximum and suggested that lineages that had diverged into glacial refugia, such as in the Ibero-Maghreb region, have remained isolated. These findings should be used to inform future conservation management strategies for R. hipposideros and show the power of using a multimarker data set for phylogeographic studies. PMID:23889545

  2. Novel bat adenoviruses with an extremely large E3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Yang, Xing-Lou; Ge, Xing-Yi; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Biao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-07-01

    Bats carry diverse RNA viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. Compared to bat-borne RNA viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne DNA viruses. In this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (BtAdV WIV9-11) from Rhinolophus sinicus. Their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (AdVs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. An unusually large E3 gene was identified in their genomes. Phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses suggested that these isolates represent a distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. Cell susceptibility assays revealed a broad cell tropism for these isolates, indicating that they have a potentially wide host range. Our results expand the understanding of genetic diversity of bat AdVs. PMID:27032099

  3. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    assessed based on data from reproductive organs and was estimated to be 8–9 years for females and 12–20 years for males. Pregnancy rates for East and West Greenland were estimated to be 0.38–0.42 and 0.38, respectively. Maximum life span expectancy was found to be approximately 100 years. A population......Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...

  4. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Jacobs

    Full Text Available Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the

  5. Detection of Diverse Novel Bat Astrovirus Sequences in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufkova, Lucie; Straková, Petra; Širmarová, Jana; Salát, Jiří; Moutelíková, Romana; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Bartonička, Tomáš; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Astroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Recently, novel groups of astroviruses were identified in apparently healthy insectivorous bats. We report the detection of diverse novel astrovirus sequences in nine different European bat species: Eptesicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, Myotis emarginatus, M. mystacinus, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus nathusii or P. pygmaeus, P. pipistrellus, Vespertilio murinus, and Rhinolophus hipposideros. In six bat species, astrovirus sequences were detected for the first time. One astrovirus strain detected in R. hipposideros clustered phylogenetically with Chinese astrovirus strains originating from bats of the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. All other Czech astrovirus sequences from vesper bats formed, together with one Hungarian sequence, a separate monophyletic lineage within the bat astrovirus group. These findings provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, ecology, and prevalence of astroviruses in European bat populations. PMID:26273815

  6. A fully cosmological model of a Monoceros-like ring

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Facundo A; Marinacci, Federico; Slater, Colin T; Grand, Robert J J; Springel, Volker; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    We study the vertical structure of a stellar disk obtained from a fully cosmological high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the formation of a Milky Way-like galaxy. At the present day, the disk's mean vertical height shows a well-defined and strong pattern, with amplitudes as large as 3 kpc in its outer regions. This pattern is the result of a satellite - host halo - disk interaction and reproduces, qualitatively, many of the observable properties of the Monoceros Ring. In particular we find disk material at the distance of Monoceros extending far above the mid plane (30$^{\\circ}$) in both hemispheres, as well as well-defined arcs of disk material at heliocentric distances $\\gtrsim 5$ kpc. The pattern was first excited $\\approx 3$ Gyr ago as an $m=1$ mode that later winds up into a leading spiral pattern. Interestingly, the main driver behind this perturbation is a low-mass low-velocity fly-by encounter. The satellite has total mass, pericentre distance and pericentric velocity of $\\sim 5\\%$ of the hos...

  7. Abjection and violence in Monoceros, by Suzette Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Schneider

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of Monoceros (2011, a novel by Canadian contemporary writer Suzette Mayr, we examine the entanglement between concepts of violence and abjection in literature. Mayr presents several characters that come into contact as a result of a suicide committed by a previously bullied student of a Catholic school. With the narrative as a reference, we propose to discuss the growing violence inside the school system in contemporary times, in this case as a result of sexual intolerance. Works by Nan Stein and Melinda York, who address the imposition of too strict gender roles on female and male students as one of the causes for violent outcomes among youngsters, will be our main theoretical references. We also discuss the topic of desire and abjection, mainly developed by Kristeva and Kulzbach, as illuminating perspectives for the analysis of the selected novel. We suggest that in Monoceros bullying is performed to guarantee fixed and binary models of gender identity, which ends up by promoting low self-esteem and feelings of awkwardness on individuals defined as different from the norm.

  8. Island bat diets: does it matter more who you are or where you live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlock, Jodi L; Krüger, Frauke; Clare, Elizabeth L

    2014-08-01

    Differences in body size, echolocation call frequency and location may result in diet partitioning among bat species. Comparisons between island populations are one way to evaluate these competing hypotheses. We conducted a species-level diet analysis of three Rhinolophus and one Hipposideros species on the Philippine islands of Cebu, Bohol and Siquijor. We identified 655 prey (MOTUs) in the guano from 77 individual bats. There was a high degree of overlap among species' diets despite differences in body size and call frequency. For example, the diet of the 3 g-Hipposideros pygmaeus (mean CF = 102 kHz) exhibited a diet overlap higher than expected by chance with all three Rhinolophus species, even the 13 g-Rhinolophus inops (mean CF = 54 kHz). We observed more convergence in diet between Rhinolophus species and H. pygmaeus than between Rhinolophus species themselves, which may be explained by the broad diet of H. pygmaeus. There was less dietary overlap between Rhinolophus virgo from two islands than between R. virgo and congeners from Cebu. These data suggest that location causes convergence in diet, but specific species characteristics may drive niche specialization. The complex interplay between location and the perceptual ability of each species leads to a situation where simple explanations, for example body size, do not translate into predictable prey partitioning. In particular, our observations raise interesting questions about the foraging strategy and adaptability of the tiny H. pygmaeus. PMID:24666364

  9. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice. PMID:24840106

  10. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  11. Bat head contains soft magnetic particles: evidence from magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lanxiang; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yongxin

    2010-10-01

    Recent behavioral observations have indicated that bats can sense the Earth's magnetic field. To unravel the magnetoreception mechanism, the present study has utilized magnetic measurements on three migratory species (Miniopterus fuliginosus, Chaerephon plicata, and Nyctalus plancyi) and three non-migratory species (Hipposideros armiger, Myotis ricketti, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and alternating-field demagnetization showed that the bats' heads contain soft magnetic particles. Statistical analyses indicated that the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization of brains (SIRM(1T_brain)) of migratory species is higher than those of non-migratory species. Furthermore, the SIRM(1T_brain) of migratory bats is greater than their SIRM(1T_skull). Low-temperature magnetic measurements suggested that the magnetic particles are likely magnetite (Fe3O4). This new evidence supports the assumption that some bats use magnetite particles for sensing and orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. PMID:20607738

  12. Distribution of Studied Insectivorous Bat Species of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourty-five species of insectivourous bats; Craseonycteris thonglongyai, Emballonura monticola, Taphozous melenopongon, T. theobaldi, T. longimanus, Megaderma lyra, M. spasma, Rhinolophus affinis, R. rouxii, R. pusillus, R. lepidus, R. macrotis, R. trifoliatus, R. pearsoni, R. malayanus, R. stheno, R. thomasi, R. shameli, R. acuminatus, R. marshalli, Rhinolophus sp., Hipposideros pomona, H. larvatus, H. armiger, H. lylei, H. ater, H. fulvus, Aselliscus stoliczkanus, Tadarida plicata, Myotis siligorensis, M. muricola, M. horsfieldii, M. hasseltii, M. chinensis, Scotophilus heathii, S. kuhlii, Ia io, Pipistrellus javanicus, P. coromandra, P. pulveratus, P. paterculus, P. affinis, P. ceylonicus, Miniopterus pusillus and M. magnater were distributed in 7 Divisions; Yangon, Bago, Ayeyawady, Taninthayi, Magway, Mandalay and Sagaing Division, and 7 States; Mon, Kayin, Shan, Chin, Kayah, Kachin and Rakhine States of Myanmar.

  13. The aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vanderelst

    Full Text Available At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat's morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads.

  14. The aerodynamic cost of head morphology in bats: maybe not as bad as it seems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Razak, Norizham Abdul; Verstraelen, Edouard; Dimitriadis, Grigorios; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    At first sight, echolocating bats face a difficult trade-off. As flying animals, they would benefit from a streamlined geometric shape to reduce aerodynamic drag and increase flight efficiency. However, as echolocating animals, their pinnae generate the acoustic cues necessary for navigation and foraging. Moreover, species emitting sound through their nostrils often feature elaborate noseleaves that help in focussing the emitted echolocation pulses. Both pinnae and noseleaves reduce the streamlined character of a bat's morphology. It is generally assumed that by compromising the streamlined charactered of the geometry, the head morphology generates substantial drag, thereby reducing flight efficiency. In contrast, it has also been suggested that the pinnae of bats generate lift forces counteracting the detrimental effect of the increased drag. However, very little data exist on the aerodynamic properties of bat pinnae and noseleaves. In this work, the aerodynamic forces generated by the heads of seven species of bats, including noseleaved bats, are measured by testing detailed 3D models in a wind tunnel. Models of Myotis daubentonii, Macrophyllum macrophyllum, Micronycteris microtis, Eptesicus fuscus, Rhinolophus formosae, Rhinolophus rouxi and Phyllostomus discolor are tested. The results confirm that non-streamlined facial morphologies yield considerable drag forces but also generate substantial lift. The net effect is a slight increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. Therefore, there is no evidence of high aerodynamic costs associated with the morphology of bat heads. PMID:25739038

  15. [Trematode parasites of Italian bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, M

    1995-12-01

    Data are presented on bat trematodes in Italy, whose previous list included only the following five species: Plagiorchis vespertilionis, Plagiorchis asper, Mesotretes peregrinus, Prosthodendrium chilostomum, Prosthodendrium longiforme. Between 1945 and 1981, 289 bats were examined belonging to 13 species. A total of twelve trematode species were identified, nine of which are recorded for the first time in Italy: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Lecithodendrium granulosum, Lecithodendrium rotundum, Prosthodendrium herardovae, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Prosthodendrium parvouterus, Pycnoporus heteroporus, Matovius rhinolophi, Parabascus lepidotus. For each parasite species, hosts, localities and number of specimens/host are reported. Special attention is devoted to P. vespertilionis with description of specimens remarkably different from the type form, to L. linstowi for peculiar specimens from Rhinolophus hipposideros, and to M. rhinolophi with additions to the original description especially concerning the vitelline glands' structure. Pycnoporus macrolaimus, identified in a collection of bat trematodes of the Institute of Parasitology of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome, is also recorded for the first time in Italy. PMID:8778660

  16. Distribution and diversity of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy) / Distribuzione e diversità dei chirotteri troglofili della regione laziale (Italia centrale)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierangelo Crucitti; Luca Tringali

    1987-01-01

    Abstract An attempt was made to evaluate the diversity and distribution of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy). Data about twelve species were examined and their frequency have been determined. Only Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros are really frequent: the other species are more or less localized. The average number of species (2,63) has a great importance for future contro1 of cave bat populations. Similarit...

  17. What Story Does Geographic Separation of Insular Bats Tell? A Case Study on Sardinian Rhinolophids

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Russo; Mirko Di Febbraro; Hugo Rebelo; Mauro Mucedda; Luca Cistrone; Paolo Agnelli; Pier Paolo De Pasquale; Adriano Martinoli; Dino Scaravelli; Cristiano Spilinga; Luciano Bosso

    2014-01-01

    Competition may lead to changes in a species’ environmental niche in areas of sympatry and shifts in the niche of weaker competitors to occupy areas where stronger ones are rarer. Although mainland Mediterranean (Rhinolophus euryale) and Mehely’s (R. mehelyi) horseshoe bats mitigate competition by habitat partitioning, this may not be true on resource-limited systems such as islands. We hypothesize that Sardinian R. euryale (SAR) have a distinct ecological niche suited to persist in the south...

  18. A Study on the Breeding Biology of Some Bat Species in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDEMİR, Nursel AŞAN; ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on the records of gestation and lactation periods of 17 bat species (Rousettus aegyptiacus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, R. blasii, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. emarginatus, M. nattereri, M. mystacinus, M. capaccinii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, P. savii, Plecotus auritus, and Miniopterus schreibersii) caught from various localities in Turkey and of the development stages of embryos belonging to Myotis species. It ...

  19. What mechanism of niche segregation allows the coexistence of sympatric sibling rhinolophid bats?

    OpenAIRE

    Salsamendi Egoitz; Garin Inazio; Arostegui Inmaculada; Goiti Urtzi; Aihartza Joxerra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Our purpose was to assess how pairs of sibling horseshoe bats coexists when their morphology and echolocation are almost identical. We collected data on echolocation, wing morphology, diet, and habitat use of sympatric Rhinolophus mehelyi and R. euryale. We compared our results with literature data collected in allopatry with similar protocols and at the same time of the year (breeding season). Results Echolocation frequencies recorded in sympatry for R. mehelyi (mean = ...

  20. Mapping the Monoceros Ring in 3D with Pan-STARRS1

    CERN Document Server

    Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Kenneth; Dolphin, Andrew; Draper, Peter W; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A; Martin, Nicolas F; Martinez-Delgado, David; Metcalfe, Nigel; Schlafly, Edward F; Slater, Colin T; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher Z

    2016-01-01

    Using the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we derive limiting magnitude, spatial completeness and density maps that we use to probe the three dimensional structure and estimate the stellar mass of the so-called Monoceros Ring. The Monoceros Ring is an enormous and complex stellar sub-structure in the outer Milky Way disk. It is most visible across the large Galactic Anticenter region, 120 < l < 240 degrees, -30 < b < +40 degrees. We estimate its stellar mass density profile along every line of sight in 2 X 2 degree pixels over the entire 30,000 square degree Pan-STARRS1 survey using the previously developed MATCH software. By parsing this distribution into a radially smooth component and the Monoceros Ring, we obtain its mass and distance from the Sun along each relevant line of sight. The Monoceros Ring is significantly closer to us in the South (6 kpc) than in the North (9 kpc). We also create 2D cross sections parallel to the Galactic plane that show 135 degrees of the Monoceros Ring in the South and 170 de...

  1. 菊头蝠耳长与叫声频率的相关性%Correlation between ear length and call frequency in Rhinolophus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉华; 左明雪; 梁冰; 张信文; 张树义

    2003-01-01

    Echolocation calls of 10 Chinese rhinolophid species were recorded to investigate the relationship between morphology and echolocation signals.All horseshoe bats use FM-CF-FM calls.Rhinolophus rex at 23.7kHz,the lowest frequency in this genus between call frequency and ear length (r=-0.942,P<0.001)and also between call frequency and forcarm length(r=-0.696,P<0.05),Residual analysis was carried out to remove the influence of other morphological features.After calculating ear length,forearm length residuals were not significantly related to call frequency(r=-0.095,P=0.808).The significance of the correlation between ear length ear length and call frequency was slightly lowered(r=-0.642,P=0.062) after "removing" the influence of forearm length.Ear length,therefore,was a better predictor of call frequency than forearm length.

  2. SLICING THE MONOCEROS OVERDENSITY WITH SUPRIME-CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Blair C.; Noeel, Noelia E. D.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lane, Richard R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, A28, Sydney 2006 (Australia); Irwin, Mike J.; Chapman, Scott [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 Rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, P.O. Box 11337, Tucson, AZ 85734-1337 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We derive distance, density, and metallicity distribution of the stellar Monoceros Overdensity (MO) in the outer Milky Way, based on deep imaging with the Subaru Telescope. We applied color-magnitude diagram fitting techniques in three stripes at galactic longitudes, l {approx} 130 Degree-Sign , 150 Degree-Sign , 170 Degree-Sign , and galactic latitudes, +15 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} +25 Degree-Sign . The MO appears as a wall of stars at a heliocentric distance of {approx}10.1 {+-} 0.5 kpc across the observed longitude range with no distance change. The MO stars are more metal-rich ([Fe/H] {approx} -1.0) than the nearby stars at the same latitude. These data are used to test three different models for the origin of the MO: a perturbed disk model, which predicts a significant drop in density adjacent to the MO that is not seen; a basic flared disk model, which can give a good match to the density profile but the MO metallicity implies the disk is too metal-rich to source the MO stars; and a tidal stream model, which, from the literature, brackets the distances and densities we derive for the MO, suggesting that a model can be found that would fully fit the MO data. Further data and modeling will be required to confirm or rule out the MO feature as a stream or as a flaring of the disk.

  3. Slicing The Monoceros Overdensity with Suprime-Cam

    CERN Document Server

    Conn, Blair C; Rix, Hans-Walter; Lane, R R; Lewis, G F; Irwin, M J; Martin, N F; Ibata, R A; Dolphin, A; Chapman, S

    2012-01-01

    We derive distance, density and metallicity distribution of the stellar Monoceros Overdensity (MO) in the outer Milky Way, based on deep imaging with the Subaru Telescope. We applied CMD fitting techniques in three stripes at galactic longitudes: l=130 deg, 150 deg, 170 deg; and galactic latitudes: +15 < b [deg] < +25 . The MO appears as a wall of stars at a heliocentric distance of ~ 10.1\\pm0.5 kpc across the observed longitude range with no distance change. The MO stars are more metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ -1.0) than the nearby stars at the same latitude. These data are used to test three different models for the origin of the MO: a perturbed disc model, which predicts a significant drop in density adjacent to the MO that is not seen; a basic flared disc model, which can give a good match to the density profile but the MO metallicity implies the disc is too metal rich to source the MO stars; and a tidal stream model, which bracket the distances and densities we derive for the MO, suggesting that a model can ...

  4. Star Formation in the Orion-Monoceros Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Hsu Tai

    2006-01-01

    Pre-main sequence stars in the Orion-Monoceros Complex are either distributed in groups closed associated with dense cores, or dispersed along molecular filaments. Some molecular clouds are apparently affected by the Orion-Eridanus Superbubble created by the Wolf-Rayet winds and supernovae from the Ori OB1 association, whose shock fronts compressed and triggered starbirth in adjacent molecular clouds. We present evidence of a formation sequence from the older star association Ori OB1a, which no longer is associated with molecular gas, to Ori OB1b and 1c, which are associated respectively with Orion A and B molecular clouds, and eventually to Ori OB1d currently active in star formation. The Orion-Eridanus Superbubble continues to spread out to NGC 2149, vdB 64, and the Crossbones, and likely also to Mon R2. The triggering by ionization or the superbubble--both consequences of massive stars--would produce stars and disperse molecular clouds much more efficiently than isolation star formation via spontaneous clo...

  5. Recent transmission of a novel alphacoronavirus, bat coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's rousettes to pomona leaf-nosed bats: first evidence of interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different suborders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Kenneth S M; Tsang, Alan K L; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K Y; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H L; Poon, Rosana W S; Lam, Carol S F; Wang, Sylvia Y H; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-11-01

    Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ~40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ~20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of different

  6. Natural epigenetic variation in bats and its role in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Sun, Keping; Jiang, Tinglei; Feng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    When facing the challenges of environmental change, such as habitat fragmentation, organisms have to adjust their phenotype to adapt to various environmental stresses. Recent studies show that epigenetic modifications could mediate environmentally induced phenotypic variation, and this epigenetic variance could be inherited by future generations, indicating that epigenetic processes have potential evolutionary effects. Bats living in diverse environments show geographic variations in phenotype, and the females usually have natal philopatry, presenting an opportunity to explore how environments shape epigenetic marks on the genome and the evolutionary potential of epigenetic variance in bat populations for adaptation. We have explored the natural epigenetic diversity and structure of female populations of the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger), the least horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus pusillus) and the eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique. We have also estimated the effects of genetic variance and ecological variables on epigenetic diversification. All three bat species have a low level of genomic DNA methylation and extensive epigenetic diversity that exceeds the corresponding genetic variance. DNA sequence divergence, epigenetic drift and environmental variables contribute to the epigenetic diversities of each species. Environment-induced epigenetic variation may be inherited as a result of both mitosis and meiosis, and their potential roles in evolution for bat populations are also discussed in this review. PMID:25568456

  7. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens. PMID:26920708

  8. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  9. Bat Bonanza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  10. New distributional records of Bats for the Republic of South Africa, with special reference to the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L Rautenbach

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distributions of seven species of bats in South Africa are discussed. Four species, Hipposideros commersoni, Pipistrellus rueppellii, Tadarida ansorgei and T. fulminans are reported for the first time from South Africa and all but T. @ ansorgei from the Kruger National Park. Rhinolophus simulator and Kerivoula lanosa are recorded for the first time from the Kruger National Park. The subspecies relationship of Eptesicus hottentotus in the eastern part of South Africa is reviewed.

  11. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrel...

