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Sample records for bat lyssaviruses type-1

  1. Endemic circulation of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in serotine bats, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Ruiz-Villamor, Eduardo; Avellón, Ana; Vera, Manuel; Echevarría, Juan E

    2008-08-01

    To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998-2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation.

  2. Natural and experimental infection of sheep with European bat lyssavirus type-1 of Danish bat origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Fooks, A.R.; Agerholm, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 and 2002, European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) was demonstrated in brain tissue of five Danish sheep suffering from micrological disorders. Four of the five sheep also had encephalic listeriosis. The animals originated from four flocks on pastures within a limited area of western Jutla...

  3. Experimental infection of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, C; Vos, A; Johnson, N; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Neubert, L; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nuñez, A; Tordo, N; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2009-10-01

    The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) accounts for the vast majority of bat rabies cases in Europe and is considered the main reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5). However, so far the disease has not been investigated in its native host under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, dissemination and probable means of transmission, captive bats were infected experimentally with an EBLV-1a virus isolated from a naturally infected conspecific from Germany. Twenty-nine wild caught bats were divided into five groups and inoculated by intracranial (i.c.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection or by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation to mimic the various potential routes of infection. One group of bats was maintained as uninfected controls. Mortality was highest in the i.c.-infected animals, followed by the s.c. and i.m. groups. Incubation periods varied from 7 to 26 days depending on the route of infection. Rabies did not develop in the i.n. group or in the negative-control group. None of the infected bats seroconverted. Viral antigen was detected in more than 50% of the taste buds of an i.c.-infected animal. Shedding of viable virus was measured by virus isolation in cell culture for one bat from the s.c. group at 13 and 14 days post-inoculation, i.e. 7 days before death. In conclusion, it is postulated that s.c. inoculation, in nature caused by bites, may be an efficient way of transmitting EBLV-1 among free-living serotine bats.

  4. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

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    Marc López-Roig

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1 in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis. Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57% was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%. The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence. However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence.

  5. Seroprevalence dynamics of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in a multispecies bat colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2014-09-04

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%-26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%-20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence.

  6. Generation of recombinant European bat lyssavirus type 1 and inter-genotypic compatibility of lyssavirus genotype 1 and 5 antigenome promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbanz, Jeannette; Finke, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Bat lyssaviruses (Fam. Rhabdoviridae) represent a source for the infection of terrestial mammals and the development of rabies disease. Molecular differences in the replication of bat and non-bat lyssaviruses and their contribution to pathogenicity, however, are unknown. One reason for this is the lack of reverse genetics systems for bat-restricted lyssaviruses. To investigate bat lyssavirus replication and host adaptation, we developed a reverse genetics system for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1; genotype 5). This was achieved by co-transfection of HEK-293T cells with a full-length EBLV-1 genome cDNA and expression plasmids for EBLV-1 proteins, resulting in recombinant EBLV-1 (rEBLV-1). Replication of rEBLV-1 was comparable to that of parental virus, showing that rEBLV-1 is a valid tool to investigate EBLV-1 replication functions. In a first approach, we tested whether the terminal promoter sequences of EBLV-1 are genotype-specific. Although genotype 1 (rabies virus) minigenomes were successfully amplified by EBLV-1 helper virus, in the context of the complete virus, only the antigenome promoter (AGP) sequence of EBLV-1 was replaceable, as indicated by comparable replication of rEBLV-1 and the chimeric virus. These analyses demonstrate that the terminal AGPs of genotype 1 and genotype 5 lyssaviruses are compatible with those of the heterologous genotype.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Bat Lyssaviruses in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinney, L.M.; Marston, D.A.; Leech, S.; Freuling, C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Echevarria, J.; Vazquez-Moron, S.; Horton, D.L.; Müller, T.; Fooks, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are principally attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (>97%) being

  8. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies.

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    Amengual, Blanca; Bourhy, Hervé; López-Roig, Marc; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2007-06-27

    Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis) located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1). This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R(0) = 1.706) and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days). In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern.

  9. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Amengual

    Full Text Available Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1. This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R(0 = 1.706 and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days. In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern.

  10. Susceptibility of North American big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to infection with European bat lyssavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franka, R; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Vos, A; Neubert, L; Freuling, C; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of insectivorous bats (using the big brown bat as a model) to infection with European bat lyssavirus type 1a (EBLV-1a), to assess the dynamics of host immune responses and to evaluate the opportunity for horizontal viral transmission within colonies. Two isolates of EBLV-1a, originating from Slovakia (EBLV-1aSK) and Germany (EBLV-1aGE), were tested. Four different routes of inoculation were used with isolate EBLV-1aSK [10(4.8) mouse intracerebral median lethal dose (MICLD(50)) in 50 mul]: intramuscular (i.m.) in the deltoid area or masseter region, per os (p.o.) and intradermal (i.d.) scratches. Isolate EBLV-1aGE (10(3.2) and 10(2.2) MICLD(50) in 20 mul) was inoculated via the intranasal (i.n.), i.m. (low- and high-dose groups, into pectoral muscles); p.o. and intracerebral (i.c.) routes. None of the bats infected by the i.n., p.o. or i.d. route with either virus isolate developed disease during the experiments (91 or 120 days, respectively). Incubation periods were 9-12 days for i.c.-inoculated bats (66 % mortality), 12-33 days for bats inoculated i.m. with the higher dose (23-50 % mortality) and 21-58 days in bats inoculated i.m. with the lower dose of virus (57 % mortality). Virus or viral RNA in bat saliva was detected occasionally, as early as 37 days before death. All i.d.-inoculated and the majority of i.m.-inoculated bats seroconverted within 7-10 days of inoculation. These observations suggest that exposure of bats to varying doses of EBLV-1 from rabid conspecifics via natural (i.d.) routes could lead to an abortive infection and serve as a natural mode of immunization resulting in the presence of virus-neutralizing antibodies in free-ranging bats.

  11. A reassessment of the emergence time of European bat lyssavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth J

    2008-12-01

    The previous study of the evolutionary rates of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) used a strict molecular clock to estimate substitution rates of the nucleoprotein gene and in turn times of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of the entire genotype and the two major EBLV-1 lineages (EBLV-1A and EBLV-1B). The results of that study suggested that the evolutionary rate of EBLV-1 was one of the lowest recorded for RNA viruses and that genetic diversity of EBLV-1 arose 500-750 years ago. Here I have shown that the use of a relaxed molecular clock (allowing branch rates to vary within a phylogeny) shows that these previous estimates should be revised. The relaxed clock provides a significantly better fit to all datasets. The substitution rate of EBLV-1B is compatible to that expected given previous estimates for the N gene of rabies virus whilst rate estimations for EBLV-1A appear to be confounded by substantial rate variation within the phylogeny. The relaxed clock substitution rate for EBLV-1 (1.1 x 10(-4)) is higher than had been estimated previously, and closer to that expected for the N gene. Moreover, tMRCA estimates for EBLV-1 are substantially reduced using the relaxed molecular clock (70-300 years) although the differing dynamics of EBLV-1A and EBLV-1B confound the confidence in this estimate. Current diversity of both EBLV-1A and EBLV-1B appears to have emerged within the last 100 years. Reconstruction of the population histories suggests that EBLV-1B may be emerging whilst the signal derived from the EBLV-1A phylogeny may be dampened by clade-specific dynamics.

  12. Detection of high levels of European bat lyssavirus type-1 viral RNA in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected Eptesicus fuscus bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Vos, A; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Freuling, C; Neubert, L; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Franka, R; Rupprecht, C E

    2009-08-01

    Two common bat lyssavirus species have been identified in many European countries: European bat lyssavirus type-1 and -2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2). Only limited knowledge on the susceptibility of the natural EBLV-hosts, insectivorous bats, to lyssavirus infection is available. Our study was undertaken to evaluate the susceptibility and pathology associated with an EBLV-1 infection in Eptesicus fuscus following different routes of virus inoculation including intracranial (n = 6), intramuscular (n = 14), oral (n = 7) and intranasal (n = 7). Blood and saliva samples were collected from all bats on a monthly basis. Four bats inoculated intracranially developed rabies with a mean of 11 days to death, whilst seven bats inoculated intramuscularly developed rabies, with an extended incubation period prior to death. We did not observe any mortality in the oral (p.o.) or intranasal (i.n.) groups and both groups had detectable levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (data not shown). Virus shedding was demonstrated in the saliva by virus isolation and the detection of viral RNA in ill bats, particularly immediately prior to the development of disease. In addition, the presence of virus and viral RNA was detected in the thyroid gland in bats challenged experimentally with EBLV-1, which exceeded that detected in all other extra-neural tissue. The significance of detecting EBLV-1 in the thyroid gland of rabid bats is not well understood. We speculate that the infection of the thyroid gland may cause subacute thyroiditis, a transient form of thyroiditis causing hyperthyroidism, resulting in changes in adrenocortical activity that could lead to hormonal dysfunction, thereby distinguishing the clinical presentation of rabies in the rabid host.

  13. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  14. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  15. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  16. Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 and type 2 with other lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif in the G-L 3' non-translated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Conzelmann, K K; Tordo, N; Fooks, A R

    2007-04-01

    We report the first full-length genomic sequences for European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) and type-2 (EBLV-2). The EBLV-1 genomic sequence was derived from a virus isolated from a serotine bat in Hamburg, Germany, in 1968 and the EBLV-2 sequence was derived from a virus isolate from a human case of rabies that occurred in Scotland in 2002. A long-distance PCR strategy was used to amplify the open reading frames (ORFs), followed by standard and modified RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) techniques to amplify the 3' and 5' ends. The lengths of each complete viral genome for EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were 11 966 and 11 930 base pairs, respectively, and follow the standard rhabdovirus genome organization of five viral proteins. Comparison with other lyssavirus sequences demonstrates variation in degrees of homology, with the genomic termini showing a high degree of complementarity. The nucleoprotein was the most conserved, both intra- and intergenotypically, followed by the polymerase (L), matrix and glyco- proteins, with the phosphoprotein being the most variable. In addition, we have shown that the two EBLVs utilize a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation (TTP) motif, approximately 50 nt upstream of the L gene start codon. All available lyssavirus sequences to date, with the exception of Pasteur virus (PV) and PV-derived isolates, use the second TTP site. This observation may explain differences in pathogenicity between lyssavirus strains, dependent on the length of the untranslated region, which might affect transcriptional activity and RNA stability.

  17. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  18. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1: Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

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    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1 antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status. Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers

  19. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Borel, Christophe; Moinet, Marie; Jouan, Dorothée; Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Boué, Franck; Montchâtre-Leroy, Elodie; Servat, Alexandre; Gimenez, Olivier; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne

    2017-11-01

    This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status) and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status). Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers of the rabies

  20. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  1. Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats.

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    Megali, A; Yannic, G; Zahno, M-L; Brügger, D; Bertoni, G; Christe, P; Zanoni, R

    2010-10-01

    Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true prevalence and epidemiology. We report that only three out of 837 brains taken from bats submitted to the Swiss Rabies Centre between 1976 and 2009 were found by immunofluorescence (FAT) to be positive for EBLVs. All three positive cases were in Myotis daubentoni, from 1992, 1993 and 2002. In addition to this passive surveillance, we undertook a targeted survey in 2009, aimed at detecting lyssaviruses in live bats in Switzerland. A total of 237 bats of the species M. daubentoni, Myotis myotis, Eptesicus serotinus and Nyctalus noctula were captured at different sites in western Switzerland. Oropharyngeal swabs and blood from each individual were analysed by RT-PCR and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), respectively. RNA corresponding to EBLV-2 was detected from oropharyngeal swabs of a single M. daubentoni bat, but no infectious virus was found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the corresponding sequence was closely related to the other EBLV-2 sequences identified in previous rabies isolates from Swiss bats (particularly to that found at Geneva in 2002). Three M. daubentoni bats were found to be seropositive by RFFIT. In conclusion, even though the prevalence is low in Switzerland, continuous management and surveillance are required to assess the potential risk to public health.

  2. Detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in Danish Daubenton’s bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.

    European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...

  3. Tentative novel lyssavirus in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T

    2018-06-01

    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Serologic Evidence of Lyssavirus Infections among Bats, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Arguin, Paul M.; Murray-Lillibridge, Kristy; Miranda, Mary E.G.; Smith, Jean S.; Calaor, Alan B.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Active surveillance for lyssaviruses was conducted among populations of bats in the Philippines. The presence of past or current Lyssavirus infection was determined by use of direct fluorescent antibody assays on bat brains and virus neutralization assays on bat sera. Although no bats were found to have active infection with a Lyssavirus, 22 had evidence of neutralizing antibody against the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Seropositivity was statistically associated with one species of bat, ...

  5. First cases of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in Iberian serotine bats: Implications for the molecular epidemiology of bat rabies in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mingo-Casas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that EBLV-1 strains exclusively hosted by Eptesicus isabellinus bats in the Iberian Peninsula cluster in a specific monophyletic group that is related to the EBLV-1b lineage found in the rest of Europe. More recently, enhanced passive surveillance has allowed the detection of the first EBLV-1 strains associated to Eptesicus serotinus south of the Pyrenees. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of the EBLV-1 phylogeny and phylodynamics in the Iberian Peninsula in the context of the European continent. We have sequenced 23 EBLV-1 strains detected on nine E. serotinus and 14 E. isabellinus. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on the first 400-bp-5' fragment of the Nucleoprotein (N gene together with other 162 sequences from Europe. Besides, fragments of the variable region of the phosphoprotein (P gene and the glycoprotein-polymerase (G-L intergenic region were studied on Spanish samples. Phylogenies show that two of the new EBLV-1a strains from Iberian E. serotinus clustered together with French strains from the North of the Pyrenees, suggesting a recent expansion southwards of this subtype. The remaining seven Iberian strains from E. serotinus grouped, instead, within the cluster linked, so far, to E. isabellinus, indicating that spatial distribution prevails over species specificity in explaining rabies distribution and supporting interspecific transmission. The structure found within the Iberian Peninsula for EBLV-1b is in concordance with that described previously for E. isabellinus. Finally, we have found that the current EBLV-1 European strains could have emerged only 175 years ago according to our evolutionary dynamics analyses.

  6. First cases of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in Iberian serotine bats: Implications for the molecular epidemiology of bat rabies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo-Casas, Patricia; Sandonís, Virginia; Obón, Elena; Berciano, José M; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Echevarría, Juan E

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that EBLV-1 strains exclusively hosted by Eptesicus isabellinus bats in the Iberian Peninsula cluster in a specific monophyletic group that is related to the EBLV-1b lineage found in the rest of Europe. More recently, enhanced passive surveillance has allowed the detection of the first EBLV-1 strains associated to Eptesicus serotinus south of the Pyrenees. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of the EBLV-1 phylogeny and phylodynamics in the Iberian Peninsula in the context of the European continent. We have sequenced 23 EBLV-1 strains detected on nine E. serotinus and 14 E. isabellinus. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on the first 400-bp-5' fragment of the Nucleoprotein (N) gene together with other 162 sequences from Europe. Besides, fragments of the variable region of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and the glycoprotein-polymerase (G-L) intergenic region were studied on Spanish samples. Phylogenies show that two of the new EBLV-1a strains from Iberian E. serotinus clustered together with French strains from the North of the Pyrenees, suggesting a recent expansion southwards of this subtype. The remaining seven Iberian strains from E. serotinus grouped, instead, within the cluster linked, so far, to E. isabellinus, indicating that spatial distribution prevails over species specificity in explaining rabies distribution and supporting interspecific transmission. The structure found within the Iberian Peninsula for EBLV-1b is in concordance with that described previously for E. isabellinus. Finally, we have found that the current EBLV-1 European strains could have emerged only 175 years ago according to our evolutionary dynamics analyses.

  7. [Viruses and bats: rabies and Lyssavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordo, N; Marianneau, M Ph

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging zoonoses (hemorrhagic fevers due to Ebola or Marburg virus, encephalitis due to Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SRAS virus...) outline the potential of bats as vectors for transmission of infectious disease to humans. Such a potential is already known for rabies encephalitis since seven out of the eight genotypes of Lyssavirus are transmitted by bats. In addition, phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Lyssavirus have evolved in chiropters before their emergence in carnivores. Nevertheless, carnivores remain the most critical vectors for public health, in particular dogs that are originating 55.000 rabies deaths per year, essentially in developing countries. Rabies control in carnivores by parenteral (dog) or oral (wild carnivores) vaccination is efficacious and campaigns start to be more widely applied. On the other hand, rabies control in bat still remains non realistic, particularly as the pathogenicity of bat Lyssavirus for bats is still under debate, suggesting that a "diplomatic relationship" between partners would have arisen from a long term cohabitation. While comparing the interactions that humans and bats establish with Lyssavirus, scientists try to understand the molecular basis ofpathogenicity in man, a indispensable prerequisite to identify antiviral targets in a perspective of therapy.

  8. Lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, J; Teifke, J P; Mettenleiter, T C; Aue, A; Stiefel, D; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2014-02-21

    In Germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) and the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) for which Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. Lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. Moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental data still hamper attempts to understand the distribution, prevalence, and in particular transmission of the virus. In an experimental study in E. serotinus a heterogeneous dissemination of EBLV-1 in tissues was detected. However, it is not clear whether the EBLV-1 distribution is similar in naturally infected animals. In an attempt to further analyze virus dissemination and viral loads within naturally infected hosts we investigated tissues of 57 EBLV-1 positive individuals of E. serotinus from Germany by RT-qPCR and compared the results with those obtained experimentally. Additionally, tissue samples were investigated with immunohistochemistry to detect lyssavirus antigen in defined structures. While in individual animals virus RNA was present only in the brain, in the majority of E. serotinus viral RNA was found in various tissues with highest relative viral loads detected in the brain. Interestingly, viral antigen was confirmed in various tissues in the tongue including deep intralingual glands, nerves, muscle cells and lingual papillae. So, the tongue appears to be a prominent site for virus replication and possibly shedding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Freuling, Conrad M.; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J.; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P.; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  10. Australian Bat Lyssavirus in a child: the first reported case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joshua R; Nourse, Clare; Vaska, Vikram L; Calvert, Sophie; Northill, Judith A; McCall, Brad; Mattke, Adrian C

    2014-04-01

    Human infection with Australian Bat Lyssavirus is extremely rare and has not previously been reported in a child. We describe a fatal case of Australian Bat Lyssavirus in an 8-year-old child, and review the literature pertaining to the diagnosis and management of lyssavirus infection with consideration of its applicability to this emerging strain.

  11. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hammarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Results and discussion: EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii, all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden. The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats.

  12. Phylogeny of Lagos bat virus: challenges for lyssavirus taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markotter, W; Kuzmin, I; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2008-07-01

    Lagos bat virus (LBV) belongs to genotype 2 of the Lyssavirus genus. The complete nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrixprotein (M) and glycoprotein (G) genes of 13 LBV isolates were sequenced and phylogenetically compared with other lyssavirus representatives. The results identified three different lineages of LBV. One of these lineages demonstrated sufficient sequence diversity to be considered a new lyssavirus genotype (Dakar bat lyssavirus). The suggested quantitative separation of lyssavirus genotypes using the N, P, M and G genes was also investigated using P-distances matrixes. Results indicated that the current criteria should be revised since overlaps between intergenotypic and intragenotypic variation occur.

  13. Bat population genetics and Lyssavirus presence in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Aegerter, J N; Allnutt, T R; MacNicoll, A D; Learmount, J; Hutson, A M; Atterby, H

    2011-10-01

    Most lyssaviruses appear to have bat species as reservoir hosts. In Europe, of around 800 reported cases in bats, most were of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) in Eptesicus serotinus (where the bat species was identified). About 20 cases of EBLV-2 were recorded, and these were in Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme. Through a passive surveillance scheme, Britain reports about one case a year of EBLV-2, but no cases of the more prevalent EBLV-1. An analysis of E. serotinus and M. daubentonii bat genetics in Britain reveals more structure in the former population than in the latter. Here we briefly review these differences, ask if this correlates with dispersal and movement patterns and use the results to suggest an hypothesis that EBLV-2 is more common than EBLV-1 in the UK, as genetic data suggest greater movement and regular immigration from Europe of M. daubentonii. We further suggest that this genetic approach is useful to anticipate the spread of exotic diseases in bats in any region of the world.

  14. First detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldal, Torfinn; Vikøren, Turid; Cliquet, Florence; Marston, Denise A; van der Kooij, Jeroen; Madslien, Knut; Ørpetveit, Irene

    2017-07-11

    In Europe, bat rabies is primarily attributed to European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) which are both strongly host-specific. Approximately thirty cases of infection with EBLV-2 in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and pond bats (M. dasycneme) have been reported. Two human cases of rabies caused by EBLV-2 have also been confirmed during the last thirty years, while natural spill-over to other non-flying mammals has never been reported. Rabies has never been diagnosed in mainland Norway previously. In late September 2015, a subadult male Daubenton's bat was found in a poor condition 800 m above sea level in the southern part of Norway. The bat was brought to the national Bat Care Centre where it eventually displayed signs of neurological disease and died after two days. EBLV-2 was detected in brain tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing of a part of the nucleoprotein gene, and lyssavirus was isolated in neuroblastoma cells. The detection of EBLV-2 in a bat in Norway broadens the knowledge on the occurrence of this zoonotic agent. Since Norway is considered free of rabies, adequate information to the general public regarding the possibility of human cases of bat-associated rabies should be given. No extensive surveillance of lyssavirus infections in bats has been conducted in the country, and a passive surveillance network to assess rabies prevalence and bat epidemiology is highly desired.

  15. Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wang, Wen; Yin, Wei-Li; Tang, Hai-Bo; Pan, Yan; Liang, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-04-01

    Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

  16. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  17. Australian bat lyssavirus: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joshua R; McCall, Bradley J; Hutchinson, Penny; Powell, Jodie; Vaska, Vikram L; Nourse, Clare

    2014-12-11

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in humans is rare but fatal, with no proven effective therapy. ABLV infection can be prevented by administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis regimen of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. All Australian bats (flying foxes and microbats) should be considered to be carrying ABLV unless proven otherwise. Any bat-related injury (bite, scratch or mucosal exposure to bat saliva or neural tissue) should be notified immediately to the relevant public health unit - no matter how small the injury or how long ago it occurred. Human-to-human transmission of ABLV has not been reported but is theoretically possible. Standard infection control precautions should be employed when managing patients with suspected or confirmed ABLV infection.

  18. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogeny of European bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus bats, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moron, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Berciano, José M; Echevarria, Juan E

    2011-03-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) in Europe, we phylogenetically characterized Lyssavirus from Eptesicus isabellinus bats in Spain. An independent cluster of EBLV-1 possibly resulted from geographic isolation and association with a different reservoir from other European strains. EBLV-1 phylogeny is complex and probably associated with host evolutionary history.

  20. Phylogeny of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus Bats, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Berciano, José M.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) in Europe, we phylogenetically characterized Lyssavirus from Eptesicus isabellinus bats in Spain. An independent cluster of EBLV-1 possibly resulted from geographic isolation and association with a different reservoir from other European strains. EBLV-1 phylogeny is complex and probably associated with host evolutionary history.

  1. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Francis, Joshua R; Walsh, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment.

  2. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark; Francis, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  3. Paediatric Australian bat lyssavirus encephalomyelitis - sequential MRI appearances from symptom onset to death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Umesh; Phillips, Mark; Walsh, Mark [Mater Hospital and Lady Cilento Children' s Hospital Medical Imaging Department, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Francis, Joshua R. [Royal Darwin Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Darwin (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Human infection with Australian bat lyssavirus is extremely rare. Here we present the craniospinal findings in a fatal case of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in an 8-year-old child. MRI plays a very important role, not only in the diagnostic work-up of Australian bat lyssavirus infection but also in the prognostic assessment. (orig.)

  4. Isolation, antigenicity and immunogenicity of Lleida bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Selden, David; Wu, Guanghui; Thorne, Leigh; Jennings, Daisy; Marston, Denise; Finke, Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Echevarría, Juan E; Fooks, Anthony R

    2018-05-10

    The lyssaviruses are an important group of viruses that cause a fatal encephalitis termed rabies. The prototypic lyssavirus, rabies virus, is predicted to cause more than 60 000 human fatalities annually. The burden of disease for the other lyssaviruses is undefined. The original reports for the recently described highly divergent Lleida bat lyssavirus were based on the detection of virus sequence alone. The successful isolation of live Lleida bat lyssavirus from the carcass of the original bat and in vitro characterization of this novel lyssavirus are described here. In addition, the ability of a human rabies vaccine to confer protective immunity following challenge with this divergent lyssavirus was assessed. Two different doses of Lleida bat lyssavirus were used to challenge vaccinated or naïve mice: a high dose of 100 focus-forming units (f.f.u.) 30 µl -1 and a 100-fold dilution of this dose, 1 f.f.u. 30 µl -1 . Although all naïve control mice succumbed to the 100 f.f.u. 30 µl -1 challenge, 42 % (n=5/12) of those infected intracerebrally with 1 f.f.u. 30 µl -1 survived the challenge. In the high-challenge-dose group, 42 % of the vaccinated mice survived the challenge (n=5/12), whilst at the lower challenge dose, 33 % (n=4/12) survived to the end of the experiment. Interestingly, a high proportion of mice demonstrated a measurable virus-neutralizing antibody response, demonstrating that neutralizing antibody titres do not necessarily correlate with the outcome of infection via the intracerebral route. Assessing the ability of existing rabies vaccines to protect against novel divergent lyssaviruses is important for the development of future public health strategies.

  5. Human rabies due to lyssavirus infection of bat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Vos, A; Freuling, C; Tordo, N; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2010-05-19

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis and results from infection with viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Infection usually results from a bite from a dog infected with classical rabies virus. However, a small number of cases result from contact with bats. It is within bats that most lyssavirus variants, referred to as genotypes, are found. The lyssaviruses found in bats have a distinct geographical distribution and are often restricted to specific bat species. Most have been associated with rabies in humans and in some cases spill-over to domestic animals. Many diagnostic techniques are unable to differentiate rabies virus from other genotypes so it is possible that some human and animal cases go unreported. Furthermore, current vaccines have limited efficacy against some genotypes. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Second case of European bat lyssavirus type 2 detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, Tiina; Sironen, Tarja; Smura, Teemu; Karkamo, Veera; Sihvonen, Liisa; Gadd, Tuija

    2017-09-25

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02'45″N, 024°00'20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. The laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as EBLV-2. This isolation of EBLV-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland. This provides additional proof that EBLV-2 is endemic in the Finnish Daubenton's bat population.

  7. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of

  8. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélade, Julien; McCulloch, Stewart; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Turpin, Magali; Pascalis, Hervé; Goodman, Steven M; Markotter, Wanda; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-01-01

    We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220) also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative.

  9. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Mélade

    Full Text Available We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV, representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220 also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1 but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV, the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative.

  10. Molecular diagnosis of lyssaviruses and sequence comparison of Australian bat lyssavirus samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, A J; Heine, H G; Pritchard, L I; Lunt, R A; Newberry, K M; Rootes, C L; Boyle, D B

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate and implement molecular diagnostic tests for the detection of lyssaviruses in Australia. A published hemi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of all lyssavirus genotypes was modified to a fully nested RT-PCR format and compared with the original assay. TaqMan assays for the detection of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) were compared with both the nested and hemi-nested RT-PCR assays. The sequences of RT-PCR products were determined to assess sequence variations of the target region (nucleocapsid gene) in samples of ABLV originating from different regions. The nested RT-PCR assay was highly analytically specific, and at least as analytically sensitive as the hemi-nested assay. The TaqMan assays were highly analytically specific and more analytically sensitive than either RT-PCR assay, with a detection level of approximately 10 genome equivalents per microl. Sequence of the first 544 nucleotides of the nucleocapsid protein coding sequence was obtained from all samples of ABLV received at Australian Animal Health Laboratory during the study period. The nested RT-PCR provided a means for molecular diagnosis of all tested genotypes of lyssavirus including classical rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. The published TaqMan assay proved to be superior to the RT-PCR assays for the detection of ABLV in terms of analytical sensitivity. The TaqMan assay would also be faster and cross contamination is less likely. Nucleotide sequence analyses of samples of ABLV from a wide geographical range in Australia demonstrated the conserved nature of this region of the genome and therefore the suitability of this region for molecular diagnosis.

  11. Isolation of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in Myotis nattereri in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Moinet, Marie; Borel, Christophe; Cliquet, Florence

    2013-11-01

    Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was found in Myotis nattereri for the first time in northeastern France in July 2012. The complete genome sequence of the virus from the infected Natterer's bat was determined by whole-genome sequencing and compared to that of the first BBLV strain isolated in 2010 in Germany and with those of all currently identified lyssaviruses. The French isolate [KC169985] showed 98.7 % nucleotide sequence identity to the German BBLV strain [JF311903]. Several organs of the infected French bat were examined by classical rabies diagnostic methods: fluorescent antibody test, cell culture inoculation test and RT-qPCR. Antigen, infectious virus and high viral RNA levels were found in both the brain and salivary glands. Traces of genomic RNA were detected in the bladder, kidney and lung tissue. The results of an investigation of the distribution of lyssaviruses with the detection of infectious virus in the salivary glands suggest a possible mode of transmission of the virus.

  12. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 3. Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Graham, G C; Smith, I L; Craig, S B

    2010-12-01

    Since its discovery in a juvenile black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in 1996, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has become the cause of a potentially important emerging disease for health authorities in Australia, with two human deaths (one in 1996 and one in 1998) attributed to the virus in the north-eastern state of Queensland. In Australia, the virus has been isolated from all four species of flying fox found on the mainland (i.e. P. alecto, P. scapulatus, P. poliocephalus and P. conspicillatus) as well as a single species of insectivorous bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris). Australian bat lyssavirus belongs to the Lyssavirus genus and is closely related, genetically, to the type strain of Rabies virus (RABV). Clinically, patients infected with ABLV have displayed the 'classical' symptoms of rabies and a similar disease course. This similarity has led to the belief that the infection and dissemination of ABLV in the body follows the same pathways as those followed by RABV. Following the two ABLV-related deaths in Queensland, protocols based on the World Health Organization's guidelines for RABV prophylaxis were implemented and, presumably in consequence, no human infection with ABLV has been recorded since 1998. ABLV will, however, probably always have an important part to play in the health of Australians as the density of the human population in Australia and, consequently, the level of interaction between humans and flying foxes increase.

