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Sample records for basso beattie bresnahan

  1. Adaptation of the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for use in a clinical model of spinal cord injury in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rachel B; Basso, D Michele; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Fisher, Lesley C; Mo, Xiaokui; Moore, Sarah A

    2016-08-01

    Naturally occurring acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in pet dogs provides an important clinical animal model through which to confirm and extend findings from rodent studies; however, validated quantitative outcome measures for dogs are limited. We adapted the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scale for use in a clinical dog model of acute thoracolumbar SCI. Based on observation of normal dogs, modifications were made to account for species differences in locomotion. Assessments of paw and tail position, and trunk stability were modified to produce a 19 point scale suitable for use in dogs, termed the canine BBB scale (cBBB). Pet dogs with naturally occurring acute SCI were assigned cBBB scores at 3, 10 and 30days after laminectomy. Scores assigned via the cBBB were stable across testing sessions in normal dogs but increased significantly between days 3 and 30 in SCI-affected dogs (p=0.0003). The scale was highly responsive to changes in locomotor recovery over a 30day period, with a standardized response mean of 1.34. Concurrent validity was good, with strong correlations observed between the cBBB and two other locomotor scales, the OSCIS (r=0.94; p<0.001) and the MFS (r=0.85; p<0.0001). cBBB scores inversely correlated with other assessments of recovery including mechanical sensory threshold (r=-0.68; p<0.0001) and coefficient of variation of stride length (r=-0.49; p<0.0001). These results support the use of the cBBB to assess locomotor recovery in canine clinical translational models of SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BAMOS: A recording application for BAsso MOuse scale of locomotion in experimental models of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Alberto; Nieto-Díaz, Manuel; Del Águila, Ángela; Arias, Enrique

    2018-03-02

    Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking. To the best of our knowledge, both tests are usually conducted manually, with the data being recorded on a paper form, which may be documented with video recordings, before the data is transferred to a spreadsheet for analysis. The data thus obtained is used to compute global scores, which is the information that usually appears in publications, with a wealth of information being omitted. This information may be relevant to understand locomotion deficits or recovery, or even important aspects of the treatment effects. Therefore, this paper presents a mobile application to record and share Basso Mouse Scale tests, meeting the following criteria: i) user-friendly; ii) few hardware requirements (only a smartphone or tablet with a camera running under Android Operating System); and iii) based on open source software such as SQLite, XML, Java, Android Studio and Android SDK. The BAMOS app can be downloaded and installed from the Google Market repository and the app code is available at the GitHub repository. The BAMOS app demonstrates that mobile technology constitutes an opportunity to develop tools for aiding spinal cord injury scientists in recording and sharing experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptation of the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for use in a clinical model of spinal cord injury in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rachel B.; Basso, D. Michele; da Costa, Ronaldo C.; Fisher, Lesley C.; Mo, Xiaokui; Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in pet dogs provides an important clinical animal model through which to confirm and extend findings from rodent studies; however, validated quantitative outcome measures for dogs are limited. New method We adapted the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scale for use in a clinical dog model of acute thoracolumbar SCI. Based on observation of normal dogs, modifications were made to account for species differences in locomotion. Assessments of paw and tail position, and trunk stability were modified to produce a 19 point scale suitable for use in dogs, termed the canine BBB scale (cBBB). Pet dogs with naturally occurring acute SCI were assigned cBBB scores at 3, 10 and 30 days after laminectomy. Results Scores assigned via the cBBB were stable across testing sessions in normal dogs but increased significantly between days 3 and 30 in SCI-affected dogs (p = 0.0003). The scale was highly responsive to changes in locomotor recovery over a 30 day period, with a standardized response mean of 1.34. Comparison with existing methods Concurrent validity was good, with strong correlations observed between the cBBB and two other locomotor scales, the OSCIS (r = 0.94; p < 0.001) and the MFS (r = 0.85; p < 0.0001). cBBB scores inversely correlated with other assessments of recovery including mechanical sensory threshold (r = −0.68; p < 0.0001) and coefficient of variation of stride length (r = −0.49; p < 0.0001). Conclusions These results support the use of the cBBB to assess locomotor recovery in canine clinical translational models of SCI. PMID:27155106

  4. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and treated. Aqueous root extract of S. miltiorrhiza was introduced intraperitoneally to the treated group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan rating scale (BBB) was used to ... extract has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuronal degeneration following SCI. ..... effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting retinal.

  5. Basso continuo sources from the Dutch Republic c. 1620-c1790

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok, Kathryn Meriel

    2011-01-01

    The results presented in this dissertation demonstrate the generous contribution that the Dutch Republic has made to the genre of basso continuo, including a survey of twenty-six Dutch sources from the 17th and 18th centuries. Focus has been made on the written record of the practice in the Dutch

  6. 1993 recreational vehicle (RV) park census in Beatty and Pahrump, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, L.E.; Housel, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the second annual study of seasonal nonpermanent residents in the towns of Beatty and Pahrump in southern Nye County, Nevada, situs county of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The study used a census of recreational vehicle (RV) park managers to enumerate and characterize in demographic terms nonpermanent residents staying in RV parks. The questionnaire sought information from RV park managers which ordinarily would come from a household survey. The main objective was to study open-quotes snowbirdsclose quotes, the households of older couples who stay for a month or more each winter. The findings suggest that snowbirds are a majority of the seasonal influx of nonpermanent residents to RV parks in Pahrump. In contrast, a group called open-quotes seasonal travelersclose quotes, similar demographically but who stay less than a month, dominate the seasonal nonpermanent population in Beatty's RV parks. The study also tentatively identified the seasonality of nonpermanent resident occupancy. Because only RV parks were contacted, the study left unanswered the question of how many snowbirds live in other types of accommodations in Beatty and Pahrump

  7. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  8. STUDIO DI UN MOVIMENTO SISMOCO DEL BASSO TIRRENO,ORIGINANTE ALLA PROFONDITA' DI 265 KM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONINO GIRLANDA

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Gli studi microsismici condotti sul terremoto delle
    isole Lipari del 13 aprile 1938, sebbene siano concordi nell'attribuire
    all'ipocentro una profondità di circa 300 km, valore eccezionale e fino
    allora insospettato nella zona del Mediterraneo centro-occidentale (1,
    hanno condotto a risultati discordanti in relazione alla velocità di
    propagazione delle onde sismiche in corrispondenza del basso Tirreno.
    Le determinazioni delle coordinate spazio-temporali, eseguite dai vari
    Centri sismologici e da diversi autori, conducono a risultati assai discordanti.
    Le determinazioni del B.C.I.S., della J.S.A., di Pasadena,
    e, in modo particolare, una seconda determinazione di Demetrescu,
    condotta sui dati di 45 stazioni, portano a conclusioni che contrastano
    nettamente con i dati forniti dalle stazioni più vicine all'epicentro.
    Secondo gli ultimi risultati di Demetrescu, tali stazioni avrebbero
    registrato l'onda P con un anticipo eccezionale, anticipo che risulterebbe
    di 12s per Trenta e Pompei, di l l s per Taranto e Bari, di 9S per
    Napoli.

  9. ANALISIS DAN PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI DENGAN INTRANET: STUDI KASUS PERSEDIAAN MATERIAL PT BALFOUR BEATTY SAKTI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparto Darudiato

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Article discuss problem faced by PT Balfour Beatty Sakti Indonesia (PT BBSI, which is lack planning ofmaterial inventory supply. Inventory was bought overly as safety stock. That caused inventory stacking so the companyoperation less efficient and caused damage on the material itself. The inventory model will be used to overcome theproblem is Periodic Order Quantity (POQ model that was develop from Economic Order Quantity (EOQ basic model.The proposed problem solution will be applied in inventory information system in form of analysis and design of materialinventory information system object oriented using Mathiassen approach.Keywords: information system, inventory, intranet, material

  10. The ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in Basso Monferrato (Piedmont, Italy

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    Allegro G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Carabid fauna of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in the hilly area of Basso Monferrato, is described. This wood covers an area of about 50 hectares divided in two separate core areas and is almost entirely surrounded by agricultural crops. A total of 25 Carabid species were recorded, of which only 11 are present in the central core areas and 23 in the peripheral ecotone areas. There are only very few species with strict forest attitude, but a prosperous population of Carabus italicus was recorded, located in a peripheral portion of the forest on moist and swampy soil. The poorness of this fauna and the scarcity of specialized forest species may be a consequence of the limited area of the wood, its fragmentation, the total isolation in an agricultural context and the repeated coppicing carried out up to about half of the past century.

  11. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Wu, Bilian; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-07-05

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method. Passages 3-5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1-5 weeks). Expressions of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins in the damaged spinal cord of rats was significantly increased after transplantation, determined by immunofluorescence staining and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that had migrated into the damaged area of rats in the experimental group began to express choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, 3 weeks after transplantation. The Basso-Beattie- Bresnahan scores positively correlated with expression of choline acetyltransferase and synapsins. Experimental findings indicate that intravenously transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells traverse into the damaged spinal cord of rats, promote expression of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, and improve nerve function in rats with spinal cord injury.

  12. Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mengchao; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Feng; Guo, Lei; Liu, Jiantao; He, Xijing

    2017-06-17

    BACKGROUND Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury. Diffusion tensor imaging has been applied to assess various kinds of spinal cord injury. However, it has rarely been used to evaluate the beneficial effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery in rats with olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the purity of olfactory ensheathing cells. Rats received cell transplantation at week 1 after injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was used to assess the functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied weekly, including diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography was reconstructed to visualize the repair process. RESULTS The results showed that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation increased the functional and histological recovery and restrained the secondary injury process after the initial spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy values in rats with cell transplantation were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly lower. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was positively and linearly correlated with fractional anisotropy value, and it was negatively and linearly correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient value. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging parameters are sensitive biomarker indices for olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation interventions, and diffusion tensor imaging scan can reflect the functional recovery promoted by the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury.

  13. Effect of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neurotransmitters and synapsins in rats with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Wu, Bilian; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro by Percoll density gradient centrifugation combined with the cell adherence method. Passages 3–5 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into rats with traumatic spinal cord injury via the caudal vein. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores indicate that neurological function of experimental rats was significantly improved over transplantation time (1–5 weeks). Expressions of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins in the damaged spinal cord of rats was significantly increased after transplantation, determined by immunofluorescence staining and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that had migrated into the damaged area of rats in the experimental group began to express choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, 3 weeks after transplantation. The Basso-Beattie- Bresnahan scores positively correlated with expression of choline acetyltransferase and synapsins. Experimental findings indicate that intravenously transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells traverse into the damaged spinal cord of rats, promote expression of choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and synapsins, and improve nerve function in rats with spinal cord injury. PMID:25657678

  14. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone at the burial site for low-level radioactive waste near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste has been buried in trenches at a site near Beatty, NV, since 1962. In 1976, as part of a national program, the US Geological Survey began a study of the geohydrology of the waste burial site to provide a basis for estimating the potential for radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste burial trenches. The waste burial facility is in the northern Amargosa Desert about 170 kilometers (km) northwest of Las Vegas, NV. The site is underlain by poorly stratified deposits of gravelly or silty sand and sandy gravel, and thick beds of clayey sediments. A numerical analysis demonstrated that a potential exists for deep percolation despite high annual evaporation demands, and provided predictions of the time of year and the antecedent conditions that enhance the probability of deep percolation. Soil moisture profiles obtained monthly over an 18-month period demonstrate that deep percolation does occur. Calculation of downward moisture movement through the waste trench backfill material, on the basis of simplified assumptions, suggests that moisture could have penetrated as much as 6 m below land surface from 1963, when the oldest trenches were closed, to 1980, but that the moisture requirement for such penetration far exceeded the amount of moisture actually available. Steady-state downward movement of moisture at depths greater than 10 m and beneath the waste burial trenches would be on the order of 4 cu m/1,000 yr, assuming a steady flux rate of 0.1 microcentimeter/day. 37 refs., 32 figs., 17 tab

  15. Electrophysiological functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury following bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation under hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2012-04-05

    Following successful establishment of a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury by resecting right spinal cord tissues, bone marrow stem cells were transplanted into the spinal cord lesions via the caudal vein while maintaining rectal temperature at 34 ± 0.5°C for 6 hours (mild hypothermia). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that astrocytes gathered around the injury site and formed scars at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Compared with rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under normal temperature, rats transplanted with bone marrow stem cells under hypothermia showed increased numbers of proliferating cells (bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells), better recovery of somatosensory-evoked and motor-evoked potentials, greater Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scores, and an increased degree of angle in the incline plate test. These findings suggested that hypothermia combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation effectively promoted electrical conduction and nerve functional repair in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection injury.

  16. Modelo experimental de lesão medular e protocolo de avaliação motora em ratos wistar Spinal cord injury experimental model and motion evaluation protocol in wistar rats

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    Gustavo Bispo dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar modelo de contusão medular padronizado e método de avaliação motora em ratos com quadro de paraplegia. MÉTODOS: Utilizados 20 ratos Wistar divididos em quatro grupos, diferenciado o nível de gravidade da lesão raquimedular; realizadas lesões intermediárias padronizadas, através do sistema "MASCIS IMPACTOR" (Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study: grupo 1 - 12,5 mm (lesão leve; grupo 2 - 25 mm (lesão moderada; grupo 3 - 50 mm (lesão grave; grupo 4 - animais que não sofreram lesão (grupo controle. Após 48 horas foi avaliada função motora, segundo escala proposta por Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan. RESULTADOS: Utilizando o modelo, notamos que as contusões leves (12,5mm de altura foram efetivas, e os animais apresentaram infecção urinária na fase aguda uma semana após a contusão. As contusões intermediárias (25 mm de altura foram efetivas, os animais apresentaram infecção urinária até duas semanas após a contusão. As contusões graves (50mm de altura foram efetivas, os animais apresentaram infecção urinária durante três a quatro semanas e autofagia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de lesão medular utilizando o sistema MASCIS IMPACTOR e a avaliação funcional proposta por Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan é reprodutível, podendo ser utilizada, propiciando troca de informações entre os diferentes pesquisadores.OBJECTIVES: To determine a standardized spinal cord contusion model and a method for motor assessment in rats with paraplegia. METHODS: This study used 20 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups according to level of severity of spinal cord injury; standardized intermediate lesions were made through system MASCIS IMPACTOR (Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study: group 1, 12.5mm (mild injury; group 2,25mm (moderate injury; group 3,50mm (severe injury; in the group 4 the animals suffered no injury (control group. Motor function was assessed after 48 hours, using the scale proposed by Basso, Beattie and

  17. Borax partially prevents neurologic disability and oxidative stress in experimental spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Emine Rabia; Gökce, Emre Cemal; Sönmez, Mehmet Akif; Namuslu, Mehmet; Gökce, Aysun; Bodur, A Said

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of borax on ischemia/reperfusion injury of the rat spinal cord. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (no ischemia/reperfusion), ischemia/reperfusion, and borax (ischemia/reperfusion + borax); each group was consist of 7 animals. Infrarenal aortic cross clamp was applied for 30 minutes to generate spinal cord ischemia. Animals were evaluated functionally with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scoring system and inclined-plane test. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase activity, xanthine oxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total oxidant status and to perform histopathological examination. At the 72nd hour after ischemia, the borax group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan and inclined-plane scores than those of ischemia/reperfusion group. Histopathological examination of spinal cord tissues in borax group showed that treatment with borax significantly reduced the degree of spinal cord edema, inflammation, and tissue injury disclosed by light microscopy. Xanthine oxidase activity and total oxidant status levels of the ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly higher than those of the sham and borax groups (P borax group were significantly higher than those of the ischemia/reperfusion group (P borax groups in terms of total antioxidant capacity levels (P > .05). The nitric oxide levels and nitric oxide synthase activity of all groups were similar (P > .05). Borax treatment seems to protect the spinal cord against injury in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model and improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia extract on the contusive model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza eKaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpinal cord injury (SCI involves a primary trauma and secondary cellular processes that can lead to severe damage to the nervous system, resulting in long-term spinal deficits. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis, of which glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP is a major index. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia (Lav on the repair of spinal cord injuries in Wistar rats.Materials and MethodsForty-five female rats were randomly divided into six groups of seven rats each: the intact, sham, control (SCI, Lav 100, Lav 200, and Lav 400 groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB score. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions post-injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction.Results BBB scores were significantly increased and delayed responses on sensory tests were significantly decreased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. The greatest decrease of GFAP was evident in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups. EMG results showed significant improvement in the hindlimbs in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. Cavity areas significantly decreased and the number of ventral motor neurons significantly increased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups.ConclusionLav at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg can promote structural and functional recovery after SCI. The neuroprotective effects of L. angustifolia can lead to improvement in the contusive model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats.Keywords Spinal cord injury (SCI; Lavandula angustifolia; neuroprotection; Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; somatosensory evoked potential (SEP

  19. Magnetic investigation and 2½ D gravity profile modelling across the Beattie magnetic anomaly in the southeastern Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-03-01

    The southeastern Karoo Basin is considered to be one of the most prospective areas for shale gas exploration in South Africa. An interesting magnetic anomaly, the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA), and geologic intrusions are seen on the magnetic map. To date, the source of the BMA and interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions and possible location of the source of the BMA using gravity and magnetic methods. The gravity model results showed that igneous intrusions are interconnected at depth, which probably pose threat by increasing the risk of fracking the Karoo for shale gas exploration. The magnetic results revealed that the BMA becomes stronger with depth. The average depths to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources were estimated to be approximately 0.6 and 15 km, respectively.

  20. Population dynamics of toxic phytoplankton and bacterial flora in the waters of the low Adriatic sea; Dinamica di popolazione di fitoplancton tossico e flora batterica nel basso Adriatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroppo, C.; Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R.A.; Pastore, M. [CNR, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico Attlio Cerruti, Taranto (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Rome Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The coastal areas of the Southern Adriatic Sea, in particular the Apulian ones, may be considered an example of intact ecosystem and represent an ideal term of comparison to other marine ecosystems having higher levels of pollution (Northern Adriatic Sea). In order to evaluate the sanitary levels of this environment, four transect were investigated during two years monitoring (April 1995-March 1997) along the Otranto Channel coasts, by joint research groups of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and the Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti of CNR in Taranto. The study underlines the phytoplanktic and bacterial population dynamics, and the detection of the microbiological water quality along the coast tract Brindisi-Lecce-Otranto-S. Maria di Leuca. The results acquired pointed out population dynamics of some potantially toxic species of Dinophysis genus and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. These depended on the winter nutrient loads due to the ASW (Adriatic Superficial Waters) and to the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Waters). The bacterial community was mainly constituted by genera Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Cytophaga and Pseudomonas. Also the presence of Enterobacteriaceae family was relevant. Among the pathogenic vibrios the most frequently isolated species were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. [Italian] Considerando che le zone del basso Adriatico, in particolare quelle pugliesi, costituiscono un biotopo ancora relativamente inalterato, esse sono state oggetto di un'indagine sperimentale condotta in 24 mesi di attivita' (aprile 1995-marzo 1997) lungo le coste del Canale di Otranto, ad opera di un gruppo congiunto del Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' e dei laboratori dell'Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti del CNR di Taranto, ai fini di valutare lo stato di salute di questo ambiente, che fornisce, con buona probabilita', un

  1. Realizzazione di un sistema di monitoraggio del rumore a basso costo attraverso la nuova app Android “Openoise” - Implementation of a low-cost noise measurementsystem through the new Android app “Openoise”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Masera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente lavoro si propone di utilizzare i più comuni dispositivi per le telecomunicazioni, quali smartphone e tablet, come alternativa a basso costo attendibile per l’esecuzione di misure di rumore. A tal fine è stata sviluppata una nuova applicazione con codice opensource, denominata OpeNoise, scaricabile gratuitamente dal Market Android Google Play. Per verificarne l’attendibilità sono stati effettuati opportuni test in laboratorio e sul campo. I risultati sono estremamente incoraggianti e lasciano intravedere un possibile futuro per questo settore di sviluppo. ------ In this paper it has been investigated the possibility of using the most common ICT devices, like smartphones and tablet, as a low-cost alternative for noise measuring. In particular, it has been developed a new free and open-source application, called Ope-Noise, downloadable in the Android Market Google Play. To verify the reliability of OpeNoise, a series of laboratory and in-field tests has been carried out. The results are really encouraging and open a path toward new developments in this field.