  12. New distributional records of Bats for the Republic of South Africa, with special reference to the Kruger National Park

    OpenAIRE

    I.L Rautenbach; D.A. Schlitter; L.E.O Braack

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distributions of seven species of bats in South Africa are discussed. Four species, Hipposideros commersoni, Pipistrellus rueppellii, Tadarida ansorgei and T. fulminans are reported for the first time from South Africa and all but T. @ ansorgei from the Kruger National Park. Rhinolophus simulator and Kerivoula lanosa are recorded for the first time from the Kruger National Park. The subspecies relationship of Eptesicus hottentotus in the eastern part of South Africa is reviewed.

  13. Characteristics of echolocating bats' auditory stereocilia length, compared with other mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qian; ZENG JinYao; ZHENG YongMei; Julia LATHAM; LIANG Bing; JIANG Lei; ZHANG ShuYi

    2007-01-01

    The stereocilia of the Organ of Corti in 4 different echolocating bats, Myotis adversus, Murina leucogaster, Nyctalus plancyi (Nyctalus velutinus), and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stereocilia lengths were estimated for comparison with those of non-echolocating mammals. The specialized lengths of outer hair cells (OHC) stereocilia in echolocating bats were shorter than those of non-echolocating mammals. The specialized lengths of inner hair cells (IHC) stereocilia were longer than those of outer hair cells stereocilia in the Organ of Corti of echolocating bats. These characteristics of the auditory stereocilia length of echolocating bats represent the fine architecture of the electromotility process, helping to adapt to high frequency sound and echolocation.

  14. Comparison of the echolocation behavior in Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum and Chilonycteris rubiginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    1970-01-01

    The results of Novick (1958), Griffin (1962), Kay & Pickvance (1963), A. Pye (1966), Schnitzler (1967, 1968), Ajrapetjanz & Konstantinov (1967), and Konstantinov & Sokolov (1969) show that Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum Schreber, 1774 (RF) produces long pulses of constant frequency with a slight upward

  15. A Real-Time PCR Assay for Bat SARS-Like Coronavirus Detection and Its Application to Italian Greater Horseshoe Bat Faecal Sample Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balboni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bats are source of coronaviruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS virus. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify new bat viruses related to SARS-coronavirus (bat-SARS-like CoVs using a reverse-transcribed-polymerase chain reaction assay. However, a qualitative PCR could underestimate the prevalence of infection, affecting the epidemiological evaluation of bats in viral ecology. In this work an SYBR Green-real time PCR assay was developed for diagnosing infection with SARS-related coronaviruses from bat guano and was applied as screening tool in a survey carried out on 45 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum sampled in Italy in 2009. The assay showed high sensitivity and reproducibility. Its application on bats screening resulted in a prevalence of 42%. This method could be suitable as screening tool in epidemiological surveys about the presence of bat-SARS-like CoVs, consequently to obtain a more realistic scenario of the viral prevalence in the population.

  16. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrelia garinii was found in one tick parasitizing Myotis daubentonii. These pathogens were recorded for the first time in hard ticks that parasitized bats. PMID:26833325

  17. The Canis Major dwarf galaxy as the progenitor of the Monoceros tidal stream

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Delgado, D; Dinescu, D I; Butler, D J; Rix, H W; Martinez-Delgado, David; Penarrubia, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has recently discovered a coherent ring of stars at low galactic latitude that is believed to be the tidal stream of a merging dwarf galaxy in the Galactic plane (named the Monoceros tidal stream). The existence and location of the core of its progenitor galaxy is still controversial. The best candidate is the Canis Major dwarf galaxy, a distinct overdensity of red stars discovered in the 2MASS survey, but also interpreted as the signature of the Galactic warp viewed in projection. In this paper, we report a variety of new observational evidence that supports the notion that CMa is the remnant of a partially disrupted core of a dwarf satellite. The comparison of the orbit derived from our theoretical model for the parent galaxy of this ring-like structure with an accurate determination of CMa orbit leads to the conclusion that this satellite is the best candidate for the progenitor of the Monoceros tidal stream.

  18. Abjection and violence in Monoceros, by Suzette Mayr

    OpenAIRE

    Liane Schneider

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of Monoceros (2011), a novel by Canadian contemporary writer Suzette Mayr, we examine the entanglement between concepts of violence and abjection in literature. Mayr presents several characters that come into contact as a result of a suicide committed by a previously bullied student of a Catholic school. With the narrative as a reference, we propose to discuss the growing violence inside the school system in contemporary times, in this case as a result of sexual intoleran...

  19. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Qin, S Y; Wang, W; He, B; Hu, T S; Wu, J M; Fan, Q S; Tu, C C; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

    2014-07-14

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect a wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including bats. Limited information on T. gondii infection in bats is available in China. The objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in bats in southern China. A total of 608 bats representing 12 species, including 120 Aselliscus stoliczkanus, 59 Myotis chinensis, 11 Miniopterus schreibersii, 53 Rhinolophus affinis, 32 Rhinolophus pusillus, 81 Hipposideros armiger, 28 Hipposideros fulvus, 32 Cynopterus brachyotis, 14 Cynopterus sphinx, 45 Eonycteris spelaea, 109 Hipposideros larvatus, and 24 Taphozous melanopogon, were collected from Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, southern China. They were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA by amplification of the B1 gene using a nested PCR, and the positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic loci (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Fifty-nine (9.7%) of these bats were detected positive by PCR but only five of these positive DNA samples were completely typed at all loci; of which 4 samples, 2 from A. stoliczkanus, and 2 from H. larvatus, belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #10, and the other one from H. larvatus was identified as ToxoDB Genotype #9 (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular detection and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in bats in China. The results show that these bats are potential reservoirs for T. gondii transmission, which may pose a threat to human health. PMID:24813744

  20. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Boniotti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii, three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros, and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii. This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses.

  1. Detection of coronaviruses in bats of various species in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B

    2013-11-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl's pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  2. Identification of Mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 in Italian bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, D; Moreno, A; Lavazza, A; Bresaola, M; Canelli, E; Boniotti, M B; Cordioli, P

    2013-02-01

    Summary This study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) in microbats. Faecal samples and dead individuals available from rehabilitation centres or collected from known roost sites were virologically tested. In total, 112 carcasses of bats found dead, and 44 faecal samples were analysed. Nineteen viral strains were isolated by in vitro cell culture from faecal and tissue samples of different bat species (Pipistrellus khulii, Tadarida teniotis, Rhinolophus hipposideros and Vespertilio murinus), and they were morphologically identified as reoviruses by negative staining electron microscopy observation. The definitive assignment of all isolates to MRV was confirmed by RT-PCR assays targeting the L1 gene. Through a multiplex RT-PCR assay targeting the S1 gene, we typed 15 of 19 isolates as MRV type 3. Partial L1 (416 bp) and complete S1 (1416 bp) sequences of the isolates were analysed and compared with those of reference strains obtained from GenBank, belonging to the three serotypes. Molecular analysis of the S1 gene revealed that the amino acid residues associated with neurotropism (198-204NLAIRLP, 249I, 350D and 419E) were highly conserved among the Italian bat strains. These results suggest that potentially neurotropic MRV type 3 strains are widespread among Italian bats. Furthermore, the identification of MRV type 3 in bat species such as Pipistrellus Khulii, which is common in urban areas and known for its close contact with humans, underlines the need for vigilance. PMID:22931153

  3. Identification of sympatric bat species by the echolocation calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight echolocation calls of 63 free-flying individuals of five bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum,Myotis formosus,Myotis ikonnikovi,Myotis daubentoni and Murina leucogaster)were recorded (by ultrasonic bat detector (D980)) in Zhi'an village of Jilin Province,China.According to the frequency-time spectra,these calls were categorized into two types:FM/CF (constant frequency) / FM (R.ferrumequinum) and FM (frequency modulated)(M.formosus,M.ikonnikovi,M.daubentoni and M.leucogaster).Sonograms of the calls of R.ferrumequinum could easily be distinguished from those of the other four species.For the calls of the remaining four species,six echolocation call parameters,including starting frequency,ending frequency,peak frequency duration,longest inter-pulse interval and shortest inter-pulse interval,were examined by stepwise discriminant analysis.The results show that 84.1% of calls were correctly classified,which indicates that these parameters of echolocation calls play an important role in identifying bat species.These parameters can be used to test the accuracy of general predictions based on bats' morphology in the same forest and can provide essential information for assessing patterns of bat habitat use.

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria species in Philippine bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Sano, Kaori; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Alviola, Philip; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Alvarez, James; Une, Yumi; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Sugiura, Yuki; Kato, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Bats are naturally infected with zoonotic pathogens; thus, they are potential reservoirs of parasites. We investigated the species and genotype distribution as well as prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria in Philippine bats. We captured and examined 45 bats; four were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and seven were positive for Eimeria spp. We detected Cryptosporidium bat genotype II from Ptenochirus jagori. Three other Cryptosporidium sequences, detected from Rhinolophus inops, Cynopterus brachyotis, and Eonycteris spelaea, could not be classified as any known species or genotype; we therefore propose the novel genotype Cryptosporidium bat genotypes V, VI, and VII. Bat genotype V is associated with human cryptosporidiosis clade, and therefore, this genotype may be transmissible to humans. Among the Eimeria sequences, BE3 detected from Scotophilus kuhlii was classified with known bat and rodent clades; however, other sequences detected from C. brachyotis, E. spelaea, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, and R. inops could not be classified with known Eimeria species. These isolates might represent a new genotype. Our findings demonstrate that the bats of the Philippines represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium and Eimeria spp. PMID:26833326

  5. Some Factors Behind Density Dynamics Of Bat Flies (Diptera, Nycteribiidae — Ectoparasites Of The Boreal Chiropterans: Omitted Predictors And Hurdle Model Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova M. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated density dynamics of three bat flies species (Diptera, Nycteribiidae: Penicillidia monoceros Speiser, 1900, Nycteribia quasiocellata (Theodor, 1966, Basilia rybini (Hurka, 1969 parasitized on two host species: pond bat, Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825, and eastern water bat, Myotis petax Hollister, 1912. Females of M. dasycneme have 3.4 (95 % CI 1.4–8.3 times higher odds of being infested, and in 2.4 (1.5–3.7 times higher average number of P. monoceros than males. Similarly, females of M. petax have 1.7 (1.2–2.4 times higher density of N. quasiocellata and/or B. rybini. We hypothesized an existence of host-sex-recognition mechanism in bat flies, providing it fine “ecological profit” due to sex-biased dispersal among adult host during wintering and the chance to infested a host offspring later (in summer. The decrease (due to mortality or emigration in density of bat flies can be described as simple harmonic or S-shaped curve, and its “step” apparently corresponds to time of host pairing.

  6. Host specificity in bat ectoparasites: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sampath S; Fernando, H Chandrika; Udagama-Randeniya, Preethi V

    2009-07-15

    We undertook a field study to determine patterns of specialisation of ectoparasites in cave-dwelling bats in Sri Lanka. The hypothesis tested was that strict host specificity (monoxeny) could evolve through the development of differential species preferences through association with the different host groups. Three species of cave-dwelling bats were chosen to represent a wide range of host-parasite associations (monoxeny to polyxeny), and both sympatric and allopatric roosting assemblages. Of the eight caves selected, six caves were "allopatric" roosts where two of each housed only one of the three host species examined: Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus rouxi and Hipposideros speoris (Rhinolophidae). The remaining two caves were "sympatric" roosts and housed all three host species. Thirty bats of each species were examined for ectoparasites in each cave, which resulted in a collection of nycteribiid and streblid flies, an ischnopsyllid bat flea, argasid and ixodid ticks, and mites belonging to three families. The host specificity of bat parasites showed a trend to monoxeny in which 70% of the 30 species reported were monoxenous. Odds ratios derived from chi(2)-tests revealed two levels of host preferences in less-specific parasites (i) the parasite was found on two host species under conditions of both host sympatry and host allopatry, with a preference for a single host in the case of host sympatry and (ii) the preference for a single host was very high, hence under conditions of host sympatry, it was confined to the preferred host only. However, under conditions of host allopatry, it utilized both hosts. There appears to be an increasing prevalence in host preferences of the parasites toward confinement to a single host species. The ecological isolation of the bat hosts and a long history of host-parasite co-existence could have contributed to an overall tendency of bat ectoparasites to become specialists, here reflected in the high percentage

  7. Hearing Characteristics and Doppler Shift Compensation in South Indian CF-FM Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Gerd

    1980-01-01

    1. Echolocation pulses, Doppler shift compensation behaviour under laboratory conditions and frequency response characteristics of hearing were recorded inRhinolophus rouxi, Hipposideros speoris andHipposideros bicolor. 2. The frequencies of the constant frequency portions of the CF-FM pulses lie at about 82.8 kHz forR. rouxi from Mahabaleshwar, at 85.2 kHz forR. rouxi from Mysore. Hipposiderid bats have considerably higher frequencies at 135 kHz inH. speoris and 154.5 kHz inH. bicolor...

  8. VLBA determination of the distance to nearby star-forming regions VII. Monoceros R2

    OpenAIRE

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Gisela N. Ortiz-León; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Luis F. Rodríguez; Torres, Rosa M.; Deller, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of sixteen Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) high angular resolution observations of a cluster of suspected low-mass young stars in the Monoceros R2 region. Four compact and highly variable radio sources are detected; three of them in only one epoch, the fourth one a total of seven times. This latter source is seen in the direction to the previously known \\UCHII\\ region VLA~1, and has radio properties that resemble those of magnetically active stars; we shall call it VLA~1$^...

  9. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zukal

    Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  10. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonicka, Tomas; Berkova, Hana; Brack, Virgil; Brichta, Jiri; Dolinay, Matej; Jaron, Kamil S; Kovacova, Veronika; Kovarik, Miroslav; Martínková, Natália; Ondracek, Karel; Rehak, Zdenek; Turner, Gregory G; Pikula, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS), in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection. PMID:24820101

  11. The peripheral auditory characteristics of noctuid moths: responses to the search-phase echolocation calls of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters; Jones

    1996-01-01

    The noctuid moths Agrotis segetum and Noctua pronuba show peak auditory sensitivity between 15 and 25 kHz, and a maximum sensitivity of 35 dB SPL. A. segetum shows a temporal integration time of 69 ms. It is predicted that bats using high-frequency and short-duration calls will be acoustically less apparent to these moths. Short-duration frequency-modulated (FM) calls of Plecotus auritus are not significantly less acoustically apparent than those of other FM bats with slightly longer call durations, based on their combined frequency and temporal structure alone. Long-duration, high-frequency, constant-frequency (CF) calls of Rhinolophus hipposideros at 113 kHz are significantly less apparent than those of the FM bats tested. The predicted low call apparency of the 83 kHz CF calls of R. ferrumequinum appears to be counteracted by their long duration. It is proposed that two separate mechanisms are exploited by bats to reduce their call apparency, low intensity in FM bats and high frequency in CF bats. Within the FM bats tested, shorter-duration calls do not significantly reduce the apparency of the call at the peripheral level, though they may limit the amount of information available to the central nervous system. PMID:9318627

  12. Bat consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases.Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to under...

  13. Temporal Variability of Interstellar Na I Absorption Toward The Monoceros Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Dirks, Cody

    2016-01-01

    We report the first evidence of temporal variability in the interstellar Na I absorption toward HD 47240, which lies behind the Monoceros Loop supernova remnant (SNR). Analysis of multi-epoch Kitt Peak coud\\'{e} feed spectra from this sightline taken over an eight-year period reveals significant variation in both the observed column density and the central velocities of the high-velocity gas components in these spectra. Given the $\\sim$1.3 mas yr$^{-1}$ proper motion of HD 47240 and a SNR distance of 1.6 kpc, this variation would imply $\\sim$10 AU fluctuations within the SNR shell. Similar variations have been previously reported in the Vela supernova remnant, suggesting a connection between the expanding supernova remnant gas and the observed variations. We speculate on the potential nature of the observed variations toward HD 47240 in the context of the expanding remnant gas interacting with the ambient ISM.

  14. Past and present population dynamics of narwhals Monodon monoceros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva

    The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized odontocete whale, endemic to the Atlantic sector of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. In both Canada and Greenland, subsistence hunting of narwhals by the Inuit has existed for centuries and still today the narwhals are hunted for their precious tusks......, are vital. Estimation of life history parameters for the narwhal has previously been hindered by lack of a reliable age estimation technique. The Aspartic Acid Racemization (AAR) technique is a relatively novel method that I have applied to narwhals. This PhD thesis focuses, in part, on current population...... dynamics and life history of the narwhal by estimating life history parameters and creating age distributions using the AAR technique. The thesis includes several studies involving the application of AAR in age estimation. We conclude that the AAR technique is indeed a reliable method for age estimation...

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in bats from Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cao, Lili; He, Biao; Li, Jiping; Hu, Tingsong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Fan, Quanshui; Tu, Changchun; Liu, Quan

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in bats. A total of 247 bats, belonging to Rhinolophus sinicus , Rousettus leschenaultia, Aselliscus stoliczkanus , and Hipposideros fulvus , were collected in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and the intestinal tissues were examined for Cryptosporidium infection by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA). The overall infection rate was 7.7% (95% CI, 4.5 to 11.0%), with R. sinicus having the highest level at 9.5% (95% CI, 2.8 to 16.1%) followed by A. stoliczkanus at 7.8% (95% CI, 2.2 to 18.9%), H. fulvus at 7.2% (95% CI, 1.1 to 13.4%), and R. leschenaultia at 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 15.7%). DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA revealed the presence of 2 novel genotypes, designated as Cryptosporidium bat genotype I in A. stoliczkanus and R. sinicus and Cryptosporidium bat genotype II in R. leschenaultia, R. sinicus , and H. fulvus . This is the first report of Cryptosporidium genotypes in bats. Further biological and genetic characterization is needed to determine the relationship of the 2 novel genotypes to established Cryptosporidium species-genotypes. PMID:23886252

  16. Detection and Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Bats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Steyer, Andrej; Nagliˇc, Tina; Chiapponi, Chiara; Prosperi, Alice; Faccin, Francesca; Sozzi, Enrica; Lavazza, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    A renewed interest in mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) has emerged since new viruses related to bat MRV type 3, detected in Europe, were identified in humans and pigs with gastroenteritis. This study reports the isolation and characterization of a novel reassortant MRV from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros). The isolate, here designated BatMRV1-IT2011, was first identified by electron microscopy and confirmed using PCR and virus-neutralization tests. The full genome sequence was obtained by next-generation sequencing. Molecular and antigenic characterizations revealed that BatMRV1-IT2011 belonged to serotype 1, which had not previously been identified in bats. Phylogenetic and recombination detection program analyses suggested that BatMRV1-IT2011 was a reassortant strain containing an S1 genome segment similar to those of MRV T1/bovine/Maryland/Clone23/59 and C/bovine/ Indiana/MRV00304/2014, while other segments were more similar to MRVs of different hosts, origins and serotypes. The presence of neutralizing antibodies against MRVs has also been investigated in animals (dogs, pigs, bovines and horses). Preliminary results suggested that MRVs are widespread in animals and that infections containing multiple serotypes, including MRVs of serotype 1 with an S1 gene similar to BatMRV1-IT2011, are common. This paper extends the current knowledge of MRVs and stresses the importance to continue and improve MRV surveillance in bats and other mammals through the development and standardization of specific diagnostic tools. PMID:26569289

  17. Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J

    2008-12-01

    The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs. PMID:19043053

  18. Detection and Characterization of a Novel Reassortant Mammalian Orthoreovirus in Bats in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A renewed interest in mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs has emerged since new viruses related to bat MRV type 3, detected in Europe, were identified in humans and pigs with gastroenteritis. This study reports the isolation and characterization of a novel reassortant MRV from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros. The isolate, here designated BatMRV1-IT2011, was first identified by electron microscopy and confirmed using PCR and virus-neutralization tests. The full genome sequence was obtained by next-generation sequencing. Molecular and antigenic characterizations revealed that BatMRV1-IT2011 belonged to serotype 1, which had not previously been identified in bats. Phylogenetic and recombination detection program analyses suggested that BatMRV1-IT2011 was a reassortant strain containing an S1 genome segment similar to those of MRV T1/bovine/Maryland/Clone23/59 and C/bovine/ Indiana/MRV00304/2014, while other segments were more similar to MRVs of different hosts, origins and serotypes. The presence of neutralizing antibodies against MRVs has also been investigated in animals (dogs, pigs, bovines and horses. Preliminary results suggested that MRVs are widespread in animals and that infections containing multiple serotypes, including MRVs of serotype 1 with an S1 gene similar to BatMRV1-IT2011, are common. This paper extends the current knowledge of MRVs and stresses the importance to continue and improve MRV surveillance in bats and other mammals through the development and standardization of specific diagnostic tools.

  19. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays cdcinfo@cdc.gov Bats Learning about bats and rabies Coming in contact with ...