  13. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in a captive juvenile black flying fox.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, H.; McCall, B.; Barrett, J.

    1999-01-01

    The newly emerging Australian bat lyssavirus causes rabieslike disease in bats and humans. A captive juvenile black flying fox exhibited progressive neurologic signs, including sudden aggression, vocalization, dysphagia, and paresis over 9 days and then died. At necropsy, lyssavirus infection was diagnosed by fluorescent antibody test, immunoperoxidase staining, polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. Eight human contacts received postexposure vaccination.

  14. Recent Observations on Australian Bat Lyssavirus Tropism and Viral Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn L. Weir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G. Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.

  15. Shimoni bat virus, a new representative of the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Mayer, Anne E; Niezgoda, Michael; Markotter, Wanda; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-05-01

    During 2009, 616 bats representing at least 22 species were collected from 10 locations throughout Kenya. A new lyssavirus, named Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV), was isolated from the brain of a dead Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni), found in a cave in the coastal region of Kenya. Genetic distances and phylogenetic reconstructions, implemented for each gene and for the concatenated alignment of all five structural genes (N, P, M, G and L), demonstrated that SHIBV cannot be identified with any of the existing species, but rather should be considered an independent species within phylogroup II of the Lyssavirus genus, most similar to Lagos bat virus (LBV). Antigenic reaction patterns with anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies corroborated these distinctions. In addition, new data on the diversity of LBV suggests that this species may be subdivided quantitatively into three separate genotypes. However, the identity values alone are not considered sufficient criteria for demarcation of new species within LBV. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Host cell tropism mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus envelope glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Dawn L; Smith, Ina L; Bossart, Katharine N; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2013-09-01

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a rhabdovirus of the lyssavirus genus capable of causing fatal rabies-like encephalitis in humans. There are two variants of ABLV, one circulating in pteropid fruit bats and another in insectivorous bats. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported with the third case in 2013. Importantly, two equine cases also arose in 2013; the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. We examined the host cell entry of ABLV, characterizing its tropism and exploring its cross-species transmission potential using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that express ABLV G glycoproteins. Results indicate that the ABLV receptor(s) is conserved but not ubiquitous among mammalian cell lines and that the two ABLV variants can utilize alternate receptors for entry. Proposed rabies virus receptors were not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into resistant cells, suggesting that ABLV utilizes an unknown alternative receptor(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Recent observations on Australian bat lyssavirus tropism and viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Dawn L; Annand, Edward J; Reid, Peter A; Broder, Christopher C

    2014-02-19

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus) and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus). Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G). Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV) receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.

  18. Detection of European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) from Magdeburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Kliemt, Jeannette; Schares, Susann; Heidecke, Dietrich; Driechciarz, René; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In Europe bat rabies in Daubenton's bats (Myotisdaubentonii) and in Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme) caused by the European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2) has been confirmed in less than 20 cases to date. Here we report the second encounter of this virus species in Germany. A Daubenton's bat found grounded in the zoological garden in Magdeburg died shortly after. In the frame of a retrospective study the bat carcass was eventually transferred to the national reference laboratory for rabies at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute for rabies diagnosis. Lyssavirus was isolated and characterized as EBLV-2.

  19. Molecular diagnostics for the detection of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in a bat from Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Abendroth, Björn; Beer, Martin; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Just, Frank; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Schatz, Juliane; Müller, Thomas

    2013-11-06

    A brain sample of a Natterer's bat tested positive for rabies with classical virological techniques. Molecular techniques confirmed the presence of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) in Germany for the second time. Sequence analysis revealed a close genetic relationship to the initial German BBLV case. Using a TaqMan RT-PCR specific for BBLV viral RNA was detected in various other organs albeit with differences in the relative viral load. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of European Bat Lyssavirus 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Zanoni, Reto; Kooi, Engbert A.; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Nokireki, Tiina; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2018-01-01

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986–1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme. The limited number of EBLV-2 cases in Europe prompted the establishment of a network of European reference laboratories to collate all available viruses and data. Despite the relatively low number of EBLV-2 cases, a large amount of anomalous data has been published in the scientific literature, which we have here reviewed and clarified. In this review, 29 EBLV-2 full genome sequences have been analysed to further our understanding of the diversity and molecular evolution of EBLV-2 in Europe. Analysis of the 29 complete EBLV-2 genome sequences clearly corroborated geographical relationships with all EBLV-2 sequences clustering at the country level irrespective of the gene studied. Further geographical clustering was also observed at a local level. There are high levels of homogeneity within the EBLV-2 species with nucleotide identities ranging from 95.5–100% and amino acid identities between 98.7% and 100%, despite the widespread distribution of the isolates both geographically and chronologically. The mean substitution rate for EBLV-2 across the five concatenated genes was 1.65 × 10−5, and evolutionary clock analysis confirms the slow evolution of EBLV-2 both between and within countries in Europe. This is further supported by the first detailed EBLV-2 intra

  1. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of European Bat Lyssavirus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine M. McElhinney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2. Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986–1987 identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date. Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97% being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme. The limited number of EBLV-2 cases in Europe prompted the establishment of a network of European reference laboratories to collate all available viruses and data. Despite the relatively low number of EBLV-2 cases, a large amount of anomalous data has been published in the scientific literature, which we have here reviewed and clarified. In this review, 29 EBLV-2 full genome sequences have been analysed to further our understanding of the diversity and molecular evolution of EBLV-2 in Europe. Analysis of the 29 complete EBLV-2 genome sequences clearly corroborated geographical relationships with all EBLV-2 sequences clustering at the country level irrespective of the gene studied. Further geographical clustering was also observed at a local level. There are high levels of homogeneity within the EBLV-2 species with nucleotide identities ranging from 95.5–100% and amino acid identities between 98.7% and 100%, despite the widespread distribution of the isolates both geographically and chronologically. The mean substitution rate for EBLV-2 across the five concatenated genes was 1.65 × 10−5, and evolutionary clock analysis confirms the slow evolution of EBLV-2 both between and within countries in Europe. This is further supported by the first detailed EBLV

  2. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of European Bat Lyssavirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Lorraine M; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma L; Freuling, Conrad M; Bourhy, Hervé; Zanoni, Reto; Moldal, Torfinn; Kooi, Engbert A; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Nokireki, Tiina; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2018-01-05

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986-1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme . The limited number of EBLV-2 cases in Europe prompted the establishment of a network of European reference laboratories to collate all available viruses and data. Despite the relatively low number of EBLV-2 cases, a large amount of anomalous data has been published in the scientific literature, which we have here reviewed and clarified. In this review, 29 EBLV-2 full genome sequences have been analysed to further our understanding of the diversity and molecular evolution of EBLV-2 in Europe. Analysis of the 29 complete EBLV-2 genome sequences clearly corroborated geographical relationships with all EBLV-2 sequences clustering at the country level irrespective of the gene studied. Further geographical clustering was also observed at a local level. There are high levels of homogeneity within the EBLV-2 species with nucleotide identities ranging from 95.5-100% and amino acid identities between 98.7% and 100%, despite the widespread distribution of the isolates both geographically and chronologically. The mean substitution rate for EBLV-2 across the five concatenated genes was 1.65 × 10 -5 , and evolutionary clock analysis confirms the slow evolution of EBLV-2 both between and within countries in Europe. This is further supported by the first detailed EBLV-2 intra

  3. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  4. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  5. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra-Cobo

    Full Text Available Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii. Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2. EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7% ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July. EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  6. Evidence of Australian bat lyssavirus infection in diverse Australian bat taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume Ernest

    2018-05-21

    Historically, Australia was considered free of rabies and rabieslike viruses. Thus, the identification of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in 1996 in a debilitated bat found by a member of the public precipitated both public health consternation and a revision of lyssavirus taxonomy. Subsequent observational studies sought to elaborate the occurrence and frequency of ABLV infection in Australian bats. This paper describes the taxonomic diversity of bat species showing evidence of ABLV infection to better inform public health considerations. Blood and/or brain samples were collected from two cohorts of bats (wild-caught and diagnostic submissions) from four Australian states or territories between April 1996 and October 2002. Fresh brain impression smears were tested for ABLV antigen using fluorescein-labelled anti-rabies monoclonal globulin (CENTOCOR) in a direct fluorescent antibody test; sera were tested for the presence of neutralising antibodies using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. A total of 3,217 samples from 2,633 bats were collected and screened: brain samples from 1,461 wild-caught bats and 1,086 submitted bats from at least 16 genera and seven families, and blood samples from 656 wild-caught bats and 14 submitted bats from 14 genera and seven families. Evidence of ABLV infection was found in five of the six families of bats occurring in Australia, and in three of the four Australian states/territories surveyed, supporting the historic presence of the virus in Australia. While the infection prevalence in the wild-caught cohort is evidently low, the significantly higher infection prevalence in rescued bats in urban settings represents a clear and present public health significance because of the higher risk of human exposure. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Screening of Active Lyssavirus Infection in Wild Bat Populations by Viral RNA Detection on Oropharyngeal Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Juan E.; Avellón, Ana; Juste, Javier; Vera, Manuel; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain. PMID:11574590

  8. Comparative studies on the genetic, antigenic and pathogenic characteristics of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Tobias; Banyard, Ashley C; Finke, Stefan; Fooks, Anthony R; Hanke, Dennis; Höper, Dirk; Horton, Daniel L; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Müller, Thomas; Teifke, Jens P; Freuling, Conrad M

    2014-08-01

    Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), a novel lyssavirus, was isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii), a chiropteran species with a widespread and abundant distribution across Europe. As a novel lyssavirus, the risks of BBLV to animal and human health are unknown and as such characterization both in vitro and in vivo was required to assess pathogenicity and vaccine protection. Full genome sequence analysis and antigenic cartography demonstrated that the German BBLV isolates are most closely related to European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and Khujand virus and can be characterized within phylogroup I. In vivo characterization demonstrated that BBLV was pathogenic in mice when inoculated peripherally causing clinical signs typical for rabies encephalitis, with higher pathogenicity observed in juvenile mice. A limited vaccination-challenge experiment in mice was conducted and suggested that current vaccines would afford some protection against BBLV although further studies are warranted to determine a serological cut-off for protection. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand...

  10. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite.

  11. Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-07-02

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to 'rescue' bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat's welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted 'rescue' should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.

  12. Favourable outcome in a patient bitten by a rabid bat infected with the European bat lyssavirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gucht, S; Verlinde, R; Colyn, J; Vanderpas, J; Vanhoof, R; Roels, S; Francart, A; Brochier, B; Suin, V

    2013-01-01

    The classic rabies virus (genotype 1) has been eliminated in Western Europe, but related lyssaviruses still circulate in local bats. In August 2010, a Belgian photographer was bitten upon provocation of a disoriented Eptesicus serotinus bat in Spain. The bat was infected with European bat lyssavirus-1 (genotype 5). The isolate proved highly neurovirulent in mice. The patient had received preventive rabies immunisations years before the incident and received two boosters with the HDCV rabies vaccine afterwards. Available vaccines are based on the classic rabies virus, which is significantly divergent from the European bat lyssavirus-1. Fortunately, the patient's serological immune response demonstrated satisfactory neutralisation of the 2010 EBLV-1 isolate, using an intracerebral challenge model in mice. Most likely, the patient's life was saved thanks to vaccination with the classic rabies vaccine, which proved sufficiently protective against European bat lyssavirus-1. This case highlights the need for preventive rabies vaccination in people, who come in contact with bats and to seek medical council after a scratch or bite from a bat.

  13. Serological Evidence of Lyssavirus Infection among Bats in Nagaland, a North-Eastern State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, R S; Dovih, D P; Ashwini, M A; Chattopadhyay, B; Harsha, P K; Garg, K M; Sudarshan, S; Puttaswamaiah, R; Ramakrishnan, U; Madhusudana, S N

    2017-06-01

    Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human-bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.

  14. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered

  15. Repeated detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Johnson, N; Voller, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Hartley, M; Fooks, A R

    2009-01-01

    In August 2007, European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was isolated from a Daubenton's bat found at Stokesay Castle. In September 2008, another bat from the same vicinity of Stokesay Castle also tested positive for EBLV-2. This is the first occurrence of repeated detection of EBLV-2 from a single site. Here, we report the detection of low levels of viral RNA in various bat organs by qRT-PCR and detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry. We also report sequence data from both cases and compare data with those derived from other EBLV-2 isolations in the UK.

  16. Antibodies induced by vaccination with purified chick embryo cell culture vaccine (PCECV) cross-neutralize non-classical bat lyssavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerczyk, Claudius; Selhorst, Thomas; Tordo, Noël; Moore, Susan; Müller, Thomas

    2009-08-27

    Tissue-culture vaccines like purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) have been shown to provide protection against classical rabies virus (RABV) via pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis. A cross-neutralization study was conducted using a panel of 100 human sera, to determine, to what extent after vaccination with PCECV protection exists against non-classical bat lyssavirus strains like European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1 and 2 and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) concentrations against the rabies virus variants CVS-11, ABLV, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were determined by using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. For ABLV and EBLV-2, the comparison to CVS-11 revealed almost identical results (100% adequate VNA concentrations >or=0.5 IU/mL; correlation coefficient r(2)=0.69 and 0.77, respectively), while for EBLV-1 more scattering was observed (97% adequate VNA concentrations; r(2)=0.50). In conclusion, vaccination with PCECV produces adequate VNA concentrations against classical RABV as well as non-classical lyssavirus strains ABLV, EBLV-1, and EBLV-2.

  17. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damin Si

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV.Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96% were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47% or bites (37%, with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%. Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications. Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92% were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1% had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat.Public health strategies should address the

  18. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009−2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Damin; Marquess, John; Donnan, Ellen; Harrower, Bruce; McCall, Bradley; Bennett, Sonya; Lambert, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Methodology/Principal Findings Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96%) were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47%) or bites (37%), with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%). Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications). Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92%) were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1%) had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes) and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat). Conclusions

  19. Population genetic structure of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) across Europe and implications for the potential spread of bat rabies (European bat lyssavirus EBLV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussy, C; Atterby, H; Griffiths, A G F; Allnutt, T R; Mathews, F; Smith, G C; Aegerter, J N; Bearhop, S; Hosken, D J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding of the movements of species at multiple scales is essential to appreciate patterns of population connectivity and in some cases, the potential for pathogen transmission. The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) is a common and widely distributed species in Europe where it frequently harbours European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1), a virus causing rabies and transmissible to humans. In the United Kingdom, it is rare, with a distribution restricted to south of the country and so far the virus has never been found there. We investigated the genetic structure and gene flow of E. serotinus across the England and continental Europe. Greater genetic structuring was found in England compared with continental Europe. Nuclear data suggest a single population on the continent, although further work with more intensive sampling is required to confirm this, while mitochondrial sequences indicate an east-west substructure. In contrast, three distinct populations were found in England using microsatellite markers, and mitochondrial diversity was very low. Evidence of nuclear admixture indicated strong male-mediated gene flow among populations. Differences in connectivity could contribute to the high viral prevalence on the continent in contrast with the United Kingdom. Although the English Channel was previously thought to restrict gene flow, our data indicate relatively frequent movement from the continent to England highlighting the potential for movement of EBLV-1 into the United Kingdom.

  20. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus in south east Queensland: what has changed in 12 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; McCall, Bradley J

    2010-09-01

    Public health measures have been targeting potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) since the first recognised human cases, more than a decade ago. The effect of these measures on the epidemiology of notifications of potential exposure has not been investigated since 2003. Trends in notifications of potential exposure to ABLV reported to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit between November 1996 and October 2008 were examined. During the study period notification rates declined among all population groups and potential exposures were notified more promptly. The proportion of female notifications and the proportion of notifications from volunteer bat carers and their families and professional groups decreased over time. These changes over 12 years may indicate success of public health measures, under-reporting of potential exposure or both. Intentional handling of bats by untrained members of the public continues to be an important source of potential exposure to ABLV and requires a sustained public health response.

  2. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  3. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S.E.; Walker, D.; Fomg, W.F. [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  4. First reported case of human Australian bat Lyssavirus encephalitis - A case report and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Walker, D.; Fomg, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In late 1996, a bat carer from Rockhampton died from diffuse encephalitis. She had sustained several scratches to her left arm by fruit bats over the preceding month. She initially complained of left arm pain and numbness but her condition rapidly deteriorated with loss of consciousness and death. Australian bat Lyssavirus (ABL) was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and neutralising antibodies to classical rabies virus in her serum. Other viral serology was negative. Autopsy revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions and electron microscopy showed bullet shaped viral particles. A Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain scan demonstrated extensive bilateral areas of severely reduced tracer uptake in both cerebral hemispheres with the subfrontal and parieto-occipital regions the worst affected. Importantly, there was excellent correlation with the magnetic resonance image which showed diffuse cortical high signal on all pulse sequences most marked in the parieto-occipital areas. The CT scan performed at presentation had been normal and an earlier MRI had shown only a small enhancing pontine lesion. This is the first reported case of human infection by the newly identified ABL that has previously only been isolated in fruit bats. The virus belongs to the Rhabdovirus family and Lyssavirus genus and joins six other genotypes, one of which is the classic rabies virus. It has now been identified in four species of Australian fruit bats from north Queensland to Victoria. There is a paucity of knowledge relating to the distribution and transmission of the virus and research is underway to determine the potential public health risk

  5. First encounter of European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakava-Viljanen, M; Lilley, T; Kyheröinen, E-M; Huovilainen, A

    2010-11-01

    In Finland, rabies in bats was suspected for the first time in 1985 when a bat researcher, who had multiple bat bites, died in Helsinki. The virus isolated from the researcher proved to be antigenically related to rabies viruses previously detected in German bats. Later, the virus was typed as EBLV-2b. Despite an epidemiological study in bats 1986 and subsequent rabies surveillance, rabies in bats was not detected in Finland until the first case in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) was confirmed in August 2009. The bat was paralysed, occasionally crying, and biting when approached; it subsequently tested positive for rabies. The virus was genetically typed as EBLV-2. This is the northernmost case of bat rabies ever detected in Europe. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the EBLV-2b isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related, demonstrating that EBLV-2 may have been circulating in Finland for many years.

  6. Host Genetic Variation Does Not Determine Spatio-Temporal Patterns of European Bat 1 Lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Cécile; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Dellicour, Simon; Casademont, Isabelle; Kergoat, Lauriane; Lepelletier, Anthony; Dacheux, Laurent; Baele, Guy; Monchâtre-Leroy, Elodie; Cliquet, Florence; Lemey, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    The majority of bat rabies cases in Europe are attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). Two subtypes have been defined (EBLV-1a and EBLV-1b), each associated with a different geographical distribution. In this study, we undertake a comprehensive sequence analysis based on 80 newly obtained EBLV-1 nearly complete genome sequences from nine European countries over a 45-year period to infer selection pressures, rates of nucleotide substitution, and evolutionary time scale of these two subtypes in Europe. Our results suggest that the current lineage of EBLV-1 arose in Europe ∼600 years ago and the virus has evolved at an estimated average substitution rate of ∼4.19×10-5 subs/site/year, which is among the lowest recorded for RNA viruses. In parallel, we investigate the genetic structure of French serotine bats at both the nuclear and mitochondrial level and find that they constitute a single genetic cluster. Furthermore, Mantel tests based on interindividual distances reveal the absence of correlation between genetic distances estimated between viruses and between host individuals. Taken together, this indicates that the genetic diversity observed in our E. serotinus samples does not account for EBLV-1a and -1b segregation and dispersal in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Evolutionary trends of European bat lyssavirus type 2 including genetic characterization of Finnish strains of human and bat origin 24 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Miia, Jakava-Viljanen; Nokireki, Tiina; Tiina, Nokireki; Sironen, Tarja; Tarja, Sironen; Vapalahti, Olli; Olli, Vapalahti; Sihvonen, Liisa; Liisa, Sihvonen; Huovilainen, Anita; Anita, Huovilainen

    2015-06-01

    Among other Lyssaviruses, Daubenton's and pond-bat-related European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can cause human rabies. To investigate the diversity and evolutionary trends of EBLV-2, complete genome sequences of two Finnish isolates were analysed. One originated from a human case in 1985, and the other originated from a bat in 2009. The overall nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identity of the two Finnish isolates were high, as well as the similarity to fully sequenced EBLV-2 strains originating from the UK and the Netherlands. In phylogenetic analysis, the EBLV-2 strains formed a monophyletic group that was separate from other bat-type lyssaviruses, with significant support. EBLV-2 shared the most recent common ancestry with Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) and Khujan virus (KHUV). EBLV-2 showed limited diversity compared to RABV and appears to be well adapted to its host bat species. The slow tempo of viral evolution was evident in the estimations of divergence times for EBLV-2: the current diversity was estimated to have built up during the last 2000 years, and EBLV-2 diverged from KHUV about 8000 years ago. In a phylogenetic tree of partial N gene sequences, the Finnish EBLV-2 strains clustered with strains from Central Europe, supporting the hypothesis that EBLV-2 circulating in Finland might have a Central European origin. The Finnish EBLV-2 strains and a Swiss strain were estimated to have diverged from other EBLV-2 strains during the last 1000 years, and the two Finnish strains appear to have evolved from a common ancestor during the last 200 years.

  8. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schatz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2, and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV. As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT. The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus. However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii. These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  9. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  10. First isolation of a rabid bat infected with European bat lyssavirus in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, A; Herr, J; Picard-Meyer, E; Schley, L; Harbusch, C; Michaux, C; Pir, J; Robardet, E; Engel, E; Cliquet, F

    2015-02-01

    Rabid bats are regularly reported in Europe, especially in countries that have implemented a bat surveillance network. In May 2013, bat rabies was evidenced for the first time in Luxembourg (southern city of Differdange). The rabies virus, an EBLV-1b strain, was diagnosed in a serotine bat that bit a 29-year-old male person while he was asleep. The man received rapidly a post-exposure RABV treatment and was put under strict medical supervision. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Clinical review of two fatal equine cases of infection with the insectivorous bat strain of Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annand, E J; Reid, P A

    2014-09-01

    The first two confirmed cases of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in horses are presented. Both cases occurred in the same week in May 2013 in paddock mates in south-east Queensland. Australia has been one of only a few countries considered free from rabies-like viruses in domestic animal species. ABLV infection had previously only been confirmed in bats and humans. All three confirmed human cases were fatal, the latest in February 2013. An additional human case of possible abortive infection in 1996 has also been reported. Both equine cases reported here resulted in euthanasia. The risks of infection across other mammalian species are still to be determined. These two equine cases highlight that ABLV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in animals with similar clinical presentations in Australia. There is a need for greater awareness regarding the zoonotic risk, use of personal protective equipment, pre- and post-exposure prophylactic measures and laboratory diagnostic options. The authors recommend ABLV testing for all Australian cases of progressive equine neurological disease. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Comparative analysis of European bat lyssavirus 1 pathogenicity in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Eggerbauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available European bat lyssavirus 1 is responsible for most bat rabies cases in Europe. Although EBLV-1 isolates display a high degree of sequence identity, different sublineages exist. In individual isolates various insertions and deletions have been identified, with unknown impact on viral replication and pathogenicity. In order to assess whether different genetic features of EBLV-1 isolates correlate with phenotypic changes, different EBLV-1 variants were compared for pathogenicity in the mouse model. Groups of three mice were infected intracranially (i.c. with 102 TCID50/ml and groups of six mice were infected intramuscularly (i.m. with 105 TCID50/ml and 102 TCID50/ml as well as intranasally (i.n. with 102 TCID50/ml. Significant differences in survival following i.m. inoculation with low doses as well as i.n. inoculation were observed. Also, striking variations in incubation periods following i.c. inoculation and i.m. inoculation with high doses were seen. Hereby, the clinical picture differed between general symptoms, spasms and aggressiveness depending on the inoculation route. Immunohistochemistry of mouse brains showed that the virus distribution in the brain depended on the inoculation route. In conclusion, different EBLV-1 isolates differ in pathogenicity indicating variation which is not reflected in studies of single isolates.

  13. Comparative analysis of European bat lyssavirus 1 pathogenicity in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerbauer, Elisa; Pfaff, Florian; Finke, Stefan; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Nolden, Tobias; Teifke, Jens-Peter; Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad M

    2017-06-01

    European bat lyssavirus 1 is responsible for most bat rabies cases in Europe. Although EBLV-1 isolates display a high degree of sequence identity, different sublineages exist. In individual isolates various insertions and deletions have been identified, with unknown impact on viral replication and pathogenicity. In order to assess whether different genetic features of EBLV-1 isolates correlate with phenotypic changes, different EBLV-1 variants were compared for pathogenicity in the mouse model. Groups of three mice were infected intracranially (i.c.) with 102 TCID50/ml and groups of six mice were infected intramuscularly (i.m.) with 105 TCID50/ml and 102 TCID50/ml as well as intranasally (i.n.) with 102 TCID50/ml. Significant differences in survival following i.m. inoculation with low doses as well as i.n. inoculation were observed. Also, striking variations in incubation periods following i.c. inoculation and i.m. inoculation with high doses were seen. Hereby, the clinical picture differed between general symptoms, spasms and aggressiveness depending on the inoculation route. Immunohistochemistry of mouse brains showed that the virus distribution in the brain depended on the inoculation route. In conclusion, different EBLV-1 isolates differ in pathogenicity indicating variation which is not reflected in studies of single isolates.

  14. Molecular double-check strategy for the identification and characterization of European Lyssaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The “gold standard” for post-mortem rabies diagnosis is the direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). However, in the case of ante-mortem non-neural sample material or decomposed tissues, the FAT reaches its limit, and the use of molecular techniques can be advantageous. In this study, we developed......-systems for Rabies virus, European bat lyssavirus type 1 and 2 as well as Bokeloh bat lyssavirus. All assays were validated successfully with a comprehensive panel of lyssavirus positive samples, as well as negative material from various host species. This double-check strategy allows for both safe and sensitive...

  15. The Recently Discovered Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus: Insights Into Its Genetic Heterogeneity and Spatial Distribution in Europe and the Population Genetics of Its Primary Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerbauer, Elisa; Troupin, Cécile; Passior, Karsten; Pfaff, Florian; Höper, Dirk; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Haberl, Stephanie; Bouchier, Christiane; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Bourhy, Hervé; Müller, Thomas; Dacheux, Laurent; Freuling, Conrad M

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, a novel lyssavirus named Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) in Germany. Two further viruses were isolated in the same country and in France in recent years, all from the same bat species and all found in moribund or dead bats. Here we report the description and the full-length genome sequence of five additional BBLV isolates from Germany (n=4) and France (n=1). Interestingly, all of them were isolated from the Natterer's bat, except one from Germany, which was found in a common Pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), a widespread and abundant bat species in Europe. The latter represents the first case of transmission of BBLV to another bat species. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two different lineages among this lyssavirus species: lineages A and B. The spatial distribution of these two lineages remains puzzling, as both of them comprised isolates from France and Germany; although clustering of isolates was observed on a regional scale, especially in Germany. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene from positive Natterer's bat did not suggest a circulation of the respective BBLV sublineages in specific Natterer's bat subspecies, as all of them were shown to belong to the M. nattereri sensu stricto clade/subspecies and were closely related (German and French positive bats). At the bat host level, we demonstrated that the distribution of BBLV at the late stage of the disease seems large and massive, as viral RNA was detected in many different organs. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using serology to assist with complicated post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Niall; Vlack, Susan; Williams, Julian M; Patten, John J; Horvath, Robert L; Lambert, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Australia uses a protocol combining human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), with the aim of achieving an antibody titre of ≥0.5 IU/ml, as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, as soon as possible. We present the course of PEP administration and serological testing for four men with complex requirements. Following dog bites in Thailand, two men (62 years old, 25 years old) received no HRIG and had delayed vaccine courses: 23 days between dose two and three, and 18 days between dose one and two, respectively. Both seroconverted following dose four. Another 62-year-old male, who was HIV-positive (normal CD4 count), also suffered a dog bite and had delayed care receiving i.m. rabies vaccine on days six and nine in Thailand. Back in Australia, he received three single and one double dose i.m. vaccines followed by another double dose of vaccine, delivered intradermally and subcutaneously, before seroconverting. A 23-year-old male with a history of allergies received simultaneous HRIG and vaccine following potential ABLV exposure, and developed rash, facial oedema and throat tingling, which was treated with a parenteral antihistamine and tapering dose of steroids. Serology showed he seroconverted following dose four. These cases show that PEP can be complicated by exposures in tourist settings where reliable prophylaxis may not be available, where treatment is delayed or deviates from World Health Organization recommendations. Due to the potentially short incubation time of rabies/ABLV, timely prophylaxis after a potential exposure is needed to ensure a prompt and adequate immune response, particularly in patients who are immune-suppressed or who have not received HRIG. Serology should be used to confirm an adequate response to PEP when treatment is delayed or where a concurrent immunosuppressing medical condition or therapy exists.