  2. Spinal cord regeneration: the action of neurotrophin-3 in spinal cord injury in rats Regeneração medular: a ação do neurotrophin-3 sobre a lesão medular de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kenji Narazaki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: For many years, it was believed that medullary regeneration could not occur, although currently there are many trials using neurotrophic factors, stem cells, fetal medulla grafts, peripheral nerve grafts, and antibodies against myelin-associated proteins that demonstrate the existence of the possibility of spinal cord regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of neurotrophin-3, a novel neurotrophic factor. METHODS: The New York University impactor, a standardized device for delivery of spinal cord injuries was used on 33 rats, which were divided into 2 groups: a control group receiving distilled water intraperitoneally and a treatment group receiving neurotrophin-3 intraperitoneally. RESULTS: Using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale, the locomotor recovery curve for the neurotrophin-3 treated group was superior to that of the control group (P OBJETIVO: Por muitos anos acreditou-se que a regeneração medular não fosse factível. Atualmente porém, existem várias experiências utilizando fatores neurotróficos, células troncos, enxerto de medula fetal, enxerto de nervo periférico e anticorpos contra proteínas associadas a mielina que sugerem o contrário. Esta pesquisa estudou a ação de um dos mais novos neurotróficos, o Neurotrophin-3. MÉTODOS: As lesões medulares foram realizadas através do New York University impator, método experimental de produção de lesão medular padronizada. Foram utilizados 33 ratos divididos em 2 grupos. Um grupo controle com administração intraperitoneal de água destilada e um grupo tratamento, tratado com Neurotrophin-3 por via intraperitoneal. RESULTADOS: Observamos que a curva de recuperação locomotora, segundo a escala de Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan, do grupo Neurotrophin-3 foi superior à do grupo controle (p < 0,05; a administração de Neurotrophin-3 determinou ausência de mortes no grupo tratamento, enquanto o grupo controle apresentou taxa de

  3. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model; Analisi tecnica degli algoritmi di volume rendering: applicazione alle strutture a basso contrsto usando come modello la vascolarizzazione epatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luccichenti, Giacomo [Fondazione Biomedica Europea ONLUS, Roma (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). UO di prevenzione e riabilitazione vascolare, Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi ONLUS; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    visualizzazione delle strutture vascolari portali (strutture a basso contrasto). Materiale e metodi: Sono stati valutati tramite TC spirale con tecnica bifasica 22 pazienti. I parametri utilizzati per la scansione sono stati: collimazione 3 mm, pitch 2, avanzamento 1 mm. Le scansioni eseguite sono state tre: la prima senza mezzo di contrasto (mdc), le ultime due con iniezioni di mdc (convenzionalmente identificate come 'arteriosa' e 'portale'). Le immagini sono poi state trasferite su una consolle di post-elaborazione dotata di sistema oparativo Windows NT con software per ricostruzioni tridimensionali (3D) in grado di produrre immagini in volume rendering della vascolarizzazione epatica. Sono state valutate: la correlazione tra i valori assoluti dell'aorta, attenuazione del fegato e della vena oprta, i parametri delle CO e la qualit� delle immagini. Risultati: Le immagini 3D ottenute utilizzando le CO preimpostate di ricostruzione possiedono una qualit� molto pi� bassa rispetto a quelle ottenute utilizzando la CO scelta dall'operatore. L'elevato contrasto tra il fegato e la vena porta, per esempio durante la fase portale, utilizza delle finestre pi� larghe, in modo da aumentare la qualit� dell'immagine. Al contrario, nelle scansioni effettuate durante la fase parenchimografica, la CO deve avere un elevato gradiente in modo tale da permettere una migliore distinzione delle strutture vascolari dal parenchima epatico che le circonda. Conclusioni: Le caratteristiche dell'immagine, considerate di interesse per l'operatore, non possono essere semplificate dalla media delle CO preimpostate. Data la loro estrema variabilit� individuale, gli algoritmi 3D automatici non possono essere universalmente applicati: dovrebbero essere adattati sia alle caratteristiche dell'immagine che al paziente.

  4. Methane Suppresses Microglial Activation Related to Oxidative, Inflammatory, and Apoptotic Injury during Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WeiHeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the hypothesis that methane-rich saline (MS can be used to repair spinal cord injury (SCI in a rat model through suppressing microglial activation related to oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic injury. Methods. MS was injected intraperitoneally in rats after SCI. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters, and cell apoptosis were detected 72 h after SCI to determine the optimal dose. Then, we investigated the protective mechanisms and the long-term effects of MS on SCI. HE and microglial activation were observed. Neurological function was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB scale. Results. MS can significantly decrease infarct area and inhibit oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell apoptosis 72 h following SCI. The MS protective effect at a dose of 20 ml/kg was better. Moreover, MS can significantly suppress microglial activation related to oxidative and inflammatory injury after SCI and improve hind limb neurological function. Conclusion. MS could repair SCI and reduce the release of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and cell apoptosis produced by activated microglia. MS provides a novel and promising strategy for the treatment of SCI.

  5. HMGB1/Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) does not aggravate inflammation but promote endogenous neural stem cells differentiation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Mei, Xifan; Cao, Yang; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Ziming; Guo, Zhanpeng; Bi, Yunlong; Shen, Zhaoliang; Yuan, Yajiang; Guo, Yue; Song, Cangwei; Bai, Liangjie; Wang, Yansong; Yu, Deshui

    2017-09-04

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling is involved in a series of cell functions after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our study aimed to elucidate the effects of RAGE signaling on the neuronal recovery after SCI. In vivo, rats were subjected to SCI with or without anti-RAGE antibodies micro-injected into the lesion epicenter. We detected Nestin/RAGE, SOX-2/RAGE and Nestin/MAP-2 after SCI by Western blot or immunofluorescence (IF). We found that neural stem cells (NSCs) co-expressed with RAGE were significantly activated after SCI, while stem cell markers Nestin and SOX-2 were reduced by RAGE blockade. We found that RAGE inhibition reduced nestin-positive NSCs expressing MAP-2, a mature neuron marker. RAGE blockade does not improve neurobehavior Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores; however, it damaged survival of ventral neurons via Nissl staining. Through in vitro study, we found that recombinant HMGB1 administration does not lead to increased cytokines of TNF-α and IL-1β, while anti-RAGE treatment reduced cytokines of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by LPS via ELISA. Meanwhile, HMGB1 increased MAP-2 expression, which was blocked after anti-RAGE treatment. Hence, HMGB1/RAGE does not exacerbate neuronal inflammation but plays a role in promoting NSCs differentiating into mature neurons in the pathological process of SCI.

  6. The hetero-transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells carried by hydrogel unexpectedly demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynald; Li, Yanbin; Yu, Hao; Huang, Hua; Guo, Muyao; Hua, Rongrong; Jiang, Fenjun; Zhang, Kaihua; Li, Hailong; Wang, Fei; Li, Lusheng; Cui, FuZhai; An, Yihua

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes a disturbance in the microenvironment in the lesion site resulting in sudden loss of sensory and motor function. Transplantation of stem cells provides a promising strategy in the treatment of SCI. But limited growth and immunological incompatibility of the stem cells with the host limits the application of this strategy. In order to get better survival and integration with the host, we employed a hyaluronic acid (HA) based scaffold covalently modified by poly-l-Lysine (PLL) as a vehicle to deliver the human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to the injured spinal cord of rats. The BMSCs were chosen as an ideal candidate for its advantage of low expression of major histocompatibility complex II. The data unexpectedly showed that the hetero-transplanted cells survived well in the lesion site even at 8 weeks post injury. Both the immunofluorescent and the electrophysiological assay indicated better survival of the transplanted cells and improved axonal growth in SCI rats transplanted with BMSCs in HA-PLL in contrast to the groups without either BMSCs or the HA scaffold transplantation. These promotions may account for the functional recovery assessed by Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale in the HA-PLL seeded with BMSCs group. These data suggests that hetero-transplantation of human BMSCs delivered by HA scaffold demonstrates a significant role in the functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. Inflammation factors, VEGF and BDNF expression, caspase-3 activation, phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions were estimated using commercial kits or western blot, respectively. BBB scores were significantly increased and MPO activity was significantly undermined by combination therapy. In addition, combination therapy significantly decreased inflammation factors in SCI rats. Results from western blot showed that combination therapy significantly up-regulated the protein of VEGF and BDNF expression and down-regulated the protein of phosphorylation-p38MAPK, proNGF, p75NTR and RhoA expressions in SCI rats. Combination therapy stimulation also suppressed the caspase-3 activation in SCI rats. These results demonstrated that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combination with minocycline improve SCI in rat model.

  8. Effects of magnetic nanoparticle-incorporated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields on injured rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjin; Choi, Yun-Kyong; Lee, Dong Heon; Park, Hee Jung; Seo, Young-Kwon; Jung, Hyun; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, Sung-Min; Park, Jung-Keug

    2013-01-01

    Transplanting mesenchymal stem cells into injured lesions is currently under study as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury. In this study, the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on injured rat spinal cord were investigated in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-incorporated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). A histological analysis revealed significant differences in MNP-incorporated cell distribution near the injured site under the PEMF in comparison with that in the control group. We confirmed that MNP-incorporated cells were widely distributed in the lesions under PEMF. The results suggest that MNP-incorporated hBM-MSCs were guided by the PEMF near the injured site, and that PEMF exposure for 8 H per day over 4 weeks promoted behavioral recovery in spinal cord injured rats. The results show that rats with MNP-incorporated hBM-MSCs under a PEMF were more effective on the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan behavioral test and suggest that the PEMF enhanced the action of transplanted cells for recovery of the injured lesion. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-04-15

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury.

  10. Improvement of spinal contusion model by cotransplanting bone marrow stromal cells and induced BMSCs into oligodendrocytes-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, Gholam R; Tiraihi, Taki; Delshad, Alireza; Taheri, Taher; Kazemi, Hadi; Hassoun, Hayder K

    2017-10-01

    Demyelination is a common lesion in spinal cord injury, cell therapy is one of the approaches for replacing the lost oligodendrocytes. In this study, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been transdifferentiated into oligodendrocyte-like cells (OLCs) and used in cytotherapy of contused spinal cords in rats. The BMSCs were collected from the rat long bones, and cultured and characterized by different markers, then they were preinduced with dimethyl sulfoxide followed by retinoic acid, and then the preinduced cells were induced with combination of basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and heregulin, followed by triiodothyronine. The OLCs were transplanted in the contused spinal cords of the rats, combined with undifferentiated BMSCs. Specific markers were used in order to characterize the cells by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The BMSCs showed typical immnuoreactivity to the markers, and the OLCs were immunostained with specific markers. There was an improvement in the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score with reduction in the cavitation in the contused rats treated with OLCs combined with BMSCs. The transplanted cells were detected in the contused spinal cord. The combination of the transdifferentiated BMSCs into OLCs with the undifferentiated BMSCs improved the contused spinal cord.

  11. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Liu, Yin; Li, Jian-Ding; Xie, Jun

    2015-03-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T7-8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to the lesion site. Prussian blue staining showed that more bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reached the lesion site in these rats than in those without magnetic guidance or superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling, and immunofluorescence revealed a greater number of complete axons at the lesion site. Moreover, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale scores were the highest in rats with superparamagnetic labeling and magnetic guidance. Our data confirm that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles effectively label bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and impart sufficient magnetism to respond to the external magnetic field guides. More importantly, superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be dynamically and non-invasively tracked in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells coupled with magnetic guidance offers a promising avenue for the clinical treatment of spinal cord injury.

  12. Bone marrow stromal cells transplantation combined with ultrashortwave therapy promotes functional recovery on spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Mei; Lu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Guang-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation combined with low dose ultrashortwave (USW) radiation on functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operated, as well as control, USW, BMSCs, and BMSCs + USW that were subjected to spinal cord contusion. BMSCs were transplanted into rats in the BMSCs and BMSCs+USW groups, while those in the USW and BMSCs + USW were exposed to radiation; Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) tests were performed before the operation and at 1-week intervals after SCI for 7 weeks. 7 weeks later, animals were assessed footprint pattern, motor evoked potential (MEP), histological features, and expression of the ED1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), markers of activated macrophages and astrocytes, respectively, in the lesion area. BBB scores were higher in the BMSCs + USW than in the BMSCs and control groups. The USW and BMSCs + USW groups had improved coordination compared to the BMSCs and control groups (P spinal cord area than the other injured rats, and also had expression of GFAP in transplanted BMSCs. All treatment groups had lower ED1 expression and MEP latency than the controls (P spinal cord repair. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Treadmill exercise with bone marrow stromal cells transplantation potentiates recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Mi; Seo, Tae-Beom; Kim, Chang-Ju; Ji, Eun-Sang

    2017-06-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is regarded as a promising candidate for the spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill exercise potentiate the effect of BM-SCs transplantation on the functional recovery in the SCI rats. The spinal cord contusion injury applied at the T9-T10 level using the impactor. Cultured BMSCs were transplanted into the lesion at 1 week after SCI induction. Treadmill exercise was conducted for 6 weeks. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale for locomotor function was determined. Sprouting axons in the lesion cavity were detected by immunofluorescence staining for neurofilament-200. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synapsin-I expressions were analyzed using western blotting. BMSCs transplantation improved BBB score and increased expressions of neurofilament-200, BDNF, and synapsin-I in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise potentiated the improving effect of BMSCs transplantation on BBB score in the SCI rats. This potentiating effect of treadmill exercise could be ascribed to the enhancement of BDNF expression in the SCI rats.

  14. Administration of chlorogenic acid alleviates spinal cord injury via TLR4/NF‑κB and p38 signaling pathway anti‑inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayong; Pan, Dan; Tang, Shaolong; Tan, Zhihong; Zhang, Yanan; Fu, Yunfeng; Lü, Guohua; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, as a secondary metabolite of plants, exhibits a variety of effects including free radical scavenging, antiseptic, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑viral, in addition to its ability to reduce blood glucose, protect the liver and act as an anti‑hyperlipidemic agent and cholagogue. The present study demonstrated that administration of chlorogenic acid alleviated spinal cord injury (SCI) via anti‑inflammatory activity mediated by nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and p38 signaling pathways. Wistar rats were used to structure a SCI model rat to explore the effects of administration of chlorogenic acid on SCI. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan test was executed for assessment of neuronal functional recovery and then spinal cord tissue wet/dry weight ratio was recorded. The present study demonstrated that chlorogenic acid increased SCI‑inhibition of BBB scores and decreased SCI‑induction of spinal cord wet/dry weight ratio in rats. In addition, chlorogenic acid suppressed SCI‑induced inflammatory activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and cyclooxygenase‑2 protein expression in the SCI rat. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid suppressed Toll like receptor (TLR)‑4/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/NF‑κB/IκB signaling pathways and downregulated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase protein expression in SCI rats. The findings suggest that administration of chlorogenic acid alleviates SCI via anti‑inflammatory activity mediated by TLR4/MyD88/NF‑κB and p38 signaling pathways.

  15. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ock Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=47 using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg or vehicle (saline treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

  16. Mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of epothilone B on scar formation after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scar formation after spinal cord injury is regarded as an obstacle to axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Epothilone B provides moderate microtubule stabilization and is mainly used for anti-tumor therapy. It also reduces scar tissue formation and promotes axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of the microtubule-stabilizing reagent epothilone B in decreasing fibrotic scarring through its action on pericytes after spinal cord injury. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established via dorsal complete transection at the T10 vertebra. The rats received an intraperitoneal injection of epothilone B (0.75 mg/kg at 1 and 15 days post-injury in the epothilone B group or normal saline in the vehicle group. Neuron-glial antigen 2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and fibronectin protein expression were dramatically lower in the epothilone B group than in the vehicle group, but β-tubulin protein expression was greater. Glial fibrillary acidic protein at the injury site was not affected by epothilone B treatment. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scores were significantly higher in the epothilone B group than in the vehicle group. The results of this study demonstrated that epothilone B reduced the number of pericytes, inhibited extracellular matrix formation, and suppressed scar formation after spinal cord injury.

  17. Gelatin Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Incorporating Nerve Growth Factor Inhibit Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Improve Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si-Pin; Wang, Zhou-Guang; Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Wu, Jiang; Shi, Hong-Xue; Ye, Li-Bing; Wu, Fen-Zan; Cheng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Yu; He, Songbin; Wei, Xiaojie; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Li, Xiao-Kun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Clinical translation of growth factor therapies faces multiple challenges; the most significant one is the short half-life of the naked protein. Gelatin nanostructured lipid carriers (GNLs) had previously been used to encapsulate the basic fibroblast growth factor to enhance the functional recovery in hemiparkinsonian rats. In this research, we comparatively study the enhanced therapy between nerve growth factor (NGF) loaded GNLs (NGF-GNLs) and NGF only in spinal cord injury (SCI). The effects of NGF-GNLs and NGF only were tested by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale, inclined plane test, and footprint analysis. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining were further performed to identify the expression of ER stress-related proteins, neuron-specific marker neuronal nuclei (NeuN), and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). Correlated downstream signals Akt/GSK-3β and ERK1/2 were also analyzed with or without inhibitors. Results showed that NGF-GNLs, compared to NGF only, enhanced the neuroprotection effect in SCI rats. The ER stress-induced apoptosis response proteins CHOP, GRP78 and caspase-12 inhibited by NGF-GNL treatment were more obvious. Meanwhile, NGF-GNLs in the recovery of SCI are related to the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell death via the activation of downstream signals PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β and ERK1/2.

  18. Site-specific gene transfer into the rat spinal cord by photomechanical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Toyooka, Terushige; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2011-10-01

    Nonviral, site-specific gene delivery to deep tissue is required for gene therapy of a spinal cord injury. However, an efficient method satisfying these requirements has not been established. This study demonstrates efficient and targeted gene transfer into the spinal cord by using photomechanical waves (PMWs), which were generated by irradiating a black laser absorbing rubber with 532-nm nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. After a solution of plasmid DNA coding for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or luciferase was intraparenchymally injected into the spinal cord, PMWs were applied to the target site. In the PMW application group, we observed significant EGFP gene expression in the white matter and remarkably high luciferase activity only in the spinal cord segment exposed to the PMWs. We also assessed hind limb movements 24 h after the application of PMWs based on the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score to evaluate the noninvasiveness of this method. Locomotor evaluation showed no significant decrease in BBB score under optimum laser irradiation conditions. These findings demonstrated that exogenous genes can be efficiently and site-selectively delivered into the spinal cord by applying PMWs without significant locomotive damage.

  19. Improved Neural Regeneration with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Inoculated PLGA Scaffolds in Spinal Cord Injury Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxing Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Every year, around the world, between 250000 and 500000 people suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI. This study investigated the potential for poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA complex inoculated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs to treat spinal cord injury in a rat model. Methods: OECs were identified by immunofluorescence based on the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR p75. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB score, together with an inclined plane (IP test were used to detect functional recovery. Nissl staining along with the luxol fast blue (LFB staining were independently employed to illustrate morphological alterations. More so, immunofluorescence labeling of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and the microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2, representing astrocytes and neurons respectively, were investigated at time points of weeks 2 and 8 post-operation. Results: The findings showed enhanced locomotor recovery, axon myelination and better protected neurons post SCI when compared with either PLGA or untreated groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: PLGA complexes inoculated with OECs improve locomotor functional recovery in transected spinal cord injured rat models, which is most likely due to the fact it is conducive to a relatively benevolent microenvironment, has nerve protective effects, as well as the ability to enhance remyelination, via a promotion of cell differentiation and inhibition of astrocyte formation.

  20. Repetitive Treatment with Diluted Bee Venom Attenuates the Induction of Below-Level Neuropathic Pain Behaviors in a Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Yun; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Wan; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2015-07-10

    The administration of diluted bee venom (DBV) into an acupuncture point has been utilized traditionally in Eastern medicine to treat chronic pain. We demonstrated previously that DBV has a potent anti-nociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-nociceptive effect of repetitive DBV treatment in the development of below-level neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. DBV was applied into the Joksamli acupoint during the induction and maintenance phase following thoracic 13 (T13) spinal hemisection. We examined the effect of repetitive DBV stimulation on SCI-induced bilateral pain behaviors, glia expression and motor function recovery. Repetitive DBV stimulation during the induction period, but not the maintenance, suppressed pain behavior in the ipsilateral hind paw. Moreover, SCI-induced increase in spinal glia expression was also suppressed by repetitive DBV treatment in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord. Finally, DBV injection facilitated motor function recovery as indicated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan rating score. These results indicate that the repetitive application of DBV during the induction phase not only decreased neuropathic pain behavior and glia expression, but also enhanced locomotor functional recovery after SCI. This study suggests that DBV acupuncture can be a potential clinical therapy for SCI management.