  20. A Megacam Survey of Outer Halo Satellites. IV. Two foreground populations possibly associated with the Monoceros substructure in the direction of NGC2419 and Koposov2

    CERN Document Server

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Cote, Patrick; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D; Djorgovski, S G

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the Galactic halo stellar structure known as the Monoceros ring is still under debate. In this work, we study that halo substructure using deep CFHT wide-field photometry obtained for the globular clusters NGC2419 and Koposov2, where the presence of Monoceros becomes significant because of their coincident projected position. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and spectroscopy in the area surrounding these globulars and beyond, where the same Monoceros population is detected, we conclude that a second feature, not likely to be associated with Milky Way disk stars along the line-of-sight, is present as foreground population. Our analysis suggests that the Monoceros ring might be composed of an old stellar population of age t ~ 9Gyr and a new component ~ 4Gyr younger at the same heliocentric distance. Alternatively, this detection might be associated with a second wrap of Monoceros in that direction of the sky and also indicate a metallicity spread in the ring. The detection of such a low-d...

  1. Isolation and identification of a natural reassortant mammalian orthoreovirus from least horseshoe bat in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    Full Text Available Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs have a wide geographic distribution and can infect virtually all mammals. Infections in humans may be either symptomatic or asymptomatic. This study describes the isolation and identification of a natural reassortant MRV from least horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus pusillu in China, referred to as RpMRV-YN2012.The RpMRV-YN2012 was obtained from urine samples of Rhinolophus pusillus by cell culture. Negative-staining electron microscopy revealed that RpMRV-YN2012 was a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with ∼75 nm in diameter. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE migration patterns of the genome segments showed that RpMRV-YN2012 contained 10 segments in a 3:3:4 arrangement. The whole genome sequence of RpMRV2012 was determined. The consensus terminal sequences of all segments of 5'-GCUAh…yUCAUC-3' (h = A, U or C; y = C or U were similar to the MRV species within the genus Orthoreovirus. Its evolution and evidence of genetic reassortment were analyzed by sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that RpMRV-YN2012 is a novel serotype 2 MRV that may have originated from reassortment among bat, human, and/or pig MRV strains which associated with diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis and necrotizing encephalopathy in animals and humans.RpMRV-YN2012 is a novel bat reassortant MRV, which may have resulted from a reassortment involving MRVs known to infect humans and animals. It is necessary to identify whether RpMRV-YN2012 is associated with diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis and necrotizing encephalopathy in clinical patients. In addition, we should carefully monitor its evolution and virulence in real time.

  2. Kinematics of the ionized-to-neutral interfaces in Monoceros R2

    CERN Document Server

    Pilleri, P; Gerin, M; Cernicharo, J; Goicoechea, J R; Ossenkopf, V; Joblin, C; González-García, M; Treviño-Morales, S P; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Pety, J; Berné, O; Kramer, C

    2013-01-01

    Context. Monoceros R2 (Mon R2), at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultra-compact H ii region (UC H ii) where its associated photon-dominated region (PDR) can be resolved with the Herschel Space Observatory. Aims. Our aim is to investigate observationally the kinematical patterns in the interface regions (i.e., the transition from atomic to molecular gas) associated with Mon R2. Methods. We used the HIFI instrument onboard Herschel to observe the line profiles of the reactive ions CH+, OH+ and H2O+ toward different positions in Mon R2. We derive the column density of these molecules and compare them with gas-phase chemistry models. Results. The reactive ion CH+ is detected both in emission (at central and red-shifted velocities) and in absorption (at blue-shifted velocities). OH+ is detected in absorption at both blue- and red-shifted velocities, with similar column densities. H2O+ is not detected at any of the positions, down to a rms of 40 mK toward the molecular peak. At this position, we find that the OH...

  3. VLBA Determination of the Distance to Nearby Star-forming Regions. VII. Monoceros R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Torres, Rosa M.; Deller, Adam

    2016-08-01

    We present a series of 16 Very Long Baseline Array high angular resolution observations of a cluster of suspected low-mass young stars in the Monoceros R2 region. Four compact and highly variable radio sources are detected; three of them in only one epoch, the fourth one a total of seven times. This latter source is seen in the direction of the previously known UC H ii region VLA 1, and has radio properties that resemble those of magnetically active stars; we shall call it VLA 1⋆. We model its displacement on the celestial sphere as a combination of proper motion and trigonometric parallax. The fit obtained using a uniform proper motion yields a parallax ϖ = 1.10 ± 0.18 mas, but with a fairly high post-fit dispersion. If acceleration terms (probably due to an undetected companion) are included, the quality of the fit improves dramatically, and the best estimate of the parallax becomes ϖ = 1.12 ± 0.05 mas. The magnitude of the fitted acceleration suggests an orbital period of the order of a decade. The measured parallax corresponds to a distance d = {893}-40+44 {pc} , in very good agreement with previous, indirect determinations.

  4. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Monoceros Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Katagiri, H; Ackermann, M; Ballet, J; Casandjian, J M; Hanabata, Y; Hewitt, J W; Kerr, M; Kubo, H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Ray, P S

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope onboard the \\textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} in the region of the supernova remnant~(SNR) Monoceros Loop~(G205.5$+$0.5). The brightest gamma-ray peak is spatially correlated with the Rosette Nebula, which is a molecular cloud complex adjacent to the southeast edge of the SNR. After subtraction of this emission by spatial modeling, the gamma-ray emission from the SNR emerges, which is extended and fit by a Gaussian spatial template. The gamma-ray spectra are significantly better reproduced by a curved shape than a simple power law. The luminosities between 0.2--300~GeV are $\\sim$~$4 \\times 10^{34}$~erg~s$^{-1}$ for the SNR and $\\sim$~$3 \\times 10^{34}$~erg~s$^{-1}$ for the Rosette Nebula, respectively. We argue that the gamma rays likely originate from the interactions of particles accelerated in the SNR. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions of accelerated hadrons with interstellar gas provid...

  5. VLBA determination of the distance to nearby star-forming regions VII. Monoceros R2

    CERN Document Server

    Dzib, Sergio A; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Rodríguez, Luis F; Torres, Rosa M; Deller, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of sixteen Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) high angular resolution observations of a cluster of suspected low-mass young stars in the Monoceros R2 region. Four compact and highly variable radio sources are detected; three of them in only one epoch, the fourth one a total of seven times. This latter source is seen in the direction to the previously known \\UCHII\\ region VLA~1, and has radio properties that resemble those of magnetically active stars; we shall call it VLA~1$^\\star$. We model its displacement on the celestial sphere as a combination of proper motion and trigonometric parallax. The fit obtained using a uniform proper motion yields a parallax $\\varpi$ = 1.10 $\\pm$ 0.18 mas, but with a fairly high post-fit dispersion. If acceleration terms (probably due to an undetected companion) are included, the quality of the fit improves dramatically, and the best estimate of the parallax becomes $\\varpi$ = 1.12 $\\pm$ 0.05 mas. The magnitude of the fitted acceleration suggest an orbital peri...

  6. A hybrid bat algorithm:

    OpenAIRE

    Fister, Iztok; Yang, Xin-She; Fister, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is a very powerful technique to be used for optimization purposes. In this paper we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, based on the bat algorithm. The Bat algorithm is hybridized with differential evolution strategies. Besides showing very promising results of the standard benchmark functions, this hybridization also significantly improves the original bat algorithm.

  7. Distribution and diversity of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy / Distribuzione e diversità dei chirotteri troglofili della regione laziale (Italia centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An attempt was made to evaluate the diversity and distribution of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy. Data about twelve species were examined and their frequency have been determined. Only Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros are really frequent: the other species are more or less localized. The average number of species (2,63 has a great importance for future contro1 of cave bat populations. Similarity between cave bat coenosis was examined, together with the altitude distribution of five species. The relation between altitudinal range, number of caves and average number of species was also studied: between 801 and 1000 m.s.l., the last parameter increases considerably and a hypothesis is presented to explain the phenomenon. This troglophilous bat fauna is probably very rich in species in comparison with other Italian bat communities. Riassunto Viene svolta un'analisi delle cenosi di Chirotteri troglofili dell'Italia Centrale. Vengono esaminati i dati relativi a 12 specie; di ciascuna è stata determinata la frequenza. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum e R. hipposideros risultano le specie più frequenti. I1 numero medio di specie (2,63 assume un importante significato ai fini del controllo delle chirotterofaune troglofile. L'affinità tra le chirotterofaune è stata esaminata, analogamente alla distribuzione altitudinale di cinque specie. Range altitudinale, numero delle cavità e numero medio di specie sono comparati: fra 801 e 1000 m, si osserva un aumento dell'ultimo parametro e vengono formulate ipotesi per spiegare il fenomeno. La ricchezza di specie del Lazio viene evidenziata dal confronto con altre chirotterofaune troglofile regionali italiane.

  8. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Ellison

    Full Text Available Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%. Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus. RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S. The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation.

  9. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  10. [Rabies in bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans. PMID:27450525

  11. [Rabies in bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans.

  12. 河南省栾川县伏牛山发现翼手目物种大菊头蝠%Rhinolophus luctus Found in Funiu Mountain, Luanchuan Country, Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婵; 王艳梅; 牛红星

    2013-01-01

    During the survey of cave bat in Henan Province,three specimens of Rhinolophus luctus were caught in the Water Cannel (N31 °41 ′,E115°04′)-Hushan Reservoir,Shawo Town,Xinxian County,Xinyang City,the Taohua Cave (32°23′ N,113° 16′ E)-Tongbai Mountain,Tongbai County,Nanyang City,and the Longyuwan Mine (N33°42′,E11 1 °45′)-Funiu Mountain,Luanchuan County,Luoyang City respectively from March to November,2011.These specimens were identified as R.luctuslanous after measured the morphological parameters as well as those in other regions.This is the first time of the record of this species in Henan Province.The distribution of R.luctus in Henan Province is also discussed.Specimens are deposited in the herbarium of Henan normal university.%2011年3月至11月,在调查河南省洞栖蝙蝠过程中,分别在河南省信阳市新县沙窝镇胡山水库引水渠(N31°41′,E115°04′)、南阳市桐柏县桐柏山太白顶桃花洞(32°23′N,113°16′E)、洛阳市栾川县伏牛山龙峪湾矿洞(N33°42′,E111°45′)3地观察到大菊头蝠(Rhinolophus luctus),并各捕获1只个体共3只,对其外形和头骨特征进行了测量、描述,与其他地区的大菊头蝠进行了比较,经鉴定为大菊头蝠华南亚种(R.luctus lanous).标本现保存于河南师范大学标本馆.本文还探讨了大菊头蝠在河南省的分布状况.

  13. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  14. Interplay of lancet furrows and shape change in the horseshoe bat noseleaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam K; Webster, Dane; Müller, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    Horseshoe bats emit biosonar pulses through the nostrils and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic pulses with baffles, so-called "noseleaves," that surround the nostrils. The noseleaves have complex static geometries and can furthermore undergo dynamic shape changes during emission of the biosonar pulses. The posterior noseleaf part, the lancet, has been shown to carry out anterior-posterior flicking motions during biosonar emissions with average lancet tip displacements of about 1 mm. Here, the acoustic effects of the interplay between the lancet furrows and shape change (lancet rotation) on the emission beam were investigated using the animated digital models obtained from the noseleaves of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). It was found that forward lancet rotations increase the amount of sound energy allocated to secondary amplitude maxima (sidelobes) in the beampattern, but only in the presence of the furrows. The interaction between static and dynamic features can be readily quantified by roughness (standard deviation about local mean) of the amplitude distribution of the beampatterns. This effect goes beyond the static impact of the furrows on the width of the mainlobe. It could allow the bats to send out their pulses through a sequence of qualitatively different beampatterns. PMID:26627792

  15. LATEGLACIAL BATS FROM THE “M” LAYERS OF THE ARENE CANDIDE CAVE (LIGURIA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO SALARI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arene Candide Cave (Finale Ligure, Northern Italy is considered one of the most important prehistoric site in Italy. The archaeological excavations conducted by the “Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana” of Rome revealed 3 different horizons: an upper horizon with Holocene human presence dated from the Neolithic to the Byzantine period, and two underlying Pleistocene horizons with Gravettian and Epigravettian lithic artefacts. The stratigraphical sequence of the upper Palaeolithic is divided in two groups of strata separated by a depositional gap: the “P” complex, divided in 13 layers, dated from 25,620 to 18,560 years BP, and the 5 “M” layers dated between 11,750 and 9,980 years BP (14C non-calibrated dating.In this paper the fossil bone remains of bats from “M” layers are described. Fifteen taxa, divided into 3 families and 6 genera have been identified: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. mehelyi, R. euryale, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. capaccinii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus s.l., Myotis sp. (small sized, Plecotus auritus s.l., Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. noctula, Barbastella barbastellus and Miniopterus schreibersii. Comments for each of these taxa on current ecological and geographical distributions are presented, together with some osteometric measures and recent data referred to Late Pleistocene fossils bats in Italy. Finally, the value of this bat tanathocoenoses as a microclimatic, environmental, and human activity indicators is discussed. SHORT NOTE

  16. Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yijian; Cui, Jie; Liu, Yang; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Liao, Chen-Chung; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), fumarylacetoacetase (FAH), involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.

  17. The importance of distance to resources in the spatial modelling of bat foraging habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainho, Ana; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2011-01-01

    Many bats are threatened by habitat loss, but opportunities to manage their habitats are now increasing. Success of management depends greatly on the capacity to determine where and how interventions should take place, so models predicting how animals use landscapes are important to plan them. Bats are quite distinctive in the way they use space for foraging because (i) most are colonial central-place foragers and (ii) exploit scattered and distant resources, although this increases flying costs. To evaluate how important distances to resources are in modelling foraging bat habitat suitability, we radio-tracked two cave-dwelling species of conservation concern (Rhinolophus mehelyi and Miniopterus schreibersii) in a Mediterranean landscape. Habitat and distance variables were evaluated using logistic regression modelling. Distance variables greatly increased the performance of models, and distance to roost and to drinking water could alone explain 86 and 73% of the use of space by M. schreibersii and R. mehelyi, respectively. Land-cover and soil productivity also provided a significant contribution to the final models. Habitat suitability maps generated by models with and without distance variables differed substantially, confirming the shortcomings of maps generated without distance variables. Indeed, areas shown as highly suitable in maps generated without distance variables proved poorly suitable when distance variables were also considered. We concluded that distances to resources are determinant in the way bats forage across the landscape, and that using distance variables substantially improves the accuracy of suitability maps generated with spatially explicit models. Consequently, modelling with these variables is important to guide habitat management in bats and similarly mobile animals, particularly if they are central-place foragers or depend on spatially scarce resources. PMID:21547076

  18. The importance of distance to resources in the spatial modelling of bat foraging habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rainho

    Full Text Available Many bats are threatened by habitat loss, but opportunities to manage their habitats are now increasing. Success of management depends greatly on the capacity to determine where and how interventions should take place, so models predicting how animals use landscapes are important to plan them. Bats are quite distinctive in the way they use space for foraging because (i most are colonial central-place foragers and (ii exploit scattered and distant resources, although this increases flying costs. To evaluate how important distances to resources are in modelling foraging bat habitat suitability, we radio-tracked two cave-dwelling species of conservation concern (Rhinolophus mehelyi and Miniopterus schreibersii in a Mediterranean landscape. Habitat and distance variables were evaluated using logistic regression modelling. Distance variables greatly increased the performance of models, and distance to roost and to drinking water could alone explain 86 and 73% of the use of space by M. schreibersii and R. mehelyi, respectively. Land-cover and soil productivity also provided a significant contribution to the final models. Habitat suitability maps generated by models with and without distance variables differed substantially, confirming the shortcomings of maps generated without distance variables. Indeed, areas shown as highly suitable in maps generated without distance variables proved poorly suitable when distance variables were also considered. We concluded that distances to resources are determinant in the way bats forage across the landscape, and that using distance variables substantially improves the accuracy of suitability maps generated with spatially explicit models. Consequently, modelling with these variables is important to guide habitat management in bats and similarly mobile animals, particularly if they are central-place foragers or depend on spatially scarce resources.

  19. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G; Waters, D A

    2000-08-22

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

  20. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-08

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.  Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/17/2006.

  1. Determinants and patterns of reproductive success in the greater horseshoe bat during a population recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Ward

    Full Text Available An individual's reproductive success will depend on traits that increase access to mates, as well as the number of mates available. In most well-studied mammals, males are the larger sex, and body size often increases success in intra-sexual contests and thus paternity. In comparison, the determinants of male success in species with reversed sexual size dimorphism (RSD are less well understood. Greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum exhibit RSD and females appear to exert mate choice when they visit and copulate with males in their underground territories. Here we assessed putative determinants of reproductive success in a colony of greater horseshoe bats during a 19-year period of rapid population growth. We genotyped 1080 bats with up to 40 microsatellite loci and assigned maternity to 99.5% of pups, and paternity to 76.8% of pups. We found that in spite of RSD, paternity success correlated positively with male size, and, consistent with our previous findings, also with age. Female reproductive success, which has not previously been studied in this population, was also age-related and correlated positively with individual heterozygosity, but not with body size. Remarkable male reproductive skew was detected that initially increased steadily with population size, possibly coinciding with the saturation of suitable territories, but then levelled off suggesting an upper limit to a male's number of partners. Our results illustrate that RSD can occur alongside intense male sexual competition, that male breeding success is density-dependent, and that male and female greater horseshoe bats are subject to different selective pressures.

  2. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and South America. Does bat flu pose a threat to human health? Preliminary laboratory research at CDC ... a flu virus to attach to and gain entry into a human respiratory tract cell. Likewise, NA ...

  3. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  4. Bat hibernacula in a cave-rich landscape of the northern Dinaric karst, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krystufek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe northern Dinaric karst in Slovenia (area 6880 km2 has 5470 caves of variable size (length 2–20570 m, depth up to 650 m scattered along the entire elevation gradient of the region (74–1785 m above sea level. Sixteen bat species, of 26 known to occur in the area, were recorded in 156 caves (118 hibernacula between 1990 and 2003. Miniopterus schreibersii was the most abundant species observed in these caves (74.0% of the total number of hibernating individuals, followed by three species of Rhinolophus (24.9%, but the remaining 12 species formed only a small proportion of those observed (1.1%. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros were the only widespread species, hibernating in 66 and 106 caves, respectively. The majority of hibernating bats (89.9% occurred in ten caves whereas 71 hibernacula (60.2% were occupied by ≤ 10 bats each. Hibernacula were 10–13092 m long (median = 160 m, 1–250 m deep (median = 21 m and located 98–1200 m above sea level (median = 466 m. Wintering bats were not randomly dispersed among caves in the region and tended to occur in longer and deeper caves located at low elevations. Of the ten most important hibernacula in the study area, nine can be accessed by human visitors. One of the largest potential hibernacula had been progressively commercially exploited from the beginning of the 19th century and has thereby lost at least three cave-dwelling bat species, including Rhinolophus blasii, which is now locally extinct in the Dinaric karst of Slovenia. Riassunto Caratterizzazione dei siti di svernamento della chirotterofauna nel Carso Dinarico settentrionale, Slovenia. Nella porzione settentrionale del Carso Dinarico in Slovenia (superficie di 6880 km2 sono presenti 5470 grotte, con differenti dimensioni e caratteristiche (lunghezze comprese tra 2 e 20570 m, profondit

  5. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Carter; Lauren Leffer

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus...

  6. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  7. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, N.A.; Morón, S.V.; Berciano, José M.; Nicolas, O.; López, C.A.; Nevado, C.R.; Juste, Javier; Setién, A.A.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  8. New Adenovirus in Bats, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag, Michael; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats.