  17. Using serology to assist with complicated post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Conroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia uses a protocol combining human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG and rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP of rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV, with the aim of achieving an antibody titre of ≥0.5 IU/ml, as per World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, as soon as possible. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the course of PEP administration and serological testing for four men with complex requirements. Following dog bites in Thailand, two men (62 years old, 25 years old received no HRIG and had delayed vaccine courses: 23 days between dose two and three, and 18 days between dose one and two, respectively. Both seroconverted following dose four. Another 62-year-old male, who was HIV-positive (normal CD4 count, also suffered a dog bite and had delayed care receiving i.m. rabies vaccine on days six and nine in Thailand. Back in Australia, he received three single and one double dose i.m. vaccines followed by another double dose of vaccine, delivered intradermally and subcutaneously, before seroconverting. A 23-year-old male with a history of allergies received simultaneous HRIG and vaccine following potential ABLV exposure, and developed rash, facial oedema and throat tingling, which was treated with a parenteral antihistamine and tapering dose of steroids. Serology showed he seroconverted following dose four. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These cases show that PEP can be complicated by exposures in tourist settings where reliable prophylaxis may not be available, where treatment is delayed or deviates from World Health Organization recommendations. Due to the potentially short incubation time of rabies/ABLV, timely prophylaxis after a potential exposure is needed to ensure a prompt and adequate immune response, particularly in patients who are immune-suppressed or who have not received HRIG. Serology should be used to confirm an adequate response to PEP when treatment is delayed or where a concurrent

  18. Antigenic characterisation of yeast-expressed lyssavirus nucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinskaite, Indre; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Serva, Andrius; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Johnson, Nicholas; Staniulis, Juozas; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2007-12-01

    In Europe, three genotypes of the genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae, are present, classical rabies virus (RABV, genotype 1), European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2, genotype 6). The entire authentic nucleoprotein (N protein) encoding sequences of RABV (challenge virus standard, CVS, strain), EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were expressed in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at high level. Purification of recombinant N proteins by caesium chloride gradient centrifugation resulted in yields between 14-17, 25-29 and 18-20 mg/l of induced yeast culture for RABV-CVS, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2, respectively. The purified N proteins were evaluated by negative staining electron microscopy, which revealed the formation of nucleocapsid-like structures. The antigenic conformation of the N proteins was investigated for their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against different lyssaviruses. The reactivity pattern of each mAb was virtually identical between immunofluorescence assay with virus-infected cells, and ELISA and dot blot assay using the corresponding recombinant N proteins. These observations lead us to conclude that yeast-expressed lyssavirus N proteins share antigenic properties with naturally expressed virus protein. These recombinant proteins have the potential for use as components of serological assays for lyssaviruses.

  19. Efficacy of rabies vaccines in dogs and cats and protection in a mouse model against European bat lyssavirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, Tiina; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Sihvonen, Liisa

    2017-10-02

    Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. The aim was to assess the success of rabies vaccination measured by the antibody response in dogs (n = 10,071) and cats (n = 722), as well as to investigate the factors influencing the response to vaccination when animals failed to reach a rabies antibody titre of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml. Another aim was to assess the level of protection afforded by a commercial veterinary rabies vaccine against intracerebral challenge in mice with European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) and classical rabies virus (RABV), and to compare this with the protection offered by a vaccine for humans. A significantly higher proportion of dogs (10.7%, 95% confidence interval CI 10.1-11.3) than cats (3.5%; 95% CI 2.3-5.0) had a vaccination antibody titre of  60 cm or larger resulted in a higher risk of failing to reach an antibody level of at least 0.5 IU/ml. When challenged with EBLV-2 and RABV, 80 and 100% of mice vaccinated with the veterinary rabies vaccine survived, respectively. When mice were vaccinated with the human rabies vaccine and challenged with EBLV-2, 75-80% survived, depending on the booster. All vaccinated mice developed sufficient to high titres of virus-neutralising antibodies (VNA) against RABV 21-22 days post-vaccination, ranging from 0.5 to 128 IU/ml. However, there was significant difference between antibody titres after vaccinating once in comparison to vaccinating twice (P lyssaviruses. Booster vaccination is recommended for dogs and cats if exposed to infected bats.

  20. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  1. Public health risk analysis of European bat lyssavirus infection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takumi, K.; Lina, P.H.C.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Kramps, J.A.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2009-01-01

    We present the frequency and the nature of contact incidents of the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, with humans and with companion animals (specifically cats and dogs), in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2005. Out of 17 bats in bite contact with humans, five tested positive for European bat

  2. Membrane and inclusion body targeting of lyssavirus matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollin, Reiko; Granzow, Harald; Köllner, Bernd; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Finke, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Lyssavirus matrix proteins (M) support virus budding and have accessory functions that may contribute to host cell manipulation and adaptation to specific hosts. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) and European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) M proteins differ in targeting and accumulation at cellular membranes. In contrast to RABV M, EBLV-1 M expressed from authentic EBLV-1 or chimeric RABV accumulated at the Golgi apparatus. Chimeric M proteins revealed that Golgi association depends on the integrity of the entire EBLV-1 M protein. Since RABV and EBLV-1 M differ in the use of cellular membranes for particle formation, differential membrane targeting and transport of M might determine the site of virus production. Moreover, both RABV and EBLV-1 M were for the first time detected within the nucleus and in Negri body-like inclusions bodies. Whereas nuclear M may imply hitherto unknown functions of lyssavirus M in host cell manipulation, the presence of M in inclusion bodies may correlate with regulatory functions of M in virus RNA synthesis. The data strongly support a model in which targeting of lyssavirus M proteins to distinctintracellular sites is a key determinant of diverse features in lyssavirus replication, host adaptation and pathogenesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Bleeding score in Type 1 von Willebrand disease patients using the ISTH-BAT questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, A; Al Omrani, S; Al Hajri, F; Al Obaidani, N; Al Balushi, B; Al Falahi, K

    2018-04-01

    Bleeding assessment tools have evolved in the last decade to standardize the assessment of the severity of bleeding symptom in a consistent way. In 2010, the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis-Bleeding Assessment Tool (ISTH-BAT) was developed and validated. Our aim was to administer ISTH-BAT questionnaire to the Omani patients with type 1 VWD and obtain the bleeding score (BS). We also studied the severity of their bleeding symptoms and correlated it with the BS as well as with the laboratory parameters. Forty-eight type I VWD index cases and 52 normal subjects were interviewed and the ISTH-BAT questionnaire administered. The BS was calculated based on a history of bleeding symptoms from 12 different sites according to the standard ISTH-BAT questionnaire. Laboratory parameters were obtained from patient's medical records. The mean age of this cohort was 27 years (range, 6-49) with 60% being females. The median time to administer this questionnaire was 10 minutes with an interquartile range (IQR) from 8 to 17 minutes. Overall, the median BS was 7 (IQR; 2,11) although individual scores ranged between 0 and 36. The BS was negatively correlated with VWF: Ag, VWF: RCo, and VWF: CB and the Spearman's correlation coefficient "rho" was, respectively, -0.15, -0.08, and -0.22. The ISTH-BAT BS is designed to reflect the severity of bleeding. Our results demonstrate the inherent variability of this bleeding pattern. We also found that the ISTH-BAT BS significantly correlated with VWF: Ag and VWF: CB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Host cell virus entry mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus G envelope glycoprotein occurs through a clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway that requires actin and Rab5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Dawn L; Laing, Eric D; Smith, Ina L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2014-02-27

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), a rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus which circulates in both pteropid fruit bats and insectivorous bats in mainland Australia, has caused three fatal human infections, the most recent in February 2013, manifested as acute neurological disease indistinguishable from clinical rabies. Rhabdoviruses infect host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion mediated by their single envelope glycoprotein (G), but the specific host factors and pathways involved in ABLV entry have not been determined. ABLV internalization into HEK293T cells was examined using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) that express ABLV G glycoproteins. A combination of chemical and molecular approaches was used to investigate the contribution of different endocytic pathways to ABLV entry. Dominant negative Rab GTPases were used to identify the endosomal compartment utilized by ABLV to gain entry into the host cell cytosol. Here we show that ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells was significantly inhibited by the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore, chlorpromazine, a drug that blocks clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and the actin depolymerizing drug latrunculin B. Over expression of dominant negative mutants of Eps15 and Rab5 also significantly reduced ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells. Chemical inhibitors of caveolae-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis and dominant negative mutants of Rab7 and Rab11 had no effect on ABLV entry. The predominant pathway utilized by ABLV for internalization into HEK293T cells is clathrin-and actin-dependent. The requirement of Rab5 for productive infection indicates that ABLV G-mediated fusion occurs within the early endosome compartment.

  5. Intergenotypic replacement of lyssavirus matrix proteins demonstrates the role of lyssavirus M proteins in intracellular virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Stefan; Granzow, Harald; Hurst, Jose; Pollin, Reiko; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2010-02-01

    Lyssavirus assembly depends on the matrix protein (M). We compared lyssavirus M proteins from different genotypes for their ability to support assembly and egress of genotype 1 rabies virus (RABV). Transcomplementation of M-deficient RABV with M from European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) types 1 and 2 reduced the release of infectious virus. Stable introduction of the heterogenotypic M proteins into RABV led to chimeric viruses with reduced virus release and intracellular accumulation of virus genomes. Although the chimeras indicated genotype-specific evolution of M, rapid selection of a compensatory mutant suggested conserved mechanisms of lyssavirus assembly and the requirement for only few adaptive mutations to fit the heterogenotypic M to a RABV backbone. Whereas the compensatory mutant replicated to similar infectious titers as RABV M-expressing virus, ultrastructural analysis revealed that both nonadapted EBLV M chimeras and the compensatory mutant differed from RABV M expressing viruses in the lack of intracellular viruslike structures that are enveloped and accumulate in cisterna of the degranulated and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum compartment. Moreover, all viruses were able to bud at the plasma membrane. Since the lack of the intracellular viruslike structures correlated with the type of M protein but not with the efficiency of virus release, we hypothesize that the M proteins of EBLV-1 and RABV differ in their target membranes for virus assembly. Although the biological function of intracellular assembly and accumulation of viruslike structures in the endoplasmic reticulum remain unclear, the observed differences could contribute to diverse host tropism or pathogenicity.

  6. Interferon in lyssavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Martina; Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis still claiming more than 50 000 human deaths per year. Typically, human cases are due to infection with rabies virus, the prototype of the Lyssavirus genus, but sporadic cases of rabies-like encephalitis caused by other lyssaviruses have been reported. In contrast to rabies virus, which has an extremely broad host range including many terrestrial warm-blooded animals, rabies-related viruses are associated predominantly with bats and rarely infect terrestrial species. In spite of a very close genetic relationship of rabies and rabies-related viruses, the factors determining the limited host range of rabies-related viruses are not clear. In the past years the importance of viral countermeasures against the host type I interferon system for establishment of an infection became evident. The rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) has emerged as a critical factor required for paralysing the signalling cascades leading to transcriptional activation of interferon genes as well as interferon signalling pathways, thereby limiting expression of antiviral and immune stimulatory genes. Comparative studies would be of interest in order to determine whether differential abilities of the lyssavirus P proteins contribute to the restricted host range of lyssaviruses.

  7. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. VIII. Type 1 AGN with Massive Absorbing Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Davies, Richard I.; Koss, Michael; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Burtscher, Leonard; Genzel, Reinhard; Lin, Ming-yi; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David; Sturm, Eckhard; Tacconi, Linda

    2018-04-01

    We explore the relationship between X-ray absorption and optical obscuration within the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS), which has been collecting and analyzing the optical and X-ray spectra for 641 hard X-ray selected (E > 14 keV) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use the deviation from a linear broad Hα-to-X-ray relationship as an estimate of the maximum optical obscuration toward the broad line region (BLR) and compare the A V to the hydrogen column densities ({N}{{H}}) found through systematic modeling of their X-ray spectra. We find that the inferred columns implied by A V toward the BLR are often orders of magnitude less than the columns measured toward the X-ray emitting region, indicating a small-scale origin for the X-ray absorbing gas. After removing 30% of Sy 1.9s that potentially have been misclassified due to outflows, we find that 86% (164/190) of the Type 1 population (Sy 1–1.9) are X-ray unabsorbed as expected based on a single obscuring structure. However, 14% (26/190), of which 70% (18/26) are classified as Sy 1.9, are X-ray absorbed, suggesting that the BLR itself is providing extra obscuration toward the X-ray corona. The fraction of X-ray absorbed Type 1 AGNs remains relatively constant with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio, indicating a stable BLR covering fraction.

  8. Utilisation of Chimeric Lyssaviruses to Assess Vaccine Protection against Highly Divergent Lyssaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Evans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection. Existing rabies vaccines afford protection against phylogroup I viruses but offer little to no protection against phylogroup II and III viruses. As such, work involving sharps with phylogroup II and III must be considered of high risk as no PEP is thought to have any effect on the prevention of a productive infection with these lyssaviruses. Whilst rabies virus itself has been characterised in a number of different animal models, data on the remaining lyssaviruses are scarce. As the lyssavirus glycoprotein is considered to be the sole target of neutralising antibodies we generated a vaccine strain of rabies using reverse genetics expressing highly divergent glycoproteins of West Caucasian Bat lyssavirus and Ikoma lyssavirus. Using these recombinants, we propose that recombinant vaccine strain derived lyssaviruses containing heterologous glycoproteins may be a suitable surrogate for wildtype viruses when assessing vaccine protection for the lyssaviruses.

  9. Characterization of Oita virus 296/1972 of Rhabdoviridae isolated from a horseshoe bat bearing characteristics of both lyssavirus and vesiculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, T; Inoue, S; Tanaka, K; Sato, Y; Morikawa, S; Hayasaka, D; Moriyama, M; Ono, T; Kanai, S; Yamada, A; Kurata, T

    2004-06-01

    Oita virus 296/1972 was isolated from the blood of a wild horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus cornutus (Temminck) in 1972. We investigated the pathogenicity of this virus in mice in relation to its histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics and the entire sequence of nucleoprotein gene. This virus caused lethal encephalitis in mice through intracerebral route. This susceptibility of mice was until 3 weeks of age. Immunohistochemical analysis using the convalescent sera obtained from survived adult mice after intracerebral inoculation revealed that many neurons were positive in the cytoplasm, besides no cross reactivity with normal and rabies virus-infected mouse brain tissues to this anti-sera. Ultrastructural analysis disclosed many bullet-shaped and enveloped virions in neurons. These morphological characteristics of the virions are consistent of that of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. Budding from endoplasmic membrane suggests that this virus has a similarity with lyssaviruses. Molecular analysis of cDNA coding a tentative nucleoprotein sequence revealed homology with those of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. Distance matrix analysis of this gene sequence with those of other rhabdoviruses isolated from mammals disclosed the discrete position of this virus in the phylogenic tree of rhabdoviridae infecting mammals and we renamed this virus as Oita rhabdovirus.

  10. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  11. Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  12. Insights into persistence mechanisms of a zoonotic virus in bat colonies using a multispecies metapopulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pons-Salort

    Full Text Available Rabies is a worldwide zoonosis resulting from Lyssavirus infection. In Europe, Eptesicus serotinus is the most frequently reported bat species infected with Lyssavirus, and thus considered to be the reservoir of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1. To date, the role of other bat species in EBLV-1 epidemiology and persistence remains unknown. Here, we built an EBLV-1-transmission model based on local observations of a three-cave and four-bat species (Myotis capaccinii, Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum system in the Balearic Islands, for which a 1995-2011 serological dataset indicated the continuous presence of EBLV-1. Eptesicus serotinus was never observed in the system during the 16-year follow-up and therefore was not included in the model. We used the model to explore virus persistence mechanisms and to assess the importance of each bat species in the transmission dynamics. We found that EBLV-1 could not be sustained if transmission between M. schreibersii and other bat species was eliminated, suggesting that this species serves as a regional reservoir. Global sensitivity analysis using Sobol's method revealed that following the rate of autumn-winter infectious contacts, M. schreibersii's incubation- and immune-period durations, but not the infectious period length, were the most relevant factors driving virus persistence.

  13. Insights into Persistence Mechanisms of a Zoonotic Virus in Bat Colonies Using a Multispecies Metapopulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Serra-Cobo, Jordi; Jay, Flora; López-Roig, Marc; Lavenir, Rachel; Guillemot, Didier; Letort, Véronique; Bourhy, Hervé; Opatowski, Lulla

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a worldwide zoonosis resulting from Lyssavirus infection. In Europe, Eptesicus serotinus is the most frequently reported bat species infected with Lyssavirus, and thus considered to be the reservoir of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1). To date, the role of other bat species in EBLV-1 epidemiology and persistence remains unknown. Here, we built an EBLV-1−transmission model based on local observations of a three-cave and four-bat species (Myotis capaccinii, Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) system in the Balearic Islands, for which a 1995–2011 serological dataset indicated the continuous presence of EBLV-1. Eptesicus serotinus was never observed in the system during the 16-year follow-up and therefore was not included in the model. We used the model to explore virus persistence mechanisms and to assess the importance of each bat species in the transmission dynamics. We found that EBLV-1 could not be sustained if transmission between M. schreibersii and other bat species was eliminated, suggesting that this species serves as a regional reservoir. Global sensitivity analysis using Sobol's method revealed that following the rate of autumn−winter infectious contacts, M. schreibersii's incubation- and immune-period durations, but not the infectious period length, were the most relevant factors driving virus persistence. PMID:24755619

  14. Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, Denise A.; Horton, Daniel L.; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Hampson, Katie; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Haydon, Daniel; Cleaveland, Sarah; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Bigambo, Machunde; Fooks, Anthony R.; Lembo, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    Evidence in support of a novel lyssavirus was obtained from brain samples of an African civet in Tanzania. Results of phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences from representative Lyssavirus species and this novel lyssavirus provided strong empirical evidence that this is a new lyssavirus species, designated Ikoma lyssavirus.

  15. Ikoma lyssavirus, highly divergent novel lyssavirus in an African civet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Denise A; Horton, Daniel L; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Hampson, Katie; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Banyard, Ashley C; Haydon, Daniel; Cleaveland, Sarah; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bigambo, Machunde; Fooks, Anthony R; Lembo, Tiziana

    2012-04-01

    Evidence in support of a novel lyssavirus was obtained from brain samples of an African civet in Tanzania. Results of phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences from representative Lyssavirus species and this novel lyssavirus provided strong empirical evidence that this is a new lyssavirus species, designated Ikoma lyssavirus.

  16. Genomic diversity and evolution of the lyssaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Delmas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Lyssaviruses are RNA viruses with single-strand, negative-sense genomes responsible for rabies-like diseases in mammals. To date, genomic and evolutionary studies have most often utilized partial genome sequences, particularly of the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes, with little consideration of genome-scale evolution. Herein, we report the first genomic and evolutionary analysis using complete genome sequences of all recognised lyssavirus genotypes, including 14 new complete genomes of field isolates from 6 genotypes and one genotype that is completely sequenced for the first time. In doing so we significantly increase the extent of genome sequence data available for these important viruses. Our analysis of these genome sequence data reveals that all lyssaviruses have the same genomic organization. A phylogenetic analysis reveals strong geographical structuring, with the greatest genetic diversity in Africa, and an independent origin for the two known genotypes that infect European bats. We also suggest that multiple genotypes may exist within the diversity of viruses currently classified as 'Lagos Bat'. In sum, we show that rigorous phylogenetic techniques based on full length genome sequence provide the best discriminatory power for genotype classification within the lyssaviruses.

  17. Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Lyssaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Olivier; Holmes, Edward C.; Talbi, Chiraz; Larrous, Florence; Dacheux, Laurent; Bouchier, Christiane; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are RNA viruses with single-strand, negative-sense genomes responsible for rabies-like diseases in mammals. To date, genomic and evolutionary studies have most often utilized partial genome sequences, particularly of the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes, with little consideration of genome-scale evolution. Herein, we report the first genomic and evolutionary analysis using complete genome sequences of all recognised lyssavirus genotypes, including 14 new complete genomes of field isolates from 6 genotypes and one genotype that is completely sequenced for the first time. In doing so we significantly increase the extent of genome sequence data available for these important viruses. Our analysis of these genome sequence data reveals that all lyssaviruses have the same genomic organization. A phylogenetic analysis reveals strong geographical structuring, with the greatest genetic diversity in Africa, and an independent origin for the two known genotypes that infect European bats. We also suggest that multiple genotypes may exist within the diversity of viruses currently classified as ‘Lagos Bat’. In sum, we show that rigorous phylogenetic techniques based on full length genome sequence provide the best discriminatory power for genotype classification within the lyssaviruses. PMID:18446239

  18. Cross-platform evaluation of commercial real-time SYBR green RT-PCR kits for sensitive and rapid detection of European bat Lyssavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R (2) values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  19. Cross-Platform Evaluation of Commercial Real-Time SYBR Green RT-PCR Kits for Sensitive and Rapid Detection of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R2 values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  20. Bat rabies surveillance in France: first report of unusual mortality among serotine bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Wasniewski, Marine; Gaillard, Matthieu; Borel, Christophe; Cliquet, Florence

    2017-12-13

    Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France. Six juvenile bats from an E. serotinus maternity colony counting ~200 individuals were found to be infected with EBLV-1. The active surveillance of the colony by capture sessions of bats from July to September 2009 showed a high detection rate of neutralising EBLV-1 antibodies (≈ 50%) in the colony. Moreover, one out of 111 animals tested was found to shed viable virus in saliva, while lyssavirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR for five individuals. This study demonstrated that the lyssavirus infection in the serotine maternity colony was followed by a high rate of bat rabies immunity after circulation of the virus in the colony. The ratio of seropositive bats is probably indicative of an efficient virus transmission coupled to a rapid circulation of EBLV-1 in the colony.

  1. Serological Surveillance for Non-Rabies Lyssaviruses among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the seven recognized and four putative genotypes of lyssaviruses, genotypes 1-3 comprising namely the classical rabies virus (RABV), Lagos bat virus (LBV) and Mokola virus (MOKV) respectively have been reported in Nigeria. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is recognized as the reservoir for genotype 1, and the ...

  2. A perspective on lyssavirus emergence and perpetuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Charles E; Turmelle, Amy; Kuzmin, Ivan V

    2011-12-01

    Rabies is propagated globally by viruses in the Family Rhabdoviridae, Genus Lyssavirus. These RNA viruses utilize the mammalian central nervous system as their ultimate niche, and exploit routine social mechanisms, as well as host behavioral alterations, to facilitate transmission by neural transport and innervations of the salivary glands, and ultimately excretion via the saliva, towards circulation thereafter in host populations. All mammals are susceptible to infection, but lyssavirus reservoirs are represented by several species of Carnivora, with viral global diversity and distribution in toto driven by a wide variety of the Chiroptera. Pathogen diversity is maintained by multiple faunas, and facilitated by pronounced host vagility, as exemplified by the ease of routine daily and seasonal movements by bats. Viral 'ensembles', or subpopulations associated with productive transmission events, emerge locally in vivo through a combination of naive host infections in some individuals versus acquired immunity by others, using complex metapopulation dynamics. Enhanced surveillance, improved diagnostics, increased pathogen detection, and an integrated One Health approach, targeting human, domestic animal and wildlife interfaces, provide modern insights to the ecology of bat lyssaviruses to augment future prevention and control. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evidence of Two Lyssavirus Phylogroups with Distinct Pathogenicity and Immunogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrane, Hassan; Bahloul, Chokri; Perrin, Pierre; Tordo, Noël

    2001-01-01

    The genetic diversity of representative members of the Lyssavirus genus (rabies and rabies-related viruses) was evaluated using the gene encoding the transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the virus-host interaction, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished seven genotypes, which could be divided into two major phylogroups having the highest bootstrap values. Phylogroup I comprises the worldwide genotype 1 (classic Rabies virus), the European bat lyssavirus (EBL) genotypes 5 (EBL1) and 6 (EBL2), the African genotype 4 (Duvenhage virus), and the Australian bat lyssavirus genotype 7. Phylogroup II comprises the divergent African genotypes 2 (Lagos bat virus) and 3 (Mokola virus). We studied immunogenic and pathogenic properties to investigate the biological significance of this phylogenetic grouping. Viruses from phylogroup I (Rabies virus and EBL1) were found to be pathogenic for mice when injected by the intracerebral or the intramuscular route, whereas viruses from phylogroup II (Mokola and Lagos bat viruses) were only pathogenic by the intracerebral route. We showed that the glycoprotein R333 residue essential for virulence was naturally replaced by a D333 in the phylogroup II viruses, likely resulting in their attenuated pathogenicity. Moreover, cross-neutralization distinguished the same phylogroups. Within each phylogroup, the amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein ectodomain was at least 74% identical, and antiglycoprotein virus-neutralizing antibodies displayed cross-neutralization. Between phylogroups, the identity was less than 64.5% and the cross-neutralization was absent, explaining why the classical rabies vaccines (phylogroup I) cannot protect against lyssaviruses from phylogroup II. Our tree-axial analysis divided lyssaviruses into two phylogroups that more closely reflect their biological characteristics than previous serotypes and genotypes. PMID:11238853

  4. RT-PCR for detection of all seven genotypes of Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Morón, S; Avellón, A; Echevarría, J E

    2006-08-01

    The Lyssavirus genus includes seven species or genotypes named 1-7. Rabies genotypes correlate with geographical distribution and specific hosts. Co-circulation of different lyssaviruses, imported cases, and the presence of unknown viruses, such as Aravan, Khujand, Irkut and West Caucasian Bat Virus, make it necessary to use generic methods able to detect all lyssaviruses. Primer sequences were chosen from conserved regions in all genotypes in order to optimise a generic RT-PCR. Serial dilutions of 12 RNA extracts from all seven Lyssavirus genotypes were examined to compare the sensitivity of the RT-PCR standardised in this study with a published RT-PCR optimised for EBLV1 detection and capable of amplifying RNA from all seven lyssaviruses. All seven genotypes were detected by both RT-PCRs, however, the sensitivity was higher with the new version of the test. Twenty samples submitted for rabies diagnosis were tested by the new RT-PCR. Eight out of 20 samples from six dogs, one horse and one bat were found positive, in agreement with immunofluorescence results. Seven samples from terrestrial mammals were genotype 1 and one from a bat was genotype 5. In conclusion, this method can be used to complement immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of rabies, enabling the detection of unexpected lyssaviruses during rabies surveillance.

  5. Lyssavirus infection: 'low dose, multiple exposure' in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Healy, Derek M; Brookes, Sharon M; Voller, Katja; Hicks, Daniel J; Núñez, Alejandro; Fooks, Anthony R

    2014-03-06

    The European bat lyssaviruses (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are zoonotic pathogens present within bat populations across Europe. The maintenance and transmission of lyssaviruses within bat colonies is poorly understood. Cases of repeated isolation of lyssaviruses from bat roosts have raised questions regarding the maintenance and intraspecies transmissibility of these viruses within colonies. Furthermore, the significance of seropositive bats in colonies remains unclear. Due to the protected nature of European bat species, and hence restrictions to working with the natural host for lyssaviruses, this study analysed the outcome following repeat inoculation of low doses of lyssaviruses in a murine model. A standardized dose of virus, EBLV-1, EBLV-2 or a 'street strain' of rabies (RABV), was administered via a peripheral route to attempt to mimic what is hypothesized as natural infection. Each mouse (n=10/virus/group/dilution) received four inoculations, two doses in each footpad over a period of four months, alternating footpad with each inoculation. Mice were tail bled between inoculations to evaluate antibody responses to infection. Mice succumbed to infection after each inoculation with 26.6% of mice developing clinical disease following the initial exposure across all dilutions (RABV, 32.5% (n=13/40); EBLV-1, 35% (n=13/40); EBLV-2, 12.5% (n=5/40)). Interestingly, the lowest dose caused clinical disease in some mice upon first exposure ((RABV, 20% (n=2/10) after first inoculation; RABV, 12.5% (n=1/8) after second inoculation; EBLV-2, 10% (n=1/10) after primary inoculation). Furthermore, five mice developed clinical disease following the second exposure to live virus (RABV, n=1; EBLV-1, n=1; EBLV-2, n=3) although histopathological examination indicated that the primary inoculation was the most probably cause of death due to levels of inflammation and virus antigen distribution observed. All the remaining mice (RABV, n=26; EBLV-1, n=26; EBLV-2, n=29) survived the tertiary and

  6. Bat in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stantič-Pavlinič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: All around the world exist more than thousand species of bats. In spite of some advantageous characteristics, mostly recognised in several insectivorous species, bats can transmit different kinds of microorganisms – the causes of infectious diseases. Microbial agents, recognised in connection with bats are: lyssavirus, Nipah virus, Hystoplasma capsulatum fungus, etc. In Europe there live about 28 species of bats. The most cases of European bat lyssaviruses (EBL1 and EBL2 were demonstrated in the Eptesicus serotinus species placed in Slovenia as well. We are presenting available data on rabies prevention. The rate of post-exposure treatment against rabies after the bite of bats in Slovenia is below 1% and is comparable with the remainder of Europe.Conclusions: In most European countries, including Slovenia, the bats are included in the lists of animal species protected by the law. In spite of that, the programs of investigations of bats, including the recognition and prevention of diseases transmitted by bats are implemented. We believe that such program should be prepared in Slovenia as well. We propose for that purposes the establishment of co-operation between the medical institutions, veterinarians, cave explorers associations, societies for bat protections and other interested institutions.