  1. Functional gait analysis in a spinal contusion rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Abhiraj D; Kheirkhah, Pouyan; Arnone, Gregory D; Nahhas, Cindy R; Kumar, Prateek; Wonais, Matt; Hidrogo, Hugo; Aguilar, Eddy; Spalinski, Daniel; Gopalka, Mahie; Roth, Steven; Mehta, Ankit I

    2017-12-01

    Evaluating functional performance of spinal cord injury (SCI) rat models is essential for the development of novel treatments and breakthroughs. However, due to the variety of functional analysis methods available - each with its own strengths and weaknesses - it can be challenging to choose the most appropriate functional analysis test for the animal model. Therefore, we analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of five methods in order to determine which test is not only accurate and easily reproducible, but also relatively inexpensive so that it can be adopted universally. When comparing the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) test, Ladder walking test, CatWalk test, Rotating Rod test, Microsoft Kinect system and VICON, we used the criteria of sensitivity, quality of data generated, statistical analysis of data, and rate of human error. These specific tests were chosen in order to compare the advantages and disadvantages of simple yet effective methods (BBB, Ladder test, and Rotating Rod test) to more complex and computerized methods (Catwalk, Microsoft Kinect and VICON). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  3. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-01-01

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:25206389

  4. Regulatory effect of neuroglobin in the recovery of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yun; Yuan, Yong-Jian; Xing, Shi-Tong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Qiang-Hua; Min, Ji-Kang

    2017-11-16

    The present study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of neuroglobin in the recovery of spinal cord injury. The male albino Wistar strain rats were used as an experimental model, and adeno associated virus (AAV) was administered in the T12 section of spinal cord ten days prior to the injury. Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale was used to determine the recovery of the hind limb during four weeks post-operation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the spinal cord tissues. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was carried out to determine the presence of apoptotic cells. Immunofluorescence analysis was carried out to determine the neuroglobin expression. Western blot analysis was carried out to determine the protein expressions of caspase-3, cytochrome c, bax and bcl-2 in the spinal cord tissues. Experimental results showed that rats were recovered from the spinal cord injury due to increased neuroglobin expression. Lipid peroxidation was reduced, whereas catalase and SOD activity were increased in the spinal cord tissues. Apoptosis and lesions were significantly reduced in the spinal cord tissues. Caspase-3, cytochrome c and bax levels were significantly reduced, whereas bcl-2 expression was reduced in the spinal cord tissues. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the increased neuroglobin expression could improve the locomotor function.

  5. Transplanted neurally modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote tissue protection and locomotor recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Arshak R; Fehlings, Michael G; Zhang, Zhiying; Maiman, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy for repair and replacement of lost neural cells is a promising treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neural phenotypes and be isolated and expanded for autotransplantation with no risk of rejection. The authors examined whether transplanted neurally induced human MSCs (NI hMSCs), developed by a new procedure, can survive, differentiate, and promote tissue protection and functional recovery in injured spinal cord (ISC) rats. Neural induction was achieved by exposing cells simultaneously to inhibitors of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and pharmacological agents that increased cAMP levels. Three groups of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected immediately rostral and caudal to the midline lesion with phosphate-buffered saline, MSCs, or NI hMSCs, 1 week after a spinal cord impact injury at T-8. Functional outcome was measured using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and thermal sensitivity test on a weekly basis up to 12 weeks postinjury. Graft integration and anatomy of spinal cord was assessed by stereological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques. The transplanted NI hMSCs survived, differentiated, and significantly improved locomotor recovery of ISC rats. Transplantation also reduced the volume of lesion cavity and white matter loss. This method of hMSC modification may provide an alternative source of autologous adult stem cells for CNS repair.

  6. MP Resulting in Autophagic Cell Death of Microglia through Zinc Changes against Spinal Cord Injury

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    Dingding Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT, as a public recognized therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI, is doubted recently, and the exact mechanism of MP on SCI is unclear. This study sought to investigate the exact effect of MP on SCI. We examined the effect of MP in a model of SCI in vivo and an LPS induced model in vitro. We found that administration of MP produced an increase in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores and motor neurons counts of injured rats. Besides the number of activated microglia was apparently reduced by MP in vivo, and Beclin-1 dependent autophagic cell death of microglia was induced by MP in LPS induced model. At the same time, MP increases cellular zinc concentration and level of ZIP8, and TPEN could revert effect of MP on autophagic cell death of microglia. Finally, we have found that MP could inhibit NF-κβ in LPS induced model. These results show that the MP could result in autophagic cell death of microglia, which mainly depends on increasing cellular labile zinc, and may be associated with inhibition of NF-κβ, and that MP can produce neuroprotective effect in SCI.

  7. MP Resulting in Autophagic Cell Death of Microglia through Zinc Changes against Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dingding; Wang, Guannan; Han, Donghe; Bi, Jing; Li, Chenyuan; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Zhiyuan; Gao, Wei; Gao, Kai; Yao, Tianchen; Wan, Zhanghui; Li, Haihong; Mei, Xifan

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT), as a public recognized therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI), is doubted recently, and the exact mechanism of MP on SCI is unclear. This study sought to investigate the exact effect of MP on SCI. We examined the effect of MP in a model of SCI in vivo and an LPS induced model in vitro. We found that administration of MP produced an increase in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores and motor neurons counts of injured rats. Besides the number of activated microglia was apparently reduced by MP in vivo, and Beclin-1 dependent autophagic cell death of microglia was induced by MP in LPS induced model. At the same time, MP increases cellular zinc concentration and level of ZIP8, and TPEN could revert effect of MP on autophagic cell death of microglia. Finally, we have found that MP could inhibit NF-κβ in LPS induced model. These results show that the MP could result in autophagic cell death of microglia, which mainly depends on increasing cellular labile zinc, and may be associated with inhibition of NF-κβ, and that MP can produce neuroprotective effect in SCI.

  8. Therapeutic Efficacy of E-64-d, a Selective Calpain Inhibitor, in Experimental Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of calpain inhibitor E-64-d on SCI and to find a new approach to treat SCI. When an SCI rat model was established, it was immediately administered with E-64-d. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the protein and mRNA levels of calpain 1 and 68-kD NFP. TUNEL staining and NeuN labeling were performed to analyze neuronal apoptosis in the lesion. Immunohistochemistry assay was carried out to observe the expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP. Cyclooxygenase-2 activity was measured to show the immune response status. Locomotor function was evaluated by inclined plane test and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale. The results showed that calpain 1 was activated after SCI occurred. Treatment with E-64-d decreased expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP, alleviated neuronal apoptosis, inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and resulted in the promoted locomotor function. Furthermore, combination of E-64-d and MP had better efficacy than did E-64-d or MP alone. E-64-d is expected to be applied to treat SCI, and its alliance with MP may provide a valid strategy for SCI therapy.

  9. Characterization of focal liver lesions with a new ultrasound contrast agent using continuous low acoustic power imaging: comparison with contrast enhanced spiral CT; Caratterizzazione delle lesioni focali epatiche con mezzo di contrasto ecografico e metodica di imaging continuo a basso indice meccanico: paragone con la TC spirale con contrasto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passamonti, Matteo; Vercelli, Alessandro; Azzaretti, Andrea; Rodolico, Giuseppe; Calliada, Fabrizio [Ospedale Maggiore di Lodi, U. O. Radiologia, Lodi (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    stati sottoposti ad esame ecografico con imaging continuo a basso Indice Meccanico (0,01basso indice meccanico e l'ecocontrasto producono risultati simili a quelli ottenuti con la TC spirale con contrasto per quanto riguarda la distribuzione e il comportamento vascolare dinamico del contrasto delle lesioni.

  10. Post-spinal cord injury astrocyte-mediated functional recovery in rats after intraspinal injection of the recombinant adenoviral vectors Ad5-VEGF and Ad5-ANG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povysheva, Tatyana; Shmarov, Maksim; Logunov, Denis; Naroditsky, Boris; Shulman, Ilya; Ogurcov, Sergey; Kolesnikov, Pavel; Islamov, Rustem; Chelyshev, Yuri

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The most actively explored therapeutic strategy for overcoming spinal cord injury (SCI) is the delivery of genes encoding molecules that stimulate regeneration. In a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in preliminary clinical trials in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the combined administration of recombinant adenoviral vectors (Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG) encoding the neurotrophic/angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) and angiogenin ( ANG) was found to slow the development of neurological deficits. These results suggest that there may be positive effects of this combination of genes in posttraumatic spinal cord regeneration. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG combination therapy on motor function recovery and reactivity of astrocytes in a rat model of SCI. METHODS Spinal cord injury was induced in adult Wistar rats by the weight-drop method. Rats (n = 51) were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group (Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG) and the control group (Ad5-GFP [green fluorescent protein]). Recovery of motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale. The duration and intensity of infectivity and gene expression from the injected vectors were assessed by immunofluorescent detection of GFP. Reactivity of glial cells was assessed by changes in the number of immunopositive cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100β, aquaporin 4 (AQP4), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4. The level of S100β mRNA expression in the spinal cord was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Partial recovery of motor function was observed 30 days after surgery in both groups. However, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores were 35.9% higher in the Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG group compared with the control group. Specific GFP signal was observed at distances of up to 5 mm in the rostral and caudal

  11. Real-time direct measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression: relationship between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency in spinal cord injury.

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    Hamamoto, Yuichiro; Ogata, Tadanori; Morino, Tadao; Hino, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu

    2007-08-15

    An in vivo study to measure rat spinal cord blood flow in real-time at the site of compression using a newly developed device. To evaluate the change in thoracic spinal cord blood flow by compression force and to clarify the association between blood flow recovery and motor deficiency after a spinal cord compression injury. Until now, no real-time measurement of spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression has been conducted. In addition, it has not been clearly determined whether blood flow recovery is related to motor function after a spinal cord injury. Our blood flow measurement system was a combination of a noncontact type laser Doppler system and a spinal cord compression device. The rat thoracic spinal cord was exposed at the 11th vertebra and spinal cord blood flow at the site of compression was continuously measured before, during, and after the compression. The functioning of the animal's hind-limbs was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scoring scale and the frequency of voluntary standing. Histologic changes such as permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier, microglia proliferation, and apoptotic cell death were examined in compressed spinal cord tissue. The spinal blood flow decreased on each increase in the compression force. After applying a 5-g weight, the blood flow decreased to compression), while no significant difference was observed between the 20-minute ischemia group and the sham group. In the 20-minute ischemia group, the rats whose spinal cord blood flow recovery was incomplete showed significant motor function loss compared with rats that completely recovered blood flow. Extensive breakdown of blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and the following microglia proliferation and apoptotic cell death were detected in the 40-minute complete ischemia group. Duration of ischemia/compression and blood flow recovery of the spinal cord are important factors in the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury.

  12. Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Hemisected Spinal Cord Using Human Endometrial Stem Cells, Poly ε-Caprolactone Scaffolds, and Crocin as a Neuroprotective Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraf, Panieh; Kouhsari, Shideh Montasser; Ai, Jafar; Babaloo, Hamideh

    2017-09-01

    Loss of motor and sensory function as a result of neuronal cell death and axonal degeneration are the hallmarks of spinal cord injury. To overcome the hurdles and achieve improved functional recovery multiple aspects, it must be taken into account. Tissue engineering approaches by coalescing biomaterials and stem cells offer a promising future for treating spinal cord injury. Here we investigated human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) as our cell source. Electrospun poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were used for hEnSC adhesion and growth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the attachment and survival of stem cells on the PCL scaffolds. The scaffold-stem cell construct was transplanted into the hemisected spinal cords of adult male rats. Crocin, an ethanol-extractable component of Crocus sativus L., was administered to rats for 15 consecutive days post injury. Neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration were investigated using immunohistochemical staining for neurofilament marker NF-H and luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining, respectively. TNF-α staining was performed to determine the inflammatory response in each group. Functional recovery was assessed via the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale. Results showed that PCL scaffolds seeded with hEnSCs restored the continuity of the damaged spinal cord and decreased cavity formation. Additionally, hEnSC-seeded scaffolds contributed to the functional recovery of the spinal cord. Hence, hEnSC-seeded PCL scaffolds may serve as promising transplants for spinal cord tissue engineering purposes. Furthermore, crocin had an augmenting effect on spinal cord regeneration and proved to exert neuroprotective effects on damaged neurons and may be further studied as a promising drug for spinal cord injury.

  13. Effect of transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium induced bone marrow stromal cells on rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Linjie; Gan, Hongquan; Zhao, Wenguo; Liu, Yingjie

    2017-08-01

    Spinal cord injury is a serious threat to human health and various techniques have been deployed to ameliorate or cure its effects. Stem cells transplantation is one of the promising methods. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) conditioned medium‑induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury. Rat spinal cord compression injury animal models were generated, and the rats divided into the following three groups: Group A, (control) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium‑treated group; group B, normal BMSC‑treated group; group C, OEC conditioned medium‑induced BMSC‑treated group. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks following transplantation for hematoxylin and eosin staining, and fluorescence staining of neurofilament protein, growth associated protein‑43 and neuron‑specific nuclear protein. The cavity area of the spinal cord injury was significantly reduced at 2 and 4 weeks following transplantation in group C, and a significant difference between the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score in group C and groups A and B was observed. Regenerated nerve fibers were observed in groups B and C; however, a greater number of regenerated nerve fibers were observed in group C. BMSCs induced by OEC conditioned medium survived in vivo, significantly reduced the cavity area of spinal cord injury, promoted nerve fiber regeneration following spinal cord injury and facilitated recovery of motor function. The present study demonstrated a novel method to repair spinal cord injury by using induced BMSCs, with satisfactory results.

  14. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Transfected Placenta-Derived Versus Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Cells for Treating Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Lu, Yao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Man; Chen, Bing; Yang, Huilin

    2017-04-14

    BACKGROUND Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) were isolated from placenta and had differentiation and self-renewal potential. We transfected PMSCs with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and compared their effect for repairing spinal cord injury (SCI) with that of GDNF-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The PMSCs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat placenta; BMSCs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat thigh bone marrow. Primary cultured BMSCs and PMSCs were uniformly spindle-shaped. Flow cytometry indicated that both cell types were CD29- and CD90-positive and CD34- and CD45-negative, confirming that they were MSCs. The PMSCs and BMSCs were transfected with recombinant lentivirus containing the GDNF gene in vitro. PMSC and BMSC viability was increased after transfection, and GDNF expression was increased until 10 d after transfection. SCI was created in the rats (n=64) and was repaired using transfected PMSCs and BMSCs or untransfected PMSCs and BMSCs. RESULTS The transfected PMSCs and BMSCs repaired the SCI. Flow cytometry, histology, immunohistochemical, kinesiology properties, and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotion score measurements determined no significant difference between transfected PMSCs and BMSCs at 7, 14, and 21 d post-transplantation (P>0.05); the injury healed better in transfected PMSCs and BMSCs than in untransfected PMSCs and BMSCs (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS MSCs have similar biology characteristics and capacity for SCI repair to BMSCs and can be used as a new resource for treating SCI.

  15. Effect of TNF-α Inhibition on Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neurological Function Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury via the Wnt Signaling Pathway in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ren-Jun; Jiang, Bing; Ding, Xi-Ping; Huang, He; Liao, Yi-Wei; Peng, Gang; Cheng, Quan; Xi, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibition on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) via the Wnt signaling pathway in a rat model. The rat model of SCI was established using Allen's method. Seventy-two adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (18 rats in each group): the sham control group, saline control group, BMSCs group (injection with BMSCs at the injured site) and BMSCs + TNF-α group (injection with BMSCs under TNF-α treatment at the injured site). Immunochemistry was performed to characterize the culture media after TNF-α-induced differentiation. qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of β-catenin, Wnt3a, GSK-3β and Axin. The Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score, neurological deficit score (NDS), and balance beam test (BBT) score were used to assess neurological functional recovery of SCI rats. In the BMSC group, numerous spherical cell clusters grew in suspension, and the cells were nestin-, NF200- and GFAP-positive. Compared with the sham control and BMSC groups, the β-catenin and Wnt3a mRNA and protein expression was increased, but the GSK-3β and Axin mRNA and protein expression was decreased in the BMSCs + TNF-α group. The SCI rats in the BMSCs + TNF-α group exhibited lower BBB scores, and higher NDSs and BBT scores compared to the BMSCs group. Our study provides evidence that TNF-α inhibition may weaken the ability of BMSCs in neurological functional recovery after SCI by activating the Wnt signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of Multiple Injection of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Spinal Cord Injury of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekiyo, Kenji; Nakano, Norihiko; Homma, Tamami; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Tamachi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Fukushima, Masanori; Saito, Fukuki; Ide, Chizuka

    2017-11-01

    The effects of multiple injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) on spinal cord injury (SCI) were compared with those of single injection in rats. BMNCs separated by density-gradient centrifugation from a bone marrow perfusate were injected three times (once weekly) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the fourth ventricle, and the locomotor improvement and tissue recovery, including axonal regeneration, were compared with those of single injection. While the single-injection group showed a steep elevation of the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score 1 week after transplantation, the multiple-injection group maintained a similar steep elevation for 2 weeks after transplantation, and the BBB scores of the multiple-injection group remained thereafter at a level approximately 2-3 points higher than those of the single-injection group until the end of the experiment. There were significant differences between the single- and multiple-injection groups at 3, 4, and 8 weeks after transplantation. The difference in BBB scores at 8 weeks after transplantation suggested that there was a marked difference in the quality of locomotor behaviors between the single-and multiple-injection groups at this stage. An extensive outgrowth of regenerating axons through the astrocyte-devoid areas and a marked reduction of cavity formation were found in both the single- and multiple-injection groups. There were, however, no significant differences in the density of regenerating axons or volumes of cavities between the single- and multiple-injection groups. These results showed that although tissue recoveries were similar between single and multiple injection, the multiple injection of BMNCs was more beneficial for locomotor improvement than single injection for the treatment of SCI. Considering the technically simple and low-cost procedures for the preparation and injection of BMNCs, multiple injection of BMNCs by lumbar puncture has an advantage over single injection on

  17. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with plumbagin alleviates spinal cord injury by affecting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

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    Yang, Wencheng; Yang, Yan; Yang, Jian-Yi; Liang, Ming; Song, Jiangtao

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect exerted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in combination with plumbagin on spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore the mechanism behind this protective effect. Firstly, BMSCs were extracted from male Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured in vitro, and identified by hematoxylin. Sprague-Dawley rats were then randomly divided into a control group, SCI model group, BMSC-treated group, a plumbagin-treated group, and a BMSC and plumbagin-treated group. After treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin, a Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test was carried out and the spinal cord water content was examined in order to analyze the effect of BMSCs combined with plumbagin on SCI. The myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also detected. Moreover, nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p-)Akt, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein expression levels were measured using western blot analysis. Treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin significantly improved locomotor recovery and reduced the spinal cord water content after SCI. The increased MPO, MDA, NF-κB p65 and TNF-α levels were significantly suppressed and the decreased SOD was significantly increased in SCI rats. The suppression of Nrf2, p-Akt and p-ERK, as well as the promotion of p-p38 MAPK, were reversed by treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin. These effects suggest that treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin alleviates SCI through its effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  18. Bone marrow stromal cell sheets may promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery with suppression of glial scar formation after spinal cord transection injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Akinori; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Shimizu, Takamasa; Shigematsu, Hideki; Iwata, Eiichiro; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Koizumi, Munehisa; Akahane, Manabu; Nishi, Mayumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a theoretical potential as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although a scaffold is sometimes used for retaining transplanted cells in damaged tissue, it is also known to induce redundant immunoreactions during the degradation processes. In this study, the authors prepared cell sheets made of BMSCs, which are transplantable without a scaffold, and investigated their effects on axonal regeneration, glial scar formation, and functional recovery in a completely transected SCI model in rats. METHODS BMSC sheets were prepared from the bone marrow of female Fischer 344 rats using ascorbic acid and were cryopreserved until the day of transplantation. A gelatin sponge (GS), as a control, or BMSC sheet was transplanted into a 2-mm-sized defect of the spinal cord at the T-8 level. Axonal regeneration and glial scar formation were assessed 2 and 8 weeks after transplantation by immunohistochemical analyses using anti-Tuj1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies, respectively. Locomotor function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale. RESULTS The BMSC sheets promoted axonal regeneration at 2 weeks after transplantation, but there was no significant difference in the number of Tuj1-positive axons between the sheet- and GS-transplanted groups. At 8 weeks after transplantation, Tuj1-positive axons elongated across the sheet, and their numbers were significantly greater in the sheet group than in the GS group. The areas of GFAP-positive glial scars in the sheet group were significantly reduced compared with those of the GS group at both time points. Finally, hindlimb locomotor function was ameliorated in the sheet group at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study indicate that an ascorbic acid-induced BMSC sheet is effective in the treatment of SCI and enables autologous transplantation without requiring a