  9. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putat

  10. Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

  11. MetaBAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool

  12. How and why overcome the impediments to resolution: lessons from rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nicole M; Thong, Vu Dinh; Soisook, Pipat; Goodman, Steven M; Armstrong, Kyle N; Jacobs, David S; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Teeling, Emma C

    2015-02-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships among the Old World leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) and the closely related horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) remain unresolved. In this study, we generated a novel approximately 10-kb molecular data set of 19 nuclear exon and intron gene fragments for 40 bat species to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. We estimated divergence times and explored potential reasons for any incongruent phylogenetic signal. We demonstrated the effects of outlier taxa and genes on phylogenetic reconstructions and compared the relative performance of intron and exon data to resolve phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses produced a well-resolved phylogeny, supporting the familial status of Hipposideridae and demonstrated the paraphyly of the largest genus, Hipposideros. A fossil-calibrated timetree and biogeographical analyses estimated that Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae diverged in Africa during the Eocene approximately 42 Ma. The phylogram, the timetree, and a unique retrotransposon insertion supported the elevation of the subtribe Rhinonycterina to family level and which is diagnosed herein. Comparative analysis of diversification rates showed that the speciose genera Rhinolophus and Hipposideros underwent diversification during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The intron versus exon analyses demonstrated the improved nodal support provided by introns for our optimal tree, an important finding for large-scale phylogenomic studies, which typically rely on exon data alone. With the recent outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome, caused by a novel coronavirus, the study of these species is urgent as they are considered the natural reservoir for emergent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses. It has been shown that host phylogeny is the primary factor that determines a virus's persistence, replicative ability, and can act as a predictor of new

  13. What mechanism of niche segregation allows the coexistence of sympatric sibling rhinolophid bats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsamendi Egoitz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Our purpose was to assess how pairs of sibling horseshoe bats coexists when their morphology and echolocation are almost identical. We collected data on echolocation, wing morphology, diet, and habitat use of sympatric Rhinolophus mehelyi and R. euryale. We compared our results with literature data collected in allopatry with similar protocols and at the same time of the year (breeding season. Results Echolocation frequencies recorded in sympatry for R. mehelyi (mean = 106.8 kHz and R. euryale (105.1 kHz were similar to those reported in allopatry (R. mehelyi 105–111 kHz; R. euryale 101–109 kHz. Wing parameters were larger in R. mehelyi than R. euryale for both sympatric and allopatric conditions. Moths constitute the bulk of the diet of both species in sympatry and allopatry, with minor variation in the amounts of other prey. There were no inter-specific differences in the use of foraging habitats in allopatry in terms of structural complexity, however we found inter-specific differences between sympatric populations: R. mehelyi foraged in less complex habitats. The subtle inter-specific differences in echolocation frequency seems to be unlikely to facilitate dietary niche partitioning; overall divergences observed in diet may be explained as a consequence of differential prey availability among foraging habitats. Inter-specific differences in the use of foraging habitats in sympatry seems to be the main dimension for niche partitioning between R. mehelyi and R. euryale, probably due to letter differences in wing morphology. Conclusions Coexistence between sympatric sibling horseshoe bats is likely allowed by a displacement in spatial niche dimension, presumably due to the wing morphology of each species, and shifts the niche domains that minimise competition. Effective measures for conservation of sibling/similar horseshoe bats should guarantee structural diversity of foraging habitats.

  14. Dominant glint based prey localization in horseshoe bats: a possible strategy for noise rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vanderelst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinolophidae or Horseshoe bats emit long and narrowband calls. Fluttering insect prey generates echoes in which amplitude and frequency shifts are present, i.e. glints. These glints are reliable cues about the presence of prey and also encode certain properties of the prey. In this paper, we propose that these glints, i.e. the dominant glints, are also reliable signals upon which to base prey localization. In contrast to the spectral cues used by many other bats, the localization cues in Rhinolophidae are most likely provided by self-induced amplitude modulations generated by pinnae movement. Amplitude variations in the echo not introduced by the moving pinnae can be considered as noise interfering with the localization process. The amplitude of the dominant glints is very stable. Therefore, these parts of the echoes contain very little noise. However, using only the dominant glints potentially comes at a cost. Depending on the flutter rate of the insect, a limited number of dominant glints will be present in each echo giving the bat a limited number of sample points on which to base localization. We evaluate the feasibility of a strategy under which Rhinolophidae use only dominant glints. We use a computational model of the echolocation task faced by Rhinolophidae. Our model includes the spatial filtering of the echoes by the morphology of the sonar apparatus of Rhinolophus rouxii as well as the amplitude modulations introduced by pinnae movements. Using this model, we evaluate whether the dominant glints provide Rhinolophidae with enough information to perform localization. Our simulations show that Rhinolophidae can use dominant glints in the echoes as carriers for self-induced amplitude modulations serving as localization cues. In particular, it is shown that the reduction in noise achieved by using only the dominant glints outweighs the information loss that occurs by sampling the echo.

  15. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Garde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid d/l ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9. Two racemization rates were estimated: one by linear regression (r2=0.98 based on the assumption that age was known without error, and one based on a bootstrap study, taking into account the uncertainty in the age estimation (r2 between 0.88 and 0.98. The two estimated 2kAsp values were identical up to two significant figures. The 2k Asp value from the bootstrap study was found to be 0.00229±0.000089 SE, which corresponds to a racemization rate of 0.00114−yr±0.000044 SE. The intercept of 0.0580±0.00185 SE corresponds to twice the (d/l0 value, which is then 0.0290±0.00093 SE. We propose that this species-specific racemization rate and (d/l0 value be used in future AAR age estimation studies of narwhals, but also recommend the collection of tusks and eyes of narwhals for further improving the (d/l0 and 2kAsp estimates obtained in this study.

  16. Localization of Nitric Oxide Synthase-containing Neurons in the Bat Visual Cortex and Co-localization with Calcium-binding Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microchiroptera (microbats) is a suborder of bats thought to have degenerated vision. However, many recent studies have shown that they have visual ability. In this study, we labeled neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)—the synthesizing enzyme of the gaseous non-synaptic neurotransmitter nitric oxide—and co-localized it with calbindin D28K (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV) in the visual cortex of the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, a species of microbats). nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were found in all layers of the visual cortex. Intensely labeled neurons were most common in layer IV, and weakly labeled neurons were most common in layer VI. Majority of the nNOS-IR neurons were round- or oval-type neurons; no pyramidal-type neurons were found. None of these neurons co-localized with CB, CR, or PV. However, the synthesis of nitric oxide in the bat visual cortex by nNOS does not depend on CB, CR, or PV

  17. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  18. Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well ...

  19. BAT-26 and BAT-40 Instability in Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas and Germline Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Samowitz, Wade S.; Slattery, Martha L.; Potter, John D.; Leppert, Mark F.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the mononucleotide repeats BAT-26 and BAT-40 has reportedly revealed significant microsatellite instability in sporadic colorectal adenomas, whereas studies with dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats have not. In addition, BAT-26 has been reported to be “quasimonomorphic” in the germline. We evaluated BAT-26 and BAT-40 in a series of colorectal tumors previously analyzed with a panel of tetranucleotide repeats. Instability in BAT-26 or BAT-40 was significantly associated with t...

  20. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Schatz; Conrad Martin Freuling; Ernst Auer; Hooman Goharriz; Christine Harbusch; Nicholas Johnson; Ingrid Kaipf; Thomas Christoph Mettenleiter; Kristin Mühldorfer; Ralf-Udo Mühle; Bernd Ohlendorf; Bärbel Pott-Dörfer; Julia Prüger; Hanan Sheikh Ali; Dagmar Stiefel

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study t...

  1. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  2. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  3. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  5. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  6. Correlated genetic and ecological diversification in a widespread southern African horseshoe bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Stoffberg

    Full Text Available The analysis of molecular data within a historical biogeographical framework, coupled with ecological characteristics can provide insight into the processes driving diversification. Here we assess the genetic and ecological diversity within a widespread horseshoe bat Rhinolophus clivosus sensu lato with specific emphasis on the southern African representatives which, although not currently recognized, were previously described as a separate species R. geoffroyi comprising four subspecies. Sequence divergence estimates of the mtDNA control region show that the southern African representatives of R. clivosus s.l. are as distinct from samples further north in Africa than they are from R. ferrumequinum, the sister-species to R. clivosus. Within South Africa, five genetically supported geographic groups exist and these groups are corroborated by echolocation and wing morphology data. The groups loosely correspond to the distributions of the previously defined subspecies and Maxent modelling shows a strong correlation between the detected groups and ecoregions. Based on molecular clock calibrations, it is evident that climatic cycling and related vegetation changes during the Quaternary may have facilitated diversification both genetically and ecologically.

  7. The aural anatomy of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pye, Ade

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the intern

  8. Vampire bat control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, U.; Greenhall, A.M.; Lopez-Forment, W.

    1970-01-01

    Though usually beneficial, bats sometimes are a nuisance to humans (Greenhall & Stell, 1960), or may even constitute serious economic problems and health hazards. Most important in this respect are the vampire bats, especially of the genus Desmodus, which are abundant from northern Argentina through

  9. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E. Escobar; A. Townsend Peterson; Myriam Favi; Verónica Yung; Gonzalo Medina-Vogel

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75...

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Bat Lyssaviruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinney, L.M.; Marston, D.A.; Leech, S.; Freuling, C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Echevarria, J.; Vazquez-Moron, S.; Horton, D.L.; Müller, T.; Fooks, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being attrib

  11. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During seve...

  12. Bat monitoring in ECN Cairngorm Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Jan; Andrews, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work associated with bat monitoring conducted at the ECN Cairngorm site and set that in the context of the wider ECN bat monitoring. We briefly describe the bats found at ECN sites as recorded on the ECN website and history of bat monitoring at ECN Cairngorm site. The deployment of a Song meter (SM2BAT, 192Khz) commissioned March 2011 is describe and preliminary results presented.

  13. BGD: A Database of Bat Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfei Fang; Xuan Wang; Shuo Mu; Shuyi Zhang; Dong Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we establi...

  14. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mam...

  15. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in s...

  16. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    International audience The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat viru...

  17. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  18. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.

  19. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  20. Further study on karyology of bats ( Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Sichuan, China%四川蝙蝠核型的进一步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 原田正史; 石红艳; 刘昊

    2006-01-01

    报道了含中国特有种大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)在内的、四川地区6种蝙蝠的核型.菊头蝠科2种,即大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis),核型为2n=62,FN=60;云南菊头蝠(R.yunanensis),核型较为特殊,2n=46,FN=60.蹄蝠科1种,即普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti),核型为2n=32,FN=60;蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属3种,即中华鼠耳蝠(Myotis chinensis),核型为2n=44,FN=50;大足鼠耳蝠为2n=44,FN=52;西南鼠耳蝠(M.altarium)为2n=44,FN=50.其中大耳菊头蝠的核型为首次报道,云南菊头蝠的核型为中国第1次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 6 species of bats that represent 3 families collected in Sichuan, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus macrotis (2n = 62, FN =60), R. yunanensis (2n =46, FN =60), Hipposideros pratti (2n =32, FN =60), Myotis chinensis (2n =44, FN =50), M. ricketti (2n =44, FN =52) and M. altarium (2n =44, FN =50). R.macrotis was karyotyped for the first time, and karyotype of R. yunanensis had not been previously reported in China.

  1. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Fang

    Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  2. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  3. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  4. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  5. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  6. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  7. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin J Olival; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Jonathan H Epstein; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

  8. Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

    This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

  9. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  10. First report of Litomosa spp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea from malagasy bats; review of the genus and relationships between species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the filarial genus Litomosa in Malagasy bats is demonstrated by the finding of L. goodmani n. sp. from Miniopterus gleni and Litomosa sp. (male unknown from M. manavi, both in the Special Reserve of Ankarana. These materials are compared to the 22 Litomosa species, including two Indian species originally placed in the genus Litomosoides, L. fotedari (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb. and L. tewarii (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb., and the new taxon L. seurati n. sp. (= L. beaucournui Bain, 1966 pro parte, type-host Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Algeria, distinguished by the narrow area rugosa and the female caudal extremity with two conspicuous points, instead of several small ones. The Malagasy material belongs to a group of species close to the type, L. filaria, which have a male area rugosa composed of cuticular bosses and microfilariae folded within the sheath, and which are parasitic in Vespertilionidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae from Africa and Europe. The two Malagasy species resemble L. seurati n. sp., L. beshkovi Jancev, 1971, L. chiropterum Ortlepp, 1932, L. adami Petit, 1980 and L. ottavianii Lagrange et Bettini, 1948, with the enlarged third segment of the buccal capsule. L. goodmani n. sp. is distinct with its small size and female caudal extremity with a single point, which is suppressed in old mature worms; the females of Litomosa sp. have two conical points. Relationships among Litomosa species appear to be dependent upon both the chiropteran host groups and the geographical region.

  11. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  12. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  13. Novel Coronaviruses and Astroviruses in Bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel K. W. Chu; J. S. Malik Peiris; Leo L. M. Poon

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic transmissions of emerging pathogens from wildlife to human have shaped the history of mankind. These events have also highlighted our poor understanding of microorganisms circulated in wild animals. Coronaviruses and astroviruses, which can be found from a wide range of mammals, were recently detected in bats. Strikingly, these bat viruses are genetically highly diverse and these interesting findings might help to better understand the evolution and ecology of these viruses. The discoveries of these novel bats viruses not only suggested that bats are important hosts for these virus families, but also reiterated the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses that might pose a zoonotic threat to human health.

  14. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  15. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A; Buttke, Danielle E; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  16. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  17. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A.; Buttke, Danielle E.; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  18. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  19. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm...... and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...... will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency...

  20. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schatz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2, and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV. As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT. The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus. However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii. These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  1. Lignite coke moving bed adsorber for cement plants - BAT or beyond BAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, H. [European Commission, Seville (Spain). Joint Research Center

    2011-06-15

    The IPPC Directive requires permits which must contain emission limit values and other conditions based on BAT. The BAT are characterised and the terms 'conditional BAT' and 'beyond BAT' are defined and explained. The borderline between BAT and beyond BAT is explained by means of an outstanding example which is the lignite coke moving bed adsorber for the abatement of the waste gas from a cement plant where waste for co-incineration is fed to a considerable extent is described in detail. Worldwide, this technique has been successfully applied at one cement plant for sixteen years.

  2. What story does geographic separation of insular bats tell? A case study on Sardinian rhinolophids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    Full Text Available Competition may lead to changes in a species' environmental niche in areas of sympatry and shifts in the niche of weaker competitors to occupy areas where stronger ones are rarer. Although mainland Mediterranean (Rhinolophus euryale and Mehely's (R. mehelyi horseshoe bats mitigate competition by habitat partitioning, this may not be true on resource-limited systems such as islands. We hypothesize that Sardinian R. euryale (SAR have a distinct ecological niche suited to persist in the south of Sardinia where R. mehelyi is rarer. Assuming that SAR originated from other Italian populations (PES--mostly allopatric with R. mehelyi--once on Sardinia the former may have undergone niche displacement driven by R. mehelyi. Alternatively, its niche could have been inherited from a Maghrebian source population. We: a generated Maxent Species Distribution Models (SDM for Sardinian populations; b calibrated a model with PES occurrences and projected it to Sardinia to see whether PES niche would increase R. euryale's sympatry with R. mehelyi; and c tested for niche similarity between R. mehelyi and PES, PES and SAR, and R. mehelyi and SAR. Finally we predicted R. euryale's range in Northern Africa both in the present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM by calibrating SDMs respectively with SAR and PES occurrences and projecting them to the Maghreb. R. mehelyi and PES showed niche similarity potentially leading to competition. According to PES' niche, R. euryale would show a larger sympatry with R. mehelyi on Sardinia than according to SAR niche. Such niches have null similarity. The current and LGM Maghrebian ranges of R. euryale were predicted to be wide according to SAR's niche, negligible according to PES' niche. SAR's niche allows R. euryale to persist where R. mehelyi is rarer and competition probably mild. Possible explanations may be competition-driven niche displacement or Maghrebian origin.

  3. What Story Does Geographic Separation of Insular Bats Tell? A Case Study on Sardinian Rhinolophids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Danilo; Di Febbraro, Mirko; Rebelo, Hugo; Mucedda, Mauro; Cistrone, Luca; Agnelli, Paolo; De Pasquale, Pier Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Scaravelli, Dino; Spilinga, Cristiano; Bosso, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Competition may lead to changes in a species’ environmental niche in areas of sympatry and shifts in the niche of weaker competitors to occupy areas where stronger ones are rarer. Although mainland Mediterranean (Rhinolophus euryale) and Mehely’s (R. mehelyi) horseshoe bats mitigate competition by habitat partitioning, this may not be true on resource-limited systems such as islands. We hypothesize that Sardinian R. euryale (SAR) have a distinct ecological niche suited to persist in the south of Sardinia where R. mehelyi is rarer. Assuming that SAR originated from other Italian populations (PES) – mostly allopatric with R. mehelyi – once on Sardinia the former may have undergone niche displacement driven by R. mehelyi. Alternatively, its niche could have been inherited from a Maghrebian source population. We: a) generated Maxent Species Distribution Models (SDM) for Sardinian populations; b) calibrated a model with PES occurrences and projected it to Sardinia to see whether PES niche would increase R. euryale’s sympatry with R. mehelyi; and c) tested for niche similarity between R. mehelyi and PES, PES and SAR, and R. mehelyi and SAR. Finally we predicted R. euryale’s range in Northern Africa both in the present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) by calibrating SDMs respectively with SAR and PES occurrences and projecting them to the Maghreb. R. mehelyi and PES showed niche similarity potentially leading to competition. According to PES’ niche, R. euryale would show a larger sympatry with R. mehelyi on Sardinia than according to SAR niche. Such niches have null similarity. The current and LGM Maghrebian ranges of R. euryale were predicted to be wide according to SAR’s niche, negligible according to PES’ niche. SAR’s niche allows R. euryale to persist where R. mehelyi is rarer and competition probably mild. Possible explanations may be competition-driven niche displacement or Maghrebian origin. PMID:25340737

  4. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  5. Henipavirus RNA in African bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Felix Drexler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

  6. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  7. The origins and diversity of bat songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, Michael; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Smarsh, Grace; Bohn, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Singing plays an important role in the social lives of several disparate bat species, but just how significant the behavior may be among bats generally is unknown. Recent discoveries suggest singing by bats might be surprisingly more diverse and widespread than anticipated, but if true then two questions must be addressed: firstly why has singing been so rarely documented among bats, and secondly do bats sing for the same reasons as songbirds? We address the first question by reviewing how sampling bias and technical constraints may have produced a myopic view of bat social communication. To address the second question, we review evidence from 50 years of batsong literature supporting the supposition that bat singing is linked to the same constellation of ecological variables that favored birdsong, including territoriality, polygyny, metabolic constraints, migratory behaviors and especially powered flight. We propose that bats sing like birds because they fly like birds; flight is energetically expensive and singing reduces time spent flying. Factoring in the singular importance of acoustic communication for echolocating bats, it seems likely that singing may prove to be relatively common among certain groups of bats once it becomes clear when and where to look for it. PMID:27350360

  8. Bats in Agroecosytems around California's Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.

  9. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in African bats

    OpenAIRE

    Maganga, Gaël D.; Mathieu Bourgarel; Peter Vallo; Dallo, Thierno D.; Carine Ngoagouni; Jan Felix Drexler; Christian Drosten; Nakouné, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M; Serge Morand

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which...

  10. How the bat got its buzz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies...... its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field...... tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects....

  11. Detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in Danish Daubenton’s bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.;

    European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...

  12. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of t

  13. Finite-Length Analysis of BATS Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shenghao; Ng, Tsz-Ching; Yeung, Raymond W.

    2013-01-01

    BATS codes were proposed for communication through networks with packet loss. A BATS code consists of an outer code and an inner code. The outer code is a matrix generation of a fountain code, which works with the inner code that comprises random linear coding at the intermediate network nodes. In this paper, the performance of finite-length BATS codes is analyzed with respect to both belief propagation (BP) decoding and inactivation decoding. Our results enable us to evaluate efficiently the...

  14. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  15. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  16. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2:...

  17. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  18. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Johnson; Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos; Alvaro Aguilar-Setien

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding a...

  19. How the bat got its buzz

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, John M.; Elemans, Coen P.H.; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the ‘terminal buzz’, has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s−1. The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase—buzz II—defined by a large dr...

  20. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  1. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  2. Wind power and bats : Ontario guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section

    2008-07-01

    None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.

  3. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cristin C W; Olival, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007-2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  4. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  5. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D; Hayman, David T S; O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Gilbert, Amy T; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Mills, James N; Timonin, Mary E; Willis, Craig K R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E; Wood, James L N; Webb, Colleen T

    2013-04-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  6. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  7. Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  8. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  9. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  10. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  11. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.