  7. Lyssavirus Detection and Typing Using Pyrosequencing▿#‖

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Paola; De Battisti, Cristian; Dacheux, Laurent; Marciano, Sabrina; Ormelli, Silvia; Salomoni, Angela; Caenazzo, Silvia Tiozzo; Lepelletier, Anthony; Bourhy, Hervé; Capua, Ilaria; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonosis caused by a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus, namely, rabies virus (RABV). Apart from RABV, at least 10 additional species are known as rabies-related lyssaviruses (RRVs), and some of them are responsible for occasional spillovers into humans. More lyssaviruses have also been detected recently in different bat ecosystems, thanks to the application of molecular diagnostic methods. Due to the variety of the members of the genus Lyssavirus, there is the necessity to develop a reliable molecular assay for rabies diagnosis able to detect and differentiate among the existing rabies and rabies-related viruses. In the present study, a pyrosequencing protocol targeting the 3′ terminus of the nucleoprotein (N) gene was applied for the rapid characterization of lyssaviruses. Correct identification of species was achieved for each sample tested. Results from the pyrosequencing assay were also confirmed by those obtained using the Sanger sequencing method. A pan-lyssavirus one-step reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was developed within the framework of the pyrosequencing procedure. The sensitivity (Se) of the one-step RT-PCR assay was determined by using in vitro-transcribed RNA and serial dilutions of titrated viruses. The assay demonstrated high analytical and relative specificity (Sp) (98.94%) and sensitivity (99.71%). To date, this is the first case in which pyrosequencing has been applied for lyssavirus identification using a cheaper diagnostic approach than the one for all the other protocols for rapid typing that we are acquainted with. Results from this study indicate that this procedure is suitable for lyssavirus detection in samples of both human and animal origin. PMID:21389152

  8. Differential chemokine responses in the murine brain following lyssavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D J; Núñez, A; Banyard, A C; Williams, A; Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2013-11-01

    The hallmark of lyssavirus infection is lethal encephalomyelitis. Previous studies have reported distinct lyssavirus isolate-related differences in severity of cellular recruitment into the encephalon in a murine model of infection following peripheral inoculation with rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus (EBLV)-1 and -2. In order to understand the role of chemokines in this process, comparative studies of the chemokine pattern, distribution and production in response to infection with these lyssaviruses were undertaken. Expression of CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL10 was observed throughout the murine brain with a distinct caudal bias in distribution, similar to both inflammatory changes and virus antigen distribution. CCL2 immunolabelling was localized to neuronal and astroglial populations. CCL5 immunolabelling was only detected in the astroglia, while CXCL10 labelling, although present in the astroglia, was more prominent in neurons. Isolate-dependent differences in the amount of chemokine immunolabelling in specific brain regions and chemokine production by neurons in vitro were observed, with a greater expression of CCL5 in vivo and CXCL10 production in vitro after EBLV infection. Additionally, strong positive associations between chemokine immunolabelling and perivascular cuffing and, to a lesser extent, virus antigen score were also observed. These differences in chemokine expression may explain the variation in severity of encephalitic changes observed in animals infected with different lyssavirus isolates. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenesis of bat rabies in a natural reservoir: Comparative susceptibility of the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) to three strains of Lagos bat virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suu-Ire, R. (Richard); L. Begeman (Lineke); A. Banyard (Ashley); A.C. Breed; C. Drosten (Christian); Eggerbauer, E. (Elisa); Freuling, C.M. (Conrad M.); Gibson, L. (Louise); Goharriz, H. (Hooman); D.L. Horton; Jennings, D. (Daisy); I.V. Kuzmin (Ivan); D.A. Marston (Denise); Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. (Yaa); Riesle Sbarbaro, S. (Silke); Selden, D. (David); Wise, E.L. (Emma L.); Kuiken, T. (Thijs); A.R. Fooks (Anthony); T. Müller (Thomas); Wood, J.L.N. (James L. N.); A.A. Cunningham

    2018-01-01

    textabstractRabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no

  10. Host Switching in Lyssavirus History from the Chiroptera to the Carnivora Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrane, Hassan; Tordo, Noël

    2001-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are unsegmented RNA viruses causing rabies. Their vectors belong to the Carnivora and Chiroptera orders. We studied 36 carnivoran and 17 chiropteran lyssaviruses representing the main genotypes and variants. We compared their genes encoding the surface glycoprotein, which is responsible for receptor recognition and membrane fusion. The glycoprotein is the main protecting antigen and bears virulence determinants. Point mutation is the main force in lyssavirus evolution, as Sawyer's test and phylogenetic analysis showed no evidence of recombination. Tests of neutrality indicated a neutral model of evolution, also supported by globally high ratios of synonymous substitutions (dS) to nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) (>7). Relative-rate tests suggested similar rates of evolution for all lyssavirus lineages. Therefore, the absence of recombination and similar evolutionary rates make phylogeny-based conclusions reliable. Phylogenetic reconstruction strongly supported the hypothesis that host switching occurred in the history of lyssaviruses. Indeed, lyssaviruses evolved in chiropters long before the emergence of carnivoran rabies, very likely following spillovers from bats. Using dated isolates, the average rate of evolution was estimated to be roughly 4.3 × 10−4 dS/site/year. Consequently, the emergence of carnivoran rabies from chiropteran lyssaviruses was determined to have occurred 888 to 1,459 years ago. Glycoprotein segments accumulating more dN than dS were distinctly detected in carnivoran and chiropteran lyssaviruses. They may have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the two distinct mammal orders. In carnivoran lyssaviruses they overlapped the main antigenic sites, II and III, whereas in chiropteran lyssaviruses they were located in regions of unknown functions. PMID:11483755

  11. Ikoma Lyssavirus, Highly Divergent Novel Lyssavirus in an African Civet1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Denise A.; Horton, Daniel L.; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Hampson, Katie; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Haydon, Daniel; Cleaveland, Sarah; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Bigambo, Machunde; Lembo, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    Evidence in support of a novel lyssavirus was obtained from brain samples of an African civet in Tanzania. Results of phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences from representative Lyssavirus species and this novel lyssavirus provided strong empirical evidence that this is a new lyssavirus species, designated Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:22469151

  12. Pathogenesis of bat rabies in a natural reservoir: Comparative susceptibility of the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) to three strains of Lagos bat virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suu-Ire, Richard; Begeman, Lineke; Banyard, Ashley C; Breed, Andrew C; Drosten, Christian; Eggerbauer, Elisa; Freuling, Conrad M; Gibson, Louise; Goharriz, Hooman; Horton, Daniel L; Jennings, Daisy; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Marston, Denise; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Riesle Sbarbaro, Silke; Selden, David; Wise, Emma L; Kuiken, Thijs; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. People are infected through contact with infected animals. The relative increase of human rabies acquired from bats calls for a better understanding of lyssavirus infections in their natural hosts. So far, there is no experimental model that mimics natural lyssavirus infection in the reservoir bat species. Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that is endemic in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Africa. Here we compared the susceptibility of these bats to three strains of Lagos bat virus (from Senegal, Nigeria, and Ghana) by intracranial inoculation. To allow comparison between strains, we ensured the same titer of virus was inoculated in the same location of the brain of each bat. All bats (n = 3 per strain) were infected, and developed neurological signs, and fatal meningoencephalitis with lyssavirus antigen expression in neurons. There were three main differences among the groups. First, time to death was substantially shorter in the Senegal and Ghana groups (4 to 6 days) than in the Nigeria group (8 days). Second, each virus strain produced a distinct clinical syndrome. Third, the spread of virus to peripheral tissues, tested by hemi-nested reverse transcriptase PCR, was frequent (3 of 3 bats) and widespread (8 to 10 tissues positive of 11 tissues examined) in the Ghana group, was frequent and less widespread in the Senegal group (3/3 bats, 3 to 6 tissues positive), and was rare and restricted in the Nigeria group (1/3 bats, 2 tissues positive). Centrifugal spread of virus from brain to tissue of excretion in the oral cavity is required to enable lyssavirus transmission. Therefore, the Senegal and Ghana strains seem most suitable for further pathogenesis, and for transmission, studies in the straw-colored fruit bat.

  13. Cross-neutralization of antibodies induced by vaccination with Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine (PCECV) against different Lyssavirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerczyk, Claudius; Freuling, Conrad; Gniel, Dieter; Giesen, Alexandra; Selhorst, Thomas; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by viruses belonging to the genus lyssavirus. In endemic countries of Asia and Africa, where the majority of the estimated 60,000 human rabies deaths occur, it is mainly caused by the classical rabies virus (RABV) transmitted by dogs. Over the last decade new species within the genus lyssavirus have been identified. Meanwhile 15 (proposed or classified) species exist, including Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), European bat lyssavirus (EBLV-1 and -2), Duvenhage virus (DUVV), as well as Lagos bat virus (LBV) and Mokola virus (MOKV) and recently identified novel species like Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Ikoma bat lyssavirus (IKOV) or Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLBV). The majority of these lyssavirus species are found in bat reservoirs and some have caused human infection and deaths. Previous work has demonstrated that Purified Chick Embryo Cell Rabies Vaccine (PCECV) not only induces immune responses against classical RABV, but also elicits cross-neutralizing antibodies against ABLV, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2. Using the same serum samples as in our previous study, this study extension investigated cross-neutralizing activities of serum antibodies measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) against selected other non-classical lyssavirus species of interest, namely DUVV and BBLV, as well as MOKV and LBV. Antibodies developed after vaccination with PCECV have neutralizing capability against BBLV and DUVV in the same range as against ABLV and EBLV-1 and -2. As expected, for the phylogenetically more distant species LBV no cross-neutralizing activity was found. Interestingly, 15 of 94 serum samples (16%) with a positive neutralizing antibody titer against RABV displayed specific cross-neutralizing activity (65-fold lower than against RABV) against one specific MOKV strain (Ethiopia isolate), which was not seen against a different strain (Nigeria isolate). Cross-neutralizing activities partly correlate with the

  14. Complete genome sequence of Ikoma lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Horton, Daniel L; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Wise, Emma L; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Banyard, Ashley C; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Keyyu, Julius; Cleaveland, Sarah; Lembo, Tiziana; Rupprecht, Charles E; Fooks, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) constitute one of the most important groups of viral zoonoses globally. All lyssaviruses cause the disease rabies, an acute progressive encephalitis for which, once symptoms occur, there is no effective cure. Currently available vaccines are highly protective against the predominantly circulating lyssavirus species. Using next-generation sequencing technologies, we have obtained the whole-genome sequence for a novel lyssavirus, Ikoma lyssavirus (IKOV), isolated from an African civet in Tanzania displaying clinical signs of rabies. Genetically, this virus is the most divergent within the genus Lyssavirus. Characterization of the genome will help to improve our understanding of lyssavirus diversity and enable investigation into vaccine-induced immunity and protection.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Ikoma Lyssavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Wise, Emma L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Keyyu, Julius; Cleaveland, Sarah; Lembo, Tiziana; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) constitute one of the most important groups of viral zoonoses globally. All lyssaviruses cause the disease rabies, an acute progressive encephalitis for which, once symptoms occur, there is no effective cure. Currently available vaccines are highly protective against the predominantly circulating lyssavirus species. Using next-generation sequencing technologies, we have obtained the whole-genome sequence for a novel lyssavirus, Ikoma lyssavirus (IKOV), isol...

  16. Lyssavirus in Japanese Pipistrelle, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shu-Chia; Hsu, Chao-Lung; Lee, Ming-Shiuh; Tu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Wu, Chieh-Hao; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Ting, Lu-Jen; Tsai, Kwok-Rong; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Tu, Wen-Jane; Hsu, Wei-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    A putative new lyssavirus was found in 2 Japanese pipistrelles (Pipistrellus abramus) in Taiwan in 2016 and 2017. The concatenated coding regions of the virus showed 62.9%-75.1% nucleotide identities to the other 16 species of lyssavirus, suggesting that it may be representative of a new species of this virus.

  17. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenberg, René [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Delmas, Olivier [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J. [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Bourhy, Hervé [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Grimes, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  18. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6 1 22 or P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress

  19. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR).Findings: In total, 15 RT-qPCR posi...... bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae....

  20. The Global Phylogeography of Lyssaviruses - Challenging the 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach. The nucleoprotein gene sequences from 153 representatives of 16 lyssavirus species, collected between 1956 and 2015, were used to develop a phylogenetic tree which incorporated relevant geographic and temporal data relating to the viruses. In addition, complete genome sequences from all 16 (putative species were analysed. The most probable ancestral distribution for the internal nodes was inferred using three different approaches and was confirmed by analysis of complete genomes. These results support a Palearctic origin for lyssaviruses (posterior probability = 0.85, challenging the 'out of Africa' hypothesis, and suggest three independent transmission events to the Afrotropical region, representing the three phylogroups that form the three major lyssavirus clades.

  1. The Global Phylogeography of Lyssaviruses - Challenging the 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Anthony R.; Marston, Denise A.; Garcia-R, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach. The nucleoprotein gene sequences from 153 representatives of 16 lyssavirus species, collected between 1956 and 2015, were used to develop a phylogenetic tree which incorporated relevant geographic and temporal data relating to the viruses. In addition, complete genome sequences from all 16 (putative) species were analysed. The most probable ancestral distribution for the internal nodes was inferred using three different approaches and was confirmed by analysis of complete genomes. These results support a Palearctic origin for lyssaviruses (posterior probability = 0.85), challenging the ‘out of Africa’ hypothesis, and suggest three independent transmission events to the Afrotropical region, representing the three phylogroups that form the three major lyssavirus clades. PMID:28036390

  2. Isolation of Irkut virus from a Murina leucogaster bat in China.

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    Ye Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bats are recognized as a major reservoir of lyssaviruses; however, no bat lyssavirus has been isolated in Asia except for Aravan and Khujand virus in Central Asia. All Chinese lyssavirus isolates in previous reports have been of species rabies virus, mainly from dogs. Following at least two recent bat-associated human rabies-like cases in northeast China, we have initiated a study of the prevalence of lyssaviruses in bats in Jilin province and their public health implications. A bat lyssavirus has been isolated and its pathogenicity in mice and genomic alignment have been determined. RESULTS: We report the first isolation of a bat lyssavirus in China, from the brain of a northeastern bat, Murina leucogaster. Its nucleoprotein gene shared 92.4%/98.9% (nucleotide and 92.2%/98.8% (amino acid identity with the two known Irkut virus isolates from Russia, and was designated IRKV-THChina12. Following intracranial and intramuscular injection, IRKV-THChina12 produced rabies-like symptoms in adult mice with a short inoculation period and high mortality. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that IRKV-THChina12 has the same genomic organization as other lyssaviruses and its isolation provides an independent origin for the species IRKV. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the existence of a bat lyssavirus in a common Chinese bat species. Its high pathogenicity in adult mice suggests that public warnings and medical education regarding bat bites in China should be increased, and that surveillance be extended to provide a better understanding of Irkut virus ecology and its significance for public health.

  3. Comparison of pathogenic domains of rabies and African rabies-related lyssaviruses and pathogenicity observed in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Kgaladi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lyssavirus species occur in Africa (Rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus, displaying a high sequence diversity between isolates belonging to the same species. There is limited information about comparative pathogenesis of these African lyssaviruses and this precludes authoritative opinion on the potential public and veterinary health impact. In this study, an analysis of representative African lyssaviruses attempted to correlate viral genomic sequence similarities and differences with the corresponding pathogenic profiles observed in mice. The study demonstrated that the virus isolates evaluated could be lethal to mice when introduced intramuscularly and that different isolates of the same lyssavirus species differ in their virulence. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, viral RNA was detected in brain tissue, but no viral RNA was detected in the salivary glands or blood of mice that succumbed to infection. Comparison of known pathogenic domains indicated that pathogenicity is likely to be dependent on multiple domains. Cumulatively, our results re-emphasised the realisation that the pathogenicity of a lyssavirus species cannot be deduced based on studies of only a single isolate of the species or a single pathogenic domain.

  4. Molecular double check strategy for the identification and characterization of European Lyssaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Lyssaviruses (order Mononegavirales, family Rhabdoviridae), the causative agents of rabies, represent a remarkable public health threat in developing countries. Among human exposures RABV is transmitted predominantly by dog bite; however bat lyssaviruses have also caused human cases. The “gold...... standard” for post-mortem rabies diagnosis is the fluorescence antibody test (FAT). However, in the case of ante-mortem non-neural sample material (e.g. saliva, cerebral spinal fluid, skin biopsies) or badly decomposed tissues the FAT reaches its limit and the use of molecular methods like reverse...

  5. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Schatz, Juliane; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriel, Mariann; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-11-25

    In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). In total, 15 RT-qPCR positive swabs were detected. Remarkably, sequencing of positive samples did not confirm the presence of bat associated lyssaviruses but revealed nine distinct novel rhabdovirus-related sequences. Several novel rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected both in German and Danish insectivorous bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae.

  6. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

  7. Public health awareness of emerging zoonotic viruses of bats: A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in

  8. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  9. Chimeric rabies viruses for trans-species comparison of lyssavirus glycoprotein ectodomain functions in virus replication and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genz, Berit; Nolden, Tobias; Negatsch, Alexandra; Teifke, Jens-Peter; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Finke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The glycoprotein G of lyssaviruses is the major determinant of virus pathogenicity and serves as a target for immunological responses to virus infections. However, assessment of the exact contribution of lyssavirus G proteins to observed differences in the pathogenicity of lyssavirus species is challenging, since the direct comparison of natural lyssaviruses does not allow specific ascription to individual virus proteins or domains. Here we describe the generation and characterization of recombinant rabies viruses (RABV) that express chimeric G proteins comprising of a RABV cytoplasma domain fused to transmembrane and ectodomain G sequences of a virulent RABV (challenge virus standard; CVS-11) or two European bat lyssaviruses (EBLV- and EBLV-2). These "envelope-switched" recombinant viruses were recovered from cDNAs. Similar growth kinetics and protein expression in neuroblastoma cell cultures and successful targeting of primary neurons showed that the chimeric G proteins were able to replace the authentic G protein in a RABV based virus vector. Inoculation of six week old CD-1 mice by the intracranial (i. c.) route of infection further demonstrated that all recombinant viruses were able to spread in the brain and to induce disease. The "envelope-switched" RABV therefore represent an important tool to further investigate the influence of lyssavirus ectodomains on virus tropism, and pathogenicity.

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6122 or P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress. PMID:18391421

  11. Interspecies protein substitution to investigate the role of the lyssavirus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Denise A; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Banyard, Ashley C; Horton, Daniel L; Núñez, Alejandro; Koser, Martin L; Schnell, Matthias J; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-02-01

    European bat lyssaviruses type 1 (EBLV-1) and type 2 (EBLV-2) circulate within bat populations throughout Europe and are capable of causing disease indistinguishable from that caused by classical rabies virus (RABV). However, the determinants of viral fitness and pathogenicity are poorly understood. Full-length genome clones based on the highly attenuated, non-neuroinvasive, RABV vaccine strain (SAD-B19) were constructed with the glycoprotein (G) of either SAD-B19 (SN), of EBLV-1 (SN-1) or EBLV-2 (SN-2). In vitro characterization of SN-1 and SN-2 in comparison to wild-type EBLVs demonstrated that the substitution of G affected the final virus titre and antigenicity. In vivo, following peripheral infection with a high viral dose (10(4) f.f.u.), animals infected with SN-1 had reduced survivorship relative to infection with SN, resulting in survivorship similar to animals infected with EBLV-1. The histopathological changes and antigen distribution observed for SN-1 were more representative of those observed with SN than with EBLV-1. EBLV-2 was unable to achieve a titre equivalent to that of the other viruses. Therefore, a reduced-dose experiment (10(3) f.f.u.) was undertaken in vivo to compare EBLV-2 and SN-2, which resulted in 100 % survivorship for all recombinant viruses (SN, SN-1 and SN-2) while clinical disease developed in mice infected with the EBLVs. These data indicate that interspecies replacement of G has an effect on virus titre in vitro, probably as a result of suboptimal G-matrix protein interactions, and influences the survival outcome following a peripheral challenge with a high virus titre in mice.

  12. A Step Forward in Molecular Diagnostics of Lyssaviruses – Results of a Ring Trial among European Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Wernike, Kerstin; Freuling, Conrad M.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial...... participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2) RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really...

  13. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-02

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the complete genome of the first Irkut virus isolate from China: comparison across the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Lian, Hai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jinxia; Hu, Rongliang

    2013-12-01

    The genome of Irkut virus, isolate IRKV-THChina12, the first non-rabies lyssavirus from China (of bat origin), has been completely sequenced. In general, coding and non-coding regions of this viral genome are similar to those of other lyssaviruses. However, alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of the structural proteins of IRKV-THChina12 with those of other lyssavirus representatives revealed significant variability between viral species. The nucleoprotein and matrix protein were found to be the most conserved, followed by the large protein, glycoprotein and phosphoprotein. Differences in the antigenic sites in glycoprotein may result in only partial protection of the available rabies biologics against Irkut virus, which is of particular concern for pre- and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles

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    Sarah Moeschler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT. Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses.

  16. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-09-16

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses.

  17. Antigenic and genetic characterization of a divergent African virus, Ikoma lyssavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Daniel L; Banyard, Ashley C; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma; Selden, David; Nunez, Alejandro; Hicks, Daniel; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Peel, Alison J; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Rupprecht, Charles E; Fooks, Anthony R

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, a novel lyssavirus (subsequently named Ikoma lyssavirus, IKOV) was detected in the brain of an African civet (Civettictis civetta) with clinical rabies in the Serengeti National Park of Tanzania. The degree of nucleotide divergence between the genome of IKOV and those of other lyssaviruses predicted antigenic distinction from, and lack of protection provided by, available rabies vaccines. In addition, the index case was considered likely to be an incidental spillover event, and therefore the true reservoir of IKOV remained to be identified. The advent of sensitive molecular techniques has led to a rapid increase in the discovery of novel viruses. Detecting viral sequence alone, however, only allows for prediction of phenotypic characteristics and not their measurement. In the present study we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of IKOV, demonstrating that it is (1) pathogenic by peripheral inoculation in an animal model, (2) antigenically distinct from current rabies vaccine strains and (3) poorly neutralized by sera from humans and animals immunized against rabies. In a laboratory mouse model, no protection was elicited by a licensed rabies vaccine. We also investigated the role of bats as reservoirs of IKOV. We found no evidence for infection among 483 individuals of at least 13 bat species sampled across sites in the Serengeti and Southern Kenya.

  18. A Novel Expression Cassette of Lyssavirus Shows that the Distantly Related Mokola Virus Can Rescue a Defective Rabies Virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mercier, Philippe; Jacob, Yves; Tanner, Kyle; Tordo, Noël

    2002-01-01

    By comparing three expression vectors for the rabies virus (Rv) minigenome, we show that the characteristic of the Rv RNA is important for efficient rescue despite its not being crucial for replication. Moreover, we show that the coexpression of the viral proteins from helper Rv and Mokola virus could rescue the Rv minigenome while Rv-related European bat lyssavirus 1 could not, suggesting that the signals controlling transcription and replication are conserved in the distantly related Rv and Mokola virus. PMID:11799201

  19. Laboratory Surveillance of Rabies in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Bats in Madagascar from 2005 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcelin; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth Marie; Bourhy, Hervé; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background. Rabies virus (RABV) has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats) and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar. PMID:21991442

  20. Laboratory Surveillance of Rabies in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Bats in Madagascar from 2005 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Reynes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rabies virus (RABV has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA, and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar.

  1. Immunological Control of Viral Infections in Bats and the Emergence of Viruses Highly Pathogenic to Humans

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    Tony Schountz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoir hosts of many important viruses that cause substantial disease in humans, including coronaviruses, filoviruses, lyssaviruses, and henipaviruses. Other than the lyssaviruses, they do not appear to cause disease in the reservoir bats, thus an explanation for the dichotomous outcomes of infections of humans and bat reservoirs remains to be determined. Bats appear to have a few unusual features that may account for these differences, including evidence of constitutive interferon (IFN activation and greater combinatorial diversity in immunoglobulin genes that do not undergo substantial affinity maturation. We propose these features may, in part, account for why bats can host these viruses without disease and how they may contribute to the highly pathogenic nature of bat-borne viruses after spillover into humans. Because of the constitutive IFN activity, bat-borne viruses may be shed at low levels from bat cells. With large naive antibody repertoires, bats may control the limited virus replication without the need for rapid affinity maturation, and this may explain why bats typically have low antibody titers to viruses. However, because bat viruses have evolved in high IFN environments, they have enhanced countermeasures against the IFN response. Thus, upon infection of human cells, where the IFN response is not constitutive, the viruses overwhelm the IFN response, leading to abundant virus replication and pathology.

  2. A step forward in molecular diagnostics of lyssaviruses--results of a ring trial among European laboratories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Fischer

    Full Text Available Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial specifically designed on the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for detection of lyssavirus genomic RNA was organized. The trial focussed on assessment and comparison of the performance of conventional and real-time assays. In total, 16 European laboratories participated. All participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2 RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really robust assays tested with a high concordance between different laboratories and assays. The real-time RT-PCR system by Wakeley et al. (2005 in combination with an intercalating dye, and the combined version by Hoffmann and co-workers (2010 showed good sensitivity for the detection of all RABV samples included in this test panel. Furthermore, all used EBLV-specific assays, real-time RT-PCRs as well as conventional RT-PCR systems, were shown to be suitable for a reliable detection of EBLVs. It has to be mentioned that differences were seen in the performance between both the individual RT-PCR systems and the laboratories. Laboratories which used more than one molecular assay for testing the sample panel always concluded a correct sample result. Due to the markedly high genetic diversity of lyssaviruses, the application of different assays in diagnostics is needed to achieve a maximum of diagnostic accuracy. To improve the knowledge about the diagnostic performance proficiency testing at an international level is recommended before using lyssavirus molecular

  3. Phylogeography, population dynamics, and molecular evolution of European bat lyssaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, P.L.; Holmes, E.C.; Larrous, F.

    2005-01-01

    origin, and population growth rates of EBLV-1. Our study encompassed data from 12 countries collected over a time span of 35 years and focused on the glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes. We show that although the two subtypes of EBLV-1-EBLV-1a and EBLV-lb-have both grown at a low exponential...... in EBLV-1b. Our inferred rate of nucleotide substitution in EBLV-1, approximately 5 X 10(-5) substitutions per site per year, was also one of the lowest recorded for RNA viruses and implied that the current genetic diversity in the virus arose 500 to 750 years ago. We propose that the slow evolution...

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in lyssavirus-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Alireza; Kassis, Raïd; Real, Eléonore; Delmas, Olivier; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Larrous, Florence; Obach, Dorothée; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Jacob, Yves; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-05-01

    Lyssaviruses are highly neurotropic viruses associated with neuronal apoptosis. Previous observations have indicated that the matrix proteins (M) of some lyssaviruses induce strong neuronal apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. We show that for Mokola virus (MOK), a lyssavirus of low pathogenicity, the M (M-MOK) targets mitochondria, disrupts the mitochondrial morphology, and induces apoptosis. Our analysis of truncated M-MOK mutants suggests that the information required for efficient mitochondrial targeting and dysfunction, as well as caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, is held between residues 46 and 110 of M-MOK. We used a yeast two-hybrid approach, a coimmunoprecipitation assay, and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that M-MOK physically associates with the subunit I of the cytochrome c (cyt-c) oxidase (CcO) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; this is in contrast to the M of the highly pathogenic Thailand lyssavirus (M-THA). M-MOK expression induces a significant decrease in CcO activity, which is not the case with M-THA. M-MOK mutations (K77R and N81E) resulting in a similar sequence to M-THA at positions 77 and 81 annul cyt-c release and apoptosis and restore CcO activity. As expected, the reverse mutations, R77K and E81N, introduced in M-THA induce a phenotype similar to that due to M-MOK. These features indicate a novel mechanism for energy depletion during lyssavirus-induced apoptosis.

  5. First diagnosed lethal case of lyssavirus infection in Primorsky krai

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, G.; Chentsova, I.; Petukhova, S.; Somova, L.; Belikov, S.; Kondratov, I.; Kryilova, N.; Plekhova, N.; Pavlenko, E.; Romanova, E.; Matsak, V.; Smirnov, G.; Novikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides data of comprehensive study of lethal case of lyssavirus infection first diagnosed in Yakovlevsky municipal district in Primorsky Krai. The data of epidemiologic analysis (contact with a rattle mouse), clinical picture and results of virologic, morphological and molecular genetic tests allow attributing this case to lyssavirus infection. This is the first diagnosed case of lyssavirus infection in the Siberia and Far East.

  6. Assessment of potential zoonotic disease exposure and illness related to an annual bat festival--Idanre, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neil M; Osinubi, Modupe; Wallace, Ryan M; Aman-Oloniyo, Abimbola; Gbadegesin, Yemi H; Sebastian, Yennan Kerecvel; Saliman, Olugbon Abdullateef; Niezgoda, Mike; Davis, Lora; Recuenco, Sergio

    2014-04-18

    Bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. However, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. The variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. Every year a festival takes place in Idanre, Nigeria, in which males of all ages enter designated caves to capture bats; persons are forbidden from entering the caves outside of these festivities. Festival participants use a variety of techniques to capture bats, but protective equipment rarely is used, placing hunters at risk for bat scratches and bites. Many captured bats are prepared as food, but some are transported to markets in other parts of the country for sale as bushmeat. Bats also are presented to dignitaries in elaborate rituals. The health consequences of contact with these bats are unknown, but a number of viruses have been previously identified among Nigerian bats, including lyssaviruses, pegiviruses, and coronaviruses. Furthermore, the caves are home to Rousettus aegyptiacus bats, which are reservoirs for Marburg virus in other parts of Africa.

  7. What can we learn about lyssavirus genomes using 454 sequencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höper, Dirk; Finke, Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The main task of the individual project number four"Whole genome sequencing, virus-host adaptation, and molecular epidemiological analyses of lyssaviruses "within the network" Lyssaviruses--a potential re-emerging public health threat" is to provide high quality complete genome sequences from lyssaviruses. These sequences are analysed in-depth with regard to the diversity of the viral populations as to both quasi-species and so-called defective interfering RNAs. Moreover, the sequence data will facilitate further epidemiological analyses, will provide insight into the evolution of lyssaviruses and will be the basis for the design of novel nucleic acid based diagnostics. The first results presented here indicate that not only high quality full-length lyssavirus genome sequences can be generated, but indeed efficient analysis of the viral population gets feasible.

  8. Long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for Ebola and Lagos bat viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.