  19. Erythropoietin facilitates the recruitment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to sites of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Weichun; Xiong, Min; Zhang, Shuangjie; Han, Heng; Chen, Jie; Mao, Dan; Yu, Hualong; Zeng, Yun

    2017-05-01

    Despite the successes of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injuries, only a small fraction of grafted cells migrate to the target areas. Therefore, there remains a need for more efficient strategies of BMSC delivery. The present study was designed to explore this. Rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI) were established and exposed to phosphate buffered saline (control), BMSCs or BMSCs + erythropoietin (EPO). Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale and grid walk tests were then utilized to estimate neurological rehabilitation. Additionally, the following assays were performed: Immunofluorescence localization of BMSCs to the site of SCI; the transwell migration assay to detect in vitro cellular migration; the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay to determine the apoptotic index of the lesion; and western blotting analysis to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at the site of SCI. The BBB scores of the BMSC + EPO treated group were significantly increased compared with the BMSC treatment group (P<0.05). For example, BMSC + EPO treated rats had a significantly decreased number of hind limb slips compared with the BMSC treatment group (P<0.05). Furthermore, EPO significantly increased the migration capacity of BMSCs compared with the control group (P<0.001). In addition, the apoptotic index of the BMSC + EPO group was significantly decreased compared with the BMSC group (P<0.05). Green fluorescent protein-labeled BMSCs were detected at the site of SCI in the BMSC and BMSCs + EPO groups, with the signal being notably stronger in the latter. Moreover, the expression of VEGF and BDNF in the BMSCs + EPO group was significantly increased compared with the BMSC group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that EPO can facilitate the recruitment of BMSCs to sites of SCI

  20. Comparison of functional and histological outcomes after intralesional, intracisternal, and intravenous transplantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Jin-Myung; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl; Yi, Seong; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have compared methods of stem cell transplantation. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal method of delivery of therapeutic stem cells in spinal cord injury (SCI). We compared functional and histologic outcomes after administration of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) by intralesional (ILT), intracisternal (ICT), and intravenous transplantation (IVT). A rat model of spinal cord injury was produced by dropping a 10-g weight, 2 mm in diameter, onto the exposed spinal cords of animals from a height of 25 mm. In each treatment group, 24 animals were randomly assigned for functional assessment and 24 for histologic examination. BMSCs (3 × 10(5), ILT; 1 × 10(6), ICT; 2 × 10(6), IVT) were transplanted 1 week after SCI in numbers determined in previous studies. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scoring was performed in all animals weekly for 6 weeks. Spinal cord specimens were obtained from eight animals in each group 2, 4, and 6 weeks after SCI. Viable BMSCs were counted in six sagittal sections from each spinal cord. All three treatment groups showed improved functional recovery compared to controls beginning 2 weeks after stem cell injection (P < 0.01). The ICT group showed the best functional recovery, followed by the ILT and IVT groups, respectively (P < 0.01). Histological analysis showed the largest number of viable BMSCs in the ILT group, followed by the ICT and IVT groups, respectively (P < 0.01). ICT may be the safest and most effective method for delivering stem cells and improving functional outcome in SCI when no limits are placed on the number of cells transplanted. As research on enhancing engraftment rates advances, further improvement of functional outcome can be expected.

  1. Flt3 ligand synergizes with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in bone marrow mobilization to improve functional outcome after spinal cord injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdziková, Lucia; Likavčanová-Mašínová, Katarína; Vaněček, Václav; Růžička, Jiří; Sedý, Jiří; Syková, Eva; Jendelová, Pavla

    2011-10-01

    The effect of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and/or the cytokine fms-like thyrosin kinase 3 (Flt3) ligand on functional outcome and tissue regeneration was studied in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats with a balloon-induced compression lesion were injected with G-CSF and/or Flt3 ligand to mobilize bone marrow cells. Behavioral tests (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan and plantar test), blood counts, morphometric evaluation of the white and gray matter, and histology were performed 5 weeks after SCI. The mobilization of bone marrow cells by G-CSF, Flt3 ligand and their combination improved the motor and sensory performance of rats with SCI, reduced glial scarring, increased axonal sprouting and spared white and gray matter in the lesion. The best results were obtained with a combination of G-CSF and Flt3. G-CSF alone or in combination with Flt3 ligand significantly increased the number of white blood cells, but not red blood cells or hemoglobin content, during and after the time-course of bone marrow stimulation. The combination of factors led to infiltration of the lesion by CD11b(+) cells. The observed improvement in behavioral and morphologic parameters and tissue regeneration in animals with SCI treated with a combination of both factors could be associated with a prolonged time-course of mobilization of bone marrow cells. The intravenous administration of G-CSF and/or Flt3 ligand represents a safe and effective treatment modality for SCI.

  2. Protective effect of epigenetic silencing of CyclinD1 against spinal cord injury using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in rats.

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    Wang, Yuan; Kong, Qing-Jie; Sun, Jin-Chuan; Xu, Xi-Ming; Yang, Yong; Liu, Ning; Shi, Jian-Gang

    2018-07-01

    This study focuses on the protective effect of epigenetic silencing of CyclinD1 against spinal cord injury (SCI) using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats. Eighty-eight adult female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the sham group, the control group, the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group and the BMSCs group. CyclinD1 protein and mRNA expressions after siRNA transfection were detected by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. The siRNA-CyclinD1 BMSCs were transplanted into rats in the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group using stereotaxic method 6 hr after SCI. Hindlimb locomotor performance was determined using inclined plane test and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were detected by immunohistochemistry. Inclined plane and BBB scores in the control, si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs, and BMSCs groups were significantly lower than the sham group, but these scores were evidently decreased in the control group and increased in the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group compared with the BMSCs group. The repair degree of spinal cord tissues of rats in the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group was obvious than the BMSCs group. GFAP and NGF protein expressions were markedly decreased in the control, si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs and BMSCs groups when compared with the sham group. GFAP- and NGF-positive cells were significantly increased in the si-CyclinD1 + BMSCs group while decreased in the control group. Our study provides evidence that epigenetic silencing of CyclinD1 using BMSCs might accelerate the repair of SCI in rats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of Intrathecal Injection of the Conditioned Medium from Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

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    Kanekiyo, Kenji; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Nakano, Norihiko; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Tamachi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Fukushima, Masatoshi; Saito, Fukuki; Abe, Seiya; Tsukagoshi, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Chimi; Ide, Chizuka

    2018-02-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been studied for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In previous studies, we showed that the transplantation of BMSCs, even though they disappeared from the host spinal cord within 1-3 weeks after transplantation, improved locomotor behaviors and promoted axonal regeneration. This result led to the hypothesis that BMSCs might release some neurotrophic factors effective for the treatment of SCI. The present study examined this by injecting the conditioned medium (CM) of BMSCs to treat SCI in rats. The spinal cord was contusion-injured, followed immediately by continuous injection for 2 weeks of the CM of BMSCs through the cerebrospinal fluid via the 4th ventricle using an Alzet osmotic pump. Locomotor behaviors evaluated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score were markedly improved in the CM-injection group, compared with the control group, at 1 to 4 weeks post-injection. The contusion-injured site of the spinal cord was identified as an astrocyte-devoid area, which contained no astrocytes but was filled with collagen matrices and empty cavities of various sizes. Collagen matrices contained type I collagen and laminin. Numerous axons extended through the collagen matrices of the astrocyte-devoid area. Axons were surrounded by Schwann cells, exhibiting the same morphological characteristics as peripheral nerve fibers. The density of axons extending through the astrocyte-devoid area was higher in the CM-injection group, compared with the control group. CM injection had beneficial effects on locomotor improvements and tissue repair, including axonal regeneration, meaning that the BMSC-CM stimulated the intrinsic ability of the spinal cord to regenerate. Activation of the intrinsic ability of the spinal cord to regenerate by the injection of neurotrophic factors such as BMSC-CM is considered to be a safe and preferable method for the clinical treatment of SCI.

  4. Comparison of Etanercept, Etomidate and Erythropoietin and Their Combinations in Experimentally-Induced Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Caliskan, Murat; Simsek, Serkan; Vural, Sevil Atalay; Besalti, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the preventive effects of Etanercept, Etomidate, Erythropoietin and their combination in experimentally induced spinal cord trauma by clinical, histopathological, electrophysiological parameters and biochemical examination. 85 healthy female Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. Rats were divided 8 trauma groups that consisted of 10 rats for each, and 5 rats for the sham group. Laminectomy was performed under general anesthesia and the spinal cord was exposed with intact dura mater, and injury was created by the clip compression model. After the spinal cord injury, drugs were administered immediately intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Except the sham group, all groups received drugs and were observed 24 or 72 hours. At the 72nd hour each group was anesthesized and somatosensorial evoked potentials (SEP) were recorded from the interarcuate ligament from the 2 vertebra proximal to the injured spinal cord and spinal cord tissue samples were taken for histopathological and biochemical evaluation. Etomidate groups showed a lower effect on spinal cord injury than etanercept and erythropoietin in terms of clinical, SEP and TNF-α. Etanercept and erythropoietin's neuroprotective effectiveness was shown alone or in combination treatments. More meaningful results were achieved with the use of erythropoietin and etanercept combination after spinal cord injury (SCI) than using erythropoietin alone. After SCI, highest Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were achieved in the group which Etanercept and Erythropoietin applied together. The neuroprotective activity of etomidate was suspect. The neuroprotective effect of etanercept and erythropoietin after SCI was shown in individual and combined applications in this study. However, more experimental studies are needed for clinical use.

  5. Effect of Aspirin on Spinal Cord Injury: An Experimental Study

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    Hamed Reihani Kermani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory drug, peroxyl radical scavenger, and antioxidant agent that inhibits phospholipases, nitric oxide synthetases, and cyclooxygenase enzymes. The existing literature contains no studies on the effects of various doses of aspirin on spinal cord injury (SCI. Therefore, we sought to investigate the putative effects of aspirin on experimental SCI. The weight-drop injury model was used to produce SCI in 100 albino Wistar rats. The animals were allocated to five groups: a control group, where the rats did not undergo any surgical or medical intervention except for anesthesia; a sham-treated group, where laminectomy was performed without SCI and no further therapy was administered; and three other groups, where the rats with SCI received low-dose aspirin [20 mg/kg], high-dose aspirin [80 mg/kg], and a vehicle, respectively. Half of the rats were sacrificed 24 hours later, and their spinal cords were excised for biochemical studies. The other rats were subjected to Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale scoring once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Aspirin decreased lipid peroxidation following SCI as the mean (± standard error catalase level was significantly higher in the high-dose aspirin group (46.10±12.01 than in the sham-treated group (16.07±2.42 and the vehicle-treated group (15.31±3.20 (P<0.05; P<0.05, respectively. Both of the groups treated with high-dose and low-dose aspirin demonstrated a higher mean BBB score than did the control group (P<0.001 and the sham-treated group (P<0.001. Our data provide evidence in support of the potential effects of aspirin in biochemical and neurobehavioral recovery after SCI.

  6. Comparison of RNAi NgR and NEP1-40 in Acting on Axonal Regeneration After Spinal Cord Injury in Rat Models.

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    Xu, Jing; He, Jian; He, Huang; Peng, Renjun; Xi, Jian

    2017-12-01

    This study was intended to compare the therapeutic efficacies of NEP1-40 and SiNgR199 on treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Nogo-A, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and amyloid βA4 precursor protein (APP) expressions were determined using western blot and quantitative PCR. Neurite outgrowth detected the growth of neurites, and BDA anterograde tracing was used to label the regenerated axonal. Rats' behavior was assessed with Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded to evaluate the recovery of the sensory and motor systems. Successful establishment of SCI model was verified by immunocytochemical analysis. The increased expression of APP, as well as the decreased expression of GAP-43 and MAP-2, was observed in the SCI model group, but the trends were reversed after the treatments of NEP1-40, siNgR199, and NEP1-40 + siNgR199. Compared with the SCI group, the average neurite length and the BDA-positive fibers were increased in the NEP1-40, siNgR199, and NEP1-40 + siNgR199 groups. The rats in the siNgR199 group and the NEP1-40 + siNgR199 group both showed significantly higher BBB scores than SCI model group and NEP1-40 group. Suggested by electrophysiological evaluation, both the latency and the amplitude of SEPs as well as MEPs had recovered in the NEP1-40, siNgR199, and NEP1-40 + siNgR199 groups after SCI. Both NEP1-40 and siNgR had repairing effects on SCI, suggesting their role in facilitating axonal regeneration after SCI.

  7. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gong-biao; Niu, Fu-wen; Zhang, Ying-chun; Du, Lin; Liang, Zhi-yuan; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Ting-zhen; Nie, Zhi-kui; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28123427

  8. Longitudinal study on diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion tensor tractography following spinal cord contusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Can; Rao, Jia-Sheng; Pei, Xiao-Jiao; Lei, Jian-Feng; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a potential technology has been used in spinal cord injury (SCI) studies, but the longitudinal evaluation of DTI parameters after SCI, and the correlation between DTI parameters and locomotor outcomes need to be defined. Adult Wistar rats (n = 6) underwent traumatic thoracic cord contusion by an NYU impactor. DTI and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan datasets were collected pre-SCI and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 84 days post-SCI. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of the spinal cord was also generated. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and connection rate of fibers at the injury epicenter and at 5 mm rostral/caudal to the epicenter were calculated. The variations of these parameters after SCI were observed by one-way analysis of variance and the correlations between these parameters and motor function were explored by Pearson's correlation. FA at the epicenter decreased most remarkably on day 1 post-SCI (from 0.780 ± 0.012 to 0.330 ± 0.015), and continued to decrease slightly by day 3 post-SCI (0.313 ± 0.015), while other parameters decreased significantly over the first 3 days after SCI. DTT showed residual fibers concentrated on ventral and ventrolateral sides of the cord. Moreover, FA at the epicenter exhibited the strongest correlation (r = 0.887, p = 0.000) with the locomotion performance. FA was sensitive to degeneration in white matter and DTT could directly reflect the distribution of the residual white matter. Moreover, days 1 to 3 post-SCI may be the optimal time window for SCI examination and therapy.

  9. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-biao Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  11. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MiR-17 targets PTEN and facilitates glial scar formation after spinal cord injuries via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yongxin; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Lixiang

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to discover the regulatory role of miR-17 and PTEN in glial scar formation accompanied with spinal cord injuries. We established a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in mice which were transfected with different groups of adenoviruses: miR-17 mimics, miR-17 inhibitors and PTEN cDNAs. The improvement of hind limb functions was assessed using the 21-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Vimentin and neurofilaments. The expression of miR-17 was quantified using Real time-PCR (RT-PCR). Western blot was conducted to detect the expressions of PTEN, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and S6. Finally, dual luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to confirm the target relationship between miR-17 and PTEN. The model group exhibited significantly increased expression levels of GFAP, Vimentin, miR-17, PTEN, PI3K, Akt and mTOR. The above trend was enhanced by the transfection of miR-17 mimics (PPTEN, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and p-S6 whereas the expression of GFAP, Vimentin, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and p-S6 in the cells transfected with PTEN cDNAs significantly decreased (PPTEN cDNAs alleviated the astrogliosis in SCI lesions, contributed to the regeneration of nerve filament and improved the functional recovery of the hind limb of mice. Finally, the targeting relationship between miR-17 and PTEN was verified by the dual luciferase reporter gene assay. MiR-17 is able to target PTEN and stimulate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The formation of glial scar resulted from spinal cord injuries can be reduced either by inhibiting miR-17 or by overexpressing PTEN. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Role of spared pathways in locomotor recovery after body-weight-supported treadmill training in contused rats.

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    Singh, Anita; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Murray, Marion; Lemay, Michel; Houle, John

    2011-12-01

    Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT)-related locomotor recovery has been shown in spinalized animals. Only a few animal studies have demonstrated locomotor recovery after BWSTT in an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) model, such as contusion injury. The contribution of spared descending pathways after BWSTT to behavioral recovery is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate locomotor recovery in contused rats after BWSTT, and to study the role of spared pathways in spinal plasticity after BWSTT. Forty-eight rats received a contusion, a transection, or a contusion followed at 9 weeks by a second transection injury. Half of the animals in the three injury groups were given BWSTT for up to 8 weeks. Kinematics and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test assessed behavioral improvements. Changes in Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) rate depression property, soleus muscle mass, and sprouting of primary afferent fibers were also evaluated. BWSTT-contused animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery, improved H-reflex properties, reduced muscle atrophy, and decreased sprouting of small caliber afferent fibers. BBB scores were not improved by BWSTT. Untrained contused rats that received a transection exhibited a decrease in kinematic parameters immediately after the transection; in contrast, trained contused rats did not show an immediate decrease in kinematic parameters after transection. This suggests that BWSTT with spared descending pathways leads to neuroplasticity at the lumbar spinal level that is capable of maintaining locomotor activity. Discontinuing training after the transection in the trained contused rats abolished the improved kinematics within 2 weeks and led to a reversal of the improved H-reflex response, increased muscle atrophy, and an increase in primary afferent fiber sprouting. Thus continued training may be required for maintenance of the recovery. Transected animals had no effect of BWSTT, indicating that in the absence of spared pathways this

  14. SDF-1 overexpression by mesenchymal stem cells enhances GAP-43-positive axonal growth following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew Nathaniel; Matyas, Jessica Jane; Welchko, Ryan Matthew; Goldsmith, Alison Delanie; Zeiler, Sarah Elizabeth; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Lu, Ming; Nan, Zhenhong; Rossignol, Julien; Dunbar, Gary Leo

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing genetic overexpression of trophic molecules in cell populations has been a promising strategy to develop cell replacement therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Over-expressing the chemokine, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1α), which has chemotactic effects on many cells of the nervous system, offers a promising strategy to promote axonal regrowth following SCI. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of human SDF-1α, when overexpressed by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), on axonal growth and motor behavior in a contusive rat model of SCI. Using a transwell migration assay, the paracrine effects of MSCs, which were engineered to secrete human SDF-1α (SDF-1-MSCs), were assessed on cultured neural stem cells (NSCs). For in vivo analyses, the SDF-1-MSCs, unaltered MSCs, or Hanks Buffered Saline Solution (vehicle) were injected into the lesion epicenter of rats at 9-days post-SCI. Behavior was analyzed for 7-weeks post-injury, using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale of locomotor functions. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate major histopathological outcomes, including gliosis, inflammation, white matter sparing, and cavitation. New axonal outgrowth was characterized using immunohistochemistry against the neuron specific growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). The results of these experiments demonstrate that the overexpression of SDF-1α by MSCs can enhance the migration of NSCs in vitro. Although only modest functional improvements were observed following transplantation of SDF-1-MSCs, a significant reduction in cavitation surrounding the lesion, and an increased density of GAP-43-positive axons inside the SCI lesion/graft site were found. The results from these experiments support the potential role for utilizing SDF-1α as a treatment for enhancing growth and regeneration of axons after traumatic SCI.