  12. Nowo odkryte stanowisko koloni rozrodczej podkowca małego Rhinolophus hipposideros na Pogórzu Śląskim

    OpenAIRE

    Warchałowski, Marcin; Szkudlarek, Rafał; Bator, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Renata; Pietraszko, Monika; Płaskoń, Łukasz; Węgiel, Jolanta; Węgiel, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In the area of the Silesian Beskid Mountains (Jaworze, UTM – CA51), a new summer bat roost of lesser horseshoe was found in the attic of the Roman Catholic Church. Its size was estimated at 80 individuals. Marcin Warchałowski

  13. The Adamello-Brenta Natural Park bat community (Mammalia, Chiroptera: distribution and population status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Chirichella

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites, over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded: of these, one (Myotis bechsteinii was known from a museum collection and 18 were recorded in the field (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus. Local distribution, habitat use and body size parameters of the species were studied, and selection of roosts and foraging sites by the bat community was analysed with logistic regression. The conservation status of the bat community is also discussed. We document the third record of breeding by Pipistrellus nathusii and the fourth Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii nursery in Italy, as well as the first roosting sites of the recently described Plecotus alpinus. Riassunto Comunità di Chirotteri e status delle popolazioni nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige Vengono presentati i risultati di una serie di monitoraggi, effettuati con tecniche differenti (principalmente catture con reti mist-net ed esplorazione dei siti di rifugio dal 1999 al 2000. Tali indagini hanno permesso di raccogliere dati originali

  14. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  15. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  16. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-12-02

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  17. Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Firth, Cadhla; Conte, Juliette M; Williams, Simon H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Anthony, Simon J.; Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Osinubi, Modupe O. V.; Recuenco, Sergio; Markotter, Wanda; Breiman, Robert F.; Kalemba, Lems

    2013-01-01

    Although there are over 1,150 bat species worldwide, the diversity of viruses harbored by bats has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife surveillance. Such surveys are of importance in determining the potential for novel viruses to emerge in humans, and for optimal management of bats and their habitats. To enhance our knowledge of the viral diversity present in bats, we initially surveyed 415 sera from African and Central American bats. Unbiased high-throughput sequen...

  18. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates.

  19. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates. PMID:26729934

  20. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  1. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  2. Multi-Swarm Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majid Taha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new Bat Algorithm (BA based on multi-swarm technique called the Multi-Swarm Bat Algorithm (MSBA is proposed to address the problem of premature convergence phenomenon. The problem happens when search process converges to non-optimal solution due to the loss of diversity during the evolution process. MSBA was designed with improved ability in exploring new solutions, which was essential in reducing premature convergence. The exploration ability was improved by having a number of sub-swarms watching over the best local optima. In MSBA, when the quality of best local optima does not improve after a pre-defined number of iterations, the population is split equally into several smaller sub-swarms, with one of them remains close to the current best local optima for further exploitation while the other sub-swarms continue to explore for new local optima. The proposed algorithm has been applied in feature selection problem and the results were compared against eight algorithms, which are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Tabu Search (TS, Scatter Search (SS, Great Deluge Algorithm (GDA and stander BA. The results showed that the MSBA is much more effective that it is able to find new best solutions at times when the rest of other algorithms are not able to.

  3. Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2013-02-01

    We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

  4. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Georgiakakis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The effect of elevation on bat species richness and activity was investigated in shrublands of central Crete (Greece using broad-band acoustic surveys. Recordings of echolocation calls were made in 15 transects equally distributed in three distinct elevation zones (500, 1000 and 1500 m a.s.l. during spring and autumn 2007-2008. Time-expanded calls were subsequently identified with the use of quadratic discriminant functions.
    Out of 13 species recorded, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Tadarida teniotis were the most common and abundant. Many Rhinolophus hipposideros were also recorded in all elevation zones. Thirteen species were recorded in the lower elevation zone, 7 species in the mid one and 8 species in the 1500 m a.s.l. sites. Species richness, the number of bat passes of the most abundant species, as well as the total number of bat passes were not significantly affected by elevation. In spring both species richness and bat activity were higher than in autumn, although the corresponding difference in temperature was not significant.
    The high variability in both bat activity and the number of species found per transect in each elevation zone probably depended on the presence of other habitat types in the close vicinity, while roost availability and location might also have played an important role.
    We suggest that the ability of bats to perform regular movements along the elevational gradient has to be taken in account when assessing elevational patterns in bat diversity and activity. The geology of the study area is also of considerable importance through its effect on foraging and roosting opportunities for bats.

    Riassunto
    Ricchezza specifica e attività dei chirotteri lungo un gradiente altitudinale nella macchia mediterranea di Creta
    L’effetto della quota su ricchezza in specie e

  5. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra-Cobo

    Full Text Available Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii. Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2. EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7% ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July. EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  6. Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

  7. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    OpenAIRE

    Marc López-Roig; Hervé Bourhy; Rachel Lavenir; Jordi Serra-Cobo

    2014-01-01

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuh...

  8. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naive bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  9. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.;

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Ea...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  10. A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many tough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic method, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also intend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat algorithm. After a detailed formulation and explanation of its implementation, we will then compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms, and further studies are also discussed.

  11. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Banyard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations.

  12. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2R...

  13. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-01

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  14. RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy T; McCracken, Gary F; Sheeler, Lorinda L; Muller, Lisa I; O'Rourke, Dorcas; Kelch, William J; New, John C

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) infects multiple bat species in the Americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. In recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the US. In Tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) RABV variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (P. subflavus/Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV variant. From 1996 to 2010, 2,039 bats were submitted for rabies testing in Tennessee. Among 1,943 bats in satisfactory condition for testing and with a reported diagnostic result, 96% (1,870 of 1,943) were identified to species and 10% (196 of 1,943) were rabid. Big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored, and eastern red (Lasiurus borealis) bats comprised 77% of testable bat submissions and 84% of rabid bats. For species with five or more submissions during 1996-2010, the highest proportion of rabid bats occurred in hoary (Lasiurus cinereus; 46%), unspecified Myotis spp. (22%), and eastern red (17%) bats. The best model to predict rabid bats included month of submission, exposure history of submission, species, and sex of bat. PMID:26251992

  15. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  16. North American Bat Ranges - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays our current understanding of the distributions of United States and Canadian bat species during the past 100-150 years. The specimen and...

  17. Bat Monitoring across SE National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anabat surveys of bats are being coordinated across National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeast as part of a larger effort to monitor trends in abundance and...

  18. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  19. A list of ectoparasites of Colombian bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkelle, C J; Grose, E S

    1981-07-01

    Of 3,860 Colombian bats, belonging to 109 species, 1,235 individuals (32%) of 100 species were infected with ectoparasites. A total of 3,545 ectoparasites pertaining to 88 species were obtained (Mesostigmata: 1 Halarachnidae; 19 Macronyssidae; 4 Spelaeorhynchidae; 104 Spinturnicidae. Ixodides: 449 Argasidae. Trombidiformes: 1 Spelognathidae; 340 Trombiculidae. Sarcoptiformes: 170 Listrophoridae. Hemiptera: 16 Cimidae; 4 Polyctenidae. Diptera: 7 Nycteribiidae; 2405 Streblidae, Siphonaptera: 25 Pulicidae). No ectoparasites were recovered from 9 species of bats. PMID:7339714

  20. MICROSTRIP COUPLER DESIGN USING BAT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EzgiDeniz Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and swarm algorithms have found many applications in design problems since todays computing power enables these algorithms to find solutions to complicated design problems very fast. Newly proposed hybridalgorithm, bat algorithm, has been applied for the design of microwave microstrip couplers for the first time. Simulation results indicate that the bat algorithm is a very fast algorithm and it produces very reliable results.

  1. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Raina K. Plowright; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Wayne L. Bryden; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient...

  2. Sexual Segregation in Iberian Noctule Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Guillén, Antonio; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.; Juste, Javier; Schreur, Godfried; Cordero, Ana I.; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual segregation during the breeding season is common in many temperate bat species, and may be related to sex-specific thermoregulatory, microclimatic, or energetic requirements. We compiled capture data for 3 species of Nyctalus (noctule bats) obtained over .20 years to study reproductive and migratory strategies of these species in southwestern Europe. Within the Iberian Peninsula, several different strategies regarding sex distribution and migratory behavior were observed within each o...

  3. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  4. Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA#s Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8#) x 1.2 m (4#) coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 square cm area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool #batdrmgen# which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey.

  5. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  6. Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

  7. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock FENTON

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].

  8. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an increas

  9. Contaminant studies on endangered bats in northeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three federally listed endangered bat species are known to inhabit Oklahoma. The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) is probably the most abundant, and is presently known...

  10. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Towner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1% bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  11. Report of bat survey Walnut Creek Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bats are an integral and significant part of the mammalian fauna of Iowa (Bowles 1975, Clark et al. 1987). In particular, the nine species of bats in Iowa are...

  12. A coronavirus detected in the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Brandão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the identification of a group 2 coronavirus (BatCoV DR/2007 in a Desmodus rotundus vampire bat in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF1b revealed that BatCoV DR/2007 originates from a unique lineage in the archetypical group 2 coronaviruses, as described for bat species elsewhere with putative importance in Public Health.

  13. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer; Emmanuelle Robardet; Laurent Arthur; Gérald Larcher; Christine Harbusch; Alexandre Servat; Florence Cliquet

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed p...

  14. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Kitzes; Adina Merenlender

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyz...

  15. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  16. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  17. Monitoring bat activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.

    2015-01-01

    IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was monitore

  18. Henipavirus Infection in Fruit Bats (Pteropus giganteus), India

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Jonathan H.; Prakash, Vibhu; Craig S Smith; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B.; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

  19. Interspecific acoustic recognition in two European bat communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Milena Dorado Correa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats emit echolocation calls for spatial orientation and foraging. These calls are often species-specific and are emitted at high intensity and repetition rate. Therefore, these calls could potentially function in intra- and/or inter-specific bat communication. For example, bats in the field approach playbacks of conspecific feeding buzzes, probably because feeding buzzes indicate an available foraging patch. In captivity, some species of bats recognize and distinguish the echolocation calls of different sympatric species. However, it is still unknown if and how acoustic species-recognition mediates interspecific interactions in the field. Here we aim to understand eavesdropping on bat echolocation calls within and across species boundaries in wild bats. We presented playbacks of conspecific and heterospecific search calls and feeding buzzes to four bat species with different foraging ecologies. The bats were generally more attracted by feeding buzzes than search calls and more by the calls of conspecifics than their heterospecifics. Furthermore, bats showed differential reaction to the calls of the heterospecifics. In particular, Myotis capaccinii reacted equally to the feeding buzzes of conspecifics and to ecologically more similar heterospecifics. Our results confirm eavesdropping on feeding buzzes at the intraspecific level in wild bats and provide the first experimental quantification of potential eavesdropping in European bats at the interspecific level. Our data support the hypothesis that bat echolocation calls have a communicative potential that allows interspecific, and potentially intraspecific, eavesdropping in the wild.

  20. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  1. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  2. Multiple mortality events in bats: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.

  3. Sexually selected infanticide in a polygynous bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knörnschild

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species.

  4. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus. PMID:25123871

  5. Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.

  6. Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Selden, D; Parsons, G; Healy, D; Brookes, S M; McElhinney, L M; Hutson, A M; Fooks, A R

    2003-03-29

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) has been isolated once previously from a bat in the UK in June 1996. In September 2002, a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in Lancashire developed abnormal behaviour, including unprovoked aggression, while it was in captivity. Brain samples from the bat were tested for virus of the Lyssavirus genus, which includes EBLV-2 (genotype 6), and classical rabies virus (genotype 1). A positive fluorescent antibody test confirmed that it was infected with a lyssavirus, and PCR and genomic sequencing identified the virus as an EBLV-2a. Phylogenetic comparisons with all the published sequences from genotype 6 showed that it was closely related to the previous isolate of EBLV-2 in the UK and suggested links to isolates from bats in The Netherlands. The isolation of EBLV-2 from a bat found on the west coast of England provides evidence that this virus may be present within the UK Daubenton's bat population at a low prevalence level.

  7. Modeling habitat distributions of bats using GIS: wind energy and Indiana bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jason; Jansen, Erik; Friedel, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Post-construction monitoring indicates that commercial wind energy facilities are a source of bat mortality resulting from collisions or other negative interactions with operational turbines. An understanding of the potential distribution and movement of bats on the landscape is essential to minimizing these impacts. Using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems software, we present a modelling approach that evaluates the distribution of bat roosting and foraging habitat and potential flight paths at a landscape scale which may be used to assess the risk to bats from the development of a wind energy facility. Accurate assessment of these risks can minimize schedule delays and unexpected costs. Applied to the behaviour and ecology of the United States federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) at two hypothetical wind farms, this method predicts the areas where the species is likely to travel while foraging, thereby highlighting the riskiest areas within a project area. The results of our modelling indicate that risk to bats is not directly proportional to habitat availability or suitability, in part because risk is associated with areas where bats are travelling. This modelling approach will assist wind energy developers in making both large-scale (e.g., choosing between different development locations) and small-scale decisions (e.g., choosing where to locate turbines) aimed at minimizing impacts to bats. Using habitat models can provide a cost-effective method for evaluating bat risk, satisfying requirements of regulatory agencies, and limiting the more intensive survey methods to projects that absolutely require them. (Author)

  8. Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, April D.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Robert J Rudd

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and C...

  9. Bats - findings and knowledge gaps in the field of bat behaviour; Perspektive Fledermaeuse - Erkenntnisse und Wissensluecken zum Verhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, F. [ecoda Umweltgutachten GbR, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    There may be conflicts between wind power utilisation and the behaviour patterns of bats resp. the need for bat protection. The subject should be discussed free of emotions. Research is still required as there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of wind power systems on bats. (orig.)

  10. Current Status and habitat associations of the endangered Indiana bat and three other bat species of special concern on the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim NRPC report Indiana bat for Rafinesque's big-eared bat Southeastern myotis, Northern long-eared bat to determine status, habitat use & preference....

  11. Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R; Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements are presented in this paper of the tradeoff between speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  12. Bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) infesting cave-dwelling bats in Gabon: diversity, dynamics and potential role in Polychromophilus melanipherus transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Rahola, Nil; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Yangari, Patrick; Prugnolle, Franck; Maganga, Gael Darren; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Fontenille, Didier; Ayala, Diego; Paupy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of haemosporidian infections in bats and bat flies has motivated a growing interest in characterizing their transmission cycles. In Gabon (Central Africa), many caves house massive colonies of bats that are known hosts of Polychromophilus Dionisi parasites, presumably transmitted by blood-sucking bat flies. However, the role of bat flies in bat malaria transmission remains under-documented. Methods An entomological survey was carried out in four caves in Gabon to investiga...

  13. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position...

  14. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  15. Bat Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2012-01-01

    Engineering optimization is typically multiobjective and multidisciplinary with complex constraints, and the solution of such complex problems requires efficient optimization algorithms. Recently, Xin-She Yang proposed a bat-inspired algorithm for solving nonlinear, global optimisation problems. In this paper, we extend this algorithm to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. The proposed multiobjective bat algorithm (MOBA) is first validated against a subset of test functions, and then applied to solve multiobjective design problems such as welded beam design. Simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm works efficiently.

  16. XMM Observations of 'New' Swift BAT Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Because the E> 15 keV band is unaffected by absorption this band offers the best hope of obtaining an unbiased sample of AGN. The Swift BAT survey has produced the first large sample of hard x-ray bright AGN in the local universe providing the data necessary to determine the true characteristics of the AGN population. However to use this data one needs to obtain the x-ray spectral properties of these objects.We will present the complete sample of x-ray spectra of the BAT objects and the implications of these data.

  17. Bats Use Geomagnetic Field: Behavior and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global geomagnetic field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the geomagnetic field intensity could drop to 10% during geomagnetic polarity reversals or geomagnetic excursions. Such dramatic changes of the geomagnetic field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local geomagnetic field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global geomagnetic field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the geomagnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying

  18. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the batbat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  20. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmaster, Eric; Vonk, Jennifer; Mies, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats. PMID:26784239

  1. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.

  2. Assessing the impacts of wind energy development on bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, E.B. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Research conducted by the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative in West Virginia was presented. Bats are key pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect predators. Bats also help to protect crops and play an important role in helping to reduce pesticide use. However, bats reproduce slowly and are susceptible to mortality factors. In 2003, between 1398 and 4031 bats were killed at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Facility in West Virginia. Possible explanations why bats are killed by wind turbines include the fact that wind farms form a linear corridor. Acoustics, echolocation failure, and electromagnetic-disorientation may also play a role in bat mortalities. Unifying patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities include the fact that fatalities are heavily skewed toward migratory bats. Peak turbine collision fatalities occur in mid-summer. Bat fatalities are highest during periods of low wind speed and seem to be related to climate variables associated with the passage of weather fronts. Studies have also shown that the changing cut-in speeds of turbines may also reduce bat fatalities. It was concluded that pre-construction assessments should be conducted to determine high risk areas. tabs., figs.

  3. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  4. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  5. Echolocating bats cry out loud to detect their prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2008-01-01

    Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has...... been largely neglected although intensity is a key factor determining echolocation range and interactions with other bats and prey. Differences in detection range, in turn, are thought to constitute a mechanism promoting resource partitioning among bats, which might be particularly important...... for the species-rich bat assemblages in the tropics. Here we present data on emitted intensities for 11 species from 5 families of insectivorous bats from Panamá hunting in open or background cluttered space or over water. We recorded all bats in their natural habitat in the field using a multi-microphone array...

  6. Assessing road effects on bats: the role of landscape, road features, and bat activity on road-kills

    OpenAIRE

    Medinas, Denis; Marques, João Tiago; Mira, António

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that roads can significantly impact bat populations. Though bats are one of the most threatened groups of European vertebrates, studies aiming to quantify bat mortality and determine the main factors driving it remain scarce. Between March 16 and October 31 of 2009, we surveyed road-killed bats daily along a 51-km-long transect that incorporates different types of roads in southern Portugal. We found 154 road-killed bats of 11 species. The two most common species in the...

  7. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Betty M Booker; Tara Friedrich; Mason, Mandy K.; VanderMeer, Julia E.; Jingjing Zhao; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Malcolm Logan; Nicola Illing; Katherine S Pollard; Nadav Ahituv

    2016-01-01

    Author Summary The limb is a classic example of vertebrate homology and is represented by a large range of morphological structures such as fins, legs and wings. The evolution of these structures could be driven by alterations in gene regulatory elements that have critical roles during development. To identify elements that may contribute to bat wing development, we characterized sequences that are conserved between vertebrates, but changed significantly in the bat lineage. We then overlapped...

  8. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although bat-strike reports indicated damage to USAF aircraft, cumulative damage for 1997 through 2007 totaled >$825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  9. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty M Booker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  10. The wake of hovering flight in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L. Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  11. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  12. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  13. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  14. The distribution of bats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, S.

    1970-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already

  15. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  16. Bat-associated Rabies Virus in Skunks

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Mira J.; Messenger, Sharon; Rohde, Rodney E.; Smith, Jean; Cheshier, Ronald; Hanlon, Cathleen; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies was undetected in terrestrial wildlife of northern Arizona until 2001, when rabies was diagnosed in 19 rabid skunks in Flagstaff. Laboratory analyses showed causative rabies viruses associated with bats, which indicated cross-species transmission of unprecedented magnitude. Public health infrastructure must be maintained to address emerging zoonotic diseases.

  17. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  18. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  19. Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna K P Lau; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in...