  9. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  10. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  11. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-20

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be 'orphan' but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  12. Lyssaviruses and rabies: current conundrums, concerns, contradictions and controversies [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rupprecht

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. Africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the Genus Lyssavirus, Family Rhabdoviridae. Diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. In terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species today, but for unknown reasons. All mammals are believed to be susceptible to rabies virus infection. Besides reservoirs among the Chiroptera, meso-carnivores also serve as major historical hosts and are represented among the canids, raccoons, skunks, mongooses, and ferret badgers.  Perpetuating as a disease of nature with the mammalian central nervous system as niche, host breadth alone precludes any candidacy for true eradication. Despite having the highest case fatality of any infectious disease and a burden in excess of or comparative to other major zoonoses, rabies remains neglected. Once illness appears, no treatment is proven to prevent death. Paradoxically, vaccines were developed more than a century ago, but the clear majority of human cases are unvaccinated. Tens of millions of people are exposed to suspect rabid animals and tens of thousands succumb annually, primarily children in developing countries, where canine rabies is enzootic. Rather than culling animal populations, one of the most cost-effective strategies to curbing human fatalities is the mass vaccination of dogs. Building on considerable progress to date, several complementary actions are needed in the near future, including a more harmonized approach to viral taxonomy, enhanced de-centralized laboratory-based surveillance, focal pathogen discovery and characterization, applied pathobiological research for therapeutics, improved estimates of canine populations at risk, actual

  13. Confirmation of a new conserved linear epitope of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinjun, Lv; Xuejun, Ma; Lihua, Wang; Hao, Li; Xinxin, Shen; Pengcheng, Yu; Qing, Tang; Guodong, Liang

    2012-05-01

    Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict potential epitopes of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein and highlighted some distinct differences in the quantity and localization of the epitopes disclosed by epitope analysis of monoclonal antibodies against Lyssavirus nucleoprotein. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the domain containing residues 152-164 of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein was a conserved linear epitope that had not been reported previously. Immunization of two rabbits with the corresponding synthetic peptide conjugated to the Keyhole Limpe hemocyanin (KLH) macromolecule resulted in a titer of anti-peptide antibody above 1:200,000 in rabbit sera as detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the anti-peptide antibody recognized denatured Lyssavirus nucleoprotein in sodium dodecylsulfonate-polyacrylate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Affinity chromatography purification and FITC-labeling of the anti-peptide antibody in rabbit sera was performed. FITC-labeled anti-peptide antibody could recognize Lyssavirus nucleoprotein in BSR cells and canine brain tissues even at a 1:200 dilution. Residues 152-164 of Lyssavirus nucleoprotein were verified as a conserved linear epitope in Lyssavirus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  15. European Bats as Carriers of Viruses with Zoonotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kohl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses. While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  16. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  17. Rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons at risk of bat exposures in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kis Robertson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses. Evidence of lyssavirus circulation has recently emerged in Southeast Asian bats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thailand to assess rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons regularly exposed to bats and bat habitats. The objectives were to identify deficiencies in rabies awareness, describe the occurrence of bat exposures, and explore factors associated with transdermal bat exposures. METHODS: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of adult guano miners, bat hunters, game wardens, and residents/personnel at Buddhist temples where mass bat roosting occurs. The questionnaire elicited information on demographics, experience with bat exposures, and rabies knowledge. Participants were also asked to describe actions they would take in response to a bat bite as well as actions for a bite from a potentially rabid animal. Bivariate analysis was used to compare responses between groups and multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors independently associated with being bitten or scratched by a bat. FINDINGS: Of 106 people interviewed, 11 (10% identified bats as a potential source of rabies. A history of a bat bite or scratch was reported by 29 (27%, and 38 (36% stated either that they would do nothing or that they did not know what they would do in response to a bat bite. Guano miners were less likely than other groups to indicate animal bites as a mechanism of rabies transmission (68% vs. 90%, p=0.03 and were less likely to say they would respond appropriately to a bat bite or scratch (61% vs. 27%, p=0.003. Guano mining, bat hunting, and being in a bat cave or roost area more than 5 times a year were associated with history of a bat bite or scratch. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the need for educational outreach to raise awareness of bat rabies, promote exposure prevention, and ensure appropriate health-seeking behaviors for bat

  18. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  19. Bat Bonanza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  20. Diabetes, Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Riazi, Afsane; Bradley, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of psychological stress in Type 1 diabetes. Studies relating to stress and Type 1 diabetes onset and control, as well as the evidence relating to stress management training in people with Type 1 diabetes are discussed.

  1. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Desta, Semere Tekeste

    2017-01-01

    Høgskulen på Vestlandet Avdeling for helsefag for sykepleiere Tittel: Diabetes type 1 Bakgrunn for val av tema: I 2000 var det ca. 130 000 personer i Norge med diabetes, av disse hadde ca. 20 000 diabetes type 1. I dag er det ca. 230 000 personer som har diabetes i Norge. Av disse ca. 28 000 type 1 diabetes. Tallet viser hvor alvorlig sykdommen er, fordi det har vært og fortsatt er, en økning av antall diabetikere i Norge. Type 1 diabetes kan komme i alle aldersgrupper, men vanligvis...

  2. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G.; Dirr, Heini W.; Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel; Martens, Lennart; Tsekoa, Tsepo L.; Stoychev, Stoyan H.; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. -- Highlights: •The current PEP has raised safety and availability concerns. •Cocktails of mAbs have been proposed as alternative treatment. •Amino acid conservation amongst Lyssavirus G proteins was studied. •Possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were proposed.

  3. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Protein Structure-Function Research Unit, School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Dirr, Heini W. [Protein Structure-Function Research Unit, School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Martens, Lennart [Unit for Computational Omics and Systems Biology, Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Tsekoa, Tsepo L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Stoychev, Stoyan H., E-mail: Sstoychev@csir.co.za [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Biosciences Unit, Pretoria (South Africa); Vandermarliere, Elien [Unit for Computational Omics and Systems Biology, Medical Biotechnology Center, VIB, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Bioinformatics Institute Gent, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. -- Highlights: •The current PEP has raised safety and availability concerns. •Cocktails of mAbs have been proposed as alternative treatment. •Amino acid conservation amongst Lyssavirus G proteins was studied. •Possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes were proposed.

  4. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  5. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affiliates JDRF Celebrity Ambassadors JDRF Logo Usage Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing ... US CAREERS NEWSROOM FOR RESEARCHERS © JDRF 2018 • Privacy Policy • ...

  6. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  7. Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identifi...

  8. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i sykepleie, 2014 Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturst...

  9. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  10. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G; Dirr, Heini W; Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel; Martens, Lennart; Tsekoa, Tsepo L; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Lyssavirus-Induced Apoptosis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Alireza; Kassis, Raïd; Real, Eléonore; Delmas, Olivier; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Larrous, Florence; Obach, Dorothée; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Jacob, Yves; Bourhy, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Lyssaviruses are highly neurotropic viruses associated with neuronal apoptosis. Previous observations have indicated that the matrix proteins (M) of some lyssaviruses induce strong neuronal apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this phenomenon is still unknown. We show that for Mokola virus (MOK), a lyssavirus of low pathogenicity, the M (M-MOK) targets mitochondria, disrupts the mitochondrial morphology, and induces apoptosis. Our analysis of truncated M-MOK mutants suggests that the information required for efficient mitochondrial targeting and dysfunction, as well as caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, is held between residues 46 and 110 of M-MOK. We used a yeast two-hybrid approach, a coimmunoprecipitation assay, and confocal microscopy to demonstrate that M-MOK physically associates with the subunit I of the cytochrome c (cyt-c) oxidase (CcO) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; this is in contrast to the M of the highly pathogenic Thailand lyssavirus (M-THA). M-MOK expression induces a significant decrease in CcO activity, which is not the case with M-THA. M-MOK mutations (K77R and N81E) resulting in a similar sequence to M-THA at positions 77 and 81 annul cyt-c release and apoptosis and restore CcO activity. As expected, the reverse mutations, R77K and E81N, introduced in M-THA induce a phenotype similar to that due to M-MOK. These features indicate a novel mechanism for energy depletion during lyssavirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:18321977

  13. Conservation of a Unique Mechanism of Immune Evasion across the Lyssavirus Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, L.; Larrous, F.; Oksayan, S.; Ito, N.; Marsh, G. A.; Wang, L. F.; Blondel, D.; Bourhy, H.; Jans, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The evasion of host innate immunity by Rabies virus, the prototype of the genus Lyssavirus, depends on a unique mechanism of selective targeting of interferon-activated STAT proteins by the viral phosphoprotein (P-protein). However, the immune evasion strategies of other lyssaviruses, including several lethal human pathogens, are unresolved. Here, we show that this mechanism is conserved between the most distantly related members of the genus, providing important insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targeting of lyssaviruses. PMID:22740405

  14. Conservation of a unique mechanism of immune evasion across the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, L; Larrous, F; Oksayan, S; Ito, N; Marsh, G A; Wang, L F; Blondel, D; Bourhy, H; Jans, D A; Moseley, G W

    2012-09-01

    The evasion of host innate immunity by Rabies virus, the prototype of the genus Lyssavirus, depends on a unique mechanism of selective targeting of interferon-activated STAT proteins by the viral phosphoprotein (P-protein). However, the immune evasion strategies of other lyssaviruses, including several lethal human pathogens, are unresolved. Here, we show that this mechanism is conserved between the most distantly related members of the genus, providing important insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targeting of lyssaviruses.

  15. Rabies virus vaccines: is there a need for a pan-lyssavirus vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer S; Horton, Daniel L; Easton, Andrew J; Fooks, Anthony R; Banyard, Ashley C

    2012-12-14

    All members of the lyssavirus genus are capable of causing disease that invariably results in death following the development of clinical symptoms. The recent detection of several novel lyssavirus species across the globe, in different animal species, has demonstrated that the lyssavirus genus contains a greater degree of genetic and antigenic variation than previously suspected. The divergence of species within the genus has led to a differentiation of lyssavirus isolates based on both antigenic and genetic data into two, and potentially a third phylogroup. Critically, from both a human and animal health perspective, current rabies vaccines appear able to protect against lyssaviruses classified within phylogroup I. However no protection is afforded against phylogroup II viruses or other more divergent viruses. Here we review current knowledge regarding the diversity and antigenicity of the lyssavirus glycoprotein. We review the degree of cross protection afforded by rabies vaccines, the genetic and antigenic divergence of the lyssaviruses and potential mechanisms for the development of novel lyssavirus vaccines for use in areas where divergent lyssaviruses are known to circulate, as well as for use by those at occupational risk from these pathogens. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Yoh; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-07

    Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP) has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney) and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of regulatory T-cells are assumed

  17. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  18. Type 1 Tyrosinaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, MA

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (TYR1, OMIM# 276700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that results from an enzyme defect that leads to a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetase (FAH)1. We present 3 cases of TYR1 in the Irish population over a 9 year period, the only cases known to have been diagnosed in Ireland since 1989. The common presenting symptom was hypoglycaemia and the diagnosis was made by the identification of the pathognomonic biomarker succinylacetone on urine organic acid analysis. We discuss the clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic results including one novel mutation. We also highlight the importance of early initiation of Nitisinone (NTBC), which reduces the complications of TYR1 and the incidence of liver transplantation in this population2.

  19. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  20. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    Full Text Available Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter. In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  1. Rabies virus in a pregnant naturally infected southern yellow bat (Lasiurus ega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SD Allendorf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on bat lyssavirus infections in their native hosts is limited and little is known about the virulence, virus dissemination and transmission among free-living insectivorous bats. The present study is a brief description of rabies virus (RABV dissemination in tissues of a naturally infected pregnant southern yellow bat (Lasiurus ega and its fetuses, obtained by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The RT-PCR was positive in samples from the brain, salivary gland, tongue, lungs, heart, kidneys and liver. On the other hand, the placenta, three fetuses, spleen, intestine and brown fat tissue tested negative. This research demonstrated the absence of rabies virus in the fetuses, thus, in this specific case, the transplacentary transmission was not observed.

  2. Lyssaviruses: special emphasis on rabies virus and other members of the lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Graeme; Fooks, Anthony R

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is routinely diagnosed based on the clinical description and history of exposure in a rabies-endemic country. A negative diagnostic test for rabies virus or a related lyssavirus does not exclude the clinical diagnosis. Diagnostic tests are never optimal and are entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. Often, only a sample from a single time point is investigated reducing the overall sensitivity of any diagnosis. With the advent of molecular biology, tests have been developed that are rapid, robust, and sensitive in support of the rapid detection and strain identification of rabies virus from clinical specimens. These molecular tests complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis, particularly for human cases, for which an early laboratory diagnosis is critical and may decrease the number of unnecessary contacts with the patient, reduce the requirement for invasive and costly interventions, and enable the appropriate medical treatment regimen to be administered for the patient. The barrier to success is in transferring the technology for the latest techniques in rabies diagnosis to rabies-endemic countries. These barriers are not insurmountable and in liaison with international organisations, especially OIE, FAO, and WHO, these diagnostic tests will be validated for rabies diagnosis and surveillance, and implemented in modern and well-equipped diagnostic laboratories throughout the world.

  3. Bat consumption in Thailand

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    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  4. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  5. Rabies surveillance in bats in Northwestern State of São Paulo

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    Daiene Karina Azevedo Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2% of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and the mouse inoculation test (MIT. None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7% had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125 had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125 were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7% was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences.

  6. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized gluco...

  7. Caracterização de amostras do vírus da raiva, isoladas nas regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com anticorpos monoclonais antilissavírus Antigenic characterization of Brazilian rabies virus isolate North and Central West regions of Brazil with anti-lyssavirus monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B.C.R. Batista

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rabies virus antigenic variants in North and Central West regions of Brazil was studied using 61 rabies viruses isolated from different species: 30 from domestic dogs, 20 from cattle, four from horses, two from cats, one from a human and four from unidentified species. The isolates were submitted to antigenic analyses by indirect immunofluorescence with a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs to lyssavirus antigens. Antigenic analyses revealed consistent differences between isolates whose natural hosts were dogs and those of haematophagous bats, often isolated from cattle. Three out of four isolates from horses and one from a domestic dog showed patterns of reactivity found only in viruses of insectivorous bats, indicating that non-haematophagous bats do play a unique role in the transmission of the virus to other species.

  8. Differentiation of the seven major lyssavirus species by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jin; Guo, Huancheng; Feng, Ye; Xu, Yunbin; Shao, Mingfu; Su, Nan; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Jiping; Tu, Changchun

    2012-03-01

    An oligonucleotide microarray, LyssaChip, has been developed and verified as a highly specific diagnostic tool for differentiation of the 7 major lyssavirus species. As with conventional typing microarray methods, the LyssaChip relies on sequence differences in the 371-nucleotide region coding for the nucleoprotein. This region was amplified using nested reverse transcription-PCR primers that bind to the 7 major lyssaviruses. The LyssaChip includes 57 pairs of species typing and corresponding control oligonucleotide probes (oligoprobes) immobilized on glass slides, and it can analyze 12 samples on a single slide within 8 h. Analysis of 111 clinical brain specimens (65 from animals with suspected rabies submitted to the laboratory and 46 of butchered dog brain tissues collected from restaurants) showed that the chip method was 100% sensitive and highly consistent with the "gold standard," a fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The chip method could detect rabies virus in highly decayed brain tissues, whereas the FAT did not, and therefore the chip test may be more applicable to highly decayed brain tissues than the FAT. LyssaChip may provide a convenient and inexpensive alternative for diagnosis and differentiation of rabies and rabies-related diseases.

  9. Analysis of Adaptive Evolution in Lyssavirus Genomes Reveals Pervasive Diversifying Selection during Species Diversification

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    Carolina M. Voloch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lyssavirus is a diverse genus of viruses that infect a variety of mammalian hosts, typically causing encephalitis. The evolution of this lineage, particularly the rabies virus, has been a focus of research because of the extensive occurrence of cross-species transmission, and the distinctive geographical patterns present throughout the diversification of these viruses. Although numerous studies have examined pattern-related questions concerning Lyssavirus evolution, analyses of the evolutionary processes acting on Lyssavirus diversification are scarce. To clarify the relevance of positive natural selection in Lyssavirus diversification, we conducted a comprehensive scan for episodic diversifying selection across all lineages and codon sites of the five coding regions in lyssavirus genomes. Although the genomes of these viruses are generally conserved, the glycoprotein (G, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L and polymerase (P genes were frequently targets of adaptive evolution during the diversification of the genus. Adaptive evolution is particularly manifest in the glycoprotein gene, which was inferred to have experienced the highest density of positively selected codon sites along branches. Substitutions in the L gene were found to be associated with the early diversification of phylogroups. A comparison between the number of positively selected sites inferred along the branches of RABV population branches and Lyssavirus intespecies branches suggested that the occurrence of positive selection was similar on the five coding regions of the genome in both groups.

  10. Analysis of adaptive evolution in Lyssavirus genomes reveals pervasive diversifying selection during species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch, Carolina M; Capellão, Renata T; Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-11-19

    Lyssavirus is a diverse genus of viruses that infect a variety of mammalian hosts, typically causing encephalitis. The evolution of this lineage, particularly the rabies virus, has been a focus of research because of the extensive occurrence of cross-species transmission, and the distinctive geographical patterns present throughout the diversification of these viruses. Although numerous studies have examined pattern-related questions concerning Lyssavirus evolution, analyses of the evolutionary processes acting on Lyssavirus diversification are scarce. To clarify the relevance of positive natural selection in Lyssavirus diversification, we conducted a comprehensive scan for episodic diversifying selection across all lineages and codon sites of the five coding regions in lyssavirus genomes. Although the genomes of these viruses are generally conserved, the glycoprotein (G), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and polymerase (P) genes were frequently targets of adaptive evolution during the diversification of the genus. Adaptive evolution is particularly manifest in the glycoprotein gene, which was inferred to have experienced the highest density of positively selected codon sites along branches. Substitutions in the L gene were found to be associated with the early diversification of phylogroups. A comparison between the number of positively selected sites inferred along the branches of RABV population branches and Lyssavirus intespecies branches suggested that the occurrence of positive selection was similar on the five coding regions of the genome in both groups.

  11. Host Cell Virus Entry Mediated by Australian Bat Lyssavirus Envelope G glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    Richard M. (US), Dzimian, Joyce L. (US), Godwin, Glenn P. (US), Price, Paul J. (US), Epstein, David A. (US), Gruber, Dale (US), Mcclure, Don (US). 2004...of the shedding. Microbiol Immunol 49:733-43 258. Thoulouze MI, Lafage M, Schachner M, Hartmann U, Cremer H, Lafon M. 1998. The neural cell adhesion

  12. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  13. A Study of the Fruit Bat (Rousettus sp Brain Anatomy as Natural Reservoir Wild Animal for the Rabies Virus

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    Karina Mayang Sari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rousettus sp. (Fruit bat is one type of fruit bats in Indonesia and act as a natural reservoir of rabies. Rabies is caused by a virus from genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae, which attack central nervous system (CNS.The brain is an organ that is sensitive to rabies infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomical structure of the fruit bat brain macroscopically. Five fruit bat were used in this study, they were anaesthetized using ketamine and xylazin. Animals were perfused using physiological saline and 10% buffered formalin. Brains were taken using tweezers after all the bones of the skull were separated. Analysis of macroscopic brain was done descriptively. The results showed that the fruit bat brain were generally divided into cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Gyrus, sulcus and the paraflokulus lobes of the fruit bat brain were less developed than that of the dogs brain.

  14. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  15. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Condori Condori, Rene Edgar; Gigante, Crystal M; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Xiaoyue; Ellison, James A; Greenberg, Lauren; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Orciari, Lillian; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high

  16. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses

  17. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... elements: blood glucose control and insulin management, exercise, nutrition and support. Medication A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes means ... crucial part of your daily routine. Learn more: Nutrition How foods ... meal plans Support Emotional support, while not often initially considered, plays ...

  18. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! Rabies Learning about bats and rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most bats ... might contact people and pets. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies in humans is ...

  19. Innate Immune Responses of Bat and Human Cells to Filoviruses: Commonalities and Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Schwarz, Toni M; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Jordan, Ingo; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Basler, Christopher F; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) viruses are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural reservoir of MARV is the Egyptian rousette bat ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ); that of EBOV is unknown but believed to be another bat species. The Egyptian rousette develops subclinical productive infection with MARV but is refractory to EBOV. Interaction of filoviruses with hosts is greatly affected by the viral interferon (IFN)-inhibiting domains (IID). Our study was aimed at characterization of innate immune responses to filoviruses and the role of filovirus IID in bat and human cells. The study demonstrated that EBOV and MARV replicate to similar levels in all tested cell lines, indicating that permissiveness for EBOV at cell and organism levels do not necessarily correlate. Filoviruses, particularly MARV, induced a potent innate immune response in rousette cells, which was generally stronger than that in human cells. Both EBOV VP35 and VP24 IID were found to suppress the innate immune response in rousette cells, but only VP35 IID appeared to promote virus replication. Along with IFN-α and IFN-β, IFN-γ was demonstrated to control filovirus infection in bat cells but not in human cells, suggesting host species specificity of the antiviral effect. The antiviral effects of bat IFNs appeared not to correlate with induction of IFN-stimulated genes 54 and 56, which were detected in human cells ectopically expressing bat IFN-α and IFN-β. As bat IFN-γ induced the type I IFN pathway, its antiviral effect is likely to be partially induced via cross talk. IMPORTANCE Bats serve as reservoirs for multiple emerging viruses, including filoviruses, henipaviruses, lyssaviruses, and zoonotic coronaviruses. Although there is no evidence for symptomatic disease caused by either Marburg or Ebola viruses in bats, spillover of these viruses into human populations causes deadly outbreaks. The reason for the lack of symptomatic disease in bats infected with

  20. Barn og diabetes type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Marte Elise; Sagbakken, Sina Bekkelund

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave sykepleie, 2017 Bakgrunn: Vi har valgt denne problemstillingen fordi diabetes type 1 er svært utbredt hos barn i Norge. Videre har vi lite erfaringer med barn og ønsket å lære mer om denne pasientgruppen. Vi ønsket videre å se på hvordan vi kan undervise og veilede for å gi god og hensiktsmessig sykepleie til barn og deres familier. Hensikt: Finne ut hvordan sykepleier kan fremme egenomsorg hos barn med diabetes gjennom veiledning og undervisning. Dette er noe som sykepl...

  1. Henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of African fruit bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J Peel

    Full Text Available Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the

  2. Bat Predation by Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

  3. Bat predation by spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (≈ 90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed.

  4. Bat biology, genomes, and the Bat1K project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2018-01-01

    and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any...

  5. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.

  6. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-08

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.  Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/17/2006.

  7. What causes type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T...... T cell reaction and less autoimmunity. Glycolipids presented by CD1 molecules are central in this stimulation. (4) Importance of the intestine and gliadin intake: Gluten-free diet dramatically inhibits T1D in animal models, and epidemiological data are supportive of such an effect in humans....... The mechanisms include less subclinical intestinal inflammation and permeability, and changed composition of bacterial flora, which can also be obtained by intake of probiotics. Gluten-free diet is difficult to implement, and short-term intake has no effect. Regarding the onset of the T1D disease process, slow...

  8. Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection of Lyssavirus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deubelbeiss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The causative agents of rabies are single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses in the genus Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae, consisting of twelve classified and three as yet unclassified species including classical rabies virus (RABV. Highly neurotropic RABV causes rapidly progressive encephalomyelitis with nearly invariable fatal outcome. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of rabies is highly relevant for public and veterinary health. Due to growing variety of the genus Lyssavirus observed, the development of suitable molecular assays for diagnosis and differentiation is challenging. This work focused on the establishment of a suitable real-time RT-PCR technique for rabies diagnosis as a complement to fluorescent antibody test and rabies tissue culture infection test as gold standard for diagnosis and confirmation. The real-time RT-PCR was adapted with the goal to detect the whole spectrum of lyssavirus species, for nine of which synthesized DNA fragments were used. For the detection of species, seven probes were developed. Serial dilutions of the rabies virus strain CVS-11 showed a 100-fold higher sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to heminested RT-PCR. Using a panel of thirty-one lyssaviruses representing four species, the suitability of the protocol could be shown. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained by heminested PCR allowed correct classification of all viruses used.

  9. Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richard K. B. Jenkins and Paul A. Racey

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable hunting practices and high offtake represent a serious threat to bat populations in some areas. Bat bushmeat may be an important source of protein for Malagasy people during ...

  10. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V Kuzmin

    Full Text Available In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. Although it is generally accepted that RABV evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. Outbreaks in carnivores caused by a RABV variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2009 in the Flagstaff area of Arizona. After each outbreak, extensive control campaigns were undertaken, with no reports of further rabies cases in carnivores for the next several years. However, questions remained whether all outbreaks were caused by a single introduction and further perpetuation of bat RABV in carnivore populations, or each outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of a bat virus. Another question of concern was related to adaptive changes in the RABV genome associated with host shifts. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 66 complete and 20 nearly complete RABV genomes, including those from the Flagstaff area and other similar outbreaks in carnivores, caused by bat RABVs, and representatives of the major RABV lineages circulating in North America and worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that each Flagstaff outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of bat RABV into populations of carnivores. Positive selection analysis confirmed the absence of post-shift changes in RABV genes. In contrast, convergent evolution analysis demonstrated several amino acids in the N, P, G and L proteins, which might be significant for pre-adaptation of bat viruses to cause effective infection in carnivores. The substitution S/T₂₄₂ in the viral glycoprotein is of particular merit, as a similar substitution was suggested for pathogenicity of Nishigahara RABV strain. Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our

  11. Reversal of Type 1 Diabetes in Mice by Brown Adipose Tissue Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or transplantation of insulin-secreting tissue, both of which suffer from numerous limitations and complications. Here, we show that subcutaneous transplants of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) can correct T1D in streptozotocin-treated mice (both immune competent and immune deficient) with severely impaired glucose tolerance and significant loss of adipose tissue. BAT transplants result in euglycemia, normalized glucose tolerance, reduced tissue inflammation, and reversal of clinical diabetes markers such as polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. These effects are independent of insulin but correlate with recovery of the animals’ white adipose tissue. BAT transplants lead to significant increases in adiponectin and leptin, but with levels that are static and not responsive to glucose. Pharmacological blockade of the insulin receptor in BAT transplant mice leads to impaired glucose tolerance, similar to what is seen in nondiabetic animals, indicating that insulin receptor activity plays a role in the reversal of diabetes. One possible candidate for activating the insulin receptor is IGF-1, whose levels are also significantly elevated in BAT transplant mice. Thus, we propose that the combined action of multiple adipokines establishes a new equilibrium in the animal that allows for chronic glycemic control without insulin. PMID:22315305

  12. Disease: H00378 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00378 Lyssavirus infection; Rabies-related virus infection Lyssaviruses are a gro...up of viruses that includes rabies virus and other rabies-related bat lyssaviruses. Rabies-related lyssaviru...23] European bat lyssavirus 1 [GN:T40024] European bat lyssavirus 2 [GN:T40025] ... Rabies vaccine [DR:D06504] Rabies

  13. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  14. Indiana Bat (Towns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...

  15. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... currently known to carry bat flu are not native to the continental United States, but are common ... by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend ...

  16. Sperm competition in bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosken, D J

    1997-01-01

    Sperm competition is a widespread phenomenon influencing the evolution of male anatomy, physiology and behaviour. Bats are an ideal group for studying sperm competition. Females store fertile sperm for up to 200 days and the size of social groups varies from single animals to groups of hundreds of thousands. This study examines the relationship between social group size and investment in spermatogenesis across 31 species of microchiropteran bat using new and published data on testis mass and ...

  17. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  18. Social communication in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2018-05-15

    Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories. However, while the study of communication in bats is rapidly growing, it still lags behind other taxa. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of communication in bats, from the reasons why they communicate to the diversity and application of different signal modalities. The most widespread form of communication is the transmission of a signaller's characteristics, such as species identity, sex, individual identity, group membership, social status and body condition, and because many species of bats can rely little on vision due to their nocturnal lifestyles, it is assumed that sound and olfaction are particularly important signalling modes. For example, research suggests that secretions from specialized glands, often in combination with urine and saliva, are responsible for species recognition in several species. These olfactory signals may also convey information about sex and colony membership. Olfaction may be used in combination with sound, particularly in species that emit constant frequency (CF) echolocation calls, to recognize conspecifics from heterospecifics, yet their simple structure and high frequency do not allow much information of individual identity to be conveyed over long distances. By contrast, social calls may encode a larger number of cues of individual identity, and their lower frequencies increase their range of detection. Social

  19. A DNA Logic Gate Automaton for Detection of Rabies and Other Lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Macdonald, Joanne

    2017-07-05

    Immediate activation of biosensors is not always desirable, particularly if activation is due to non-specific interactions. Here we demonstrate the use of deoxyribozyme-based logic gate networks arranged into visual displays to precisely control activation of biosensors, and demonstrate a prototype molecular automaton able to discriminate between seven different genotypes of Lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus. The device uses novel mixed-base logic gates to enable detection of the large diversity of Lyssavirus sequence populations, while an ANDNOT logic gate prevents non-specific activation across genotypes. The resultant device provides a user-friendly digital-like, but molecule-powered, dot-matrix text output for unequivocal results read-out that is highly relevant for point of care applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12

  1. Parasites of parasites of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P.; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D.; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J.; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W.; Pfister, Donald H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own

  2. Autoimmune Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambigapathy, Jayakumar; Sahoo, Jayaprakash; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar

    2017-07-15

    Antibodies against exogenous insulin are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. They can cause hypoglycemia, albeit uncommonly. A 14-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with recurrent hypoglycemia. High insulin, low C-peptide and raised insulin antibody levels documented during hypoglycemia. Plasmapheresis led to remission of hypoglycemia. Antibodies to exogenous insulin should be considered as a cause of recurrent refractory hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Type 1 Diabetes and Interferon Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Kan; Kawasaki, Eiji; Imagawa, Akihisa; Awata, Takuya; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Uchigata, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Shimada, Akira; Nakanishi, Koji; Makino, Hideichi; Maruyama, Taro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Interferon therapy can trigger induction of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. To assess the clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of type 1 diabetes induced by interferon therapy, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Clinical characteristics, anti-islet autoantibodies, and HLA-DR typing were examined in 91 patients for whom type 1 diabetes developed during or shortly after interferon therapy. RESULTS Median ...