  15. Delayed administration of dapsone protects from tissue damage and improves recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; Montes, Sergio; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Gelista-Herrera, Noemi; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia; Ríos, Camilo

    2011-03-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), a complex cascade of pathophysiological processes increases the primary damage. The inflammatory response plays a key role in this pathology. Recent evidence suggests that myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme produced and released by neutrophils, is of special importance in spreading tissue damage. Dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is an irreversible inhibitor of MPO. Recently, we demonstrated, in a model of brain ischemia/reperfusion, that dapsone has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. The effects of dapsone on MPO activity, lipid peroxidation (LP) processes, motor function recovery, and the amount of spared tissue were evaluated in a rat model of SCI. MPO activity had increased 24.5-fold 24 hr after SCI vs. the sham group, and it had diminished by 38% and 19% in the groups treated with dapsone at 3 and 5 hr after SCI, respectively. SCI increased LP by 45%, and this increase was blocked by dapsone. In rats treated with dapsone, a significant motor function recovery (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score, BBB) was observed beginning during the first week of evaluation and continuing until the end of the study. Spontaneous recovery 8 weeks after SCI was 9.2 ± 1.12, whereas, in the dapsone-treated groups, it reached 13.6 ± 1.04 and 12.9 ± 1.17. Spared tissue increased by 42% and 33% in the dapsone-treated groups (3 and 5 hr after SCI, respectively) vs. SCI without treatment. Dapsone significantly prevented mortality. The results show that inhibition of MPO by dapsone significantly protected the spinal cord from tissue damage and enhanced motor recovery after SCI. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Does combined therapy of curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have a synergistic neuroprotective effect against spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Ruzicka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI is one of the factors leading to lesion development and a profound degree of functional loss. Anti-inflammatory compounds, such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG are known for their neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined therapy of curcumin and EGCG in a rat model of acute SCI induced by balloon compression. Immediately after SCI, rats received curcumin, EGCG, curcumin + EGCG or saline [daily intraperitoneal doses (curcumin, 6 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg] and weekly intramuscular doses (curcumin, 60 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg] for 28 days. Rats were evaluated using behavioral tests (the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB open-field locomotor test, flat beam test. Spinal cord tissue was analyzed using histological methods (Luxol Blue-cresyl violet staining and immunohistochemistry (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein, anti-growth associated protein 43. Cytokine levels (interleukin-1β, interleukin-4, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha, and RANTES were measured using Luminex assay. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the relative expression of genes (Sort1, Fgf2, Irf5, Mrc1, Olig2, Casp3, Gap43, Gfap, Vegf, NfκB, Cntf related to regenerative processes in injured spinal cord. We found that all treatments displayed significant behavioral recovery, with no obvious synergistic effect after combined therapy of curcumin and ECGC. Curcumin and EGCG alone or in combination increased axonal sprouting, decreased glial scar formation, and altered the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-4 and interleukin-6 cytokines. These results imply that although the expected synergistic response of this combined therapy was less obvious, aspects of tissue regeneration and immune responses in severe SCI were evident.

  17. Jisuikang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Ma, Yong; Pan, Ya-Lan; Zheng, Su-Yang; Wang, Jian-Wei; Huang, Gui-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    The Chinese medicine compound, Jisuikang , can promote recovery of neurological function by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging oxygen free radicals, and effectively improving the local microenvironment after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Thus, we established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using a modified version of Allen's method. Jisuikang (50, 25, and 12.5 g/kg/d) and prednisolone were administered 30 minutes after anesthesia. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale scores and the oblique board test showed improved motor function recovery in the prednisone group and moderate-dose Jisuikang group compared with the other groups at 3-7 days post-injury. The rats in the moderate-dose Jisuikang group recovered best at 14 days post-injury. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that the survival rate of neurons in treatment groups increased after 3-7 days of administration. Further, the structure of neurons and glial cells was more distinct, especially in prednisolone and moderate-dose Jisuikang groups. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry showed that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in injured segments was maintained at a high level after 7-14 days of treatment. In contrast, expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) was down-regulated at 7 days after spinal cord injury. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of BDNF and NGF mRNA was induced in injured segments by prednisolone and Jisuikang . At 3-7 days after injury, the effect of prednisolone was greater, while 14 days after injury, the effect of moderate-dose Jisuikang was greater. These results confirm that Jisuikang can upregulate BDNF and NGF expression for a prolonged period after spinal cord injury and promote repair of acute spinal cord injury, with its effect being similar to prednisolone.

  18. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A.; Silva, C.A. da; Defino, H.L.A.; Bel, E.A.Del

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury

  19. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging In Vivo Predicts Long-Term Functional Recovery and Histopathology in Rats following Different Severities of Spinal Cord Injury

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    Patel, Samir P.; Smith, Taylor D.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Powell, David; Cox, David H.; Sullivan, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in vivo to quantify temporally spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were scanned prior to a moderate or severe upper lumbar contusion SCI. Injured rats were behaviorally tested for hind limb locomotion (Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan [BBB] scores) weekly for 4 weeks and scanned immediately after each session, ending with terminal gait analyses prior to euthanasia. As a measure of tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) values were significantly lower throughout the spinal cord in both injury cohorts at all time-points examined versus pre-injury. Moreover, FA values were significantly lower following severe versus moderate SCI at all time-points, and FA values at the injury epicenters at all time-points were significantly correlated with both spared white and gray matter volumes, as well as lesion volumes. Critically, quantified FA values at subacute (24 h) and all subsequent time-points were highly predictive of terminal behavior, reflected in significant correlations with both weekly BBB scores and terminal gait parameters. Critically, the finding that clinically relevant subacute (24 h) FA values accurately predict long-term functional recovery may obviate long-term studies to assess the efficacy of therapeutics tested experimentally or clinically. In summary, this study demonstrates a reproducible serial MRI procedure to predict the long-term impact of contusion SCI on both behavior and histopathology using subacute DTI metrics obtained in vivo to accurately predict multiple terminal outcome measures, which can be particularly valuable when comparing experimental interventions. PMID:26650623

  20. Neuroprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

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    Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Atanur, Osman Malik; Gürer, Bora; Aksoy, Nurkan; Gokce, Aysun; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Cemil, Berker; Erdogan, Bulent; Kahveci, Ozan

    2015-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a mushroom belonging to the polyporaceae family of Basidiomycota and has widely been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. G. lucidum has never been studied in traumatic spinal cord injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) can protect the spinal cord after experimental spinal cord injury. Rats were randomized into five groups of eight animals each: control, sham, trauma, GLPS, and methylprednisolone. In the control group, no surgical intervention was performed. In the sham group, only a laminectomy was performed. In all the other groups, the spinal cord trauma model was created by the occlusion of the spinal cord with an aneurysm clip. In the spinal cord tissue, caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and superoxide dismutase levels were analysed. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluations were also performed. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined-plane test. After traumatic spinal cord injury, increases in caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels were detected. After the administration of GLPS, decreases were observed in tissue caspase-3 activity, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, GLPS treatment showed improved results in histopathological scores, ultrastructural scores, and functional tests. Biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural analyses and functional tests reveal that GLPS exhibits meaningful neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidermal growth factor regulates apoptosis and oxidative stress in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

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    Ozturk, Anil Murat; Sozbilen, Murat Celal; Sevgili, Elvin; Dagci, Taner; Özyalcin, Halit; Armagan, Guliz

    2018-03-22

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to vascular damage and disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier which participates in secondary nerve injury. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an endogenous protein which regulates cell proliferation, growth and differention. Previous studies reported that EGF exerts neuroprotective effect in spinal cord after SCI. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying EGF-mediated protection in different regions of nervous system have not shown yet. In this study, we aimed to examine possible anti-apoptotic and protective roles of EGF not only in spinal cord but also in brain following SCI. Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups of seven animals each as follows: sham, trauma (SCI), SCI + EGF and SCI + methylprednisolone (MP) groups. The functional neurological deficits due to the SCI were assessed by behavioral analysis using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor test. The alterations in pro-/anti-apoptotic protein levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in spinal cord and frontal cortex. In our study, EGF promoted locomotor recovery and motor neuron survival of SCI rats. EGF treatment significantly decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 protein expressions both in spinal cord and brain when compared to SCI group. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased following EGF treatment similar to MP treatment. Our experiment also suggests that alteration of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax may result from decreased apoptosis following EGF treatment. As a conclusion, these results show, for the first time, that administration of EGF exerts its protection via regulating apoptotic and oxidative pathways in response to spinal cord injury in different regions of central nervous system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early endogenous activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors after spinal cord injury is a protective response involved in spontaneous recovery.

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    Angel Arevalo-Martin

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI induces a cascade of processes that may further expand the damage (secondary injury or, alternatively, may be part of a safeguard response. Here we show that after a moderate-severe contusive SCI in rats there is a significant and very early increase in the spinal cord content of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide, AEA. Since 2-AG and AEA act through CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, we administered at 20 minutes after lesion a single injection of their respective antagonists AM281 and AM630 alone or in combination to block the effects of this early endocannabinoid accumulation. We observed that AM281, AM630 or AM281 plus AM630 administration impairs the spontaneous motor recovery of rats according to the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB locomotor scale. However, blockade of CB1, CB2 or both receptors produced different effects at the histopathological level. Thus, AM630 administration results at 90 days after lesion in increased MHC-II expression by spinal cord microglia/monocytes and reduced number of serotoninergic fibres in lumbar spinal cord (below the lesion. AM281 exerted the same effects but also increased oedema volume estimated by MRI. Co-administration of AM281 and AM630 produced the effects observed with the administration of either AM281 or AM630 and also reduced white matter and myelin preservation and enhanced microgliosis in the epicentre. Overall, our results suggest that the endocannabinoids acting through CB1 and CB2 receptors are part of an early neuroprotective response triggered after SCI that is involved in the spontaneous recovery after an incomplete lesion.

  3. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

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    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A. [Departamento de Morfofisiologia, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Silva, C.A. da [Departamento de Morfologia,Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Orthopedia e Traumatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E.A.Del [Departamento de Morfologia,Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-12

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury.

  4. Lewis, Fischer 344, and Sprague-Dawley rats display differences in lipid peroxidation, motor recovery, and rubrospinal tract preservation after spinal cord injury.

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    Humberto eMestre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The rat is the most common animal model for the preclinical validation of neuroprotective therapies in spinal cord injury (SCI. Lipid peroxidation (LP is a hallmark of the damage triggered after SCI. Free radicals react with fatty acids causing cellular and membrane disruption. LP accounts for a considerable amount of neuronal cell death after SCI. To better understand the implications of inbred and outbred rat strain selection on preclinical SCI research we evaluated LP after laminectomy sham surgery and a severe contusion of the T9 spinal cord in female Sprague-Dawley (SPD, Lewis (LEW and Fischer 344 (F344 rats. Further analysis included locomotor recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB scale and retrograde rubrospinal tract tracing. LEW had the highest levels of LP products 72 hours after sham surgery and SCI, significantly different from both F344 and SPD. SPD rats had the fastest functional recovery and highest BBB scores; these were not significantly different to F344. However, LEW rats achieved the lowest BBB scores throughout the two-month follow-up, yielding significant differences when compared to SPD and F344. To see if the improvement in locomotion was secondary to an increase in axon survival we evaluated rubrospinal neurons (RSN via retrograde labeling of the rubrospinal tract and quantified cells at the red nuclei. The highest numbers of RSNs were observed in SPD rats then F344; the lowest counts were seen in LEW rats. The BBB scores significantly correlated with the amount of positively stained RSN in the red nuclei. It is critical to identify inter-strain variations as a potential confound in preclinical research. Multi-strain validation of neuroprotective therapies may increase chances of successful translation.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of electroacupuncture on early- and late-stage spinal cord injury

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    Min-fei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the neurite growth inhibitor Nogo-A can cause secondary neural damage by activating RhoA. In the present study, we hypothesized that electroacupuncture promotes neurological functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting RhoA expression. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using a modification of Allen′s method. The rats were given electroacupuncture treatment at Dazhui (Du14, Mingmen (Du4, Sanyinjiao (SP6, Huantiao (GB30, Zusanli (ST36 and Kunlun (BL60 acupoints with a sparse-dense wave at a frequency of 4 Hz for 30 minutes, once a day, for a total of 7 days. Seven days after injury, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor scale and inclined plane test scores were significantly increased, the number of apoptotic cells in the spinal cord tissue was significantly reduced, and RhoA and Nogo-A mRNA and protein expression levels were decreased in rats given electroacupuncture compared with rats not given electroacupuncture. Four weeks after injury, pathological tissue damage in the spinal cord at the site of injury was alleviated, the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein- and neurofilament 200-positive fibers were increased, the latencies of somatosensory-evoked and motor-evoked potentials were shortened, and their amplitudes were increased in rats given electroacupuncture. These findings suggest that electroacupuncture treatment reduces neuronal apoptosis and decreases RhoA and Nogo-A mRNA and protein expression at the site of spinal cord injury, thereby promoting tissue repair and neurological functional recovery.

  6. Significant clinical, neuropathological and behavioural recovery from acute spinal cord trauma by transplantation of a well-defined somatic stem cell from human umbilical cord blood.

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    Schira, Jessica; Gasis, Marcia; Estrada, Veronica; Hendricks, Marion; Schmitz, Christine; Trapp, Thorsten; Kruse, Fabian; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-02-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types have been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically effective. Thus far, stem cells of human sources grafted into spinal cord mostly included barely defined heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell populations derived from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood. Here, we have transplanted a well-defined unrestricted somatic stem cell isolated from human umbilical cord blood into an acute traumatic spinal cord injury of adult immune suppressed rat. Grafting of unrestricted somatic stem cells into the vicinity of a dorsal hemisection injury at thoracic level eight resulted in hepatocyte growth factor-directed migration and accumulation within the lesion area, reduction in lesion size and augmented tissue sparing, enhanced axon regrowth and significant functional locomotor improvement as revealed by three behavioural tasks (open field Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor score, horizontal ladder walking test and CatWalk gait analysis). To accomplish the beneficial effects, neither neural differentiation nor long-lasting persistence of the grafted human stem cells appears to be required. The secretion of neurite outgrowth-promoting factors in vitro further suggests a paracrine function of unrestricted somatic stem cells in spinal cord injury. Given the highly supportive functional characteristics in spinal cord injury, production in virtually unlimited quantities at GMP grade and lack of ethical concerns, unrestricted somatic stem cells appear to be a highly suitable human stem cell source for clinical application in central nervous system injuries.

  7. Objective measures of motor dysfunction after compression spinal cord injury in adult rats: correlations with locomotor rating scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semler, Joerg; Wellmann, Katharina; Wirth, Felicitas; Stein, Gregor; Angelova, Srebrina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Schempf, Greta; Ankerne, Janina; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schönau, Eckhard; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey

    2011-07-01

    Precise assessment of motor deficits after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodents is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of functional recovery and testing therapeutic approaches. Here we analyzed the applicability to a rat SCI model of an objective approach, the single-frame motion analysis, created and used for functional analysis in mice. Adult female Wistar rats were subjected to graded compression of the spinal cord. Recovery of locomotion was analyzed using video recordings of beam walking and inclined ladder climbing. Three out of four parameters used in mice appeared suitable: the foot-stepping angle (FSA) and the rump-height index (RHI), measured during beam walking, and for estimating paw placement and body weight support, respectively, and the number of correct ladder steps (CLS), assessing skilled limb movements. These parameters, similar to the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scores, correlated with lesion volume and showed significant differences between moderately and severely injured rats at 1-9 weeks after SCI. The beam parameters, but not CLS, correlated well with the BBB scores within ranges of poor and good locomotor abilities. FSA co-varied with RHI only in the severely impaired rats, while RHI and CLS were barely correlated. Our findings suggest that the numerical parameters estimate, as intended by design, predominantly different aspects of locomotion. The use of these objective measures combined with BBB rating provides a time- and cost-efficient opportunity for versatile and reliable functional evaluations in both severely and moderately impaired rats, combining clinical assessment with precise numerical measures.

  8. Evaluation of early and late effects into the acute spinal cord injury of an injectable functionalized self-assembling scaffold.

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    Daniela Cigognini

    Full Text Available The complex physiopathological events occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI make this devastating trauma still incurable. Self-assembling peptides (SAPs are nanomaterials displaying some appealing properties for application in regenerative medicine because they mimic the structure of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM, are reabsorbable, allow biofunctionalizations and can be injected directly into the lesion. In this study we evaluated the putative neurorigenerative properties of RADA16-4G-BMHP1 SAP, proved to enhance in vitro neural stem cells survival and differentiation. This SAP (RADA16-I has been functionalized with a bone marrow homing motif (BMHP1 and optimized via the insertion of a 4-glycine-spacer that ameliorates scaffold stability and exposure of the biomotifs. We injected the scaffold immediately after contusion in the rat spinal cord, then we evaluated the early effects by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and the late effects by histological analysis. Locomotor recovery over 8 weeks was assessed using Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB test. Gene expression analysis showed that at 7 days after lesion the functionalized SAP induced a general upregulation of GAP-43, trophic factors and ECM remodelling proteins, whereas 3 days after SCI no remarkable changes were observed. Hystological analysis revealed that 8 weeks after SCI our scaffold increased cellular infiltration, basement membrane deposition and axon regeneration/sprouting within the cyst. Moreover the functionalized SAP showed to be compatible with the surrounding nervous tissue and to at least partially fill the cavities. Finally SAP injection resulted in a statistically significant improvement of both hindlimbs' motor performance and forelimbs-hindlimbs coordination. Altogether, these results indicate that RADA16-4G-BMHP1 induced favourable reparative processes, such as matrix remodelling, and provided a physical and trophic support to nervous tissue ingrowth. Thus this biomaterial

  9. Effect of transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium induced bone marrow stromal cells on rats with spinal cord injury

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    Feng, Linjie; Gan, Hongquan; Zhao, Wenguo; Liu, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a serious threat to human health and various techniques have been deployed to ameliorate or cure its effects. Stem cells transplantation is one of the promising methods. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) conditioned medium-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury. Rat spinal cord compression injury animal models were generated, and the rats divided into the following three groups: Group A, (control) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-treated group; group B, normal BMSC-treated group; group C, OEC conditioned medium-induced BMSC-treated group. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks following transplantation for hematoxylin and eosin staining, and fluorescence staining of neurofilament protein, growth associated protein-43 and neuron-specific nuclear protein. The cavity area of the spinal cord injury was significantly reduced at 2 and 4 weeks following transplantation in group C, and a significant difference between the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score in group C and groups A and B was observed. Regenerated nerve fibers were observed in groups B and C; however, a greater number of regenerated nerve fibers were observed in group C. BMSCs induced by OEC conditioned medium survived in vivo, significantly reduced the cavity area of spinal cord injury, promoted nerve fiber regeneration following spinal cord injury and facilitated recovery of motor function. The present study demonstrated a novel method to repair spinal cord injury by using induced BMSCs, with satisfactory results. PMID:28656221

  10. Effect of electrical stimulation on neural regeneration via the p38-RhoA and ERK1/2-Bcl-2 pathways in spinal cord-injured rats.

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    Joo, Min Cheol; Jang, Chul Hwan; Park, Jong Tae; Choi, Seung Won; Ro, Seungil; Kim, Min Seob; Lee, Moon Young

    2018-02-01

    Although electrical stimulation is therapeutically applied for neural regeneration in patients, it remains unclear how electrical stimulation exerts its effects at the molecular level on spinal cord injury (SCI). To identify the signaling pathway involved in electrical stimulation improving the function of injured spinal cord, 21 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (no surgical intervention, n = 6), SCI (SCI only, n = 5), and electrical simulation (ES; SCI induction followed by ES treatment, n = 10). A complete spinal cord transection was performed at the 10 th thoracic level. Electrical stimulation of the injured spinal cord region was applied for 4 hours per day for 7 days. On days 2 and 7 post SCI, the Touch-Test Sensory Evaluators and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scale were used to evaluate rat sensory and motor function. Somatosensory-evoked potentials of the tibial nerve of a hind paw of the rat were measured to evaluate the electrophysiological function of injured spinal cord. Western blot analysis was performed to measure p38-RhoA and ERK1/2-Bcl-2 pathways related protein levels in the injured spinal cord. Rat sensory and motor functions were similar between SCI and ES groups. Compared with the SCI group, in the ES group, the latencies of the somatosensory-evoked potential of the tibial nerve of rats were significantly shortened, the amplitudes were significantly increased, RhoA protein level was significantly decreased, protein gene product 9.5 expression, ERK1/2, p38, and Bcl-2 protein levels in the spinal cord were significantly increased. These data suggest that ES can promote the recovery of electrophysiological function of the injured spinal cord through regulating p38-RhoA and ERK1/2-Bcl-2 pathway-related protein levels in the injured spinal cord.