  20. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Brown, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

  1. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend`s big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  2. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend's big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  3. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, Kari M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  4. 三种蝙蝠线粒体解偶联蛋白2(UCP2)基因的克隆和进化分析%Cloning and evolutionary analysis of UCP2 in bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左学国; 何灵江; 张俊鹏; 原丽红

    2009-01-01

    根据几种哺乳动物UCP2基因的保守区设计一对简并引物,扩增马铁菊头蝠(Rhinolo-phus ferrumequinum)、长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)和犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)的UCP2 基因的全部编码区序列.测序结果表明,三种蝙蝠UCP2编码区全长930 bp,编码309个氨基酸,推测的氨基酸序列包含线粒体内膜载体蛋白的3个特征结构及解偶联蛋白(UCPs)的特征序列.序列分析表明,蝙蝠与其它哺乳动物UCP2的氨基酸推导序列有很高的同源性,为90.6%~97.0%.进化分析表明,UCP2基因在哺乳动物中进化过程中非常保守,受到强烈的纯化选择压力作用(ω=0.063).Branch-specific模型分析表明,UCP2基因在蝙蝠支系与其它不能飞行的哺乳动物、冬眠蝙蝠与非冬眠蝙蝠的进化过程所受到的选择压力无明显差异(P>0.05).这说明在整个哺乳动物进化过程中UCP2对其能量代澍的调控均起到了重要作用.然而,UCP2如何参与哺乳动物能量调控仍有待于进一步研究.%A pair of degenerated primers was designed based on the conserved region of UCP2 among human, mouse, horse and dog. Then, cDNA fragments encoding the complete coding do-main sequence (CDS) of UCP2 were amplified from three bat species (orders), Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Rhinolophidae), Miniopterus fuliginosus (Miniopteridae) and Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae). The CDS of UCP2 from three different bat species contain 930 bp encoding 309 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of bat UCP2 consist three signature motifs of mitochondrial transporter protein and UCP-specific sequences. Our results showed that UCP2 gene of bats and other mammals shared high homology (90.6% to 97.0%). Evolutionary analysis indicated that UCP2 gene is highly conserved and has undergone strong purifying selected pressure during the evolution of mammals (w = 0. 063). In addition, by comparing the difference of selected pressure on UCP2 between bats and other mammals, non

  5. Detection of serum antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in bats in Hainan and Guangdong Provinces of China%广东及海南蝙蝠乙型脑炎病毒血清抗体的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽娜; 王祉蕴; 陈清; 陈少威; 郑雪燕; 马淑娟; 周军华; 张琼花; 李杏; 熊益权; 钟雪珊

    2015-01-01

    目的:对蝙蝠血清进行乙型脑炎病毒(JEV)抗体的检测,了解蝙蝠感染JEV情况。方法2013年,我们在广东省和海南省采集蝙蝠,对采集到的蝙蝠心脏取血,分离血清,采用间接ELISA试验和病毒中和试验对血清进行JEV抗体的检测。结果间接ELISA检测201份蝙蝠血清,JEV抗体阳性率46.27%(93/201),其中,海南蝙蝠阳性率88.89%(48/54),广东蝙蝠阳性率30.61%(45/147)。在棕果蝠、普通长翼蝠、普通伏翼蝠和大耳菊头蝠血清中均检测到JEV抗体,普通长翼蝠(海南)阳性率最高达95.56%(43/45)。采用病毒中和试验对28份间接ELISA检测阳性的蝙蝠血清进行检测,阳性率53.57%(15/28),中和抗体滴度在1∶10~1∶28.22之间。结论不同地区和多个种类蝙蝠可自然感染JEV,且感染率较高,蝙蝠在JEV循环中的意义值得进一步探讨。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of serum antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in bats. Methods Blood samples from the heart were obtained from bats captured in Guangdong and Hainan Provinces in 2013. The anti-JEV antibodies in bat sera were tested using indirect ELISA and virus neutralization test. Results A total of 201 bat serum samples were tested, in which the total positivity rate of anti-JEV antibodies was 46.27%(93/201). The positive rate of anti-JEV antibodies in bats from Hainan and Guangdong Provinces was 88.89% (48/54) and 30.61% (45/147), respectively. All the samples from Rousettus leschenaultia, Miniopterus schreibersii, Pipistrellus abramus, and Rhinolophus macrotis were positive for anti-JEV antibodies, and up to 95.56%(43/45) of the samples from Miniopterus schreibersii (from Hainan Province) yielded positive results. Of the 28 samples with positive results by indirect ELISA, 15 showed positive results in virus neutralization test (53.57%) with neutralization antibody titers ranging from 1∶10 to 1∶28

  6. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

  7. Wind turbines and bats: towards a peaceful coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important hazard for a bat is the collision with a rotating blade. The risk of collision depends on the wrong positioning of a wind turbine in the hunting area of a local population of bats and on the complex behaviour of bats. All the 34 species of bats living in France are protected species. Recommendations issued by the ministry of ecology include to perform preliminary impact studies on bat population before the installation of a wind turbine farm, to perform impact studies during wind turbine operations and to take measures to have the least impact as possible. The number of wind farms being on the rise, the knowledge of the behaviour of bats is getting more accurate through the use of dedicated instruments. (A.C.)

  8. Bat hepadnaviruses and the origins of primate hepatitis B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Andrea; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2016-02-01

    The origin of primate HBV (family Hepadnaviridae) is unknown. Hepadnaviruses are ancient pathogens and may have been associated with old mammalian lineages like bats for prolonged time. Indeed, the genetic diversity of bat hepadnaviruses exceeds that of extant hepadnaviruses in other host orders, suggesting a long evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats. Strikingly, a recently detected New World bat hepadnavirus is antigenically related to HBV and can infect human hepatocytes. Together with genetically diverse hepadnaviruses from New World rodents and a non-human primate, these viruses argue for a New World origin of ancestral orthohepadnaviruses. Multiple host switches of bat and primate viruses are evident and bats are likely sources of ancestral hepadnaviruses acquired by primates. PMID:26897577

  9. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF BAT ECTOPARASITE LEPTOCIMEX INORDINATUS FROM BAT-DWELLING CAVE, KANCHANABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2016-01-01

    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  11. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, C.; Lema, C; DOHMEN, F. GURY; Beltran, F.; NOVARO, L.; S. Russo; Freire, M. C.; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V. A.; D. M. CISTERNA

    2014-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV vari...

  12. Vampire Bats Bite Lowland Tapirs in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos, Armando; Banegas, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In the rainforest, vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) have large mammals such as tapirs, deer, peccaries, cattle, monkeys, birds, and sometimes humans, among their victims (Albuja et al., 2012; Tirira, 2007). Vampire bats have been listed as carriers and reservoir host of rabies (Streicker et al., 2012; Corrêa et al., 2014). Here, we report photographic evidence obtained from camera- traps of vampire bats feeding on lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris). 

  13. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animal...

  14. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  15. Detection of diverse astroviruses from bats in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hua Chen; Chu, Daniel K.W.; Liu, Wei; Dong, Bai Qing; Zhang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Jin Xia; Li, Li Feng; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Chen, Hong Lin; Leo L M Poon; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Guan, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Astroviruses infect humans and many different animal species and are associated with gastroenteritis. Recent studies first detected the virus from bat species in Hong Kong. To understand astrovirus distribution in the wider region further, we examined the prevalence of this virus family in bat specimens collected from a large geographical region of mainland China. We collected 500 anal swabs from 20 bat species in 51 natural habitats from 11 provinces of China and tested these for astroviruse...

  16. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical functions of edge habitats for bats were studied: foraging areas, shelter from wind, shelter from avian predators, and acoustical landmarks.Both wind and food abundance were found to affect the occur...

  17. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Bats with White Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Liam P McGuire; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is an ascomycetous fungus responsible for the disease dubbed white nose syndrome (WNS) and massive mortalities of cave dwelling bats. The fungus infects bat epidermal tissue causing damage to integumentary cells and pilosebaceous units. Differences in epidermal lipid composition caused by P. destructans infection could have drastic consequences for a variety of physiological functions, including innate immune efficiency and water retention. While bat surface lipid...

  19. Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Schountz

    2014-01-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonot...

  20. Leishmania (L. mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Berzunza-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  1. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  2. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  3. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.; Daszak, Peter; Zhang, Shuyi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed mul...

  4. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  5. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  6. Estimating colony sizes of emerging bats using acoustic recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Blowers, Zelda; Branstetter, Brian; Ralston, Joel; Simmons, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The decline of bats demands more widespread monitoring of populations for conservation and management. Current censusing methods are either prone to bias or require costly equipment. Here, we report a new method using passive acoustics to determine bat count census from overall acoustic amplitude of the emerging bat stream. We recorded the video and audio of an emerging colony of Mexican free-tailed bats from two cave locations across multiple nights. Instantaneous bat counts were calculated from the video frames, and the bat stream’s acoustic amplitude corresponding to each video frame was determined using three different methods for calculating acoustic intensity. We found a significant link between all three acoustic parameters and bat count, with the highest R2 of 0.742 linking RMS pressure and bat count. Additionally, the relationship between acoustics and population size at one cave location could accurately predict the population size at another cave location. The data were gathered with low-cost, easy-to-operate equipment, and the data analysis can be easily accomplished using automated scripts or with open-source acoustic software. These results are a potential first step towards creating an acoustic model to estimate bat population at large cave colonies worldwide. PMID:27069667

  7. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  8. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity a...

  9. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  10. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  11. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-21

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  12. Discovery of a Novel Bat Gammaherpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Kurtis M; Damania, Blossom

    2016-01-01

    Zoonosis is the leading cause of emerging infectious diseases. In a recent article, R. S. Shabman et al. (mSphere 1[1]:e00070-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00070-15) report the identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus in a cell line derived from the microbat Myotis velifer incautus. This is the first report on a replicating, infectious gammaherpesvirus from bats. The new virus is named bat gammaherpesvirus 8 (BGHV8), also known as Myotis gammaherpesvirus 8, and is able to infect multiple cell lines, including those of human origin. Using next-generation sequencing technology, the authors constructed a full-length annotated genomic map of BGHV8. Phylogenetic analysis of several genes from BGHV8 revealed similarity to several mammalian gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). PMID:27303690

  13. Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    1984-03-01

    Behavioural reciprocity can be evolutionarily stable1-3. Initial increase in frequency depends, however, on reciprocal altruists interacting predominantly with other reciprocal altruists either by associating within kin groups or by having sufficient memory to recognize and not aid nonreciprocators. Theory thus suggests that reciprocity should evolve more easily among animals which live in kin groups. Data are available separating reciprocity from nepotism only for unrelated nonhuman animals4. Here, I show that food sharing by regurgitation of blood among wild vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) depends equally and independently on degree of relatedness and an index of opportunity for recipro cation. That reciprocity operates within groups containing both kin and nonkin is supported further with data on the availability of blood-sharing occasions, estimates of the economics of shar ing blood, and experiments which show that unrelated bats will reciprocally exchange blood in captivity.

  14. Identifying Hendra virus diversity in pteropid bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and/or agent and/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the natural bat host, as previously sequences have only been obtained from horses or humans following spillover events. In order to obtain an insight into possible variants of HeV circulating in flying foxes, collection of urine was undertaken in multiple flying fox roosts in Queensland, Australia. HeV was found to be geographically widespread in flying foxes with a number of HeV variants circulating at the one time at multiple locations, while at times the same variant was found circulating at disparate locations. Sequence diversity within variants allowed differentiation on the basis of nucleotide changes, and hypervariable regions in the genome were identified that could be used to differentiate circulating variants. Further, during the study, HeV was isolated from the urine of flying foxes on four occasions from three different locations. The data indicates that spillover events do not correlate with particular HeV isolates, suggesting that host and/or environmental factors are the primary determinants of bat-horse spillover. Thus future spillover events are likely to occur, and there is an on-going need for effective risk management strategies for both human and animal health.

  15. Distribution and status of bats in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbings, R.E.; Griffith, Francesca

    1986-01-01

    National and international agencies, societies and individuals are increasingly seeking information on the current distribution and status of bats in Europe. The stimulus to produce this report came in 1980 when the Environment and Consumer Protection Service of the Commission of the European Communities (EEC) requested information on the threatened flora and vertebrate fauna within the EEC. This was needed so that there could be a co-ordinated approach to the conservation o...

  16. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

  17. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  18. Structures of bats; Komori no kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natori, M. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    This paper gives an outline of the structures of bats. Unlike birds, bats have a wing membrane structure. The membrane constituted of the skin is spread between five fingers to form the wing. The wing membrane is seen in the forelimbs and the tail. In the chest and the shoulder, the ligament sheet supports the muscles. The wing membrane is about 0.5mm in thickness, with a fiber net woven through reflecting a tension field in flying. The fiber net is composed of compound materials of elastin and collagen. The shoulder joints consists of the clavicle, scapula and humerus, which is close to human beings. The elbow joints rotate only inside the plane of the wings. The leg joints are hook-shaped, with the tendon sheath provided with ruggedness. The carpus is made up of eight bones and is characterized by the ability of spreading and storing the wings. At the time of storing the wing membrane, the finger joints are stored and, during the flight after the wings are spread, it forms the flapping wing plane. Lightweight and formation of the sturdy front edge are characteristics common to other flying creatures. The spreading and the storing are possible through the direct motion of the hands. The shoulder joints and the carpus of the human beings are closer to those of bats than to those of birds. (NEDO)

  19. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  20. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  1. Dynamics of biosonar systems in Horseshoe bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Horseshoe bats have an active ultrasonic sonar system that allows the animals to navigate and hunt prey in structure-rich natural environments. The physical components of this biosonar system contain an unusual dynamics that could play a key role in achieving the animals' superior sensory performance. Horseshoe bat biosonar employs elaborate baffle shapes to diffract the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic wave packets; ultrasound is radiated from nostrils that are surrounded by noseleaves and received by large outer ears. Noseleaves and pinnae can be actuated while ultrasonic diffraction takes place. On the emission side, two noseleaf parts, the anterior leaf and the sella, have been shown to be in motion in synchrony with sound emission. On the reception side, the pinnae have been shown to change their shapes by up to 20% of their total length within ˜100 milliseconds. Due to these shape changes, diffraction of the incoming and outgoing waves is turned into a dynamic physical process. The dynamics of the diffraction process results in likewise dynamic device characteristics. If this additional dynamic dimension was found to enhance the encoding of sensory information substantially, horseshoe bat biosonar could be a model for the use of dynamic physical processes in sensing technology.

  2. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  3. The role of ultrasonic bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. FUREY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats account for 30 % of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindicators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fail to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89.1 % of calls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29 % (ten spp. of aerial insectivores of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11 % (two spp. of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods are indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55(5:–2009].

  4. The role of ultrasonic bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil M. FUREY; Iain J. MACKIE; Paul A. RACEY

    2009-01-01

    Bats account for 30% of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindieators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fall to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89. 1% of caLls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29% (ten spp. of aerial insectivores) of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11% ( two spp. ) of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods axe indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 327 - 341, 2009].

  5. Win(d)-Win(d) Solutions for wind developers and bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Arnett, Ed; Huso, Manuela

    2011-10-31

    Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.

  6. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival. PMID:27547321

  7. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc.

  8. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  9. Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Lin; Pan, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Shi-Hong; WANG Huan-yu; Tang, Qing; Wang, Lin-Fa; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.

  10. Echolocating bats use future-target information for optimal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Emyo; Aihara, Ikkyu; Sumiya, Miwa; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hiryu, Shizuko

    2016-04-26

    When seeing or listening to an object, we aim our attention toward it. While capturing prey, many animal species focus their visual or acoustic attention toward the prey. However, for multiple prey items, the direction and timing of attention for effective foraging remain unknown. In this study, we adopted both experimental and mathematical methodology with microphone-array measurements and mathematical modeling analysis to quantify the attention of echolocating bats that were repeatedly capturing airborne insects in the field. Here we show that bats select rational flight paths to consecutively capture multiple prey items. Microphone-array measurements showed that bats direct their sonar attention not only to the immediate prey but also to the next prey. In addition, we found that a bat's attention in terms of its flight also aims toward the next prey even when approaching the immediate prey. Numerical simulations revealed a possibility that bats shift their flight attention to control suitable flight paths for consecutive capture. When a bat only aims its flight attention toward its immediate prey, it rarely succeeds in capturing the next prey. These findings indicate that bats gain increased benefit by distributing their attention among multiple targets and planning the future flight path based on additional information of the next prey. These experimental and mathematical studies allowed us to observe the process of decision making by bats during their natural flight dynamics. PMID:27071082

  11. Emergence time in forest bats: the influence of canopy closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    The role of the forest canopy in protecting bats roosting in forest from predators is poorly known. We analysed the effect of canopy closure on emergence time in Barbastella barbastellus in a mountainous area of central Italy. We used radio-tracking to locate roosts and filmed evening emergence. Comparisons were made between roosts in open areas and those in dense forest. Median emergence time and illuminance were correlated. Moreover, from pregnancy to late lactation bats emerged progressively earlier, probably because of the exceptionally high wing loading affecting pregnant bats and the high energy demand of lactation. A significant influence of canopy closure on median emergence time was revealed after adjusting for the effects of light and reproductive state. Bats in open habitat emerged later than those roosting beneath closed canopy. In cluttered habitats, predators relying on vision may find it more difficult to detect and catch bats at light levels which would offer more chances of success when attacking prey in open habitats. Bats in dense forest are less vulnerable to predators and may take advantage of an earlier emergence by prolonging foraging. Although more vulnerable, lactating females roosting at open sites may benefit from warmer roosting conditions. Roosts in dense forest may be preferred under intense predation pressure. Forest management should favour canopy heterogeneity to provide bats with a range of roosting conditions. Our work emphasises the role of a fine-grained spatial scale in the roosting ecology of forest bats.

  12. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  13. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  14. Lead poisoning in Australian fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1970-09-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 3 Australian fruit bats. Diagnoses were indicated by the finding of large acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal and hepatic cells, and toxic amounts of lead in tissues. The source of lead was believed to be peeling leaded paint from the walls of the bats' cage.

  15. Go big or go fish: morphological specializations in carnivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Cheung, Elena

    2016-05-11

    Specialized carnivory is relatively uncommon across mammals, and bats constitute one of the few groups in which this diet has evolved multiple times. While size and morphological adaptations for carnivory have been identified in other taxa, it is unclear what phenotypic traits characterize the relatively recent evolution of carnivory in bats. To address this gap, we apply geometric morphometric and phylogenetic comparative analyses to elucidate which characters are associated with ecological divergence of carnivorous bats from insectivorous ancestors, and if there is morphological convergence among independent origins of carnivory within bats, and with other carnivorous mammals. We find that carnivorous bats are larger and converged to occupy a subset of the insectivorous morphospace, characterized by skull shapes that enhance bite force at relatively wide gapes. Piscivorous bats are morphologically distinct, with cranial shapes that enable high bite force at narrow gapes, which is necessary for processing fish prey. All animal-eating species exhibit positive allometry in rostrum elongation with respect to skull size, which could allow larger bats to take relatively larger prey. The skull shapes of carnivorous bats share similarities with generalized carnivorans, but tend to be more suited for increased bite force production at the expense of gape, when compared with specialized carnivorans. PMID:27170718

  16. Cross-Neutralization between Human and African Bat Mumps Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Maeda, Ken; Takeda, Makoto; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a new paramyxovirus closely related to human mumps virus (MuV) was detected in bats. We generated recombinant MuVs carrying either or both of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase bat virus glycoproteins. These viruses showed replication kinetics similar to human MuV in cultured cells and were neutralized efficiently by serum from healthy humans. PMID:26982800

  17. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Spanjer Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  18. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  19. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  20. On a collection of Bats from the West-Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1893-01-01

    The collection of Bats hereafter described has been presented to the Leyden Museum by our well known correspondent Dr. C. G. Young from Berbice, New Amsterdam, British Guyana. This collection tells us that, although our knowledge about the Bats may have increased during the latest years, much remain

  1. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical fu

  2. Phylogeography, population dynamics, and molecular evolution of European bat lyssaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, P.L.; Holmes, E.C.; Larrous, F.;

    2005-01-01

    European bat lyssaviruses types I and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widespread in Europe, although little is known of their evolutionary history. We undertook a comprehensive sequence analysis to infer the selection pressures, rates of nucleotide substitution, age of genetic diversity, geographical...... of EBLVs reflects their distinctive epidemiology in bats, where they occupy a relatively stable fitness peak....

  3. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  4. Echo-acoustic flow affects flight in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kathrin; Greiter, Wolfgang; Luksch, Harald; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-06-15

    Flying animals need to react fast to rapid changes in their environment. Visually guided animals use optic flow, generated by their movement through structured environments. Nocturnal bats cannot make use of optic flow, but rely mostly on echolocation. Here, we show that bats exploit echo-acoustic flow to negotiate flight through narrow passages. Specifically, bats' flight between lateral structures is significantly affected by the echo-acoustic salience of those structures, independent of their physical distance. This is true even though echolocation, unlike vision, provides explicit distance cues. Moreover, the bats reduced the echolocation sound levels in stronger flow, probably to compensate for the increased summary target strength of the lateral reflectors. However, bats did not reduce flight velocity under stronger echo-acoustic flow. Our results demonstrate that sensory flow is a ubiquitous principle for flight guidance, independent of the fundamentally different peripheral representation of flow across the senses of vision and echolocation.

  5. Evolution of high duty cycle echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenton, M. B.; Faure, P. A.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Duty cycle describes the relative 'on time' of a periodic signal. In bats, we argue that high duty cycle (HDC) echolocation was selected for and evolved from low duty cycle (LDC) echolocation because increasing call duty cycle enhanced the ability of echolocating bats to detect, lock onto and track...... fluttering insects. Most echolocators (most bats and all birds and odontocete cetaceans) use LDC echolocation, separating pulse and echo in time to avoid forward masking. They emit short duration, broadband, downward frequency modulated (FM) signals separated by relatively long periods of silence....... In contrast, bats using HDC echolocation emit long duration, narrowband calls dominated by a single constant frequency (CF) separated by relatively short periods of silence. HDC bats separate pulse and echo in frequency by exploiting information contained in Doppler-shifted echoes arising from their movements...

  6. 78 FR 37644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 17, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 4, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  7. 78 FR 51235 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 7, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  8. 76 FR 2734 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 6, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on January 4, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  9. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  10. 78 FR 62804 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 11, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  11. 78 FR 41453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. July 3, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 28, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  12. 78 FR 29805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 15, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  13. 75 FR 66170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 21, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 14, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or the ``Exchange'')...

  14. 77 FR 35735 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 8, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on May 31, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  15. 78 FR 16306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  16. 76 FR 7891 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 7, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that, on January 31, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  17. 78 FR 51261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  18. 77 FR 23307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 12, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on April 2, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  19. 75 FR 66183 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for registration... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...