  4. Eating disorders in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    There is some debate in the literature as to whether there is an increased risk of developing eating disorders in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review located 12 empirical studies of eating pathology in females with type 1 diabetes. Review of these papers indicates...... that there is no evidence for an increase in the rates of anorexia or bulimia, in females with type 1 diabetes. However, the data do suggest that eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are more prevalent in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Key features of these articles are reviewed and discussed....

  5. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dacheux

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR. The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135 including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5% and saliva (54% samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco. This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for

  6. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  7. Relapsing/remitting type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Megen, Kayleigh M.; Spindler, Matthew P.; Keij, Fleur M.; Bosch, Ineke; Sprangers, Fleur; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Nikolic, Tatjana; Roep, Bart O.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Type 1 diabetes is believed to be an autoimmune disease associated with irreversible loss of insulin secretory function that follows a chronic progressive course. However, it has been speculated that relapsing/remitting disease progression may occur in type 1 diabetes. Methods: We

  8. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth / For Parents / Type 1 ... español Diabetes tipo 1: ¿Qué es? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  9. Functional Interaction Map of Lyssavirus Phosphoprotein: Identification of the Minimal Transcription Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Yves; Real, Eléonore; Tordo, Noël

    2001-01-01

    Lyssaviruses, the causative agents of rabies encephalitis, are distributed in seven genotypes. The phylogenetically distant rabies virus (PV strain, genotype 1) and Mokola virus (genotype 3) were used to develop a strategy to identify functional homologous interactive domains from two proteins (P and N) which participate in the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) transcription-replication complex. This strategy combined two-hybrid and green fluorescent protein–reverse two-hybrid assays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze protein-protein interactions and a reverse genetic assay in mammalian cells to study the transcriptional activity of the reconstituted RNP complex. Lyssavirus P proteins contain two N-binding domains (N-BDs), a strong one encompassing amino acid (aa) 176 to the C terminus and a weak one in the 189 N-terminal aa. The N-terminal portion of P (aa 52 to 189) also contains a homomultimerization site. Here we demonstrate that N-P interactions, although weaker, are maintained between proteins of the different genotypes. A minimal transcriptional module of the P protein was obtained by fusing the first 60 N-terminal aa containing the L protein binding site to the C-terminal strong N-BD. Random mutation of the strong N-BD on P protein identified three highly conserved K residues crucial for N-P interaction. Their mutagenesis in full-length P induced a transcriptionally defective RNP. The analysis of homologous interactive domains presented here and previously reported dissections of the P protein allowed us to propose a model of the functional interaction network of the lyssavirus P protein. This model underscores the central role of P at the interface between L protein and N-RNA template. PMID:11559793

  10. The status of BAT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  11. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for detection of African lyssaviruses from brain material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Markotter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid immunodiagnostic test kit was evaluated against a selection of isolates of lyssavirus genotypes occurring in Africa. The test was carried out in parallel comparison with the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and isolates representing previously established phylogenetic groups from each genotype were included. The specificity of the rapid immunodiagnostic test compared favourably with the FAT and was found to detect all representatives of genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in brain samples of either field cases or suckling mouse brain inoculates.

  12. Maculopathy and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebranchu, Pierre; Le Meur, Guylène; Magot, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia is a rare heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by cerebellar symptoms, often associated with other multisystemic signs. Mild optic neuropathy has been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), but macular dysfunction has been reported...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan 4. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central van Belle TL, Coppieters KT, von Herrath MG. Type 1 diabetes: etiology, immunology, and therapeutic strategies. Physiol Rev. 2011 Jan;91( ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: distal arthrogryposis type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 is a disorder characterized by joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement in the hands and feet. ... distal arthrogryposis type 1 . However, researchers speculate that contractures may be related to problems with muscle contraction ...

  15. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed A AboElAsrar

    2012-05-05

    May 5, 2012 ... in type 1 diabetes mellitus: Relationship to microvascular complications ... b Pediatric Molecular Genetics Department, Ankara University, Turkey. Received 15 .... Patients with diabetic nephropathy were classified into two.

  16. Liraglutide for treating type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many persons with type 1 diabetes do not achieve glycemic targets, why new treatments, complementary to insulin, are of interest. Liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist could be a potential pharmacological supplement to insulin. This review discusses...... the mechanism of actions, efficacy and safety of liraglutide as add-on to insulin in persons with type 1 diabetes. AREAS COVERED: Physiological and clinical data on liraglutide in type 1 diabetes were reviewed. We searched the Cochrane library, MEDLINE and EMBASE, with the final search performed February 16...... there was no clinically relevant effect on HbA1c. Adverse events were mostly transient gastrointestinal side effects, primarily nausea. Based on the available data, liraglutide cannot be recommended as add-on therapy to insulin in persons with type 1 diabetes with the aim to improve glycemic control. Ongoing trials...

  17. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    to other autoimmune diseases, the etiology of T1D remains obscure but ..... T1D, type 1 diabetes; AIT, autoimmune thyroiditis; CD, celiac disease; AD, Addison's disease. Table 5. .... (GAD65Ab) in prediabetic adults developing diabetes.

  18. [Hemoparasites of bats in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanga, V; Ariey, F; Cardiff, S G; Goodman, S M; Tall, A; Rousset, D; Robert, V

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in wild malagasy bats. Among the 440 bats, belonging to 14 species sampled in 5 localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 93 (21%) showed at least 1 haemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Haemoproteidae (15.7% of 440 bats), microfilariae (7.0%) and Trypanosoma (0.7%). Among these 93 bats, 92 (99%) belonged to the family Vespertilionidae. Four bat species, all endemic to the Madagascar region (Madagascar and Comoros), were found to harbour parasites: Miniopterus manavi with Haemoproteidae (38% of 129 individuals), microfilariae (23%) and Trypanosoma (2%); Myotis goudoti with Haemoproteidae (24% of 68 individuals) and microfilariae (1%); Miniopterus gleni with Haemoproteidae (23% of 13 individuals); and Triaenops furculus with Haemoproteidae (4% of 28 individuals). The sex of bats was not linked to parasite prevalence. Within Miniopterus manavi, those individuals with greater weight also had a higher prevalence of microfilariae; and within the individuals harbouring microfilariae the greatest weights corresponded to the highest density of microfilariae. Ten bat species (with 202 individuals examined) were negative for any haemoparasite. This study is the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Malagasy bats; it provides interesting insights, especially concerning the parasite distribution per bat species and families, the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by arthropod vectors.

  19. A simple sandwich ELISA (WELYSSA) for the detection of lyssavirus nucleocapsid in rabies suspected specimens using mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gelin; Weber, Patrick; Hu, Qiaoling; Xue, Honggang; Audry, Laurent; Li, Chengping; Wu, Jie; Bourhy, Herve

    2007-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for the diagnosis of rabies-suspect specimens. A combination of four mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the rabies virus nucleocapsid was selected and used for the detection. The test was optimized and standardized so that maximum concordance could be maintained with the standard procedures of rabies diagnosis recommended by the WHO expert committee. Using prototype viruses from the different genotypes of lyssavirus and from various geographic origins and phylogenetic lineages, this paper presents a reliable, rapid and transferable diagnostic method, named WELYSSA that readily permits the detection of lyssaviruses belonging to the 7 genotypes of lyssavirus circulating in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The threshold of detection of lyssavirus nucleocapsids is low (0.8 ng/ml). With a panel of 1030 specimens received for rabies diagnostic testing, this test was found to be highly specific (0.999) and sensitive (0.970) when compared to other recommended rabies diagnostic methods.

  20. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  1. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  2. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  3. Bats and bat habitats : guidelines for wind power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Bat mortality has been documented at wind power projects in a number of habitats across North America. Wind power projects in Ontario have reported annual estimates ranging from 4 to 14 bat mortalities per turbine per year. This document presented guidance on identifying and addressing potential negative effects on bats and bat habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects in Ontario. The guidelines supported the Ministry of Environment's renewable energy approval regulation and applied on both Crown and privately-owned land. The document presented the regulatory framework and discussed the assessment process for bats and bat habitats. This process included project site; records review; site investigation; and evaluation of significance. Other topics that were presented included an environmental impact study and an environmental effects monitoring plan such as post construction monitoring and post construction mitigation. Several appendices were also included regarding the potential effects of wind power project on bats; best management practices; methods for evaluating bat wildlife habitat; and post construction monitoring methods. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 appendices.

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  5. Two Overlapping Domains of a Lyssavirus Matrix Protein That Acts on Different Cell Death Pathways ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control. PMID:20631119

  6. Two overlapping domains of a lyssavirus matrix protein that acts on different cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-10-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control.

  7. Should Type 1 diabetics fast in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Fauzia; Azad, Kishwar; Zabeen, Bedowra; Tayyeb, Samin; Baki, Abdul; Nahar, Nazmun

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. This involves abstaining from eating or drinking from early dawn (Suhur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar).Fasting is not meant to create excessive hardships or impart any adverse effect to the Muslim individual. As such, Islam has exempted certain categories of people from fasting including young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly,and pregnant and lactating women. According to expert opinion, people with type 1 diabetes who fast during Ramadan are at very high risk of metabolic deterioration. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that individuals with type 1 diabetes who are otherwise healthy and stable, can fast during Ramadan provided they comply with the Ramadan focused management plan and are under close professional supervision. This article discusses how to assess, counsel, monitor and manage people with type 1 diabetes who wish to fast during Ramadan.

  8. Distal technologies and type 1 diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Danny C; Barry, Samantha; Wagner, David V; Speight, Jane; Choudhary, Pratik; Harris, Michael A

    2018-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes requires intensive self-management to avoid acute and long-term health complications. In the past two decades, substantial advances in technology have enabled more effective and convenient self-management of type 1 diabetes. Although proximal technologies (eg, insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors, closed-loop and artificial pancreas systems) have been the subject of frequent systematic and narrative reviews, distal technologies have received scant attention. Distal technologies refer to electronic systems designed to provide a service remotely and include heterogeneous systems such as telehealth, mobile health applications, game-based support, social platforms, and patient portals. In this Review, we summarise the empirical literature to provide current information about the effectiveness of available distal technologies to improve type 1 diabetes management. We also discuss privacy, ethics, and regulatory considerations, issues of global adoption, knowledge gaps in distal technology, and recommendations for future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurofibromatosis type 1: clinical and radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Marcos Pontes; Souza, Antonio Soares; Bertelli, Erika Cristina Pavarino; Bertollo, Eny Maria Goloni

    2006-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disease with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3,000 people, characterized mainly by systemic and progressive involvement, manifesting by physical deformity and compromising of neurological functions. The diagnosis of the neurofibromatosis type 1 must be performed the earliest possible through clinical exams and familiar history. The use of imaging diagnosis as radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up of patients and control of lesions, preventing complications. In this study we describe the clinical and radiological aspects of the neurofibromatosis type 1, considering clinical features, genetics, bone alterations in chest, vertebral column, upper and lower limbs, and craniofacial abnormalities. (author)

  10. Automated Acoustic Identification of Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    long-nosed bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Maca California leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus californicus Myca California myotis, M. californicus Myci western...californicus ( Maca ) Nyctinomops femorosaccus (Nyfe) Leptonycteris yerbabuenae (Leye) N. macrotis (Nyma) Lasiurus blossevillii (Labl) / L. borealis (Labo...Myve Myar Chme Maca Maca Maca Leye Leye Pahe Pahe Pahe Pahe Labl Labl Labl Labl Laxa Laxa Laxa Myev Myev Anpa

  11. The aural anatomy of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pye, Ade

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the

  12. Learning Disabilities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of specific leaning disabilities (SLD in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 was determined in a cohort of 81 patients (43 males, 38 females; mean age 11 years 6 months; age range 8-16 followed at Children's Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

  13. Outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Moelsted-Pedersen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This nationwide prospective multicenter study took place in eight Danish centers treating pregnant women with type 1 diabetes during 1993...... mortality rate was 3.1% in type 1 diabetic pregnancies compared with 0.75% in the background population (RR 4.1 [95% CI 2.9-5.6]), and the stillbirth rate was 2.1% compared with 0.45 (4.7 [3.2-7.0]). The congenital malformation rate was 5.0% in the study population and 2.8% (1.7 [1.3-2.2]) in the background......, daily self-monitoring was associated with a reduction in serious adverse outcomes. The caesarean section rate was 55.9 and 12.6%, respectively, and the risk of preterm delivery was 41.7 and 6.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Type 1 diabetic pregnancies are still complicated by considerably higher rates...

  14. Mouse adenovirus type 1 infection of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.L.; Welton, A.R.; Harwood, K.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Spindler, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus.

  15. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zpast studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.

  16. Premarriage counseling in Type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Priya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is a challenging illness and needs lifelong diabetes self-care. At the same time, there is a significant stigma associated with it, especially with relation to marriage. There are concerns related to premarriage disclosure, marital relationship, ability to procreate, risk during pregnancy in women, and the risk of disease in children. In this document, we discuss the issue of disease-related stigma which may become a significant challenge for a prospective spouse and the impact of type 1 diabetes on marital relationships and procreation. We also highlight the need for premarriage counseling to ensure long-term success in achieving both individual and interpersonal well-being.

  17. Reporting Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe potential factors influencing reporting of severe hypoglycemia in adult patients with type 1 diabetes and to analyze their effect on reported rates of severe hypoglycemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Reported rates of severe hypoglycemia defined as need for third party...... by partners report higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. There is a large variation between studies reporting incidence and prevalence of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes, mainly explained by definition of severity, methods of reporting, and patient selection. These findings call...... hypoglycemia are 0.02-0.5 events per patient-year and 1-29%, respectively. When subjects with recurrent severe hypoglycemia in the past or suffering from impaired hypoglycemia awareness are excluded from participation in studies, lower rates are reported. Studies applying anonymous reporting or reporting...

  18. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one...... is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one...... of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis....

  19. Metformin in adults with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Chaturvedi, Nish; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of reduced life expectancy in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive insulin therapy prevents CV complications but is constrained by hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Adjunct metformin reduces insulin dose requirement and stabilizes weight...... but there are no data on its cardiovascular effects. We have therefore initiated an international double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (REMOVAL: REducing with MetfOrmin Vascular Adverse Lesions in type 1 diabetes) to examine whether metformin reduces progression of atherosclerosis in adults with T1D....... Individuals ≥40 years of age with T1D for ≥5 years are eligible if they have ≥3 of 10 specified CV risk factors. The enrolment target is 500 participants in 17 international centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After 12 weeks of single-blind placebo-controlled run-in, participants with ≥ 70% adherence...

  20. Diabetes in young: Beyond type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Virmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although majority of diabetes in children is type1 diabetes, childhood type2 diabetes prevalence is rapidly increasing due to changing lifestyle. Most patients can be definitely grouped into either of the two but some present diagnostic difficulty due to overlapping and non specific clinical features and laboratory findings. MODY and several other diseases affecting the pancreas also result in childhood diabetes. Treatment of diabetes in children presents unique challenges and primary prevention is of prime importance.

  1. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  2. Exploring diabetes type 1-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Samereh; Abazari, Parvaneh; Mardanian, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Empowerment of people with diabetes means integrating diabetes with identity. However, others' stigmatization can influence it. Although diabetes is so prevalent among Iranians, there is little knowledge about diabetes-related stigma in Iran. The present study explored diabetes-related stigma in people living with type 1 diabetes in Isfahan. A conventional content analysis was used with in-depth interview with 26 people with and without diabetes from November 2011 to July 2012. A person with type 1 diabetes was stigmatized as a miserable human (always sick and unable, death reminder, and intolerable burden), rejected marriage candidate (busy spouse, high-risk pregnant), and deprived of a normal life [prisoner of (to must), deprived of pleasure]. Although, young adults with diabetes undergo all aspects of the social diabetes-related stigma; in their opinion they were just deprived of a normal life. It seems that in Isfahan, diabetes-related stigma is of great importance. In this way, conducting an appropriate intervention is necessary to improve the empowerment process in people with type 1 diabetes in order to reduce the stigma in the context.

  3. Report of isolations of unusual lyssaviruses (rabies and Mokola virus identified retrospectively from Zimbabwe : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bingham

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rabies isolates that had been stored between 1983 and 1997 were examined with a panel of anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Out of 56 isolates from cats and various wild carnivore species, 1 isolate of Mokola virus and 5 other non-typical rabies viruses were identified. The Mokola virus isolate was diagnosed as rabies in 1993 from a cat. Genetic analysis of this isolate suggests that it falls in a distinct subgroup of the Mokola virus genotype. The 5 non-typical rabies viruses were isolated from honey badgers (Mellivora capensis, African civets (Civettictis civetta and an unidentified mongoose (Herpestidae. These isolates are representatives of rarely-reported wildlife-associated strains of rabies, probably maintained by the slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea. These findings indicate that both Mokola virus and the mongoose-associated variant may be more common in Zimbabwe than is apparent from routine surveillance.

  4. Aeromechanics of Highly Maneuverable Bats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swartz, S. M; Breuer, K. S

    2008-01-01

    Bats fly with astounding agility, maneuverability and efficiency. Their flight mechanics are completely different from those of insects and birds and characterized by several unique aeromechanical features including: (1...

  5. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  6. Human-Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.

  7. Teleconsultation in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TELEDIABE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Stefani, Ilario; Rivolta, Benedetta; Pintaudi, Basilio; Meneghini, Elena; Luzi, Livio; Mazzone, Antonino

    2018-02-01

    The growing incidence of diabetes and the need to contain healthcare costs empower the necessity to identify new models of care. Telemedicine offers an acknowledged instrument to provide clinical health care at a distance, increasing patient compliance and the achievement of therapeutical goals. The objective was to test the feasibility and the efficacy in the improvement of the glycemic control of the teleconsultation for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A randomized open-label, parallel arms, controlled trial was conducted in two diabetes centers in Italy. Participants affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus have been randomly (1:1) assigned to receive their visits as standard or a web-based care. Patients in the teleconsultation group can arrange their appointments on a Web site and can also have access to web educational courses or to nutritional and psychological counseling. The primary outcome was the assessment of glycemic control by HbA1c measurement after a 12-month follow-up. Overall 74 participants were followed for 1 year. HbA1c changes were not statistically different within (p = 0.56 for standard care group; p = 0.45 for telemedicine group) and between (p = 0.60) groups when considering differences from baseline to the end of the study. Patients randomized to teleconsultation reported reduced severe hypoglycemic episodes (p = 0.03). In addition, they were largely satisfied with the activities, perceived a good improvement in the self-management of the diabetes, and reported to have a time saving and a cost reduction. In conclusion, TELEDIABE proposes a new system for the management of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Setting research priorities for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, R; Snow, R; Daly, A C; Crowe, S; Matyka, K; Hall, B; Petrie, J

    2012-10-01

    Research priorities are often set by academic researchers or the pharmaceutical industry. The interests of patients, carers and clinicians may therefore be overlooked and research questions that matter may be neglected. The aims of this study were to collect uncertainties about the treatment of Type 1 diabetes from patients, carers and health professionals, and to collate and prioritize these uncertainties to develop a top 10 list of research priorities, using a structured priority-setting partnership of patients, carers, health professionals and diabetes organizations, as described by the James Lind Alliance. A partnership of interested organizations was set up, and from this a steering committee of 10 individuals was formed. An online and paper survey was used to identify uncertainties. These were collated, and the steering group carried out an interim priority-setting exercise with partner organizations. This group of uncertainties was then voted on to give a smaller list that went forward to the final priority-setting workshop. At this meeting, a final list of the top 10 research priorities was agreed. An initial 1141 uncertainties were described. These were reduced to 88 indicative questions, 47 of which went out for voting. Twenty-four were then taken forward to a final priority-setting workshop. This workshop resulted in a list of top 10 research priorities in Type 1 diabetes. We have shown that it is possible using the James Lind Alliance process to develop an agreed top 10 list of research priorities for Type 1 diabetes from health professionals, patients and carers. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  9. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Insulinbehandling af voksne med type 1-diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Whereas insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes formerly was limited by the availability of one or a few types of insulin with suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties, insulin analogues with more fitting physiological action profiles have now been developed and ultimately near-physiological insulin...... treatment can be delivered with insulin pumps. Adjustments of insulin dosing can be rationally based on dosing algorithms. This requires frequent glucose measurements and knowledge about dietary carbohydrate content. Today, the treatment and its complexity are individualized according to needs and wishes...

  12. Insulinbehandling af voksne med type 1-diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Whereas insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes formerly was limited by the availability of one or a few types of insulin with suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties, insulin analogues with more fitting physiological action profiles have now been developed and ultimately near-physiological insulin...... treatment can be delivered with insulin pumps. Adjustments of insulin dosing can be rationally based on dosing algorithms. This requires frequent glucose measurements and knowledge about dietary carbohydrate content. Today, the treatment and its complexity are individualized according to needs and wishes...... of the patient....

  13. Therapeutic perspectives in type-1 diabetes

    CERN Document Server

    SINGH, PRACHI; TUPALLY, KARNAKER R; PODDAR, KINGSHUK; Tan, Aaron; VENKATESAN, VENKY; PAREKH, HARENDRA S; PASTORIN, GIORGIA

    2016-01-01

    This book provides critical insights into and appraisals of recent breakthroughs in type 1 diabetes modulation, with a particular emphasis on the potential impact of current prevention and treatment strategies. It also discusses recent successes and failures in clinical trials. Presenting an comprehensive overview of the disease, it is especially useful for newcomers in the field. It also includes illustrations, which make it easy for the reader to grasp the basic concepts involved. Furthermore, the tables include concise and easy-to-understand information on current clinical trials.

  14. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  15. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Molloy, P.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Phillips, P.C.; Vaughan, S.N.; Liu, G.T.; Sutton, L.N.; Needle, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  18. The Kinetics of Swinging a Baseball Bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.

  19. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Fang

    Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  20. Immune intervention in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results in the specific immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells. Currently there is no cure for T1D and treatment for the disease consists of lifelong administration of insulin. Immunotherapies aimed at preventing beta cell destruction in T1D patients with residual c-peptide or in individuals developing T1D are being evaluated. Networks of researchers such as TrialNet and the Immune Tolerance Network in the U.S. and similar networks in Europe have been established to evaluate such immunotherapies. This review focuses on immune intervention for the prevention and amelioration of human T1D with a focus on potential immune suppressive, antigen specific and environmental therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Catherine Muze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups.

  2. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Steven; Johnson, Aaron; Pearson, Waylon

    2016-06-16

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1) is an uncommon cause of microcephaly and intrauterine growth retardation in a newborn. Early identifying features include but are not limited to sloping forehead, micrognathia, sparse hair, including of eyebrows and short limbs. Immediate radiological findings may include partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, interhemispheric cyst and shallow acetabula leading to dislocation. Genetic testing displaying a mutation in RNU4ATAC gene is necessary for definitive diagnosis. Early identification is important as MOPD1 is an autosomal recessive condition and could present in subsequent pregnancies. The purpose of this case is to both identify and describe some common physical findings related to MOPD1. We present a case of MOPD1 in a girl born to non-consanguineous parents that was distinct for subglottic stenosis and laryngeal cleft. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Research progress of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-wei ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 is a kind of autosomal dominant genetic neurodegenerative disorder. To date, the pathogenesis of SCA1 remains unclear. Studies in numerous SCA1 experimental models, including transgenic mice, transgenic drosophila and induced pluripotent stem cells, have shown that phosphorylation of S776 in mutant ataxin-1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin-proteasome system and down-regulation of several components of RAS-MAPK-MSK1 pathway may involve in the pathogenesis of SCA1. In this review, the clinical and pathological features of SCA1, and the latest advances of pathogenesis, model systems and therapeutic exploration will be briefly summarized. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.017

  4. Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.M.; Westergaard, T.; Frisch, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS) contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. Although HLA patterns of T1D and MS are considered mutually exclusive, individual and familial co-occurrence of the 2 diseases has been reported...... Multiple Sclerosis Register were used to identify patients with T1D, defined as patients in whom diabetes was diagnosed before age 20 years (N = 6078), and patients with MS (N = 11 862). First-degree relatives (N = 14,771) of patients with MS were identified from family information in the Danish Civil....... OBJECTIVE: To assess the co-occurrence of T1D and MS by estimating the risk for MS in patients with T1D and the risk for T1D in first-degree relatives of patients with MS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two population-based disease registers, the Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish...

  5. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  6. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. DIVERSITY OF THE TYPE 1 INTRON-ITS REGION OF THE 18S rRNA GENE IN PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS SPECIES FROM THE RED HILLS OF KANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Crupper, Scott S

    2016-09-01

    Gypsum caves found throughout the Red Hills of Kansas have the state's most diverse and largest population of cave-roosting bats. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which threatens all temperate bat species, has not been previously detected in the gypsum caves as this disease moves westward from the eastern United States. Cave soil was obtained from the gypsum caves, and using the polymerase chain reaction, a 624-nucleotide DNA fragment specific to the Type 1 intron-internal transcribed spacer region of the 18S rRNA gene from Pseudogymnoascus species was amplified. Subsequent cloning and DNA sequencing indicated P. destructans DNA was present, along with 26 uncharacterized Pseudogymnoascus DNA variants. However, no evidence of WNS was observed in bat populations residing in these caves.

  8. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  9. Coccidioides posadasii infection in bats, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

  10. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.

  11. How the bat got its buzz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats impli...

  12. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  13. Type 1 diabetes guidelines: Are they enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Abdul Zargar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of insulin by Banting and Best in 1922 changed the landscape of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Guidelines on T1DM should be evidence based and should emphasize comprehensive risk management. Guidelines would improve awareness amongst governments, state health care providers and the general public about the serious long-term implications of poorly managed diabetes and of the essential resources needed for optimal care. T1DM requires lifelong daily medication, regular control as well as access to facilities to manage acute and chronic complications. American Diabetes Association 2014 guidelines recommends annual nephropathy screening for albumin levels; random spot urine sample for albumin-to-creatinine ratio at start of puberty or age ≥10 years, whichever is earlier, once the child has had diabetes for 5 years. Hypertension should be screened for in T1DM patients by measuring blood pressure at each routine visit. Dyslipidemia in T1DM patients is important and patients should be screened if there is a family history of hypercholesterolemia or a cardiovascular event before the age of 55 years exists or if family history is unknown. Retinopathy is another important complication of diabetes and patients should be subjected to an initial dilated and comprehensive eye examination. Basic diabetes training should be provided for school staff, and they should be assigned with responsibilities for the care of diabetic children. Self-management should be allowed at all school settings for students.

  14. The Genetic Architecture of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T Jerram

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is classically characterised by the clinical need for insulin, the presence of disease-associated serum autoantibodies, and an onset in childhood. The disease, as with other autoimmune diseases, is due to the interaction of genetic and non-genetic effects, which induce a destructive process damaging insulin-secreting cells. In this review, we focus on the nature of this interaction, and how our understanding of that gene–environment interaction has changed our understanding of the nature of the disease. We discuss the early onset of the disease, the development of distinct immunogenotypes, and the declining heritability with increasing age at diagnosis. Whilst Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA have a major role in causing T1D, we note that some of these HLA genes have a protective role, especially in children, whilst other non-HLA genes are also important. In adult-onset T1D, the disease is often not insulin-dependent at diagnosis, and has a dissimilar immunogenotype with reduced genetic predisposition. Finally, we discuss the putative nature of the non-genetic factors and how they might interact with genetic susceptibility, including preliminary studies of the epigenome associated with T1D.

  15. Celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarca Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac Disease (CD occurs in patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D ranging the prevalence of 4.4-11.1% versus 0.5% of the general population. The mechanism of association of these two diseases involves a shared genetic background: HLA genotype DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 are strongly associated with T1D, DR3-DQ2 with CD. The classical severe presentation of CD rarely occurs in T1D patients, but more often patients have few/mild symptoms of CD or are completely asymptomatic (silent CD. In fact diagnosis of CD is regularly performed by means of the screening in T1D patients. The effects of gluten-free diet (GFD on the growth and T1D metabolic control in CD/T1D patient are controversial. Regarding of the GFD composition, there is a debate on the higher glycaemic index of gluten-free foods respect to gluten-containing foods; furthermore GFD could be poorer of fibers and richer of fat. The adherence to GFD by children with CD-T1D has been reported generally below 50%, lower respect to the 73% of CD patients, a lower compliance being more frequent among asymptomatic patients. The more severe problems of GFD adherence usually occur during adolescence when in GFD non compliant subjects the lowest quality of life is reported. A psychological and educational support should be provided for these patients.

  16. [NARCOLEPSY WITH CATAPLEXY: TYPE 1 NARCOLEPSY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy or narcolepsy type 1 in a rare, disabling sleep disorder, with a prevalence of 20 to 30 per 100,000. Its onset peaks in the second decade. The main features are excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy or sudden less of muscle tone triggered by emotional situations. Other less consistent symptoms include hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, and weight gain. Narcolepsy with cataplexy remains a clinical diagnosis but nighttime and daytime polysomnography (multiple sleep latency tests) are useful to document mean sleep latency below 8 min and at least two sleep-onset REM periods. HLA typing shows an association with HLA DQB1*0602 in more than 92% of cases but was not included in the new diagnostic criteria. In contrast, a low hypocretin-1/orexin-A levels (values below 110 pg/mL) in the cerebrospinal fluid was highly specific for narcolepsy with cataplexy and was included in the recent diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy. The deficiency of the hypocretin system is well-established in human narcoleptics with a reduction of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels in relation with an early loss of hypocretin neurons. The cause of human narcolepsy remains unknown, however an autoimmune process in most probable acting on a highly genetic background with environmental factors such as streptococcal infections, and H1N1 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine named Pandemrix.

  17. Stem Cell Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is a common chronic disease in children, characterized by a loss of  cells, which results in defects in insulin secretion and hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia causes diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Curative therapies mainly include diet and insulin administration. Although hyperglycemia can be improved by insulin administration, exogenous insulin injection cannot successfully mimic the insulin secretion from normal  cells, which keeps blood glucose levels within the normal range all the time. Islet and pancreas transplantation achieves better glucose control, but there is a lack of organ donors. Cell based therapies have also been attempted to treat T1DM. Stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and tissue stem cells (TSCs such as bone marrow-, adipose tissue- and cord blood-derived stem cells, have been shown to generate insulin-producing cells. In this review, we summarize the most-recently available information about T1DM and the use of TSCs to treat T1DM.