  11. Tanshinone IIA attenuates the inflammatory response and apoptosis after traumatic injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

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    Xin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI, including immediate mechanical injury and secondary injury, is associated with the inflammatory response, apoptosis and oxidative stress in response to traumatic injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA is one of the major extracts obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on many diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TIIA treatment on SCI. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological action of TIIA on secondary damage and the underlying mechanisms of experimental SCI in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SCI was generated using a weight drop device on the dorsal spinal cord via a two-level T9-T11 laminectomy. SCI in rats resulted in severe trauma, characterized by locomotor disturbance, edema, neutrophil infiltration, the production of astrocytes and inflammatory mediators, apoptosis and oxidative stress. TIIA treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p. after SCI induced significant effects: (1 improved motor function (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores, (2 reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score, neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of astrocytes, (3 inhibited the activation of SCI-related pathways, such as NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, (4 decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and iNOS, (5 reduced apoptosis (TUNEL staining, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression and (6 reversed the redox state imbalance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results clearly show that TIIA has a prominent protective effect against SCI through inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue after SCI.

  12. Tanshinone IIA attenuates the inflammatory response and apoptosis after traumatic injury of the spinal cord in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Yin, Yue; Cao, Fa-Le; Chen, Yu-Fei; Peng, Ye; Hou, Wu-Gang; Sun, Shu-Kai; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI), including immediate mechanical injury and secondary injury, is associated with the inflammatory response, apoptosis and oxidative stress in response to traumatic injury. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is one of the major extracts obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on many diseases. However, little is known about the effects of TIIA treatment on SCI. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacological action of TIIA on secondary damage and the underlying mechanisms of experimental SCI in rats. SCI was generated using a weight drop device on the dorsal spinal cord via a two-level T9-T11 laminectomy. SCI in rats resulted in severe trauma, characterized by locomotor disturbance, edema, neutrophil infiltration, the production of astrocytes and inflammatory mediators, apoptosis and oxidative stress. TIIA treatment (20 mg/kg, i.p.) after SCI induced significant effects: (1) improved motor function (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores), (2) reduced the degree of tissue injury (histological score), neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and the expression of astrocytes, (3) inhibited the activation of SCI-related pathways, such as NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, (4) decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and iNOS, (5) reduced apoptosis (TUNEL staining, and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression) and (6) reversed the redox state imbalance. The results clearly show that TIIA has a prominent protective effect against SCI through inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue after SCI.

  13. Co- transplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells with Schwann Cells Evokes Mechanical Allodynia in the Contusion Model of Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

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    Pourheydar, Bagher; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Yekta, Zahra; Najafzadeh, Norooz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that, although transplantation of neural stem cells into the contusion model of spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes locomotor function and improves functional recovery, it induces a painful response, Allodynia. Different studies indicate that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) can improve locomotor recovery when transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Since these cells are commonly used in cell therapy, we investigated whether co-transplantation of these cells leads to the development of Allodynia. Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, the contusion model of SCI was induced by laminectomy at the T8-T9 level of the spinal cord in adult female wistar rats (n=40) weighting (250-300g) using the New York University Device. BMSCs and SCs were cultured and prelabeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) respectively. The rats were divided into five groups of 8 including: a control group (laminectomy only), three experimental groups (BMSC, SC and Co-transplant) and a sham group. The experimental groups received BMSCs, SCs, and BMSCs and SCs respectively by intraspinal injection 7 days after injury and the sham group received serum only. Locomotion was assessed using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and Allodynia by the withdrawal threshold test using Von Frey Filaments at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after SCI. The statistical comparisons between groups were carried out by using repeated measures analysis of variances (ANOVA). Results: Significant differences were observed in BBB scores in the Co- transplant group compared to the BMSC and SC groups (pspinal cord can improve functional recovery, it leads to the development of mechanical Allodynia. This finding indicates that strategies to reduce Allodynia in cell transplantation studies are required. PMID:23508042

  14. Disruption of Locomotion in Response to Hindlimb Muscle Stretch at Acute and Chronic Time Points after a Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

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    Keller, Anastasia V.P.; Wainwright, Grace; Shum-Siu, Alice; Prince, Daniella; Hoeper, Alyssa; Martin, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Abstract After spinal cord injury (SCI) muscle contractures develop in the plegic limbs of many patients. Physical therapists commonly use stretching as an approach to avoid contractures and to maintain the extensibility of soft tissues. We found previously that a daily stretching protocol has a negative effect on locomotor recovery in rats with mild thoracic SCI. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of stretching on locomotor function at acute and chronic time points after moderately severe contusive SCI. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with 25 g-cm T10 contusion injuries received our standard 24-min stretching protocol starting 4 days (acutely) or 10 weeks (chronically) post-injury (5 days/week for 5 or 4 weeks, respectively). Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan) Open Field Locomotor Scale, video-based kinematics, and gait analysis. Locomotor deficits were evident in the acute animals after only 5 days of stretching and increasing the perceived intensity of stretching at week 4 resulted in greater impairment. Stretching initiated chronically resulted in dramatic decrements in locomotor function because most animals had BBB scores of 0–3 for weeks 2, 3, and 4 of stretching. Locomotor function recovered to control levels for both groups within 2 weeks once daily stretching ceased. Histological analysis revealed no apparent signs of overt and persistent damage to muscles undergoing stretching. The current study extends our observations of the stretching phenomenon to a more clinically relevant moderately severe SCI animal model. The results are in agreement with our previous findings and further demonstrate that spinal cord locomotor circuitry is especially vulnerable to the negative effects of stretching at chronic time points. While the clinical relevance of this phenomenon remains unknown, we speculate that stretching may contribute to the lack of locomotor recovery in some patients. PMID:27196003

  15. Jisuikang, a Chinese herbal formula, increases neurotrophic factor expression and promotes the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury

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    Yang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese medicine compound, Jisuikang, can promote recovery of neurological function by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging oxygen free radicals, and effectively improving the local microenvironment after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Thus, we established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using a modified version of Allen's method. Jisuikang (50, 25, and 12.5 g/kg/d and prednisolone were administered 30 minutes after anesthesia. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale scores and the oblique board test showed improved motor function recovery in the prednisone group and moderate-dose Jisuikang group compared with the other groups at 3–7 days post-injury. The rats in the moderate-dose Jisuikang group recovered best at 14 days post-injury. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that the survival rate of neurons in treatment groups increased after 3–7 days of administration. Further, the structure of neurons and glial cells was more distinct, especially in prednisolone and moderate-dose Jisuikang groups. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry showed that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in injured segments was maintained at a high level after 7–14 days of treatment. In contrast, expression of nerve growth factor (NGF was down-regulated at 7 days after spinal cord injury. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of BDNF and NGF mRNA was induced in injured segments by prednisolone and Jisuikang. At 3–7 days after injury, the effect of prednisolone was greater, while 14 days after injury, the effect of moderate-dose Jisuikang was greater. These results confirm that Jisuikang can upregulate BDNF and NGF expression for a prolonged period after spinal cord injury and promote repair of acute spinal cord injury, with its effect being similar to prednisolone.

  16. ω-conotoxin MVIIA intralesional injection in spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Maciel de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of ω-conotoxin MVIIA (MVIIA intralesional application in rats submitted to spinal cord injury. Male Wistar rats, weighing 300g±23.4, were distributed in five groups: negative control (SHAM, placebo (PLA, 5μM MVIIA, 10μM MVIIA and 20μM MVIIA MVIIA. After laminectomy of the 12th thoracic vertebra (SHAM, the PLA, 5μM MVIIA, 10μM MVIIA and 20μM MVIIA groups were subjected to acute compressive spinal cord trauma for five minutes, and then five minutes later, the animals received specific treatment in a standard total volume of 2µL, by intralesional route, using sterile PBS as placebo. Locomotor activity was assayed using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB scale to show the patterning of SCI. With 48 hours of injury, the animals were euthanized, the liquor sample was collected in atlantooccipital space, and also the spinal segment, including the epicenter and caudal region to injury. Assays were performed for mitochondrial viability, serum glutamate, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lipid peroxidation (LP were performed. The study design was randomized and the data submitted to ANOVA and comparison of means by SNK test, and data from BBB scale were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between groups in BBB scores. The MVIIA did not promote decrease in the levels of glutamate, ROS, LP, and did not preserve the mitochondria in the intralesional application five minutes after spinal cord injury in rats.

  17. Effect and reporting bias of RhoA/ROCK-blockade intervention on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawick, Ralf; Sena, Emily S; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Brommer, Benedikt; Kopp, Marcel A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W; Schwab, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Blockade of small GTPase-RhoA signaling pathway is considered a candidate translational strategy to improve functional outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. Pooling preclinical evidence by orthodox meta-analysis is confounded by missing data (publication bias). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) blocking approaches to (1) analyze the impact of bias that may lead to inflated effect sizes and (2) determine the normalized effect size of functional locomotor recovery after experimental thoracic SCI. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science and hand searched related references. Studies were selected if they reported the effect of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors (C3-exoenzmye, fasudil, Y-27632, ibuprofen, siRhoA, and p21) in experimental spinal cord hemisection, contusion, or transection on locomotor recovery measured by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score or the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion. Two investigators independently assessed the identified studies. Details of individual study characteristics from each publication were extracted and effect sizes pooled using a random effects model. We assessed risk for bias using a 9-point-item quality checklist and calculated publication bias with Egger regression and the trim and fill method. A stratified meta-analysis was used to assess the impact of study characteristics on locomotor recovery. Thirty studies (725 animals) were identified. RhoA/ROCK inhibition was found to improve locomotor outcome by 21% (95% CI, 16.0-26.6). Assessment of publication bias by the trim and fill method suggested that 30% of experiments remain unpublished. Inclusion of these theoretical missing studies suggested a 27% overestimation of efficacy, reducing the overall efficacy to a 15% improvement in locomotor recovery. Low study quality was associated with larger estimates of neurobehavioral outcome. Taking into account

  18. Acute dehydrating gastro-enteritis in undernourished infants | Beatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of half-strength Oarrow's solution in 2;5% dextrose water, with supplementary intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral potassium, rapidly corrected the electrolyte and acid-base disturbances. No significant difference resulted when this regimen was modified by variations in the rate, volume or type of intravenous ...

  19. Water-vapor movement through unsaturated alluvium in Amargosa Desert near Beatty, Nevada - Current understanding and continuing studies: A section in Joint US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission workshop on research related to low-level radioactive waste disposal, May 4-6, 1993, National Center, Reston, Virginia; Proceedings (WRI 95-4015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Stevens, Peter R.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes has been a concern since the 1950's. These wastes commonly are buried in shallow trenches (Fischer, 1986, p. 2). Water infiltrating into the trenches is considered the principal process by which contaminants are transported away from the buried wastes, although gaseous transport in some areas may be important. Arid regions in the western United States have been suggested as places that could provide safe containment of the wastes, because little or no water would infiltrate into the trenches (Richardson, 1962), and because thick unsaturated zones would slow contaminant movement. Although burial in arid regions may greatly reduce the amount of water coming in contact with the waste and consequently may provide longterm containment, insufficient data are available on the effectiveness of burial in such regions. Of particular interest is the potential for contaminant movement, either as liquid or vapor, through unsaturated sediments to land surface or to underlying ground water.Since 1962, low-level radioactive wastes have been buried at a disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert, about 17 km south of Beatty, Nevada (fig. 50). This facility is in one of the most arid regions of the United States. Annual precipitation at the disposal facility averaged 82 mm for 1985-92; the minimum was 14 mm, recorded for 1989 (Wood and Andraski, 1992, p. 12).Investigations to determine the hydrogeology, water movement, and potential for contaminant movement at the facility began in 1976. Results from an initial study indicated that a potential exists for deep percolation of infiltrated water at the burial site (Nichols, 1987), assuming that the only water loss is by evaporation because the trenches are kept clear of vegetation. Results from a subsequent study of water movement beneath an undisturbed, vegetated site indicate that percolation of infiltrated water may be limited to the uppermost 9 m of sediments, on the basis of water potentials

  20. Intranasal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells to spinal cord lesions.

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    Ninomiya, Koshi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-07-01

    The intranasal delivery of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells to the injured brains of rodents has been previously reported. In this study, the authors investigated whether BMSCs migrate to spinal cord lesions through an intranasal route and whether the administration affected functional recovery. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats that were subjected to spinal cord injuries at the T7-8 level were divided into 5 groups (injured + intranasal BMSC-treated group, injured + intrathecal BMSC-treated group, injured-only group, injured + intranasal vehicle-treated group, and injured + intrathecal vehicle-treated group). The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale was used to assess hind limb motor functional recovery for 2 or 4 weeks. Intralesionally migrated BMSCs were examined histologically and counted at 2 and 4 weeks. To evaluate the neuroprotective and trophic effects of BMSCs, the relative volume of the lesion cavity was measured at 4 weeks. In addition, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the CSF were evaluated at 2 weeks. Intranasally administered BMSCs were confirmed within spinal cord sections at both 2 and 4 weeks. The highest number, which was detected in the intrathecal BMSC-treated group at 2 weeks, was significantly higher than that in all the other groups. The BBB score of the intranasal BMSC-treated group showed statistically significant improvements by 1 week compared with the control group. However, in the final BBB scores, there was a statistically significant difference only between the intrathecal BMSC-treated group and the control group. The cavity ratios in the BMSC-treated groups were smaller than those of the control groups, but the authors did not find any significant differences in the NGF and BDNF levels in the CSF among the treatment and control groups. BMSCs reached the injured spinal cord through the intranasal route and contributed to the recovery of hind limb motor function and

  1. [EFFECTS OF BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS TRANSPLANTATION FOR TREATING RAT SPINAL CORD INJURY AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AT INJURY SITES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Cuiping; Ren, Lijie; Zhao Zhenfu; Zhou, Guangqian; Yao, Xiaolu; Gong, Feipeng; Chen, Gang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat and the cytokine expression changes in the local injury tissues. BMSCs were separated from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat and cultured with the whole bone marrow culture method. rAd-EGFP was used to transfect the 5th generation BMSCs for green fluorescent protein (GFP) label. Twelve SD rats were randomly divided into experimental group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). After the T10 SCI model was established with Allen's impact device in 2 groups, 1 x 1096) GFP-labeled BMSCs and PBS were administered by subarachnoid injection in situ in experimental group and control group, respectively. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to detect the motor function at immediat, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after SCI. At 5 weeks, the spinal cord tissues were harvested for the histological and immunofluorescent staining examinations to measure the expressions of neural marker molecules, including Nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). Cytokine was analyzed with antibody array. At 5 weeks, 2 rats died of urinary tract infection in 2 groups respectively, the other rats survived to the end of experiment. BBB score of experimental group was significantly higher than that of control group at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks (P < 0.05). At 5 weeks, histological results showed that there were many cells with regular arrangement in the experimental group; there were less cells with irregular arrangement in the control group. Compared with the control group, Nestin and NeuN expressions significantly increased (P < 0.05), and GFAP expression significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the experimental group. Leptin and ciliary neurotrophic factor levels were higher in the experimental group than the control group, but granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor β, interleukin 1 β, and tissue

  2. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Transplantation Promotes Functional Improvement Associated with CNTF-STAT3 Activation after Hemi-Sectioned Spinal Cord Injury in Tree Shrews.

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    Xiong, Liu-Lin; Liu, Fei; Lu, Bing-Tuan; Zhao, Wen-Ling; Dong, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Zhang, Piao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient's daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10). Hoechst 33342-labeled BMSCs derived from adult tree shrews were isolated, cultured, and implanted into the spinal cord around the injury site at 9 days after injury. The isolated BMSCs were able to survive, proliferate and release a variety of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) both in vitro and in vivo . At 28 days after injury, compared with the sham group, the hSCI group displayed scar formation and dramatic elevations in the mean interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) density and cell apoptosis level, whereas the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ( STAT3 ) and ciliary neurotrophic factor ( CNTF ) mRNA was reduced. Following BMSC transplantation, motoneurons extent of shrinkage were reduced and the animals' Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale scores were significantly higher at 21 and 28 days after injury when compared with the injured group. Moreover, the hSCI-induced elevations in scar formation, IL-1β, and cell apoptosis were reduced by BMSC transplantation to levels that were close to those of the sham group. Corresponding elevations in the expression of STAT3 and CNTF mRNA were observed in the hSCI + BMSCs group, and the levels were not significantly different from those observed in the sham group. Together, our results support that grafted BMSCs can significantly improve locomotor function in tree shrews subjected to hSCI and that this improvement is associated with the upregulation of CNTF and STAT3 signaling.

  3. Amelioration of motor/sensory dysfunction and spasticity in a rat model of acute lumbar spinal cord injury by human neural stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    eight weeks post-grafting. No significant differences were detected in other CatWalk parameters, motor evoked potentials, open field locomotor (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotion score (BBB)) score or ladder climbing test. Magnetic resonance imaging volume reconstruction and immunofluorescence analysis of grafted cell survival showed near complete injury-cavity-filling by grafted cells and development of putative GABA-ergic synapses between grafted and host neurons. Conclusions Peri-acute intraspinal grafting of HSSC can represent an effective therapy which ameliorates motor and sensory deficits after traumatic spinal cord injury. PMID:23710605

  4. Neurorestoratology evidence in an animal model with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

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    Li X

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Li,1,2 Guangsheng Li,1,3 Keith Dip-Kei Luk,1 Yong Hu1–3 1Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, 3Spinal Division, Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a chronic compression injury of the spinal cord, with potentially reversible conditions after surgical decompression, and a unique model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Several animal studies showed pathological changes of demyelination, axon loss and neuron apoptosis in rats with chronic spinal cord compression. However, there is a limited understanding of the neurological change in the spinal cord after surgical decompression. The aim of this study was to validate the neurorestoratology of myelopathic lesions in the spinal cord in a rat model. Materials and methods: A total of 16 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control (group 1; CSM model with 4-week chronic compression (group 2, 2 weeks (group 3 and 4 weeks (group 4 after surgical decompression of CSM model. The compression and decompression were verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI test. Neurological function was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale, ladder rung walking test and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs. Neuropathological change was evaluated by histological examinations. Results: MRI confirmed the compression of the cervical spinal cord as well as the reshaping of cord morphology after decompression. After decompression, significant changes of neurological function were observed in BBB scores (p < 0.01, F = 10.52, ladder rung walking test (p < 0.05, F = 14.21 and latencies (p < 0.05, F = 5.76 and amplitudes (p < 0.05, F = 3.8 of

  5. Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and improves locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, Seiji; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Sekiguchi, Akira; Tateda, Satoshi; Yahata, Kenichiro; Ito, Kenta; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is widely used for the clinical treatment of various human diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-energy ESWT upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and promotes angiogenesis and functional recovery in myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. Many previous reports suggested that VEGF produces a neuroprotective effect to reduce secondary neural tissue damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether low-energy ESWT promotes VEGF expression and neuroprotection and improves locomotor recovery after SCI. Sixty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham group (laminectomy only), sham-SW group (low-energy ESWT applied after laminectomy), SCI group (SCI only), and SCI-SW group (low-energy ESWT applied after SCI). Thoracic spinal cord contusion injury was inflicted using an impactor. Low-energy ESWT was applied to the injured spinal cord 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Locomotor function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) Scale (open field locomotor score) at different time points over 42 days after SCI. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess neural tissue damage in the spinal cord. Neuronal loss was investigated by immunostaining for NeuN. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and its receptor, Flt-1, in the spinal cord were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunostaining for VEGF was performed to evaluate VEGF protein expression in the spinal cord. In both the sham and sham-SW groups, no animals showed locomotor impairment on BBB scoring. Histological analysis of H & E and NeuN stainings in the sham-SW group confirmed that no neural tissue damage was induced by the low-energy ESWT. Importantly, animals in the SCI-SW group demonstrated significantly better locomotor improvement than those in the SCI group at 7, 35, and 42 days after injury (p

  6. Early applied electric field stimulation attenuates secondary apoptotic responses and exerts neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zhang, G; Rong, W; Wang, A; Wu, C; Huo, X