  20. 76 FR 50803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 10, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on July 29, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  1. 75 FR 20418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 9, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 31, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  2. 78 FR 19350 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 25, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 13, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  3. 75 FR 27847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 11, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  4. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... 13, 2010), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound...

  5. 77 FR 31059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 18, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 11, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  6. 78 FR 51257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 2, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  7. 76 FR 20414 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 6, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  8. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  9. Novel paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kurth

    Full Text Available The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus.Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus-host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered.

  10. Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla. Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i accidental contamination during sampling, (ii simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.

  11. Microsatellite instability detection using BAT-25 and BAT-26 by Real Time PCR and HPLC in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Rismanchi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of real time PCR in MSI detection is the same as sequencing method and more than HPLC. BAT-26 marker is more sensitive than BAT-25 and MSI detection with Real time PCR could be considered as an accu-rate method to diagnose MSI in CRC tissues not sera.

  12. Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

  13. Bats, Blood-Feeders and Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA...... minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity...

  14. Bat calls while preying: A method for reconstructing the signal emitted by a directional sound source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco; Hallam, John

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and modeling bat biosonar behavior should take into account what the bat actually emitted while exploring the surrounding environment. Recording of the bat calls could be performed by means of a telemetry system small enough to sit on the bat head, though filtering due to bat...... directivity affects recordings and not all bat species are able to carry such a device. Instead, remote microphone recordings of the bat calls could be processed by means of a mathematical method that estimates bat head orientation as a first step before calculating the amplitudes of each call for each...... frequency. This approach considers bat position with respect to each microphone, directivity, and head orientation for compensating microphone recordings of bat calls. The method has been tested in a laboratory environment using data from a Polaroid transducer as sound source: results are presented and...

  15. Bats and wind energy in Canada : causes, consequences and variation of fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, R.; Baerwald, E. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed various aspects of bat mortalities that occur at wind turbines. The majority of bat fatalities related to wind turbines take place in the Fall among Hoary, Silver-haired, and Eastern red bat species. The fatality rate varies geographically. Migratory routes explain the geographic variations of bats. Tall wind turbines kill more bats than birds. Activity and fatality rates vary geographically. Small-scale geographic patterns were discussed along with bat mortality rates at different wind farm facilities. Higher turbines are known to disrupt bat activities. During a 1-year period in Alberta only 189 bird mortalities were recorded compared to 1775 bat mortalities. Across North America, 3940 bats died in collisions with wind turbines compared to only 1241 birds. It was concluded that monitoring studies conducted from the ground do not fully indicate the risks of wind turbines to bats. tabs., figs.

  16. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  17. Public health risk analysis of European bat lyssavirus infection in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Takumi, K; Lina, P.H.C.; Poel, van der, E.; Kramps, J A; Giessen, van der, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    We present the frequency and the nature of contact incidents of the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, with humans and with companion animals (specifically cats and dogs), in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2005. Out of 17 bats in bite contact with humans, five tested positive for European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1a. Cats had the most numerous contacts with bats (49 times) but a relatively low number of these bats were EBLV positive (six times). We estimated that the average incidence of ...

  18. Effects of Hierarchical Roost Removal on Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) Maternity Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Silvis; W Mark Ford; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in ca...

  19. Fossils reject climate change as the cause of extinction of Caribbean bats

    OpenAIRE

    J. Angel Soto-Centeno; David W Steadman

    2015-01-01

    We combined novel radiocarbon dates of bat fossils with time-scaled ecological niche models (ENM) to study bat extinctions in the Caribbean. Radiocarbon-dated fossils show that late Quaternary losses of bat populations took place during the late Holocene (10 ka). All bat radiocarbon dates from Abaco (Bahamas) that represent extirpated populations are younger than 4 ka. We include data on six bat species, three of which are Caribbean endemics, and include nectarivores as well as insectivores. ...

  20. Rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons at risk of bat exposures in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Kis Robertson; Boonlert Lumlertdacha; Richard Franka; Brett Petersen; Saithip Bhengsri; Sununta Henchaichon; Leonard F. Peruski; Baggett, Henry C.; Maloney, Susan A.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses. Evidence of lyssavirus circulation has recently emerged in Southeast Asian bats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thailand to assess rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons regularly exposed to bats and bat habitats. The objectives were to identify deficiencies in rabies awareness, describe the occurrence of bat exposures, and explore factors associated with transdermal bat exposures. METHODS: A survey was...

  1. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary F McCracken

    Full Text Available The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis consuming corn earworm (CEW moths (Helicoverpa zea and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

  2. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Gary F; Westbrook, John K; Brown, Veronica A; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  3. Toxicity of methyl parathion to bats: Mortality and coordination loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The 24-h oral LD50 of methyl parathion (phosphorothioic acid O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester) to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) (372 mg/kg) was 8.5 times the LD50 for mice (Mus musculus) (44 mg/kg). However, orally dosed mice either died or appeared behaviorally normal after 2 to 3 h, whereas many dosed bats, although alive at 24 h, could not right themselves when placed on their backs. The oral dose estimated to cause this loss of coordination in 50% of a sample of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was one-third or less the LD50 of this species. Cholinesterase activity depression in brains of little brown bats was similar whether dosage was oral or dermal. With death as the criterion, bats proved relatively insensitive to methyl parathion in 24-h tests, but considerations of the chemical's potential to cause coordination loss, leading to capture and death by predators, coupled with bats' naturally low reproductive rates, suggest possible injury to exposed bat populations.

  4. Biannual birth pulses allow filoviruses to persist in bat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T S

    2015-03-22

    Filoviruses Ebolavirus (EBOV) and Marburgvirus (MARV) cause haemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates, posing significant threats to public health. To understand transmission into human populations, filovirus dynamics within reservoir host populations must be understood. Studies have directly linked filoviruses to bats, but the mechanisms allowing viral persistence within bat populations are poorly understood. Theory suggests seasonal birthing may decrease the probability of pathogen persistence within populations, but data suggest MARV may persist within colonies of seasonally breeding Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus. I synthesize available filovirus and bat data in a stochastic compartmental model to explore fundamental questions relating to filovirus ecology: can filoviruses persist within isolated bat colonies; do critical community sizes exist; and how do host-pathogen relationships affect spillover transmission potential? Synchronous annual breeding and shorter incubation periods did not allow filovirus persistence, whereas bi-annual breeding and longer incubation periods, such as reported for Egyptian fruit bats and EBOV in experimental studies, allowed persistence in colony sizes often found in nature. Serological data support the findings, with bats from species with two annual birth pulses more likely to be seropositive (odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-8.7) than those with one, suggesting that biannual birthing is necessary for filovirus persistence. PMID:25673678

  5. Evolution and ecology of bats; Komori no shinka to seitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, T.

    1999-12-05

    This paper studies the ecology of bats. The age of the birth of bats is estimated to be from the end of the Mesozoic period to the early part of the Cenozoic period. It is inferred that the fingers were extended in the last stage of the evolution and that a membrane was developed between fingers and turned into wings. Further, improvement of the body was necessary for bats to fly. For example, bats need to have the powerful muscular strength, solid frame for the muscles to adhere to, framework and joints of the wings that surpass air resistance, and the circulatory system and the blood capable of supplying oxygen to the muscles. Different kinds of bats have different patterns of flying, which are each characterized by the shape and the muscle systems of the wings. The flying method has been analyzed in high speed movies. The shoulder joints are essential for the flight while their strength is different by the species. The difference in the flying method governs their ecology (zone of life, number of colony formations). The flocking types are classified into six kinds. The feeds are numerous. They do echo location except non-nocturnal large bats (Pteropodidae). The life span varies depending on the species of bats, ranging widely from 7 to 30 years. (NEDO)

  6. The sonar aperture and its neural representation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Melina; Warmbold, Alexander; Hoffmann, Susanne; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2011-10-26

    As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes impinge on the bat's ears (sonar aperture). It is unclear whether bats use the echo intensity and/or the sonar aperture to estimate an object's width. We addressed this question in a combined psychophysical and electrophysiological approach. In three virtual-object playback experiments, bats of the species Phyllostomus discolor had to discriminate simple reflections of their own echolocation calls differing in echo intensity, sonar aperture, or both. Discrimination performance for objects with physically correct covariation of sonar aperture and echo intensity ("object width") did not differ from discrimination performances when only the sonar aperture was varied. Thus, the bats were able to detect changes in object width in the absence of intensity cues. The psychophysical results are reflected in the responses of a population of units in the auditory midbrain and cortex that responded strongest to echoes from objects with a specific sonar aperture, regardless of variations in echo intensity. Neurometric functions obtained from cortical units encoding the sonar aperture are sufficient to explain the behavioral performance of the bats. These current data show that the sonar aperture is a behaviorally relevant and reliably encoded cue for object size in bat sonar.

  7. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift. PMID:27048154

  8. Bats Are Acoustically Attracted to Mutualistic Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Michael G; Schöner, Caroline R; Simon, Ralph; Grafe, T Ulmar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ji, Liaw Lin; Kerth, Gerald

    2015-07-20

    Mutualisms between plants and animals shape the world's ecosystems. In such interactions, achieving contact with the partner species is imperative. Plants regularly advertise themselves with signals that specifically appeal to the partner's perceptual preferences. For example, many plants have acquired traits such as brightly colored, fragrant flowers that attract pollinators with visual, olfactory, or--in the case of a few bat-pollinated flowers--even acoustic stimuli in the form of echo-reflecting structures. However, acoustic attraction in plants is rare compared to other advertisements and has never been found outside the pollination context and only in the Neotropics. We hypothesized that this phenomenon is more widespread and more diverse as plant-bat interactions also occur in the Paleotropics. In Borneo, mutualistic bats fertilize a carnivorous pitcher plant while roosting in its pitchers. The pitcher's orifice features a prolonged concave structure, which we predicted to distinctively reflect the bats' echolocation calls for a wide range of angles. This structure should facilitate the location and identification of pitchers even within highly cluttered surroundings. Pitchers lacking this structure should be less attractive for the bats. Ensonifications of the pitchers around their orifice revealed that this structure indeed acts as a multidirectional ultrasound reflector. In behavioral experiments where bats were confronted with differently modified pitchers, the reflector's presence clearly facilitated the finding and identification of pitchers. These results suggest that plants have convergently acquired reflectors in the Paleotropics and the Neotropics to acoustically attract bats, albeit for completely different ecological reasons. PMID:26166777

  9. Isolation and characterization of three mammalian orthoreoviruses from European bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kohl

    Full Text Available In recent years novel human respiratory disease agents have been described in South East Asia and Australia. The causative pathogens were classified as pteropine orthoreoviruses with strong phylogenetic relationship to orthoreoviruses of flying foxes inhabiting these regions. Subsequently, a zoonotic bat-to-human transmission has been assumed. We report the isolation of three novel mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs from European bats, comprising bat-borne orthoreovirus outside of South East Asia and Australia and moreover detected in insectivorous bats (Microchiroptera. MRVs are well known to infect a broad range of mammals including man. Although they are associated with rather mild and clinically unapparent infections in their hosts, there is growing evidence of their ability to also induce more severe illness in dogs and man. In this study, eight out of 120 vespertilionid bats proved to be infected with one out of three novel MRV isolates, with a distinct organ tropism for the intestine. One isolate was analyzed by 454 genome sequencing. The obtained strain T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 had closest phylogenetic relationship to MRV strain T3D/04, isolated from a dog. These novel reoviruses provide a rare chance of gaining insight into possible transmission events and of tracing the evolution of bat viruses.

  10. Modeling the colonization of Hawaii by hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; McGuire, Liam P.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago, the most isolated cluster of islands on Earth, has been colonized successfully twice by bats. The putative “lava tube bat” of Hawaii is extinct, whereas the Hawaiian Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, survives as an endangered species. We conducted a three-stage analysis to identify conditions under which hoary bats originally colonized Hawaii. We used FLIGHT to determine if stores of fat would provide the energy necessary to fly from the Farallon Islands (California) to Hawaii, a distance of 3,665 km. The Farallons are a known stopover and the closest landfall to Hawaii for hoary bats during migrations within North America. Our modeling variables included physiological, morphological, and behavioral data characterizing North American Hoary Bat populations. The second step of our modeling process investigated the potential limiting factor of water during flight. The third step in our modeling examines the role that prevailing trade winds may have played in colonization flights. Of our 36 modeling scenarios, 17 (47 %) require tailwind assistance within the range of observed wind speeds, and 7 of these scenarios required −1 tailwinds as regularly expected due to easterly trade winds. Therefore the climatic conditions needed for bats to colonize Hawaii may not occur infrequently either in contemporary times or since the end of the Pleistocene. Hawaii’s hoary bats have undergone divergence from mainland populations resulting in smaller body size and unique pelage color.

  11. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift.

  12. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of two HLA-B-associated transcripts (BATs) genes in healthy Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P;

    1990-01-01

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the two human HLA-B-associated transcripts (BATs) genes, BAT1 and BAT2, was investigated using 5 different restriction enzymes and two human BAT1 and BAT2 cDNA probes. Two of the enzymes, NcoI and RsaI, revealed polymorphic patterns which were...

  13. Conference on wind turbines impact on birds and bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on wind turbines impacts on birds and bats. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 85 participants exchanged views on the impacts of wind energy development on birds and bats mortality, the legal aspects, the research programs and the remedial actions. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Wind energy and nature protection - Is there really a conflict? (Guenter Ratzbor); 2 - Taking bats into account in wind energy projects in the European legal framework (Marie-Jo Dubourg-Savage); 3 - Wind energy-biodiversity national program - Towards a biodiversity label for wind farms (Yann Andre); 4 - Development, construction and operation of a bats-friendly wind farm in France? (France Kirchstetter); 5 - Practical experience of bats protection rules in the framework of German wind energy projects - Examples taken from projects development (Rolf Bungart); 6 - Inclusion of birds and bats issues in wind energy planning documents: schemes and wind energy development area (Paul Neau); 7 - Inclusion of potential threats for birds and bats in the definition of wind energy exploitation areas in Germany (Dieter Gruendonner); 8 - Chirotech - Conciliation between wind energy development and bats preservation - Data collection status, first results and perspectives (Hubert Lagrange, Joseph Fonio); 9 - Bats and wind energy in Germany - Present day situation and research works for conflicts resolution (Robert Brinkmann); 10 - Wind turbines and raptors in Germany: experience gained and presentation of a new research project (Hermann Hoetker); 11 - Birds fauna analysis in the framework of the development of the Cote d'Albatre offshore wind energy project (Guillaume Fagot); 12 - Birds flight remote study methods around FINO 1 (Reinhold Hill)

  14. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity. PMID:26541211

  15. Diversity of coronavirus in bats from Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Duengkae, Prateep; Rodpan, Apaporn; Kaewpom, Thongchai; Maneeorn, Patarapol; Kanchanasaka, Budsabong; Yingsakmongkon, Sangchai; Sittidetboripat, Nuntaporn; Chareesaen, Chaiyaporn; Khlangsap, Nathawat; Pidthong, Apisit; Leadprathom, Kumron; Ghai, Siriporn; Jonathan H Epstein; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Bats are reservoirs for a diverse range of coronaviruses (CoVs), including those closely related to human pathogens such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV. There are approximately 139 bat species reported to date in Thailand, of which two are endemic species. Due to the zoonotic potential of CoVs, standardized surveillance efforts to characterize viral diversity in wildlife are imperative. Findings A total of 626 bats from 19 d...

  16. Bats: A new tool for AMS data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: Wacker@phys.ethz.c [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Christl, M.; Synal, H.-A. [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    A data evaluation program was developed at ETH Zurich to meet the requirements of the new compact AMS systems MICADAS and TANDY in addition to the large EN-Tandem accelerator. The program, called 'BATS', is designed to automatically calculate standard and blank corrected results for measured samples. After almost one year of routine operation with the MICADAS C-14 system BATS has proven to be an easy to use data reduction tool that requires minimal user input. Here we present the fundamental principle and the algorithms used in BATS for standard-sized radiocarbon measurements.

  17. Bats and wind energy: a literature synthesis and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Turbines have been used to harness energy from wind for hundreds of years. However, with growing concerns about climate change, wind energy has only recently entered the mainstream of global electricity production. Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Despite recent improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Bats of certain species are dying by the thousands at turbines across North America, and the species consistently affected tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Turbine-related bat mortalities are now affecting nearly a quarter of all bat species occurring in the United States and Canada. Most documented bat mortality at wind-energy facilities has occurred in late summer and early fall and has involved tree bats, with hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) being the most prevalent among fatalities. This literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America (United States and Canada). Thirty-six publications and eight theses were found, and their key findings were summarized. These publications date from 1996 through 2011, with the bulk of publications appearing from 2007 to present, reflecting the relatively recent conservation concerns about bats and wind energy. The idea for this Open-File Report formed while organizing a joint U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/U.S. Geological Survey "Bats and Wind Energy Workshop," on January 25-26, 2012. The purposes of the workshop were to develop a list of research priorities to support decision making concerning bats with respect to siting and operations of wind-energy facilities across the United

  18. The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate

  19. Coexistence of different genotypes in the same bat and serological characterization of Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 belonging to a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna K P Lau; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Wang, Ming; Huang, Yi; Xu, Huifang; Guo, Rongtong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Gao, Kai; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 (Ro-BatCoV HKU9), a recently identified coronavirus of novel Betacoronavirus subgroup D, from Leschenault's rousette, was previously found to display marked sequence polymorphism among genomes of four strains. Among 10 bats with complete RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes sequenced, three and two sequence clades for all three genes were codetected in two and five bats, respectively, suggesting the coexistence of two or thr...

  20. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  1. Bacterial diversity indicates dietary overlap among bats of different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskar, Sunil; Mourya, Devendra T; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2016-01-01

    Bats are among the most conspicuous mammals with extraordinary adaptations. They play a key role in the ecosystem. Frugivorous bats are important seed dispersing agents that help in maintaining forest tree diversity, while insectivorous bats are natural insect pest control agents. Several previous reports suggest that bats are reservoir of viruses; nonetheless their bacterial counterparts are relatively less explored. The present study describes the microbial diversity associated with the intestine of bats from different regions of India. Our observations stipulate that there is substantial sharing of bacterial communities between the insectivorous and frugivorous bats, which signifies fairly large dietary overlap. We also observed the presence of higher abundance of Mycoplasma in Cynopterus species of bats, indicating possible Mycoplasma infection. Considering the scarcity of literature related to microbial communities of bat intestinal tract, this study can direct future microbial diversity studies in bats with reference to their dietary habits, host-bacteria interaction and zoonosis.

  2. Bats from Fazenda Intervales, Southeastern Brazil: species account and comparison between different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine V. Portfors

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.

  3. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats. PMID:24147029

  4. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

  5. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2011-01-01

    * The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats.

  6. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Kuzmin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, for other it has been suggested (filoviruses. Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses. In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions. We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  7. Improved bat algorithm applied to multilevel image thresholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihodzic, Adis; Tuba, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. PMID:25165733

  8. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-11-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based on previously published and unpublished data, validate previous published results with more precise relatedness estimates, and describe current evidence for and against alternative explanations for its evolutionary stability. Although correlational evidence indicates a role for both direct and indirect fitness benefits, unequivocally demonstrating reciprocity in vampire bats still requires testing if and how bats respond to non-reciprocation. PMID:24505498

  9. Summary on Bats and Roost Trees Noxubee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Availability and characteristics of Cavity trees used by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat in bottamland hardwoods in Mississippi. We surveyed approximately 1,250 ha of...

  10. Experimental Studies Cast Doubt on Deceit Syndrome of Bat Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bat Flower (Tacca chantrieri) is a southwest China's species of a tropical plant genus called Tacca,which features near black flowers,conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker-like filiform bracteoles.

  11. Bat Surveys on Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mist net, Anabat, telemetry, and roost surveys were conducted from April-October 2007 to determine bat species diversity and relative abundance on Theodore...

  12. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management.

  13. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adis Alihodzic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed.

  14. Asia's First Bat Research Center Established in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with a local government, the CAS Institute of Zoology (IOZ) has established Asia's first bat research and protection center in Fangshan, a southwest suburb of Beijing. Its opening ceremony was held on November 16, 2004.

  15. Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Draft Recovery Plan: First Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft recovery plan for Indiana bats, a Federally endangered species. First revision. The purpose of this draft recovery plan is to...