  18. Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colstrup, Miriam; Mathiesen, Elisabeth; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In 1989 the St. Vincent declaration set a five-year target for approximating outcomes of pregnancies in women with diabetes to those of the background population. We investigated and quantified the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM......) to evaluate if the goals of the 1989 St. Vincent Declaration have been obtained concerning foetal and neonatal complications. Methods: Twelve population-based studies published within the last 10 years with in total 14 099 women with T1DM and 4 035 373 women from the background population were identified....... The prevalence of four foetal and neonatal complications was compared. Results: In women with T1DM versus the background population, congenital malformations occurred in 5.0% (2.2-9.0) (weighted mean and range) versus 2.1% (1.5-2.9), relative risk (RR) = 2.4, perinatal mortality in 2.7% (2.0-6.6) versus 0.72% (0...

  19. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zóka, András; Műzes, Györgyi; Somogyi, Anikó; Varga, Tímea; Szémán, Barbara; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Hadarits, Orsolya; Firneisz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development. PMID:24285974

  20. Altered Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zóka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in genetics and immunology was going on separate strands for a long time. Type 1 diabetes mellitus might not be characterized with a single pathogenetic factor. It develops when a susceptible individual is exposed to potential triggers in a given sequence and timeframe that eventually disarranges the fine-tuned immune mechanisms that keep autoimmunity under control in health. Genomewide association studies have helped to understand the congenital susceptibility, and hand-in-hand with the immunological research novel paths of immune dysregulation were described in central tolerance, apoptotic pathways, or peripheral tolerance mediated by regulatory T-cells. Epigenetic factors are contributing to the immune dysregulation. The interplay between genetic susceptibility and potential triggers is likely to play a role at a very early age and gradually results in the loss of balanced autotolerance and subsequently in the development of the clinical disease. Genetic susceptibility, the impaired elimination of apoptotic β-cell remnants, altered immune regulatory functions, and environmental factors such as viral infections determine the outcome. Autoreactivity might exist under physiologic conditions and when the integrity of the complex regulatory process is damaged the disease might develop. We summarized the immune regulatory mechanisms that might have a crucial role in disease pathology and development.

  1. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  2. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  3. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  4. The geoepidemiology of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea T; Uibo, Raivo; Gershwin, M E

    2010-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by absolute insulin deficiency resulting from the progressive immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells. It is thought to be triggered by as yet unidentified environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals, the major genetic contribution coming from loci within the HLA complex, in particular HLA class II. The worldwide incidence of T1D varies by at least 100-fold, being highest in Finland and Sardinia (Italy) and lowest in Venezuela and China. The incidence has been increasing worldwide at an annual rate of approximately 3%. While genetic factors are thought to explain some of the geographic variability in T1D occurrence, they cannot account for its rapidly increasing frequency. Instead, the declining proportion of newly diagnosed children with high-risk genotypes suggests that environmental pressures are now able to trigger T1D in genotypes that previously would not have developed the disease during childhood. Although comparisons between countries and regions with low and high-incidence rates have suggested that higher socioeconomic status and degree of urbanization are among the environmental factors that play a role in the rising incidence of T1D, the findings are too inconsistent to allow firm conclusions. Morbidity and mortality as well as causes of death also show considerable geographic variation. While glycemic control has been identified as a major predictor of the micro- and macrovascular complications of T1D and shows considerable geographical variability, it does not appear to be the only factor involved in the regional differences in complication rates. The role of genetics in susceptibility to nephropathy, retinopathy and other diabetic complications largely remains to be explored. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana). T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR) was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

  7. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana.T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

  8. This could be the start of something big—20 years since the identification of bats as the natural host of Hendra virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Black

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hendra virus was first described in 1994 in Australia, causally associated with a cluster of fatal equine and human cases at a thoroughbred racing stable in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra. This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the identification of pteropid bats (flying-foxes as the natural host of the virus, and it is timely to reflect on a pivotal meeting of an eclectic group of scientists in that process. They included animal and public health experts, environmental scientists, veterinary and horse industry representatives, and wildlife experts. The task was to review and prioritise wildlife surveillance seeking the origin of the previously unknown virus. The group determined that the likely reservoir must occur in disparate locations, and be capable of moving between locations, or exist in continuous, overlapping populations spanning multiple locations. Flying-foxes were considered to be a more probable source of the novel virus than birds. Within weeks, antibodies were detected in several species of flying-fox, and the virus was subsequently isolated. While the identification of the natural host of Hendra virus within 18 months of its description was remarkable in itself, a broader legacy followed. In the subsequent years, a suite of zoonotic viruses including Australian bat lyssavirus, Nipah virus, SARS coronavirus, and Ebola and Marburg viruses have been detected in bats. Bats are now the “go to” taxa for novel viruses. History has repeatedly demonstrated that knowledge begets knowledge. This simple notion of bringing a diverse group of people together in an environment of mutual respect reinforced this principle and proves that the sum is often so much more powerful than the parts.

  9. Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Weller, Theodore J

    2018-05-16

    Echolocation allows bats to occupy diverse nocturnal niches. Bats almost always use echolocation, even when other sensory stimuli are available to guide navigation. Here, using arrays of calibrated infrared cameras and ultrasonic microphones, we demonstrate that hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus ) use previously unknown echolocation behaviours that challenge our current understanding of echolocation. We describe a novel call type ('micro' calls) that has three orders of magnitude less sound energy than other bat calls used in open habitats. We also document bats flying close to microphones (less than 3 m) without producing detectable echolocation calls. Acoustic modelling indicates that bats are not producing calls that exceed 70-75 dB at 0.1 m, a level that would have little or no known use for a bat flying in the open at speeds exceeding 7 m s -1 This indicates that hoary bats sometimes fly without echolocation. We speculate that bats reduce echolocation output to avoid eavesdropping by conspecifics during the mating season. These findings might partly explain why tens of thousands of hoary bats are killed by wind turbines each year. They also challenge the long-standing assumption that bats-model organisms for sensory specialization-are reliant on sonar for nocturnal navigation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  11. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency......The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm......, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation...

  12. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  13. A guide to processing bat acoustic data for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian; Lausen, Cori; Loeb, Susan; Weller, Ted; Allen, Ryan; Britzke, Eric; Hohoff, Tara; Siemers, Jeremy; Burkholder, Braden; Herzog, Carl; Verant, Michelle

    2018-06-14

    The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) aims to improve the state of conservation science for all species of bats shared by the United States, Canada, and Mexico. To accomplish this goal, NABat offers guidance and standardized protocols for acoustic monitoring of bats. In this document, “A Guide to Processing Bat Acoustic Data for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat),” we provide general recommendations and specific workflows for the process of identifying bat species from acoustic files recorded using the NABat stationary point and mobile transect acoustic monitoring protocols.

  14. Bat Biology, Genomes, and the Bat1K Project: To Generate Chromosome-Level Genomes for All Living Bat Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M; Ray, David A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Myers, Eugene

    2018-02-15

    Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene. Despite their great numbers and diversity, many species are threatened and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover their evolutionary history; link genotype with phenotype; and ultimately better understand, promote, and conserve bats. Here we review the unique adaptations of bats and highlight how chromosome-level genome assemblies can uncover the molecular basis of these traits. We present a novel sequencing and assembly strategy and review the striking societal and scientific benefits that will result from the Bat1K initiative.

  15. Henipavirus RNA in African bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Felix Drexler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

  16. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  17. Acute effects of various weighted bat warm-up protocols on bat velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, G Francis; Dolny, Dennis

    2009-10-01

    Although research has provided evidence of increased muscular performance following a facilitation set of resistance exercise, this has not been established for use prior to measuring baseball bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected weighted bat warm-up protocols to enhance bat velocity in collegiate baseball players. Nineteen collegiate baseball players (age = 20.15 +/- 1.46 years) were tested for upper-body strength by a 3-repetition maximum (RM) bench press (mean = 97.98 +/- 14.54 kg) and mean bat velocity. Nine weighted bat warm-up protocols, utilizing 3 weighted bats (light = 794 g; standard = 850 g; heavy = 1,531 g) were swung in 3 sets of 6 repetitions in different orders. A control trial involved the warm-up protocol utilizing only the standard bat. Pearson product correlation revealed a significant relationship between 3RM strength and pretest bat velocity (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant treatment effects of warm-up protocol on bat velocity. However, the order of standard, light, heavy bat sequence resulted in the greatest increase in bat velocity (+6.03%). These results suggest that upper-body muscle strength influences bat velocity. It appears that the standard, light, heavy warm-up order may provide the greatest benefit to increase subsequent bat velocity and may warrant use in game situations.

  18. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  20. Leg structure explains host site preference in bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) parasitizing neotropical bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco

    2018-03-22

    Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.

  1. Recolonization of bat roost by bat bugs (Cimex pipistrelli): could parasite load be a cause of bat roost switching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonička, Tomáš; Růžičková, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    Roost ectoparasites are believed to have a negative impact on fitness of their hosts as birds or mammals. Previous studies were mostly focussed on the synchronization between reproduction cycles of ectoparasites and hosts living in infested roosts. However, to date, it has not been examined how fast ectoparasites colonize new, non-infested roosts and thus increasing the impact on the local populations of hosts. The parasite-host model was studied, including bat bugs Cimex pipistrelli and soprano pipistrelles Pipistrellus pygmaeus, where bat behaviour was observed which tended to reduce the parasite load in bat roosts. We investigated (1) whether bats change their roosting behaviour when we discontinued synchronization of their reproduction and the life cycle of the bat bugs and (2) how fast and which stages of bat bugs reoccupy cleaned roosts. In a 3-year field experiment, we removed all bat bugs from six bat boxes in each spring. Pipistrelles bred young in all non-infested boxes during these 3 years. In addition, 8 years of regular observations before this experiment indicate that bats avoided breeding in the same bat boxes at all. Bat bugs were found again in clean boxes in mid-May. However, their densities did not maximise before the beginning of June, before parturition. A re-appearance of bugs was observed after 21-56 days after the first bat visit. Adult bugs, mainly females, colonised cleaned boxes first though at the same time there were a lot of younger and smaller instars in non-manipulated roosts in the vicinity.

  2. Pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetic women with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, P; Damm, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2001-01-01

    To determine the influence of microalbuminuria on pregnancy outcome in women with type 1 diabetes.......To determine the influence of microalbuminuria on pregnancy outcome in women with type 1 diabetes....

  3. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  4. A Two-Step Lyssavirus Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Degenerate Primers with Superior Sensitivity to the Fluorescent Antigen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Suin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible.

  5. A two-step lyssavirus real-time polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers with superior sensitivity to the fluorescent antigen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suin, Vanessa; Nazé, Florence; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; De Craeye, Stéphane; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤ 1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible.

  6. Bartonella, bats and bugs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Matthew J; Chomel, Bruno B; de Fleurieu, Eloi Claret; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2017-12-01

    Ecological, immunological, and epidemiological factors enable bats to transmit an increasingly recognized spectrum of zoonotic agents, and bartonellae are among those emerging pathogens identified in bats and their arthropod ectoparasites. Current data reveal a multifaceted disease ecology where diverse host species distributed around the world interact with a number of Bartonella spp. and several potential vectors. This review summarizes the methods and findings of studies conducted since 2005 to illustrate that Bartonella bacteremia varies by bat species, location, and other potential variables, such as diet with a very high prevalence in hematophagous bats. Among bat families, Bartonella prevalence ranged from 7.3% among Nycteridae to 54.4% in Miniopteridae. Further research can build on these current data to better determine risk factors associated with Bartonella infection in bat populations and the role of their ectoparasites in transmission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Myra; Hussain, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A patient with severe postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (PPHH) for 4 years developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. She had no insulin or insulin receptor antibodies but was positive for islet cell and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. PPHH prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been previously described and may be a prodrome of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  8. 27 CFR 555.207 - Construction of type 1 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constructed of, or covered with, a nonsparking material. (3) Wood frame wall construction. The exterior of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction of type 1... Construction of type 1 magazines. A type 1 magazine is a permanent structure: a building, an igloo or “Army...

  9. Tests for genetic interactions in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morahan, Grant; Mehta, Munish; James, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental factors lead to immune dysregulation causing type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders. Recently, many common genetic variants have been associated with type 1 diabetes risk, but each has modest individual effects. Familial clustering of type 1...... diabetes has not been explained fully and could arise from many factors, including undetected genetic variation and gene interactions....

  10. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oaks region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  11. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oak region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  12. Hepatozoon parasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C Miguel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Perkins, Susan L

    2013-08-01

    We provide the first evidence of Hepatozoon parasites infecting bats. We sequenced a short fragment of the 18S rRNA gene (~600 base pairs) of Hepatozoon parasites from 3 Hipposideros cervinus bats from Borneo. Phylogenies inferred by model-based methods place these Hepatozoon within a clade formed by parasites of reptiles, rodents, and marsupials. We discuss the scenario that bats might be common hosts of Hepatozoon.

  13. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  14. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  15. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  16. Wind power and bats : Ontario guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section

    2008-07-01

    None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.

  17. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  18. Bat habitat research. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

  19. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  20. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96, pigs (n = 9, cattles (n = 9, stray dogs (n = 11, stray cats (n = 11 and monkeys (n = 20 using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV, Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1, with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6, was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii. It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1 are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2-91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus.

  2. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  3. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

  4. Can bats sense smoke during deep torpor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Anna C; Currie, Shannon E; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2018-03-01

    While torpor is a beneficial energy-saving strategy, it may incur costs if an animal is unable to respond appropriately to external stimuli, which is particularly true when it is necessary to escape from threats such as fire. We aimed to determine whether torpid bats, which are potentially threatened because they must fly to escape, can sense smoke and whether respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and reaction time of torpid bats prior to and following smoke introduction is temperature-dependent. To test this we quantified RR and HR of captive Australian tree-roosting bats, Nyctophilus gouldi (n=5, ~10g), in steady-state torpor in response to short-term exposure to smoke from Eucalyptus spp. leaves between ambient temperatures (T a ) of 11 and 23°C. Bats at lower T a took significantly longer (28-fold) to respond to smoke, indicated by a cessation of episodic breathing and a rapid increase in RR. Bats at lower T a returned to torpor more swiftly following smoke exposure than bats at higher T a . Interestingly, bats at T a <15°C never returned to thermoconforming steady-state torpor prior to the end of the experimental day, whereas all bats at T a ≥15°C did, as indicated by apnoeic HR. This shows that although bats at lower T a took longer to respond, they appear to maintain vigilance and prevent deep torpor after the first smoke exposure, likely to enable fast escape. Our study reveals that bats can respond to smoke stimuli while in deep torpor. These results are particularly vital within the framework of fire management conducted at T a <15°C, as most management burns are undertaken during winter when bats will likely respond more slowly to fire cues such as smoke, delaying the time to escape from the fire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decision-making in diabetes mellitus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, James K; Musselman, Dominique L; Skyler, Jay S; Matheson, Della; Delamater, Alan; Kenyon, Norma S; Cáceda, Ricardo; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    Decreased treatment adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (type 1 DM) may reflect impairments in decision-making and underlying associated deficits in working memory and executive functioning. Other factors, including comorbid major depression, may also interfere with decision-making. The authors sought to review the clinically relevant characteristics of decision-making in type 1 DM by surveying the literature on decision-making by patients with type 1 DM. Deficiencies in decision-making in patients with type 1 DM or their caregivers contribute to treatment nonadherence and poorer metabolic control. Animal models of type 1 DM reveal deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory tasks, which are reversible with insulin. Neurocognitive studies of patients with type 1 DM reveal lowered performance on ability to apply knowledge to solve problems in a new situation and acquired scholarly knowledge, psychomotor efficiency, cognitive flexibility, visual perception, speed of information-processing, and sustained attention. Other factors that might contribute to poor decision-making in patients with type 1 DM, include "hypoglycemia unawareness" and comorbid major depression (given its increased prevalence in type 1 DM). Future studies utilizing novel treatment strategies to help patients with type 1 DM make better decisions about their disease may improve their glycemic control and quality of life, while minimizing the impact of end-organ disease.

  6. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat,. Pipistrellus rusticus. M. van der Merwe. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 20 September 1993; accepled 3 May 1994. Rusty bats are seasonally mono estrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns.

  7. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  8. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  9. A study of wood baseball bat breakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Drane; James Sherwood; Renzo Colosimo; David Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Over the span of three months in 2008, 2232 baseball bats broke while being used during Major League Baseball (MLB) games; of which 756 were classified as Multi Piece Failures (MPFs). This rate of failure motivated Major League Baseball to explore options for potential changes in the bat regulations to reduce the rate. After a study of the information that could be...

  10. Roost characteristics of hoary bats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2007-01-01

    We radiotracked nine hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and characterized 12 roosts during late spring and early summer in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Hoary bats generally roosted on the easterly sides of tree canopies in the foliage of white oaks (Quercus alba), post oaks (Q. stellata) and shortleaf pines (Pinus...

  11. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic...

  12. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  13. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals...... of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used...

  14. Stigma Perceived and Experienced by Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Møller; Willaing, Ingrid; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (a) culturally and linguistically adapt the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1) from English (for Australia) into Danish and (b) examine psychometric properties of the measure among Danish adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a forward......-backward translation, face validity interviews with experts and cognitive debriefing of the Danish version (DSAS-1 DK) with ten adults from the target group. The DSAS-1 DK was then completed by 1594 adults with type 1 diabetes. Electronic clinical records provided age, diabetes duration, diabetes-related complications...... to advance research into the stigma perceived and experienced by adults with type 1 diabetes in a Danish context....

  15. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.

  16. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  17. Type 1 Does The Two-Step: Type 1 Secretion Substrates With A Functional Periplasmic Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy J; Sondermann, Holger; O'Toole, George A

    2018-06-04

    Bacteria have evolved several secretion strategies for polling and responding to environmental flux and insult. Of these, the type 1 secretion system (T1SS) is known to secrete an array of biologically diverse proteins - from small < 10 kDa bacteriocins to gigantic adhesins with a mass over 1 MDa. For the last several decades T1SS have been characterized as a one-step translocation strategy whereby the secreted substrate is transported directly into the extracellular environment from the cytoplasm with no periplasmic intermediate. Recent phylogenetic, biochemical, and genetic evidence point to a distinct sub-group of T1SS machinery linked with a bacterial transglutaminase-like cysteine proteinase (BTLCP), which uses a two-step secretion mechanism. BTLCP-linked T1SS transport a class of repeats-in-toxin (RTX) adhesins that are critical for biofilm formation. The prototype of this RTX adhesin group, LapA of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, uses a novel N-terminal retention module to anchor the adhesin at the cell surface as a secretion intermediate threaded through the outer membrane-localized, TolC-like protein LapE. This secretion intermediate is post-translationally cleaved by the BTLCP family LapG protein to release LapA from its cognate T1SS pore. Thus, secretion of LapA and related RTX adhesins into the extracellular environment appears to be a T1SS-mediated, two-step process that involves a periplasmic intermediate. In this review, we contrast the T1SS machinery and substrates of the BLTCP-linked two-step secretion process with those of the classical one-step T1SS to better understand the newly recognized and expanded role of this secretion machinery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  19. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    biochemical features.2 It is a coordinated series of events for the ... sex matched subjects with no clinical or laboratory signs or family history of ... Keywords: lymphocyte apoptosis; CD95 system; type 1 DM; prediabetes. Eman M. ..... percentage among complicated and non-complicated cases of type-1 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Schools: Whose Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.; Gordon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008) reports that approximately 0.2% of all persons under the age of 20 have been diagnosed with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. This represents 186,300 children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been a disease of children and adolescents. Although type 2 diabetes has in the past…

  1. Coexistence of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    There is a selective review of the literature concerning the coexistence of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on the principles of serological tests towards coeliac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and metabolic control measures as a result of a gluten-free diet.

  2. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  3. Breast-feeding and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders.......To investigate if there is a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children breastfed or exclusively breastfed by performing a pooled analysis with adjustment for recognized confounders....

  4. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism and type 1 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune multifactorial disease which has a great socio-economic impact. In Morocco, less is known about the contribution of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles to type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Our study focused on evaluating the distribution of class II ...

  5. Type 1,1-operators defined by vanishing frequency modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    This paper presents a general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1; the definition is shown to be the largest one that is both compatible with negligible operators and stable under vanishing frequency modulation. Elaborating counter-examples of Ching andHörmander, type 1...

  6. The Effect of Type-1 Error on Deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik; Mungan, Murat C.

    2018-01-01

    According to a conventional view, type-1 error (wrongful conviction) is as detrimental to deterrence as type-2 error (wrongful acquittal), because type-1 error lowers the pay-off from acting within the law. This view has led to the claim that the pro-defendant bias of criminal procedure, and its ...

  7. Efficacy of standardised herbal extracts in type 1 diabetes - an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the hypoglycemic activity of Withania somnifera Dunal, Allium sativum Linn., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult, Ferula foetida (Bunge.) Reg. and Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. extracts have been studied in an experimental model of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced in albino rats by a single ...

  8. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 1 diabetes is a serious, debilitating disease, with life-threatening complications, and the financial burden associated with the management of this disease is enormous. Early diagnosis and intervention can improve morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, in Africa, type 1 diabetes is poorly characterised, and there is ...

  9. Audit on stillbirths in women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Mathiesen, Elisabeth Reinhardt; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2003-01-01

    To audit stillbirth cases in women with type 1 diabetes to search for specific characteristics in order to improve antenatal care and treatment.......To audit stillbirth cases in women with type 1 diabetes to search for specific characteristics in order to improve antenatal care and treatment....

  10. Experimental Therapy Shows Promise for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggers cells to take up sugar from the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system The cells and tissues that ... people to eat or drink to raise their blood sugar levels. However, many people with type 1 diabetes can’t tell when their blood sugar is ...

  11. Type 1 diabetes: New horizons in prediction and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Natasha N; Wherrett, Diane K

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and our ability to predict risk for the condition. This knowledge is being used to develop new and innovative strategies to prevent type 1 diabetes or to prevent further destruction of beta cells in those who are newly diagnosed. Several multicentre studies are underway investigating the natural history of the disease, the genetics behind the disease and ways to stop the autoimmune reaction against beta cells (Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium and the Trial to Reduce Diabetes in the Genetically at Risk [TRIGR] Study Group). The stage is set to find an agent or strategy to prevent type 1 diabetes or to preserve the residual beta cell mass in new-onset patients.

  12. Prelabor Cesarean Section and Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksson, Frank

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unfavorable conditions associated with cesarean section may influence the risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring, but results from studies are conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the association between prelabor cesarean section and risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A Danish...... nationwide cohort study followed all singletons born during 1982-2010. Five national registers provided information on mode of delivery, outcome, and confounders. The risk of childhood type 1 diabetes with onset before the age of 15 years was assessed by Cox regression. A total of 1,760,336 singletons...... contributed 20,436,684 person-years, during which 4,400 were diagnosed with childhood type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: The hazard ratio for childhood type 1 diabetes was increased in children delivered by prelabor cesarean section compared with vaginal delivery when adjusted for year of birth, parity, sex, parental...

  13. Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunir, E.; Nenfiati

    2018-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by insulin deficiency that results from destruction of β-cells in the pancreas. Based on American Diabetes Association, there are two types of type 1 diabetes mellitus: type 1A (autoimmune) and 1B (idiopathic). In this case, we are presenting a new archetype of type 1 diabetes named fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. This disease results from quick destruction of β-cells byanautoimmune mechanism. The manifestation of this disease consists of unspecific flu-like symptoms, abdominal symptoms, to specific hyperglycemia symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, change in mental status that are attributable to high blood glucose and ketosis. Laboratory examination reveals high blood glucose, normal glycosylated hemoglobin, ketosis or ketoacidosis, potassium depletion and elevation of liver function tests. Treatment consists of intravenous infusion followed by insulin injection for blood glucose control, followed by treatment of metabolic derangements such as acid-base and electrolyte disorder.

  14. Bat-mouse bone marrow chimera: a novel animal model for dissecting the uniqueness of the bat immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kylie Su Mei; Ng, Justin Han Jia; Her, Zhisheng; Hey, Ying Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng; Irac, Sergio Erdal; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Gunawan, Merry; Foo, Randy Jee Hiang; Low, Dolyce Hong Wen; Mendenhall, Ian Hewitt; Chionh, Yok Teng; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Chen, Qingfeng; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2018-03-16

    Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R -/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization. Post-engraftment of total bat BM cells and splenocytes, bat immune cells survived, expanded and repopulated the mouse without any observable clinical abnormalities. Utilizing bat's remarkable immunological functions, this novel model has a potential to be transformed into a powerful platform for basic and translational research.

  15. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  16. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  17. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  18. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  19. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.J.R.; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.C.; Lee, A.H.S.; Chakrabarti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups

  20. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garethporter@doctors.org.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Burrell, H.C. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chakrabarti, J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups.

  1. [Endurance capabilities of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehncke, S; Poettgen, K; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, J; Boehncke, W-H; Badenhoop, K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) aims to prevent complications by strictly optimizing blood glucose levels. Although physical exercise is an important part of metabolic control, endurance sports are considered hazardous for patients with type 1 diabetes because of the extreme physiological stress they represent. To further elucidate the metabolic challenge this form of exercise presented we investigated the performance of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (32-61 years) with type 1 diabetes (disease duration 2-35 years) were followed for three years, during which each year they participated in one triathlon long-distance competitions (2.4 miles swimming, 26.2 miles running and 112 miles cycling; Ironman Germany 2005-2007). Glucose, cortisol, aldosterone, renin, thyroid hormones, testosterone, growth hormone and catecholamines were measured in blood and saliva. Five non-diabetic competitors served as controls. The performance equalled those of age-matched healthy athletes. Several participants experienced hyperglycemia early in the bike leg, whereas all of them developed low blood glucose levels during the marathon leg. Basal insulin supply was reduced up to 50 % on race day. Hormone levels in athletes with type 1 DM and healthy controls were similar. Patients with type 1 DM can successfully sustain extreme endurance challenges. Physiological alterations of the metabolic state complicated by type 1 DM can readily be compensated by adapting intensified insulin therapy and nutritional modifications. Thus 1 DM should not be regarded a contraindication to participating in high endurance sports.

  2. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-12-07

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  3. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Ea...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  4. [The child from families with type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasikowa, Renata; Suchańska, Dorota; Suchańska, Danuta; Basiak, Aleksander; Noczyńska, Anna; Stasińska, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes type 1 is observed in individuals with a genetic predisposition to the disease. Observed is a 3-5 fold risk for congenital defects, therefore diabetes type 1 is one of the highest known teratogenic risk factor. The main factor responsible for the development of congenital defects is hyperglycemia. Observed are congenital defects of the central nervous system, the bones, urinary and digestive tract. Characteristic is macrosomia. Observed are hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, respiratory disturbances. Children from families with diabetes type 1 are at high risk for the development of the disease in the newborn period, additional diseases. They must be in permanent medical control.

  5. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-02

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SWGELLA DYSENTERIAE TYPE 1 IN KwAZuLU-NATAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -control. 1995: 15. ure co. LABORATORY SURV~ILLAN.CEOF. SWGELLA DYSENTERIAE TYPE 1 IN. KwAZuLU- ... freeze-dried quality-eontrol specimens were prepared containing ... (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards,.

  7. Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Pregnancy Articles Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  8. Fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Nationwide birth cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003....... INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013. RESULT(S): The study included 565,116 singleton pregnancies. A total of 14,985 children were conceived by ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination......, and 8,490 children were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. During the follow-up period, 2,011 (0.4%) children developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The primary analyses showed no association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus...

  9. On Generalized Type 1 Logistic Distribution | Ahsanullah | Afrika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some distributional properties of the generalized type 1 logistic distribution are given. Based on these distributional property a characterization of this distribution is presented. Key words: Conditional Expectation; Reversed Hazard Rate; Characterization.

  10. Metabolomic Biomarkers in the Progression to Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    diabetes has been studied using this technique, although in relatively small cohorts and at limited time points. Overall, three observations have been consistently reported; phospholipids at birth are lower in children developing type 1 diabetes early in childhood, methionine levels are lower in children......Metabolomics is the snapshot of all detectable metabolites and lipids in biological materials and has potential in reflecting genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of complex diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The progression to seroconversion to development of type 1...... at seroconversion, and triglycerides are increased at seroconversion and associated to microbiome diversity, indicating an association between the metabolome and microbiome in type 1 diabetes progression....

  11. Epidemiology of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders

    1999-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that more than 100,000 inhabitants in the Middle East suffer from type 1 diabetes and that about 6000 subjects in the region develop the disease each year. This paper illustrates how epidemiological principles and methods may assist in a rational assessment of the public...... health impact of type 1 diabetes in the Middle East. Making a series of assumptions, it is estimated that the future prevalence of type 1 diabetes in the region will increase slightly, but that the increase may be more pronounced if the disease incidence is increasing and the prognosis improved....... It is recommended that more valid information is established on the basic epidemiological features of type 1 diabetes in the Middle East, as this will provide the basis of more rational planning of the current and future diabetes healthcare in the region....

  12. Long-term mortality and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing in Denmark as well as the rest of the world. Due to diabetes-related micro- and macrovascular complications, the morbidity and the mortality is higher among type 1 diabetic patients. The aim of this thesis was to examine a population-based cohort...... of 727 type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, with an onset of diabetes before 1 July 1973 in order to: (1) Evaluate the all-cause mortality rates and the influence of sex, duration of diabetes and calendar year of diagnosis in a 33-year follow-up (Paper I). (2) Examine glycaemic regulation...... of DR was graded higher in the digital photos. Among these, PDR was detected in three eyes using digital photos but remained undetected on all films. This suggests that digital photos with wide fields are the best way to detect DR in long-term type 1 diabetic patients. Overall, it is concluded...