    2015-04-16

    Injury potential, which refers to a direct current voltage between intact and injured nerve ends, is mainly caused by injury-induced Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies revealed that injury potential increased with the onset and severity of spinal cord injury (SCI), and an application of applied electric field stimulation (EFS) with the cathode distal to the lesion could delay and attenuate injury potential formation. As Ca2+ influx is also considered as a major trigger for secondary injury after SCI, we hypothesize that EFS would protect an injured spinal cord from secondary injury and consequently improve functional and pathological outcomes. In this study, rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, laminectomy only; (2) control group, subjected to SCI only; and (3) EFS group, received EFS immediately post-injury with the injury potential modulated to 0±0.5 mV by EFS. Functional recovery of the hind limbs was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. Results revealed that EFS-treated rats exhibited significantly better locomotor function recovery. Luxol fast blue staining was performed to assess the spared myelin area. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural analysis was performed to evaluate the size of myelinated nerve fibers. Findings showed that the EFS group rats exhibited significantly less myelin loss and had larger and more myelinated nerve fibers than the control group rats in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) 8 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, we found that EFS inhibited the activation of calpain and caspase-3, as well as the expression of Bax, as detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, EFS decreased cellular apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL, within 4 weeks post-injury. Results suggest that early EFS could significantly reduce spinal cord degeneration and improve functional and historical recovery. Furthermore, these neuroprotective effects may be related to

  7. Exercise-induced motor improvement after complete spinal cord transection and its relation to expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and presynaptic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejczak Dorota

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that exercise-induced activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF may account for improvement of stepping ability in animals after complete spinal cord transection. As we have shown previously, treadmill locomotor exercise leads to up-regulation of BDNF protein and mRNA in the entire neuronal network of intact spinal cord. The questions arise: (i how the treadmill locomotor training, supplemented with tail stimulation, affects the expression of molecular correlates of synaptic plasticity in spinal rats, and (ii if a response is related to BDNF protein level and distribution. We investigated the effect of training in rats spinalized at low thoracic segments on the level and distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity (IR in ventral quadrants of the lumbar segments, in conjunction with markers of presynaptic terminals, synaptophysin and synaptic zinc. Results Training improved hindlimb stepping in spinal animals evaluated with modified Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale. Grades of spinal trained animals ranged between 5 and 11, whereas those of spinal were between 2 and 4. Functional improvement was associated with changes in presynaptic markers and BDNF distribution. Six weeks after transection, synaptophysin IR was reduced by 18% around the large neurons of lamina IX and training elevated its expression by over 30%. The level of synaptic zinc staining in the ventral horn was unaltered, whereas in ventral funiculi it was decreased by 26% postlesion and tended to normalize after the training. Overall BDNF IR levels in the ventral horn, which were higher by 22% postlesion, were unchanged after the training. However, training modified distribution of BDNF in the processes with its predominance in the longer and thicker ones. It also caused selective up-regulation of BDNF in two classes of cells (soma ranging between 100-400 μm2 and over 1000 μm2 of the ventrolateral and laterodorsal motor nuclei

  8. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Transplantation Promotes Functional Improvement Associated with CNTF-STAT3 Activation after Hemi-Sectioned Spinal Cord Injury in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Lin Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient’s daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10. Hoechst 33342-labeled BMSCs derived from adult tree shrews were isolated, cultured, and implanted into the spinal cord around the injury site at 9 days after injury. The isolated BMSCs were able to survive, proliferate and release a variety of neurotrophic factors (NTFs both in vitro and in vivo. At 28 days after injury, compared with the sham group, the hSCI group displayed scar formation and dramatic elevations in the mean interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β density and cell apoptosis level, whereas the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF mRNA was reduced. Following BMSC transplantation, motoneurons extent of shrinkage were reduced and the animals’ Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotion scale scores were significantly higher at 21 and 28 days after injury when compared with the injured group. Moreover, the hSCI-induced elevations in scar formation, IL-1β, and cell apoptosis were reduced by BMSC transplantation to levels that were close to those of the sham group. Corresponding elevations in the expression of STAT3 and CNTF mRNA were observed in the hSCI + BMSCs group, and the levels were not significantly different from those observed in the sham group. Together, our results support that grafted BMSCs can significantly improve locomotor function in tree shrews subjected to hSCI and that this improvement is associated with the upregulation of CNTF and STAT3

  9. Does timing of transplantation of neural stem cells following spinal cord injury affect outcomes in an animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivan; Park, Don Y; Mayle, Robert E; Githens, Michael; Smith, Robert L; Park, Howard Y; Hu, Serena S; Alamin, Todd F; Wood, Kirkham B; Kharazi, Alexander I

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported that functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusions can occur after acute transplantation of neural stem cells distal to the site of injury. To investigate the effects of timing of administration of human neural stem cell (hNSC) distal to the site of spinal cord injury on functional outcomes in an animal model. Thirty-six adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into three experimental and three control groups with six animals in each group. The T10 level was exposed via posterior laminectomy, and a moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor (MASCIS, W.M. Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Piscataway, NJ, USA). The animals received either an intrathecal injection of hNSCs or control media through a separate distal laminotomy immediately, one week or four weeks after the induced spinal cord injury. Observers were blinded to the interventions. Functional assessment was measured immediately after injury and weekly using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating score. A statistically significant functional improvement was seen in all three time groups when compared to their controls (acute, mean 9.2 vs. 4.5, P=0.016; subacute, mean 11.1 vs. 6.8, P=0.042; chronic, mean 11.3 vs. 5.8, P=0.035). Although there was no significant difference in the final BBB scores comparing the groups that received hNSCs, the group which achieved the greatest improvement from the time of cell injection was the subacute group (+10.3) and was significantly greater than the chronic group (+5.1, P=0.02). The distal intrathecal transplantation of hNSCs into the contused spinal cord of a rat led to significant functional recovery of the spinal cord when injected in the acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI), although the greatest gains appeared to be in the subacute timing group.

  10. A rat model of chronic syringomyelia induced by epidural compression of the lumbar spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Shin Won; Kim, Saet Pyoul; Kim, Hyeonjin; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Seung-Ki; Paek, Sun Ha; Pang, Dachling; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE There has been no established animal model of syringomyelia associated with lumbosacral spinal lipoma. The research on the pathophysiology of syringomyelia has been focused on Chiari malformation, trauma, and inflammation. To understand the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with occult spinal dysraphism, a novel animal model of syringomyelia induced by chronic mechanical compression of the lumbar spinal cord was created. METHODS The model was made by epidural injection of highly concentrated paste-like kaolin solution through windows created by partial laminectomy of L-1 and L-5 vertebrae. Behavioral outcome in terms of motor (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score) and urinary function was assessed serially for 12 weeks. Magnetic resonance images were obtained in some animals to confirm the formation of a syrinx and to monitor changes in its size. Immunohistochemical studies, including analysis for glial fibrillary acidic protein, NeuN, CC1, ED-1, and caspase-3, were done. RESULTS By 12 weeks after the epidural compression procedure, syringomyelia formation was confirmed in 85% of the rats (34 of 40) on histology and/or MRI. The syrinx cavities were found rostral to the epidural compression. Motor deficit of varying degrees was seen immediately after the procedure in 28% of the rats (11 of 40). In 13 rats (33%), lower urinary tract dysfunction was seen. Motor deficit improved by 5 weeks after the procedure, whereas urinary dysfunction mostly improved by 2 weeks. Five rats (13%, 5 of 40) died 1 month postoperatively or later, and 3 of the 5 had developed urinary tract infection. At 12 weeks after the operation, IHC showed no inflammatory process, demyelination, or accelerated apoptosis in the spinal cords surrounding the syrinx cavities, similar to sham-operated animals. CONCLUSIONS A novel experimental model for syringomyelia by epidural compression of the lumbar spinal cord has been created. The authors hope that it will serve as an important research

  11. Overexpression of HIPK2 attenuates spinal cord injury in rats by modulating apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renbo; Shang, Jingbo; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Li; Xie, Donghui; Tu, Guanjun

    2018-04-09

    HIPK2 is considered to be a tumor suppressor. It also has been implicated in several functions such as apoptosis and inflammation that are linked to spinal cord injury (SCI). However, whether HIPK2 ameliorates the neurological pain of SCI remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of HIPK2 on neurological function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Bcl-2/Bax in an SCI model. Firstly, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of HIPK2 on neurological pain in the SCI rat using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores and H & E staining. Overexpression of HIPK2 significantly elevated the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and reduced the mRNA expression of Nogo-A and RhoA in SCI rats. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays showed that overexpression of HIPK2 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Overexpression of HIPK2 also decreased expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and elevated expression of Bcl-2 in the SCI model, indicating that HIPK2 exhibited its protective activity by inhibiting SCI-induced apoptosis. Then, we measured the serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). We also determined the mRNA and protein levels of nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β. HIPK2 overexpression reduced oxidative stress and the levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with SCI control animals. Additionally, acetylation of HIPK2 was reduced in SCI rats. Overexpression of HIPK2 could enhance autophagy by elevating the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II while autophagy is regarded as a beneficial regulator to improve spinal cord injury. Together, overexpression of HIPK2 improved contusive SCI induced pain by modulating oxidative stress, Bcl‑2 and Bax signaling, and

  12. Local Delivery of High-Dose Chondroitinase ABC in the Sub-Acute Stage Promotes Axonal Outgrowth and Functional Recovery after Complete Spinal Cord Transection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsun Cheng

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are glial scar-associated molecules considered axonal regeneration inhibitors and can be digested by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC to promote axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI. We previously demonstrated that intrathecal delivery of low-dose ChABC (1 U in the acute stage of SCI promoted axonal regrowth and functional recovery. In this study, high-dose ChABC (50 U introduced via intrathecal delivery induced subarachnoid hemorrhage and death within 48 h. However, most SCI patients are treated in the sub-acute or chronic stages, when the dense glial scar has formed and is minimally digested by intrathecal delivery of ChABC at the injury site. The present study investigated whether intraparenchymal delivery of ChABC in the sub-acute stage of complete spinal cord transection would promote axonal outgrowth and improve functional recovery. We observed no functional recovery following the low-dose ChABC (1 U or 5 U treatments. Furthermore, animals treated with high-dose ChABC (50 U or 100 U showed decreased CSPGs levels. The extent and area of the lesion were also dramatically decreased after ChABC treatment. The outgrowth of the regenerating axons was significantly increased, and some partially crossed the lesion site in the ChABC-treated groups. In addition, retrograde Fluoro-Gold (FG labeling showed that the outgrowing axons could cross the lesion site and reach several brain stem nuclei involved in sensory and motor functions. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB open field locomotor scores revealed that the ChABC treatment significantly improved functional recovery compared to the control group at eight weeks after treatment. Our study demonstrates that high-dose ChABC treatment in the sub-acute stage of SCI effectively improves glial scar digestion by reducing the lesion size and increasing axonal regrowth to the related functional nuclei, which promotes locomotor recovery. Thus, our results

  13. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue Song-Kun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC at day 1 (acute and day 14 (subacute after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, β-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG, and F-actin-capping protein subunit β (CAPZB at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of β-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction

  14. Zhenbao pill protects against acute spinal cord injury via miR-146a-5p regulating the expression of GPR17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bokang; Huan, Yanqiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Yutang; Jia, Lizhou; Qu, Chenhui; Wang, Dongsheng; Yu, Hai

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of zhenbao pill on the motor function of acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rats and the molecular mechanisms involving miR-146a-5p and G-protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17). ASCI rat model was established by modified Allen method, and then the rats were divided into three groups. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured overnight in hypoxia condition and transfected with miR-146a-5p mimic or miR-146a-5p inhibitor. The hind limb motor function of the rats was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of miR-146a-5p, GPR17, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Neuronal apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry assay. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the regulation of miR-146a-5p on GPR17. Zhenbao pill could enhance hind limb motor function and attenuate the inflammatory response caused by ASCI. Moreover, zhenbao pill increased the level of miR-146a-5p and decreased GPR17 expression in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatics software predicted that GPR17 3′-UTR had a binding site with miR-146a-5p. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-146a-5p had a negative regulatory effect on GPR17 expression. Knockdown of miR-146a-5p could reverse the effect of zhenbao pill on the up-regulation of GPR17 induced by hypoxia, reversed the inhibitory effect of zhenbao pill on the cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia and the recovery of zhenbao pill on hind limb motor function in ASCI rats. Zhenbao pill could inhibit neuronal apoptosis by regulating miR-146a-5p/GPR17 expression, and then promoting the recovery of spinal cord function. PMID:29187582

  15. Guadagni in conto capitale, fondi pensionistici e il basso saggio di risparmio negli Stati Uniti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. STEINDL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The United States has always been regarded as a consumer-oriented society. Statistics compiled for the 1980s demonstrate that the United States has a very low savings ratio. Two major factors are identified as causing this, the federal and state tax treatment of loan interest and the high volume of consumer credit. There are dangers associated with this short-term perspective of instant consumerism, and institutions dealing in long-term financial management (pension/insurance companies have particular problems in this respect.  JEL Codes: E21 

  16. Therapeutic effects of NogoA vaccine and olfactory ensheathing glial cell implantation on acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2013-10-01

    group, and a combined treatment group. Animal behavior, histopathology, and axonal regeneration were compared between the four treatment groups. Results: The antibody against the polypeptide was detected in rat serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was not found in the immunized rats. Three months after injury, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scores and nerve fiber counts in biotinylated dextran amine nerve tracing studies were significantly better in the combined treatment group than in the other groups. Conclusion: The polypeptide NogoA vaccine can stimulate the humoral immune system to produce antibodies against the NogoA polypeptide. The binding reaction between the antibody and antigen was shown in ex vivo experiments. No evidence was found to suggest a relationship between NogoA vaccination and increased risk of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The combined strategy of olfactory ensheathing glial cell implantation and NogoA vaccination may promote regeneration of axons and functional recovery in the spinal cord contusion injury model. This study may provide a new strategy for combining modalities to enhance axonal regeneration and a better balance of the CNS microenvironment after SCI. Keywords: spinal cord injury, immunotherapy, cell transplantation, olfactory ensheathing glial cells, NogoA, vaccine

  17. Neuroprotective effect of combining tanshinone IIA with low-dose methylprednisolone following acute spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nian-Wei; Lu, Yuan; Shi, Li-Qi; Xu, Feng; Cai, Xian-Hua

    2017-05-01

    The present study compared the potential neuroprotective effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) monotherapy, methylprednisolone (MP) monotherapy and combined treatment in an adult acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rat model. The current study used the weight-drop method (Allen's Impactor) in the rat model and the mechanical scratch method in primary spinal cord neuron culture to determine whether the combined treatment was able to reduce the required dosage of MP in the treatment of ASCI to produce a similar or improved therapeutic effect. In vivo male Sprague Dawley rats (n=60) were randomly divided into 5 groups, of which 12 rats were selected for the sham group and T9-T11 laminectomies, leading to ASCI, were performed on 48 of the 60 rats using a 10 g ×25 mm weight-drop at the level of T10 spinal cord. Therefore, the ASCI group (n=12) included the 'laminectomy and weight-drop'. The remaining 36 ASCI model animals were subdivided into 3 groups (n=12 each group): TIIA group (30 mg/kg/day), MP group (30 mg/kg) and combined treatment group (TIIA 30 mg/kg/day + MP 20 mg/kg). Neuronal function following ASCI was evaluated using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Levels of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), the pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax) and caspase-3, and the inflammatory associated factor nuclear factor-κB, were analyzed by western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect caspase-3. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the anti-oxidative effect of combination TIIA and MP treatment was assessed by measuring the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in ASCI. In agreement with the experiment in vivo , primary neurons were prepared from the spinal cord of one-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats' and co-cultured with astrocytes from the brain cortex. The injury of neurons was induced by mechanical scratch and levels of apoptosis factors were analyzed by western blot analysis

  18. Alloys at low Ni-realise. Pd-Ni coatings on copper; Depositi galvanici decorativi a basso rilascio di nichel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, G.; Gambirasi, A.; Stangherlin, F. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Capobianco, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica; Gajo, M. [ELSY Research, Treviso (Italy)

    1999-06-01

    The paper shows the results of the following analysis: samples coated with an alloy of Palladium and Nickel were electrochemically tested in an alkaline solution. The coated samples were also tested in an artificial seawater solution, using the European 1811 test method. The electrochemical tests and artificial sweat tests confirmed the good behaviour of the coating. It is possible to affirm that the Pd-Ni coating is in accordance with the law proposed by the European Committee for the Standardization (CEN) given that the nickel release was lower than 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2}/week. [Italian] In questo articolo vengono riportati i risultati della verifica del comportamento a corrosione di depositi galvanici di una lega Pd-Ni (90-100) in una soluzione standard alcalina e in sudore sintetico. I depositi sottili sono stati effettuati su rame ramato elettroliticamente a due spessori. Il test del sudore sintetico ha dimostrato che gli strati esaminati, anche quelli molto sottili, sono a bassissimo rilascio di Ni, inferiore di circa un ordine di grandezza rispetto a quello indicato dalle normative vigenti.

  19. Editoriale - Per il verso giusto: destra/sinistra, alto/basso, davanti/dietro nell'immagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Barale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Things are not the same when, even remaining the same, they are placed on the right or on the left, above or below, in front or behind. In the concrete space of our daily experience, in the space of myths and religions, we are not confronted with a neutral, homogeneous, infinite and isotropic spatiality, indifferent to directions. On the contrary, the possibility of a meaningful movement in space, rooted in my own body and in its praxis (as Kant shows in his pre-critical and critical essays devoted to the space regions and to orientation, is assigned to the three main axes (above/below, right/left, front/behind and their correspondent differences. The same applies for the space of images and pictures. The present issue of “Aisthesis” aims at exploring how the articulations above/below, right/left, front/behind produce a difference – syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and symbolic – in the iconic domain, and at investigating what theoretical models can be employed in order to understand such difference.

  20. Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-07-01

    The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

  1. Water pollution monitoring in Tirrenian Sea 1991--1993; Monitoraggio ambientale nel bacino del basso Tirreno nel triennio 1991-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scipioni, A.; Napoli, M. [Padova Univ. (Italy), Ist. di Chimica Industriale; Cavolo, F. [Padova Univ. (Italy), Dip.di Biologia

    1996-07-01

    A marine environmental research programme is in course of carrying out for some years in a definite coastal zone of the southern Tirrenian Sea in order to point out possible significant pollutions, identify their origin and study the appropriate preventive and protective measures. In the first stage of the programme the analysis of the actual water quality was done, by evaluation of several indicators (temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity and suspended sediments, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nutrients concentration, bacteriological parameters) at three different distances from the shore: 50 m, 500 m and 1 mile. The analysis of the collected values shows that the actual water quality is on the whole quite satisfactory, except for some restricted areas in which a bacteriological pollution, due to high concentrations of coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis, has been pointed out.

  2. Final Report for the MANNRRSS II Program Management of Nevada's Natural Resources with Remote Sensing Systems, Beatty, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester Miller; Brian Horowitz; Chris Kratt; Tim Minor; Stephen F. Zitzer; James. V. Taranik; Zan L. Aslett; Todd O. Morken

    2009-06-04

    This document provides the Final Report on the Management of Nevada’s Natural Resources with Remote Sensing Systems (MANNRRSS) II program. This is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project tasked with utilizing hyperspectral and ancillary electro-optical instrumentation data to create an environmental characterization of an area directly adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  3. Comment on "An explanation for the charge on water's surface" by A. Gray-Weale and J. K. Beattie, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 10994

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Robert; Horinek, D.; Buchner, R.; Winter, B.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 42 (2010), s. 14362-14363 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : surface charge * water * dielectric decrement Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  4. Mechanochemical treatment of polymeric materials. A low environmental impact solution for mixed plastic waste recycling; Il trattamento meccanochimico di materiali polimerici: una soluzione a basso impatto ambientale per il riciclaggio di plastiche eterogenee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padella, F.; Magini, M.; Masci, A. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    Standard polymeric materials as well as mixtures of them coming from urban wastes, were milled at near room temperature in suitable milling conditions. All the experiments carried out gave a material having a homogeneous fibrous aspect. Structural and thermal analysis of the resulting material clearly shows that the mechanochemical action is able to promote a deep destructuring of the starting networks with a very high energy storage in the milled materials. Further, the fibrous material can be easily consolidated whatever the starting composition of the mixture. preliminary results, coming from mechanical tests on compacted materials, lead to an optimistic conclusion as far as plastic recycling by ball milling is concerned. [Italian] Materiali polimerici standard, cosi' come miscele di materiali plastici provenienti da rifiuti solidi urbani, sono stati macinati a temperatura pressoche' ambiente in opportune condizioni operative. Tutti gli esperimenti hanno prodotto un materiale morfologicamente omogeneo di aspetto fibroso. Le analisi termiche e strutturali condotte sui prodotti mostrano chiaramente come l'azione meccanochimica sia in grado di promuovere una forte destrutturazione del materiale di partenza, accompagnata da un evidente accumulo di energia nel prodotto macinato. In aggiunta, il materiale fibroso puo' essere facilmente consolidato in forme finite, indipendemente dalla composizione di partenza. I risultati preliminari delle prove meccaniche eseguite sui materiali consolidati inducono a conclusioni ottimistiche relativamente all'utilizzo di tecniche di macinazione ad alta energia per il riciclaggio di materiali plastici.