  16. Science et débat public sur le vivant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piron Florence

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quels sont les repères éthiques et politiques que les sociétés se donnent pour respecter la vie et le vivant selon leur culture ? D’où viennent les débats et les dissensus? Au-delà des débats de société suscités par le vivant aujourd’hui, il est essentiel de mettre au jour les présupposés épistémologiques qui, en plus des politiques scientifiques, orientent les recherches sur le vivant qui, ensuite, sont mobilisées comme moyen de légitimation des arguments dans ces débats. La science apparaît alors comme une institution non neutre, inscrite dans la culture, qui influence les débats publics sur le vivant, au lieu de seulement les éclairer.

  17. Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  18. The Swift Burst and Transient Telescope (BAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Swift Burst and Transient telescope (BAT) has surveyed the entire sky for the last 3.5 years obtaining the first sensitive all sky survey of the 14-195 kev sky. At high galactic latitudes the vast majority of the detected sources are AGN. Since hard x-rays penetrate all but Compton thick obscuring material (Column densities of 1.6324 atms/sq cm) this survey is unbiased with respect to obscuration, host galaxy type, optical , radio or IR properties. We will present results on the broad band x-ray properties, the nature of the host galaxies, the luminosity function and will discuss a few of the optical, IR and x-ray results in detail.

  19. Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Gerald; Wilkinson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Claims of reciprocity (or reciprocal altruism) in animal societies often ignite controversy because authors disagree over definitions, naturalistic studies tend to demonstrate correlation not causation, and controlled experiments often involve artificial conditions. Food sharing among common vampire bats has been a classic textbook example of reciprocity, but this conclusion has been contested by alternative explanations. Here, we review factors that predict food sharing in vampire bats based...

  20. Partial molecular characterization of alphaherpesviruses isolated from tropical bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth M; Counor, Dorian; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    International audience Herpesviruses have previously been isolated from African and South-American bats. Recently, herpesviruses detected from European insectivorous bats (family Vespertilionidae) were classified molecularly as betaherpesviruses and gammaherpesviruses. In the current study, we performed PCR analyses targeting the UL30 catalytic subunit region of the DNA polymerase gene of the African and South American herpesviruses and new Malagasy and Cambodian herpesviruses isolated fro...

  1. Antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourhy, H.; Kissi, B; Lafon, M.; Sacramento, D; Tordo, N

    1992-01-01

    The predominant role of Eptesicus serotinus in the epizootic of bat rabies in Europe was further outlined by the first isolation of the rabies virus from this species in France. The distribution of the virus was studied in naturally infected E. serotinus bats at the time of death and suggested that the papillae of the tongue and the respiratory mucosa may play a role in virus production and excretion. The analysis of 501 French rabies virus isolates from various animal species by antinucleoca...

  2. DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constru...

  3. Establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Crameri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.

  4. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Boniotti, Maria B.; Enrica Rosti; Ana Moreno; Cristiano Sabelli; Alice Papetti; Davide Lelli

    2013-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detecte...

  5. Characterization of a novel orthoreovirus isolated from fruit bat, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tingsong; Qiu, Wei; He, Biao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jing; Liang, Xiu; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Yingguo; Wang, Yiyin; Zheng, Ying; Feng, Ziliang; Hu, Yonghe; Zhou, Weiguo; Tu, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years novel human respiratory disease agents have been described for Southeast Asia and Australia. The causative pathogens were classified as pteropine orthoreoviruses with a strong phylogenetic relationship to orthoreoviruses of bat origin. Results In this report, we isolated a novel Melaka-like reovirus (named “Cangyuan virus”) from intestinal content samples of one fruit bat residing in China’s Yunnan province. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole Cangyuan virus genome s...

  6. Molecular Detection of Candidatus Bartonella hemsundetiensis in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas M; Veikkolainen, Ville; Pulliainen, Arto T

    2015-11-01

    Although bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for a number of zoonotic and life-threatening viruses, the bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain elusive. However, members of the vector-borne bacterial genera Bartonella causing various human as well as animal diseases have recently been isolated or detected from bats and their ectoparasites. In this study, we sampled 124 insectivorous microbats (Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii) for peripheral blood in southwestern Finland in 2010. A Bartonella-specific PCR targeting rpoB (RNA polymerase β-subunit) was positive with blood samples from 46 bats (prevalence 37%). Scaled mass indexes of the infected and noninfected bats did not differ (p = 0.057). One rpoB sequence was identical with the rpoB sequence of B. naantaliensis strain 2574/1, previously isolated from bats in Finland. The rest of the sequences were highly similar to each other with nucleotide identity scores of 96% or higher. Nucleotide identity scores to the previously described type strain sequences of Bartonella or other database entries were no higher than 87%. Sequence analyses of another gene, gltA (citrate synthase), gave no higher than 90% nucleotide identity scores. On the basis of the conventional 95% sequence similarity cutoff in bacterial species delineation, a novel species of Bartonella was detected. We propose a species name Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis. Phylogenetic analyses based on rpoB and gltA sequences indicate that Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis clusters in a deep-branching position close to the ancestral species B. tamiae and B. bacilliformis. Our study reinforces the importance of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella.

  7. Fruit bats as a natural reservoir of zoonotic viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As a natural reservoir of manifold zoonotic viruses, fruit bats have been involved in at least three emerging zoonoses in recent years. This paper aims to introduce the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases emerged in the Australasian region between 1994 and 1999, transmission pathways of the newly discovered viruses and the relationship between the changed entironment of fruit bats and occurrences of these emerging diseases and provide a clue for the epidemiological investigations of SARS.

  8. Satellite Telemetry and Long-Range Bat Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Craig S Smith; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Breed, Andrew C.; Raina K. Plowright; Kevin J Olival; Carol de Jong; Peter Daszak; Field, Hume E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-distance movement of bats has direct relevance to studies of population dynamics, ecology, disease emergence, and conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed and trialed several collar and platform terminal transmitter (PTT) combinations on both free-living and captive fruit bats (Family Pteropodidae: Genus Pteropus). We examined transmitter weight, size, profile and comfort as key determinants of maximized transmitter activity. We then tested...

  9. Phylogenomic analyses of bat subordinal relationships based on transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Bats, order Chiroptera, are one of the largest monophyletic clades in mammals. Based on morphology and behaviour bats were once differentiated into two suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera Recently, researchers proposed alternative views of chiropteran classification (suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera) based on morphological, molecular and fossil evidence. Since genome-scale data can significantly increase the number of informative characters for analysis, transcriptome RNA-seq data for 12 bat taxa were generated in an attempt to resolve bat subordinal relationships at the genome level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 1470 orthologous genes and 634,288 aligned sites. We found strong support for the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification. Next, we built expression distance matrices for each species and reconstructed gene expression trees. The tree is highly consistent with sequence-based phylogeny. We also examined the influence of taxa sampling on the performance of phylogenetic methods, and found that the topology is robust to sampling. Relaxed molecular clock estimates the divergence between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera around 63 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of Yinpterochiroptera, corresponding to the split between Rhinolophoidea and Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit bats), is estimated to have occurred 60 million years ago. Our work provided a valuable resource to further explore the evolutionary relationship within bats. PMID:27291671

  10. Spatial release from simultaneous echo masking in bat sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Michaela; Bates, Mary E; Flores, Victoria; Simmons, James A

    2014-05-01

    Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) use biosonar to navigate and locate objects in their surroundings. During natural foraging, they often encounter echoes returned by a target of interest located to the front while other, often stronger, clutter echoes are returned from objects, such as vegetation, located to the sides or above. Nevertheless, bats behave as if they do not suffer interference from this clutter. Using a two-choice delay discrimination procedure, bats were tested for the masking effectiveness of clutter echoes on target echoes when the target echoes were delivered from the bat's front while clutter echoes were delivered from 90° overhead, a direction of lowpass filtering by the external ears. When clutter echoes are presented from the front at the same delay as target echoes, detection performance declines and clutter masking occurs. When the clutter echoes are presented at the same delay but from overhead, discrimination performance is unaffected and no masking occurs. Thus there is masking release for simultaneous off-axis lowpass clutter compared to masking by simultaneous clutter from the front. The bat's performance for simultaneous target and clutter echoes indicates a new role for the mechanism that separates overlapping echoes by decomposing the bat's auditory time-frequency representation.

  11. Spatial expansions and travelling waves of rabies in vampire bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, William; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    A major obstacle to anticipating the cross-species transmission of zoonotic diseases and developing novel strategies for their control is the scarcity of data informing how these pathogens circulate within natural reservoir populations. Vampire bats are the primary reservoir of rabies in Latin America, where the disease remains among the most important viral zoonoses affecting humans and livestock. Unpredictable spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies within bat populations have precluded anticipation of outbreaks and undermined widespread bat culling programs. By analysing 1146 vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) outbreaks in livestock across 12 years in Peru, we demonstrate that viral expansions into historically uninfected zones have doubled the recent burden of VBR. Viral expansions are geographically widespread, but severely constrained by high elevation peaks in the Andes mountains. Within Andean valleys, invasions form wavefronts that are advancing towards large, unvaccinated livestock populations that are heavily bitten by bats, which together will fuel high transmission and mortality. Using spatial models, we forecast the pathways of ongoing VBR epizootics across heterogeneous landscapes. These results directly inform vaccination strategies to mitigate impending viral emergence, reveal VBR as an emerging rather than an enzootic disease and create opportunities to test novel interventions to manage viruses in bat reservoirs.

  12. Early diversification trend and Asian origin for extent bat lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Wu, Y; Yang, G

    2014-10-01

    Bats are a unique mammalian group, which belong to one of the largest and most diverse mammalian radiations, but their early diversification is still poorly understood, and conflicting hypotheses have emerged regarding their biogeographic history. Understanding their diversification is crucial for untangling the enigmatic evolutionary history of bats. In this study, we elucidated the rate of diversification and the biogeographic history of extant bat lineages using genus-level chronograms. The results suggest that a rapid adaptive radiation persisted from the emergence of crown bats until the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, whereas there was a major deceleration in diversification around 35-49 Ma. There was a positive association between changes in the palaeotemperature and the net diversification rate until 35 Ma, which suggests that the palaeotemperature may have played an important role in the regulation of ecological opportunities. By contrast, there were unexpectedly higher diversification rates around 25-35 Ma during a period characterized by intense and long-lasting global cooling, which implies that intrinsic innovations or adaptations may have released some lineages from the intense selective pressures associated with these severe conditions. Our reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests an Asian origin for bats, thereby indicating that the current panglobal but disjunct distribution pattern of extant bats may be related to events involving seriate cross-continental dispersal and local extinction, as well as the influence of geological events and the expansion and contraction of megathermal rainforests during the Tertiary.

  13. Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed on wavel......Most echolocating bats exhibit a strong correlation between body size and the frequency of maximum energy in their echolocation calls (peak frequency), with smaller species using signals of higher frequency than larger ones. Size-signal allometry or acoustic detection constraints imposed...... on wavelength by preferred prey size have been used to explain this relationship. Here we propose the hypothesis that smaller bats emit higher frequencies to achieve directional sonar beams, and that variable beam width is critical for bats. Shorter wavelengths relative to the size of the emitter translate...... into more directional sound beams. Therefore, bats that emit their calls through their mouths should show a relationship between mouth size and wavelength, driving smaller bats to signals of higher frequency. We found that in a flight room mimicking a closed habitat, six aerial hawking vespertilionid...

  14. Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock.

  15. Experimental Inoculation of Artibeus jamaicensis Bats with Dengue Virus Serotypes 1 or 4 Showed No Evidence of Sustained Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera-Romo, Salomé; Recio-Tótoro, Benito; Alcalá, Ana C.; Lanz, Humberto; del Ángel, Rosa María; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Ludert, Juan E.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease to humans. Bats are potential reservoirs for flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV). In this work, Artibeus jamaicensis bats were inoculated with two serotypes of DENV using different routes. For experimental inoculations (EI) 1 and 2, bats were inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with DENV-4; for EI-3 bats were inoculated intraperitoneally with DENV-1. Mock inoculated bats were kept as controls. In EI-4, bats were bitt...

  16. Bat Species Occurrence and Long-Term Bat Population Monitoring on Refuges Using Acoustical Detection - 2012-2015 Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long-term trend monitoring efforts for bats on National Wildlife Refuges have been prompted by a paucity of significant population information and precipitous...

  17. Follow the BAT: Monitoring Swift BAT FoV for Prompt Optical Emission from Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ukwatta, T N; Dhuga, K S; Gehrels, N

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of implementing a system called 'Follow the BAT' that will coordinate ground-based robotic optical and near infrared (NIR) telescopes to monitor the Swift BAT field-of-view (FoV). The system will optimize the monitoring locations in the BAT FoV based on individual robotic telescopes' location, FoV, sensitivity and local weather conditions. The aim is to perform coordinated BAT FoV monitoring by professional as well as amateur astronomers around the world. The scientific goal of the proposed system is to facilitate detection of prompt optical and NIR emission from GRBs, especially from short duration GRBs. We have performed a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  18. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Hoffmann; Nadine Krüger; Pawel Zmora; Florian Wrensch; Georg Herrler; Stefan Pöhlmann

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, ...

  19. The BatR/BatS two-component regulatory system controls the adaptive response of Bartonella henselae during human endothelial cell infection

    OpenAIRE

    Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS co...

  20. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt R K Zeale

    Full Text Available Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.

  1. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.

  2. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Vonhof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1 evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2 estimate effective population size (Ne, and (3 assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species.

  3. Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Susan Savitt (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    Most conservation groups support the development of wind energy in the US as an alternative to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. However, concerns have surfaced over the potential threat to birds, bats, and other wildlife from the construction and operation of wind turbine facilities. Co-sponsored by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop was convened to examine current research on the impacts of wind energy development on avian and bat species and to discuss the most effective ways to mitigate such impacts. On 18-19 May 2004, 82 representatives from government, non-government organizations, private business, and academia met to (1) review the status of the wind industry and current project development practices, including pre-development risk assessment and post-construction monitoring; (2) learn what is known about direct, indirect (habitat), and cumulative impacts on birds and bats from existing wind projects; about relevant aspects of bat and bird migration ecology; about offshore wind development experience in Europe; and about preventing, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts; (3) review wind development guidelines developed by the USFWS and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife; and (4) identify topics needing further research and to discuss what can be done to ensure that research is both credible and accessible. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  4. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  5. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; McCaffrey, M.F.; Wright, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) has been virtually unknown in Oregon despite the existence of potential habitat in many areas of the state. In 2002 and 2003 we searched for spotted bats along the John Day, Deschutes, and Crooked Rivers and at a remote dry canyon southeast of the city of Bend in central Oregon. The species was documented through the use of mist-nets, a bat detector, and recognition of audible spotted bat calls. Spotted bats were found at 11 locations in 6 Oregon counties. Nightly activity patterns of spotted bats were unpredictable. Spotted bats were found in 78% of search areas but on only 48% of survey nights. We observed spotted bats foraging above fields and low upland slopes adjacent to rivers and creeks and along the rims of cliffs. Estimated flying heights of spotted bats ranged from 3 m to 50 m aboveground. The species was difficult to capture and was captured only after considerable experimentation with methods and materials. Three spotted bats were captured toward the end of the project in 2003 and accounted for only 0.5% of all bats captured during the study. Although we attached radio transmitters to 2 spotted bats, we found no roost locations. We believe additional spotted bat surveys in Oregon are warranted, especially in higher-elevation habitats, but recommend that to increase their effectiveness, surveys accommodate the unique foraging behavior of the species.

  6. Insect prey eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) prior to fatal collisions with wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the minutes to hours leading up to their deaths. However, we did not find prey in the mouths or throats of any bats that would indicate the bats died while capturing prey. Hoary bats fed mostly on moths, but we also detected the regular presence of beetles, true bugs, and crickets. Presence of terrestrial insects in stomachs indicates that bats may have gleaned them from the ground or the turbine surfaces, yet aerial capture of winged insect stages cannot be ruled out. Our findings confirm earlier studies that indicate hoary bats feed during migration and eat mostly moths. Future studies on bat behaviors and insect presence at wind turbines could help determine whether feeding at turbines is a major fatality risk for bats.

  7. Scanning behavior in echolocating common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Seibert

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats construct an auditory world sequentially by analyzing successive pulse-echo pairs. Many other mammals rely upon a visual world, acquired by sequential foveal fixations connected by visual gaze saccades. We investigated the scanning behavior of bats and compared it to visual scanning. We assumed that each pulse-echo pair evaluation corresponds to a foveal fixation and that sonar beam movements between pulses can be seen as acoustic gaze saccades. We used a two-dimensional 16 microphone array to determine the sonar beam direction of succeeding pulses and to characterize the three dimensional scanning behavior in the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus flying in the field. We also used variations of signal amplitude of single microphone recordings as indicator for scanning behavior in open space. We analyzed 33 flight sequences containing more than 700 echolocation calls to determine bat positions, source levels, and beam aiming. When searching for prey and orienting in space, bats moved their sonar beam in all directions, often alternately back and forth. They also produced sequences with irregular or no scanning movements. When approaching the array, the scanning movements were much smaller and the beam was moved over the array in small steps. Differences in the scanning pattern at various recording sites indicated that the scanning behavior depended on the echolocation task that was being performed. The scanning angles varied over a wide range and were often larger than the maximum angle measurable by our array. We found that echolocating bats use a "saccade and fixate" strategy similar to vision. Through the use of scanning movements, bats are capable of finding and exploring targets in a wide search cone centered along flight direction.

  8. Dynamic Echo Information Guides Flight in the Big Brown Bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Michaela; Lee, Wu-Jung; Krishnan, Anand; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on sensory feedback from their environment to guide locomotion. For instance, visually guided animals use patterns of optic flow to control their velocity and to estimate their distance to objects (e.g., Srinivasan et al., 1991, 1996). In this study, we investigated how acoustic information guides locomotion of animals that use hearing as a primary sensory modality to orient and navigate in the dark, where visual information is unavailable. We studied flight and echolocation behaviors of big brown bats as they flew under infrared illumination through a corridor with walls constructed from a series of individual vertical wooden poles. The spacing between poles on opposite walls of the corridor was experimentally manipulated to create dense/sparse and balanced/imbalanced spatial structure. The bats' flight trajectories and echolocation signals were recorded with high-speed infrared motion-capture cameras and ultrasound microphones, respectively. As bats flew through the corridor, successive biosonar emissions returned cascades of echoes from the walls of the corridor. The bats flew through the center of the corridor when the pole spacing on opposite walls was balanced and closer to the side with wider pole spacing when opposite walls had an imbalanced density. Moreover, bats produced shorter duration echolocation calls when they flew through corridors with smaller spacing between poles, suggesting that clutter density influences features of the bat's sonar signals. Flight speed and echolocation call rate did not, however, vary with dense and sparse spacing between the poles forming the corridor walls. Overall, these data demonstrate that bats adapt their flight and echolocation behavior dynamically when flying through acoustically complex environments. PMID:27199690

  9. Monitoring and conservation of bats in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

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    Sanjan Thapa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Kathmandu Valley has been a centre for bat study since the 19th century. Twenty five species of bats have been documented from Kathmandu Valley including two species of fruit bats until 1997. Opportunistic and sporadic survey was continued then after. There was a gap of more than a decade for monitoring. A recent preliminary survey in 2008 re-recorded only three species which revealed the need for detailed monitoring. Bats conservation is a rare practice in Nepal which lags behind neighboring countries. The negative perception of the bats and lack of awareness is the primary factor for the lack of conservation. This project is designed to redress this at twenty sites within the Kathmandu Valley where mist and scoop nettings together with roost survey were carried out. Lectures to schoolchildren were the primary conservation action along with radio-awareness programmes. Twelve species was re-recorded excluding fruit bats and two unidentified species (Pipistrellus sp. and Myotis sp.. Specific roost sites and foraging habitats were discovered and documented in the study area. A new site of occurrence of vulnerable species Mandelli’s Mouse-eared Myotis Myotis sicarius was identified. A special trend of seasonal variation in species at few study sites was observed while in few the species were found resident. Thirteen half hour radio programmes about bats were successfully broadcast throughout Nepal from Radio Kantipur. Lectures of 45 minutes were delivered to in an average 75 schoolchildren per school at twenty schools in fifteen project sites. Post project effectiveness evaluation should be carried out.

  10. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    Full Text Available Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter. In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  11. Two novel parvoviruses in frugivorous New and Old World bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Canuti

    Full Text Available Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae, Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae, Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1. Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7-8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%. Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges.

  12. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Mingo National Wildlife Refuge between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID]...

  13. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 - Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Big Branch Marsh NWR in 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  14. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Bald Knob National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Bald Knob NWR in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version...

  15. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Lake Ophelia National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Lake Ophelia NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  16. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Carolina Sandhills NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version...

  17. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Tennessee NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  18. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  19. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Tensas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Tensas NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  20. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2013 to 2015 - Overflow National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Overflow NWR between 2013 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...