  13. Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Antoinette; Bundy, Brian; Becker, Dorothy J

    2013-01-01

    Innate immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, but until now no randomised, controlled trials of blockade of the key innate immune mediator interleukin-1 have been done. We aimed to assess whether canakinumab, a human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1...... antibody, or anakinra, a human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, improved β-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes....

  14. Omkostningseffektivitet ved behandling af type 1-diabetes med insulinpumpe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Sohlberg, Anna; Goodall, Gordan

    2010-01-01

    This study's aim was to project the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) in type 1 diabetes patients in Denmark.......This study's aim was to project the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment compared to multiple daily injections (MDI) in type 1 diabetes patients in Denmark....

  15. Longterm visual prognosis in Usher syndrome types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, André M; Eriksson, Kristina; Kimberling, William J; Sjöström, Anders; Möller, Claes

    2006-08-01

    To estimate the age at diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and to determine visual acuity deterioration, visual field impairment and the frequency of cataracts in Usher syndrome types 1 and 2. We carried out a retrospective study of 328 affected subjects with Usher syndrome types 1 and 2. Study subjects were divided into seven different age groups by decade. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, general linear model anova and survival analysis. Retinitis pigmentosa was diagnosed significantly earlier in subjects with Usher syndrome type 1 than in those with type 2. Visual acuity was significantly more impaired in affected subjects with Usher syndrome type 1 than in those with type 2 from 50 years of age onwards. Survival analysis revealed a significant difference in visual field loss (type 2 subjects tending to be more impaired, while comparison indicated no significant differences between the groups in any of the other visual field categories. Cataract was found to be generally more common in Usher syndrome type 1 than type 2. Progressive loss of visual acuity and visual field begins to be substantial between the second and third decades of life in both Usher types. The rate of degeneration varies between individuals in both groups. The data are useful for the counselling of affected subjects with Usher syndrome types 1 and 2.

  16. Site 300 Bat Monitoring Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.

  17. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua B.; Ford, W. Mark; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Edwards, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic deterrent effectiveness and practicality has not been experimentally examined and is limited to site-specific case studies. Accordingly, we used a crossover experimental design with prior control period to show that bat activity was reduced 17.1 percent by the deployment of ultrasonic deterrents placed around gauged watershed weir ponds on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. We caution that while our results should not be extrapolated to the scope of a typical wind energy production facility, the results warrant further research on the use of acoustic deterrents to reduce bat fatalities.

  18. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  19. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  20. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  1. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  2. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  3. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock FENTON

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].

  4. Biological correlates of extinction risk in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate E; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L

    2003-04-01

    We investigated patterns and processes of extinction and threat in bats using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative approach. Of nearly 1,000 species worldwide, 239 are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and 12 are extinct. Small geographic ranges and low wing aspect ratios are independently found to predict extinction risk in bats, which explains 48% of the total variance in IUCN assessments of threat. The pattern and correlates of extinction risk in the two bat suborders are significantly different. A higher proportion (4%) of megachiropteran species have gone extinct in the last 500 years than microchiropteran bats (0.3%), and a higher proportion is currently at risk of extinction (Megachiroptera: 34%; Microchiroptera: 22%). While correlates of microchiropteran extinction risk are the same as in the order as a whole, megachiropteran extinction is correlated more with reproductive rate and less with wing morphology. Bat extinction risk is not randomly distributed phylogenetically: closely related species have more similar levels of threat than would be expected if extinction risk were random. Given the unbalanced nature of the evolutionary diversification of bats, it is probable that the amount of phylogenetic diversity lost if currently threatened taxa disappear may be greater than in other clades with numerically more threatened species.

  5. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  6. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  7. Novel Cryptosporidium bat genotypes III and IV in bats from the USA and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John

    2015-10-01

    Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic.

  8. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe

    2014-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  9. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in African bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maganga, G. D.; Bourgarel, M.; Vallo, Peter; Dallo, T. D.; Ngoagouni, C.; Drexler, J. F.; Drosten, C.; Nakouné, E. R.; Leroy, E. M.; Morand, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), e100172 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cytochrome-b gene * fruit bats * Rousettus aegyptiacus * Eidolon helvum * species richness * Marburg virus * molecular phylogeny * infectious diseases * geographical range * neotropical bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  10. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an

  11. Insulin gene therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handorf, Andrew M; Sollinger, Hans W; Alam, Tausif

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of pancreatic β cells. Current treatments for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus include daily insulin injections or whole pancreas transplant, each of which are associated with profound drawbacks. Insulin gene therapy, which has shown great efficacy in correcting hyperglycemia in animal models, holds great promise as an alternative strategy to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans. Insulin gene therapy refers to the targeted expression of insulin in non-β cells, with hepatocytes emerging as the primary therapeutic target. In this review, we present an overview of the current state of insulin gene therapy to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, including the need for an alternative therapy, important features dictating the success of the therapy, and current obstacles preventing the translation of this treatment option to a clinical setting. In so doing, we hope to shed light on insulin gene therapy as a viable option to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  12. BAT Exosomes: Metabolic Crosstalk with Other Organs and Biomarkers for BAT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Deborah; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2018-04-10

    In the last decade, exosomes have gained interest as a new type of intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Exosomes are circulating, cell-derived lipid vesicles smaller than 200 nm that contain proteins and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and are able to modify cellular targets. Exosomal miRNAs function as signalling molecules that regulate the transcription of their target genes and can cause phenotypic transformation of recipient cells. Recent studies have shown that brown fat secretes exosomes as a form of communication with other metabolic organs such as the liver. Moreover, it has been shown that levels of miRNAs in BAT-derived exosomes change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, BAT-derived exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers of BAT activity. Here, we review the present knowledge about BAT-derived exosomes and their role in metabolism.

  13. Glutaric aciduria type 1--importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.

  14. Adolescents developing life skills for managing type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Gitte R; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hommel, Eva

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore and illustrate how the Guided Self-Determination-Youth method influences the development of life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes supported by their parents and healthcare providers. BACKGROUND: Evidence-based methods that accomplish constructive cooperation between...... adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, their parents and healthcare providers are needed. We adjusted an adult life skills intervention comprising reflection sheets and advanced communication for use by adolescent-parent-professional triads in outpatient visits. DESIGN: A qualitative realistic...... with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year and having poor glycaemic control participated together with 17 parents and eight healthcare providers. Data were collected from December 2009-March 2012 and consisted of digitally recorded outpatient Guide Self-Determination-Youth visits collected during the intervention...

  15. ARX MPC for people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a lack of production of pancreatic insulin, consequently leading to high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia has negative health effects in the long term such as eye, nerve, and kidney disease. Exogenous insulin must......, or even death. Currently, insulin administration is performed by the subject with type 1 diabetes based on infrequent glucose measurements (in the form of finger-sticks), often resulting in an unsatisfactory blood glucose control. An artificial pancreas is a medical device that injects exogenous insulin...... and insulin injection information to compute the optimal insulin administration for the current conditions. We use model predictive control (MPC) to compute the optimal insulin administration for 20 virtual type 1 diabetes subjects. The system (i.e., subject) has one manipulated input (insulin infusion rate...

  16. The pregnancy journey for women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Helen; Speight, Jane; Bridgman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and develop a model of the pregnancy journey for women with type 1 diabetes. We undertook a thematic analysis of written interactions (n = 200; n = 2060 text excerpts) with an online counselling support service from 93 women with type 1 diabetes. Seven...... reassurance during Pregnancy; however, some women still worried, with peer support offering the most reassurance. In conclusion, women with type 1 diabetes potentially experience seven distinct phases of the pregnancy journey, with eight themes varying in significance across phases. Contemplation begins well...... possible discrete phases in the pregnancy journey were revealed: Contemplation, Pregnancy planning, Conception, Pregnancy, Delivery/birth, and Motherhood or Pregnancy loss. Eight common themes were identified, varying in importance across phases. Diabetes-specific distress was most evident during...

  17. Severe hypoglycaemia in 1076 adult patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Pramming, Stig; Heller, Simon R

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differences between studies in rates of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic cohorts are common and poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients treated in different secondary care centres and to evaluate...... the influence of risk markers, clinical setting and selection. METHODS: Cross-sectional Danish-British multicentre survey of 1076 consecutive adult patients with clinical type 1 diabetes who completed a detailed questionnaire on hypoglycaemia and related issues. Key variable was the self-reported rate of severe......, the rate of severe hypoglycaemia was 0.35 episodes/patient-year and only retinopathy was a significant risk marker together with state of awareness. CONCLUSION: Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant clinical problem in type 1 diabetes. The rate of severe hypoglycaemia and the influence of risk markers...

  18. Hypoglycaemia during pregnancy in women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B

    2012-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 29, 558-566 (2012) ABSTRACT: Aims To explore incidence, risk factors, possible pathophysiological factors and clinical management of hypoglycaemia during pregnancy in women with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Literature review. Results In women with Type 1 diabetes, severe hypoglycaemia......% of the pregnant women account for 60% of all recorded events. Risk factors for severe hypoglycaemia during pregnancy include a history with severe hypoglycaemia in the year preceding pregnancy, impaired hypoglycaemia awareness, long duration of diabetes, low HbA(1c) in early pregnancy, fluctuating plasma glucose...... should have high priority among clinicians with the persistent aim of improving pregnancy outcome among women with Type 1 diabetes. Pre-conception counselling, carbohydrate counting, use of insulin analogues, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) therapy and real-time continuous glucose...

  19. New technologies in the treatment of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by insufficient production of insulin, a hormone needed for proper control of blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose throughout the day using a glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor, calculate...... how much insulin is needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and administer the insulin dose by pen injection or insulin pump infusion into the subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, several new technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes have been developed. This PhD thesis covers two...... studies of the effects of commercially available technologies--sensor-augmented pump therapy and automated insulin bolus calculators--when used in clinical practice. Both studies demonstrated that these technologies have the potential to improve diabetes care. In addition, two in-clinic studies related...

  20. Type 1 Tyrosinemia with Hypophosphatemic Rickets; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Eshraghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, which typically affects liver and kidneys. It is caused by a defect in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase or fumarylacetoacetase (FAH enzyme, the final enzyme in the tyrosine degradation pathway. The disease typically manifests as early onset type in early infancy with acute hepatic crisis with hepatomegaly and bleeding tendency. In 1992, a new drug orfadin (NTBC, Nitisinone which is a potent inhibitor of 4 hydroxy phenyl pyrovate dioxygenase has revolutionized the treatment of tyrosinemia type 1 and is now the mainstry of therapy. Case presentation: Our case was a girl in midchidhood period with profound rickets and slowly progressing liver disease who presented with difficulty walking and weakness of muscles. She had an elevated serum tyrosine and urinary succinylacetone, which confirmed the diagnosis of tyrosinemia type 1 and after treatment with NTBC significant remission, was achieved.

  1. Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eDenzinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats’ echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies pattern of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.

  2. Hand functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpinar Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hand functions have an enormous impact on activities of daily living in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, such as self-care, administering insulin injections, and preparing and eating meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Methods. This was an observational case-control study investigating the hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. The study comprised 41 patients with type 1 DM aged 25–50 years sex- and age-matched, 40 non-diabetic controls, and 91 patients with type 2 DM aged 40–65 years sex- and age-matched 60 non-diabetic controls. Patients with documented history of diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy and adhesive capsulitis were excluded. The Duruoz Hand Index was used to assess the functional hand disability. Grip strength was tested with a calibrated Jamar dynamometer. Results. The Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with type 2 DM were significantly higher than in persons in the control group (p 0.05. Grip strength values of patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower compared to those in the control group (p < 0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between patients with type 2 DM and their control group. There was a negatively significant correlation between grip strength and the Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with both type 1 and type 2 DM (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with type 1 DM and type 2 DM have different degrees of hand disability as compared to healthy control groups.

  3. Confirmation of novel type 1 diabetes risk loci in families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, J D; Howson, J M M; Smyth, D

    2012-01-01

    Over 50 regions of the genome have been associated with type 1 diabetes risk, mainly using large case/control collections. In a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study, 18 novel susceptibility loci were identified and replicated, including replication evidence from 2,319 families. Here, we......, the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC), aimed to exclude the possibility that any of the 18 loci were false-positives due to population stratification by significantly increasing the statistical power of our family study....

  4. US Army Soldiers With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon

    2018-04-01

    US Army soldiers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were previously considered unfit for duty. For highly motivated soldiers, current advanced technologies allow the possibility of not only retention on active duty, but military deployment. We present our experience at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, taking care of soldiers newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Through intensive diabetes education, extensive military and physical training, optimization of diabetes technology, and remote real-time monitoring, soldiers are able to continue to serve their country in the most specialized roles.

  5. A Quasi-Type-1 Phase-Locked Loop Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Vidal, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The grid voltage phase and frequency are crucial information in control of most grid connected power electronic based equipment. Most often, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is employed for this purpose. A PLL is a closed-loop feedback control system that the phase of its output signal is related...... to the phase of its input signal. Arguably, the simplest PLL is a type-1 PLL. The type-1 PLLs are characterized by having only one integrator in their control loop and therefore having a high stability margin. However, they suffer from a serious drawback: they cannot achieve zero average steady-state phase...

  6. Identification of Novel Betaherpesviruses in Iberian Bats Reveals Parallel Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Anar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. ...

  7. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyuan Yin

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats

  8. Tools to study pathogen-host interactions in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arinjay; Misra, Vikram; Schountz, Tony; Baker, Michelle L

    2018-03-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir. Although viruses can be readily detected in bats using molecular approaches, virus isolation is far more challenging. One of the limitations in using traditional culture systems from non-reservoir species is that cell types and culture conditions may not be compatible for isolation of bat-borne viruses. There is, therefore, a need to develop additional bat cell lines that correspond to different cell types, including less represented cell types such as immune cells, and culture them under more physiologically relevant conditions to study virus host interactions and for virus isolation. In this review, we highlight the current progress in understanding bat-virus interactions in bat cell line systems and some of the challenges and limitations associated with cell lines. Future directions to address some of these challenges to better understand host-pathogen interactions in these intriguing mammals are also discussed, not only in relation to viruses but also other pathogens carried by bats including bacteria and fungi. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leprosy type 1 reactions and erythema nodosum leprosum

    OpenAIRE

    Kahawita,Indira P.; Walker,Stephen L.; Lockwood,Diana N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leprosy reactions are a major cause of nerve damage and morbidity in a significant proportion of leprosy patients. Reactions are immunologically mediated and can occur even after successful completion of multi-drug therapy. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of leprosy type 1 reactions, erythema nodosum leprosum and silent neuropathy.

  10. Isolation of Ancestral Sylvatic Dengue Virus Type 1, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Boon-Teong; Sam, Sing-Sin; Abd-Jamil, Juraina

    2010-01-01

    Ancestral sylvatic dengue virus type 1, which was isolated from a monkey in 1972, was isolated from a patient with dengue fever in Malaysia. The virus is neutralized by serum of patients with endemic DENV-1 infection. Rare isolation of this virus suggests a limited spillover infection from an otherwise restricted sylvatic cycle. PMID:21029545

  11. Improving School Experiences for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Saori S.; Hopkins, Amanda; Burke, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is one of the most common metabolic diseases in children worldwide and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is growing. T1D is complicated to manage and adolescents with diabetes face unique, age-specific challenges. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways in which schools can create a positive…

  12. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-08-30

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  13. Caring for Students with Type 1 Diabetes: School Nurses' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueh-Ling; Volker, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used a Husserlian phenomenological approach to obtain an understanding of the essences of five experienced Taiwanese school nurses' lived experience of caring for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Data analysis entailed a modified method from…

  14. Determinants of daily insulin use in Type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, Marian J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin need for a given degree of glucose control varies markedly among individuals. We examined which factors determine daily insulin use in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 416 patients. Clinical parameters, medication use, physical

  15. Antigenic variation and resistance to neutralization in poliovirus type 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Diamond; B.A. Jameson; J. Bonin; M. Kohara; S. Abe; H. Itoh; T. Komatsu; M. Arita; S. Kuge; A. Nomoto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Crainic; E. Wimmer

    1985-01-01

    textabstractMutations have been identified in variants of poliovirus, type 1 (Mahoney) on the basis of their resistance to neutralization by individual monoclonal antibodies. The phenotypes of these variants were defined in terms of antibody binding; the pattern of epitopes expressed or able to be

  16. Increased basal glucose production in type 1 Gaucher's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corssmit, E. P.; Hollak, C. E.; Endert, E.; van Oers, M. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the metabolic effects of Gaucher's disease, glucose metabolism and parameters of fat metabolism were studied by indirect calorimetry and primed continuous infusion of [3-3H]glucose in seven clinically stable untreated patients with type 1 Gaucher's disease and in seven healthy matched

  17. Motor problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Rietman (André); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); Bongers, S. (Sanne); Gaukema, E. (Eddy); Van Abeelen, S. (Sandra); J.G.M. Hendriksen; C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); P.F.A. de Nijs (Pieter); M.C.Y. de Wit (Marie Claire)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children with the neurogenetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often have problems with learning and behaviour. In both parent reports and neuropsychological assessment, motor problems are reported in approximately one third to one half of the children with NF1.

  18. [Adolescents with diabetes type 1 in adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity, family and biographical risk factors, and individual motivational aspects influence the therapeutic adherence and treatment motivation in Diabetes Type 1. The article provides basis diabetological knowledge for adolescent psychotherapists and describes practical out- and inpatient experiences and deliberations with especially problematic comorbid patients. In psychiatrically comorbid patients family conflicts and individual psychopathology is often reflected and manifested in selfharming diabetes management.

  19. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Nancy S. Elbarbary. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Background. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.1 Worldwide,. T1DM epidemic represents an increasing global.

  20. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  1. Type 1,1-operators defined by vanishing frequency modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general definition of pseudo-differential operators of type 1,1; the definition is shown to be the largest one that is both compatible with negliible operators and stable under vanishing frequency modulation. Elaborating counter-examples of Ching, Hörmander and Parenti...

  2. Case report: type 1 diabetes in monozygotic quadruplets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štechová, K.; Halbhuber, Z.; Hubáčková, M.; Kayserová, J.; Petruželková, L.; Včeláková, J.; Koloušková, S.; Ulmannová, T.; Faresjo, M.; Neuwirth, Aleš; Spíšek, R.; Šedivá, A.; Filipp, Dominik; Sumnik, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2012), s. 457-462 ISSN 1018-4813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : autoimmunity * type 1 diabetes * beta cell s Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.319, year: 2012

  3. Viral infections as potential triggers of type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Nienke; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    During the last decades, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased significantly, reaching percentages of 3% annually worldwide. This increase suggests that besides genetical factors environmental perturbations (including viral infections) are also involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. T1D

  4. Neuroendocrine Tumour in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of an HIV-positive female patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who was treated for recurrent peptic ulcer disease and later developed diabetes mellitus and chronic diarrhoea. A metastasising somatostatinoma was histologically proven and evidence of a concomitant gastrin-producing neuroendocrine ...

  5. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months. Introduction ... SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 ... may be either trauma of external origin or iatrogenic, post surgery. In some patients particularly children ...

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 diversity has an impact on vaccine efficacy and drug resistance. It is important to know the circulating genetic variants and associated drug-resistance mutations in the context of scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to ...

  7. Immunological Adaptations to Pregnancy in Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bart; van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; van den Berg, Paul P.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Sollie, Krystina M.; de Vos, Paul; Links, Thera P.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite adequate glycemic control, pregnancy outcome of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still unfavorable as compared to healthy women. In a rat-model of T1D under normoglycemic conditions, adverse pregnancy outcome was also observed, which was associated with aberrant immunological adaptations

  8. Non HLA genetic markers association with type-1 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The currently available data identified IDDM1 and IDDM2 as 2 susceptibility loci for type 1 diabetes (T1D). The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/HLA region referred to as IDDM1 contains several 100 genes known to have a great influence on T1D risk. Within IDDM2, a minisatellite variable number of tandem repeats ...

  9. Type 1 diabetes and obesity in children : Focus on inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrijn Stuart, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an inflammatory disorder as is obesity. This thesis addresses inflammatory features in both conditions, with focus on inflammatory mediators and the role of adipose tissue (AT). The first part, specific aspects of immune tolerance in T1D,focuses on immune (dys) regulation

  10. Personality profiles of children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Descheemaeker, M.J.; Vogels, A.; Cleymans, T.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Hellinckx, W.; Onghena, P.; Legius, E.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The personality profile of 44 youngsters (24 males, 20 females; mean age 11 years, 3 months) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was compared with a group of 220 non-NF1 control youngsters (matched on age and gender). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using

  11. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  12. Exercise management in type 1 diabetes: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Michael C; Gallen, Ian W; Smart, Carmel E; Taplin, Craig E; Adolfsson, Peter; Lumb, Alistair N; Kowalski, Aaron; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; McCrimmon, Rory J; Hume, Carin; Annan, Francesca; Fournier, Paul A; Graham, Claudia; Bode, Bruce; Galassetti, Pietro; Jones, Timothy W; Millán, Iñigo San; Heise, Tim; Peters, Anne L; Petz, Andreas; Laffel, Lori M

    2017-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a challenging condition to manage for various physiological and behavioural reasons. Regular exercise is important, but management of different forms of physical activity is particularly difficult for both the individual with type 1 diabetes and the health-care provider. People with type 1 diabetes tend to be at least as inactive as the general population, with a large percentage of individuals not maintaining a healthy body mass nor achieving the minimum amount of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity per week. Regular exercise can improve health and wellbeing, and can help individuals to achieve their target lipid profile, body composition, and fitness and glycaemic goals. However, several additional barriers to exercise can exist for a person with diabetes, including fear of hypoglycaemia, loss of glycaemic control, and inadequate knowledge around exercise management. This Review provides an up-to-date consensus on exercise management for individuals with type 1 diabetes who exercise regularly, including glucose targets for safe and effective exercise, and nutritional and insulin dose adjustments to protect against exercise-related glucose excursions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Børglum, A D; Brandt, C A

    1994-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy associated with a DNA duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 in the majority of cases. Most of the sporadic cases are due to a de novo duplication. We have screened for this duplication in 11 Danish patients...

  14. Osteomyelitis in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency that affects one per million people yearly and usually presents with recurrent, indolent bacterial infections of the skin, mouth, and respiratory tract and impaired pus formation and wound healing. A 13-year-old girl...

  15. [Complex regional pain syndrome type 1: negating the myth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolke, J.P.M.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Meent, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) was identified in the Netherlands more than 30 years ago, but since then the arguments supporting this diagnosis have become weaker. Incidence has decreased, it is often not possible to make a definite diagnosis, the pathophysiology remains unclear and

  16. Chronic comorbidities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelifarsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; Van Der Vorst, Marja M.J.; Knibbe, Catherijne A.J.; De Boer, Anthonius; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited quantitative data exist on the burden of chronic comorbidities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Such knowledge is necessary for the development of guidelines and prevention programs. Objectives: To determine the incidence of chronic comorbidities in

  17. Overnight glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an individualized model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The MPC formulation uses an asymmetric objective function that penalizes low glucose levels more heavily. We compute the model parameters...

  18. Continuous glucose monitoring systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendam, Miranda; Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hooft, Lotty; DeVries, J. Hans; Mudde, Aart H.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose is essential to optimise glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems measure interstitial fluid glucose levels to provide semi-continuous information about glucose levels, which identifies fluctuations that

  19. Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...

  20. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo

    2012-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  1. Characteristics of children presenting with newly diagnosed type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children can be acute or insidious, and symptoms may be subtle ... weakness, together with simple bedside tests such as urine dipsticks ... a recent worldwide focus on programmes to reduce the incidence .... by parents, asking the correct questions by medical personnel, and.

  2. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  3. Speech Disorders in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Sample Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Vandeweghe, Lies; Mortier, Geert; Janssens, Sandra; Van Borsel, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal-dominant neurocutaneous disorder with an estimated prevalence of two to three cases per 10 000 population. While the physical characteristics have been well documented, speech disorders have not been fully characterized in NF1 patients. Aims: This study serves as a pilot to identify key…

  4. Reproduction and fertility in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Prins, J. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Boer, K.; Reiss, P.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1

  5. Genetics Home Reference: acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... encephalopathy type 1 typically appears in infancy or early childhood, although some people do not develop the condition ... status and number of prior infections, may also influence risk. Related ... it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What are the different ways in which a ...

  6. Bats roosting in public buildings: A preliminary assessment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar has many synanthropic bat species but relatively little is known about how people interact with them. A preliminary assessment on the presence of bats in buildings and their interactions with people was conducted in the eastern town of Moramanga. Fifty of the 156 buildings were reported to contain active bat ...

  7. Roost temperature and fidelity of Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally,Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) roost in trees or under the eaves of buildings. This study investigated the roosting dynamics of E. wahlbergi in the urban environment of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. To determine roost fidelity bats were radiotracked to daytime roosts. Bats were found to ...

  8. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rusty bats are seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns. Implantation is superficial with amniogenesis initiated very early during embryogenesis. Contrary to most other bat species where the amnion is formed by folding, it is formed by cavitation in the rusty bat.

  9. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  10. Multiple mortality events in bats: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.

  11. Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...

  12. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  13. Monitoring bat activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.

    2015-01-01

    IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was

  14. Bat habitat use in White Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Krusic; Mariko Yamasaki; Christopher D. Neefus; Peter J. Pekins

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 and 1993, we surveyed the foraging and feeding activity of bat species with broadband bat detectors at 2 foliage heights in 4 age classes of northern hardwood and spruce/fir forest stands in White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire and Maine. The association of bat activity with trails and water bodies and the effect of elevation were measured. Mist nets,...

  15. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  16. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and liver cytosol antibody type 1 concentrations in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, L; Cataleta, M; Muratori, P; Lenzi, M; Bianchi, F

    1998-01-01

    Background—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol antibody type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). 
Aims—Since LKM1 and LC1 react against two distinct liver specific autoantigens (cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and a 58 kDa cytosolic polypeptide respectively), the aim was to see whether LKM1 and LC1 concentrations correlate with liver disease activity. 
Patients—Twenty one patients with type 2 AIH were studied. 
Methods—A...

  17. Risk factors for necrobiosis lipoidica in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E; Lilienthal, E; Hofer, S E; Schulz, S; Bollow, E; Holl, R W

    2017-01-01

    To compare the clinical and metabolic characteristics of patients with Type 1 diabetes and necrobiosis lipoidica with those of patients with Type 1 diabetes who do not have necrobiosis lipoidica. A multicentre analysis was performed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 64 133 patients (aged 0-25 years) with Type 1 diabetes with and without necrobiosis lipoidica who were registered in the German/Austrian Diabetes Prospective Documentation Initiative registry. Data were analysed using multivariable regression modelling. Age, diabetes duration, treatment year and sex were considered as confounding factors. Results adjusted for demographic variables are presented. In patients with necrobiosis lipoidica, metabolic control was worse (HbA 1c 72 vs. 67 mmol/mol, 8.7% vs. 8.3%; P = 0.0065) and the duration of diabetes was longer [6.24 (3.28-9.97) vs. 5.11 (2.08-8.83) years; P = 0.014; not adjusted]. Patients with necrobiosis lipoidica required higher insulin doses than those without (1.02 vs. 0.92 U/kg/day; P 1). There was no significant difference in the frequency of microvascular complications (microalbuminuria and retinopathy) between the groups. Furthermore, 24.8% and 17.5% of patients with Type 1 diabetes with and without necrobiosis lipoidica, respectively, had elevated thyroid antibodies (P = 0.051). Necrobiosis lipoidica was correlated with coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes (3.4% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.0035). Our data indicate a strong correlation between hyperglycaemia and the development of necrobiosis lipoidica. We postulate that the underlying pathogenic processes differ from those leading to microalbuminuria and retinopathy, and additional immunological mechanisms may play a role. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  18. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1: Definition, Etiopathogenesis, Diagnostics and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Tomislav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 (CRS-1 is defined as an acute worsening of heart function leading to acute kidney injury and/or dysfunction. It is an important cause of hospitalization which affects the diagnosis as well as the prognosis and treatment of patients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze causes that lead to the development of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 and its clinical consequences, as well as to emphasize the clinical importance of its early detection. The clinical studies and professional papers dealing with etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of cardiorenal syndrome type 1, have been analyzed. The most important role in the occurrence of cardio renal syndrome type 1 is played by hemodynamic mechanisms, activation of neurohumoral systems, inflammation and imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO. Diagnosis of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 involves biomarkers of acute renal injury among which the most important are: neutrophil gelatinaseassociated lipocalin (NGAL, cystatin C, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, IL-18 and the values of nitrogen compounds in serum. In addition to a pharmacological therapy, various modalities of extracorporeal ultrafiltration are applied in treatment of CRS-1, particularly if there is resistance to the use of diuretic therapy. As opposed to the experimental models, in clinical practice acute renal injury is often diagnosed late so that the measures taken do not give the expected results and the protective role shown in experimental conditions do not give the same results. For all these reasons, it is necessary to analyze the pathophysiology of renal impairment in cardiorenal syndrome as well as detect early indicators of kidney injury that could have clinical benefit and positive impact on reducing the cost of treatment.

  19. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  20. Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea's bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Tigga; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2004-06-10

    Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the cochlea and inferior colliculus) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and frequency generated when an insect flutters its wings. The emitted signal is the accentuated second harmonic of a series in which the fundamental and remaining harmonics are filtered out. Here we show that three distinct, sympatric size morphs of the large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis) echolocate at different harmonics of the same fundamental frequency. These morphs have undergone recent genetic divergence, and this process has occurred in parallel more than once. We suggest that switching harmonics creates a discontinuity in the bats' perception of available prey that can initiate disruptive selection. Moreover, because call frequency in horseshoe bats has a dual function in resource acquisition and communication, ecological selection on frequency might lead to assortative mating and ultimately reproductive isolation and speciation, regardless of external barriers to gene flow.