  5. Influência do estreitamento do canal vertebral e do tempo para a descompressão na recuperação locomotora de ratos Influencia del estrechamiento del canal vertebral y del tiempo para la descompresión en la recuperación locomotora de ratas The influence of spinal canal narrowing and timing of decompression on locomotion recovery of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Schiaveto de Souza

    2009-06-01

    motor behavior of rats, as assessing the effect of decompression time on the neurologic recovery of the animals. METHODS: male Wistar rats (n=6 per group were divided into three experimental groups: submitted to laminectomy (T9-T10, Control Group, contusion due to weight drop (10 g from a height of 15 cm, 35% narrowing of the vertebral canal obtained with 0.78 mm thick polycarbonate rods and contusion injury associated with narrowing of the vertebral canal. In this last group, decompression was not performed or it was made after 24 or 72 hours of the surgery, as the animals were divided into subgroups. Rats were sacrificed seven days after surgical procedures. The motor behavior of the animals was assessed in open arena, inclined plane and by means of Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale, before and after 24, 48 hours and 7 days of surgical procedures. RESULTS: contusion injury, narrowing of the spinal canal and mixed injury impaired the motor behavior of the animals. Surgical decompression (24 and 72 hours did not improve motor recovery as assessed in open arena, BBB scale and inclined plane test. On the other hand, animals injured with weight drop showed better scores on BBB scale and higher angles in the inclined plane when compared to the ones that were injured with narrowing of the vertebral canal and mixed lesion. CONCLUSIONS: spinal cord injury by weight drop and narrowing of the vertebral canal induced alterations on the motor behavior, which did not significantly improve with decompression.

  6. Monossialogangliosídeo transdérmico com laser no tratamento de lesão medular espinal de ratos Transdermal monosialoganglioside with laser in the treatment of spinal cord lesion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Inácio de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de monossialogangliosídeos (GM1 administrados com laser por via transdérmica na recuperação da lesão da medula espinal de ratos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a contusão da medula espinal usando NYU Impactor. No Grupo 1, os ratos receberam 0,2 ml de solução salina diária por via intraperitoneal; no Grupo 2, GM1 foi administrada intraperitonealmente em concentração de 30 mg/kg por dia; no Grupo 3, os ratos foram tratados diariamente com o laser a baixa temperatura sobre a pele, e no Grupo 4, a sessão de laser diária também continha GM1. Todos os grupos foram tratados durante 42 dias. Os animais foram avaliados pela escala funcional de Basso, Baettie e Bresnahan (BBB nos dias 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 após a lesão, e por histopatologia e potencial motor evocado 42 dias depois da lesão. RESULTADOS: Os animais do Grupo 4 apresentaram escores BBB mais elevados em comparação com os outros grupos. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos ou nas comparações ao longo do tempo. A avaliação histológica não mostrou diferenças, e tampouco foram encontradas diferenças significativas no potencial evocado. CONCLUSÃO: A GM1 associada ao uso de laser a baixa temperatura não mostra resultados superiores no tratamento de lesões da medula espinal de ratos. Nível de Evidência I, Experimental, Estudo Controlado de Animais.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effects of monosialoganglioside (gm1 administered transdermally with laser in the recovery of spinal cord injury in rats. METHODS: forty male wistar rats underwent spinal cord contusion using the nyu impactor. in group 1, the rats received 0,2 ml of saline intraperitoneally daily; in group 2, gm1 was administered intraperitoneally at a concentration of 30 mg/kg per day; in group 3, rats were treated daily with laser at low temperature on the skin, and in group 4, the daily laser session also contained gm1. all the groups were treated for 42

  7. A comment on "pH and the surface tension of water" (J. K. Beattie, A. M. Djerdjev, A. Gray-Weale, N. Kallay, J. Lutzenkirchen, T. Preocanin, A. Selmani, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 422 (2014) 54.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 448, Jun 15 (2015), s. 593 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : surface tension * Gibbs adsorption equation * hydroxide * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.782, year: 2015

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound to increase localized blood-spinal cord barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison H; Hawryluk, Gregory W; Anzai, Yoshimi; Odéen, Henrik; Ostlie, Megan A; Reichert, Ethan C; Stump, Amanda J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people every year in the USA, and most patients are left with some permanent paralysis. Therapeutic options are limited and only modestly affect outcome. To address this issue, we used magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a non-invasive approach to increase permeability in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We hypothesize that localized, controlled sonoporation of the BSCB by MRgFUS will aid delivery of therapeutics to the injury. Here, we report our preliminary findings for the ability of MRgFUS to increase BSCB permeability in the thoracic spinal cord of a normal rat model. First, an excised portion of normal rat spinal column was used to characterize the acoustic field and to estimate the insertion losses that could be expected in an MRgFUS blood spinal cord barrier opening. Then, in normal rats, MRgFUS was applied in combination with intravenously administered microbubbles to the spinal cord region. Permeability of the BSCB was indicated as signal enhancement by contrast administered prior to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and verified by Evans blue dye. Neurological testing using the Basso, Beattie, and Breshnahan scale and the ladder walk was normal in 8 of 10 rats tested. Two rats showed minor impairment indicating need for further refinement of parameters. No gross tissue damage was evident by histology. In this study, we have opened successfully the blood spinal cord barrier in the thoracic region of the normal rat spine using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles.

  9. Intrathecal Acetyl-L-Carnitine Protects Tissue and Improves Function after a Mild Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Eric E; Hagg, Theo

    2016-02-01

    Primary and secondary ischemia after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to tissue and axon degeneration, which may result from decreased energy substrate availability for cellular and axonal mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Therefore, providing spinal tissue with an alternative energy substrate during ischemia may be neuroprotective after SCI. To assess this, rats received a mild contusive SCI (120 kdyn, Infinite Horizons impactor) at thoracic level 9 (T9), which causes loss of ∼ 80% of the ascending sensory dorsal column axonal projections to the gracile nucleus. Immediately afterwards, the energy substrate acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC; 1 mg/day) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was infused intrathecally (sub-arachnoid) for 6 days via an L5/6 catheter attached to a subcutaneous Alzet pump. ALC treatment improved overground locomotor function (Basso-Beattie-Breshnahan [BBB] score 18 vs. 13) at 6 days, total spared epicenter (71% vs. 57%) and penumbra white matter (90% vs. 85%), ventral penumbra microvessels (108% vs. 79%), and penumbra motor neurons (42% vs. 15%) at 15 days post-SCI, compared with PBS treatment. However, the ascending sensory projections (anterogradely traced with cholera toxin B from the sciatic nerves) and dorsal column white matter and perfused blood vessels were not protected. Furthermore, grid walking, a task we have shown to be dependent on dorsal column function, was not improved. Thus, mitochondrial substrate replacement may only be efficacious in areas of lesser or temporary ischemia, such as the ventral spinal cord and injury penumbra in this study. The current data also support our previous evidence that microvessel loss is central to secondary tissue degeneration.

  10. Juvenile pen shells (Pinna nobilis) tolerate acidification but are vulnerable to warming, supplement to: Basso, L; Hendriks, Iris; Duarte, Carlos M (2015): Juvenile pen shells (Pinna nobilis) tolerate acidification but are vulnerable to warming. Estuaries and Coasts, 38(6), 1976-1985

    KAUST Repository

    Basso, L

    2016-01-01

    In the course of this century, rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions will likely cause a decrease in ocean pH, know as ocean acidification, together with an increase of water temperature. Only in the last years, studies have focused on synergetic effects of both stressors on marine invertebrates, particularly on early life stages considered more vulnerable. Disparate responses of their singular and combined effects were reported, highlighting the importance of extending the studies to different species and populations of marine invertebrates. Here, we observed the response of important parameters such as growth, mortality and oxygen consumption of juvenile pen shell Pinna nobilis at supplied pCO2 gas levels of 400 ppm (ambient) and 1000 ppm and at three temperatures (20, 23 and 26 °C) during 36 days. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ocean acidification and temperature effects on juveniles of this species. We show that the two stressors play roles at distinct levels, with pCO2 influencing growth and partially mortality, and temperature increasing mortality rates and oxygen consumption strongly. Therefore, juveniles of P. nobilis are more likely affected by increasing temperature than the pCO2 levels expected by the end of the twenty-first century.

  11. Mida strateegilised juhid tegelikult teevad? / Tiit Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Tiit, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Autor vahendab strateegiaekspertide Dan Schendeli, Jim Scholese, Katherine Beatty ja Richard Hughesi mõtteid strateegiliste muudatuste elluviimise kohta ning kommenteerib, kuidas neid ideid Eesti oludes kasutada

  12. A Critical Analysis of Management Indicators for the Director of Materiel Management, Sacramento ALC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Bresnahan, Patrick M. Instructor, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright-Patterson AFB OH. Personal interview. 4 April 1980. Churchman , C. West . The...1980. Schoderbek, Peter P., Asterios G. Kefalas, and Charles G. Schoderbek. Management Systems: Conceptual Considera- tions. Dallas: Business Publications, Inc., 1975. 1 111

  13. Competition in the Dutch consumer credit market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the degree of competitiveness of the Dutch consumer credit market. We use the well-known Bresnahan-Lau method that estimates a structural model consisting of a demand relation and a supply relation, based on aggregate data. The level of competition is derived from the estimated

  14. Competition in the Dutch consumer credit market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the degree of competitiveness of the Dutch consumer credit market. We use the well-known I Bresnahan-Lau method that estimates it structural model consisting of a demand relation and a supply relation, based on aggregate data. The level of compelition is derived from the

  15. The Ilisu forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshard, Peter [Berne Declaration (Switzerland); Sloan, Nigel [Balfour Beatty (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    The views of a representative of the public interest group Berne Declaration and those of a representative of Balfour Beatty make up this two-part article discussing the proposal to build the Ilisu dam in Turkey. The arguments against construction are based on adverse effects on at least 36,000 people, the poor record of rehabilitation, violation of human rights, the resultant increase in waterborne diseases, adverse effects on ecosystems and agriculture, violation of international law, non-compliance with World Bank policies and secrecy. Balfour Beatty argues that criticism of the Ilisu project is based largely on misconceptions, misunderstandings, out-of-date information and errors. Balfour Beatty is not the promoter of the Ilisu project but it is applying for UK Export Credits to cover the part of construction costs represented by exports from the UK (about 10% of total project cost).

  16. The Permanent People’s Tribunals and indigenous people’s struggles in Mexico : Between coloniality and epistemic justice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Icaza Garza (Rosalba)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractOn 21 October 2011, hundreds of Mexican civil society organizations formally submitted a petition to the Lelio e Lisli Basso Foundation in Rome to justify the opening of a Mexican Chapter of the Permanent People’s Tribunals (PPT). The PPT was established in 1979 as the successor to

  17. Field Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora. Marine Ecology Progress Series 362: 129-137. Benzoni F, Basso D, Caragnano A, Rodondi G (2011) Hydrolithon spp. (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) overgrow live corals (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in Yemen. Marine Biology 158: 2419-2428. Figure 1. Hydrolithon sp. overgrowing ...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disease in an age of rapid DNA sequencing and the Internet, by Brian G. Spratt; and Phage therapy: bacteriophage as natural, self-replicating and self-limiting ... Axial distortion as a sensor of supercoil changes: a molecular model for the homeostatic regulation of DNA gyrase. 119. Valente, V. L. S. see Basso da Silva, L.

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. L. Basso Da Silva1 V. L. S. Valente1. Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15053, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil ...

  20. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. L. Basso Da Silva1 V. L. S. Valente1. Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15053, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil ...

  1. Verbs: Some properties and their consequences for agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Rispens, J.E.; Ruigendijk, E.; Juncos Rabadán, O.; Thompson, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that agrammatic Broca's aphasics have serious problems with the retrieval of verbs on action naming tests (Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Kohn, Lorch Pearson, 1989; Basso, Razzano, Faglioni Zanobio, 1990; Jonkers, 1998; Kim & Thompson, 2000). Less attention

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Mass Communication and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society section of the Proceedings contains the following 19 papers: "Talk Radio as Forum and Companion: Listener Attitudes and Uses and Gratifications in Austin, Texas" (John Beatty); "'Willingness to Censor': Developing a Quantitative Measurement across Speech Categories and Types of Media"…

  3. Training Needs in Gerontology. Hearings, Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    Two days of hearings on training needs in gerontology were opened by Senator Lawton Chiles. Statements were made by Senators Frank Church, Harrison A. Williams, Jr., Jennings Randolph, and Edward Kennedy. Witnesses for the first day were J. E. Wilson, III, with George Ebra and Maeve H. Foster; Walter M. Beattie; Percil Stanford; Clavin Fields with…

  4. Electronic Learning Systems in Hong Kong Business Organizations: A Study of Early and Late Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Simon C. H.; Ngai, Eric W. T.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the diffusion of innovation theory (E. M. Rogers, 1983, 1995), the authors examined the antecedents of the adoption of electronic learning (e-learning) systems by using a time-based assessment model (R. C. Beatty, J. P. Shim, & M. C. Jones, 2001), which classified adopters into categories upon point in time when adopting e-learning…

  5. Reflexive Photography, Attitudes, Behavior, and CALL: ITAs Improving Spoken English Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has frequently taken a top-down approach when investigating learners' attitudes and behavior, both in the course as well as for their personal use. Suggestions are given for use of technology, and future research (Beatty, 2010; Levy & Stockwell, 2006). One perspective that has…

  6. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside-to-Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    used for pain management), baclofen (used for spasticity control), and topiramate (used for controlling seizures), all identified as common treatment ...Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael S. Beattie, Ph.D...September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside To Bench Modeling For Developing Treatment And Rehabilitation Strategies 5a

  7. Reliving the History of Compensatory Education: Policy Choices, Bureaucracy, and the Politicized Role of Science in the Evolution of Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara; Zigler, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Edward Zigler, interviewed by Barbara Beatty, talks about a turning point in the history of Head Start that reveals how policy choices, bureaucracy, and science came together when he was told to phase out the program in 1970. New to Washington, Zigler learned that President Richard M. Nixon's domestic policy advisor Daniel Patrick…

  8. How different iconic gestures add to the communication of PWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nispen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestures can convey information in addition to speech (Beattie et al., 1999). In the absence of conventions on their meaning (McNeill, 2000), people probably rely on iconicity, the mapping between form and meaning, to construct and derive meaning from gesture (Perniss et al., 2010).

  9. Strategic Performance Options in Professional Service Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Meihuizen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the current debate on HRM and organisational performance (Mahoney and Pandian, 1992; Storey, 1992; Paauwe, 1994; Wright et al, 1994; Flood et al, 1995; Becker and Gerhardt, 1996; Boxall, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Beatty and Schneider, 1997; Coff, 1997; Guest, 1997; Paauwe and Richardson, 1997;

  10. Strategic Performance Options in Professional Service Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Meihuizen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the current debate on HRM and organisational performance (Mahoney and Pandian, 1992; Storey, 1992; Paauwe, 1994; Wright et al, 1994; Flood et al, 1995; Becker and Gerhardt, 1996; Boxall, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Beatty and Schneider, 1997; Coff, 1997; Guest, 1997; Paauwe and Richardson, 1997; Boxall

  11. 78 FR 22221 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... referenced ground [caret] Communities affected elevation ** Elevation in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Pitt... feet above ground. [caret] Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. \\**\\ BFEs to be changed... inspection at the Department of Public Works, 1500 Beatty Street, Greenville, NC 27834. Unincorporated Areas...

  12. DOE role in support of a small-scale appropriately distributed technology. Official transcript of public briefing and addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    This report first lists 94 questions raised relative to the DOE public briefing on appropriate technology. The keynote speaker was John O'Leary who gave some perceptions of the future. The introductory speech was given by Phillip S. Hughes. Panel members from DOE who provided answers to the questions were: Maxine Savitz, John Deutch, Robert Thorne, and Donald Beattie. (MCW)

  13. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    exploring alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for cell based therapy in diabetes. Since in vitro culture of islet β-cells demonstrates loss in insulin (Beattie et al. 1999), several attempts have been made to identify stem / progenitor cells capable of differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Embryonic stem cells, which ...

  14. Book Reviews | Bernard | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review 1. Book Title: Reproductive Energetics in Mammals. Book Authors: A.S.I. Loudon & P.A. Racey (Eds.) Zoological Society of London Symposia 57, ... Book Title: The evolutionary ecology of ant-plant mutualisms. Book Author: Andrew J. Beattie. Cambridge University Press 182 pp. Book Review 6. Book Title: The ...

  15. An Extensive comparison of operating-lease capitalisation approaches and their unavoidable assumptions : Are further disclosures desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.; Bos, de A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research of Imhoff, Lipe and Wright (1991), Beattie, Edwards and Goodacre (1998) and others has shown that the capitalisation of operating leases on the balance sheet has a major impact on the accounting ratios. This empirical study expands previous research on two issues. First, we refine

  16. Church and Cultural Conflict in Nigeria, 1870-1930: A Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentally, it is that social anthropologists have added significantly to our understanding of the basic social and cultural institutions which, everywhere, bind human beings into living communities (Beattie, 1980). And many of the citizens of Nigeria including that of highly advanced modern states today think of people of ...

  17. Tumours of reptiles 4. Multiple osteomas in the lizard Laceria viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1958-01-01

    Whereas in fishes several osteomas (Bell, 1793; Gervais, 1875; Bland-Sutton, 1885 ; Plehn, 1906 ; Schroeders, 1908 ; Fiebiger, 1909 ; Williamson, 1913 ; Beatti, 1916 ; Kazama, 1924 ; Sagawa, 1925; Williams, 1929; Takahashi, 1929; Thomas, 1932, 1933; Lucké and Schlumberger, not published, see the

  18. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Suit against Envirocare sparks investigations: Formal petition filed with NRC; Group alleges misconduct by USGS re Beatty study; EPA rescinds NESHAPs subpart 1; Northwest Compact executive director changes jobs; New forum participant for the state of New Jersey; and Director of North Carolina division of radiation control retires

  19. Paradoxical reproduction and body size in the rock lizard, Agama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Anatomy and Histology. University of Stellenbosch. Tygerberg. 7507 Republic of South Africa. Received 5 July 1993; accepted 11 February 1994 ..... In: Biology of Australa .. ian frogs and reptiles. (Eds). G. Grigg, R. Shine and H. Ehmann, pp.35-46. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, ...

  20. Competition in the Dutch consumer credit market

    OpenAIRE

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the degree of competitiveness of the Dutch consumer credit market. We use the well-known I Bresnahan-Lau method that estimates it structural model consisting of a demand relation and a supply relation, based on aggregate data. The level of compelition is derived from the estimated conjectural variation elasticity. Our empirical results show that there is no evidence of market power.

  1. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Brandon; Henne, Paul D.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calò, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-10-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690-6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000-8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to change from a freshwater to mesosaline lake at about 6250 cal yr BP was related to sea level rise and resulting intrusion of seawater-influenced groundwater. In contrast, Gorgo Basso remained a freshwater lake. The salinity of Gorgo Basso declined somewhat after 6250 cal yr BP, in comparison to the early Holocene, ranging from about 550 to 1680 mg/L. Cypria ophtalmica, a species capable of rapid swimming and flourishing in waters with low dissolved oxygen levels, became dominant at approximately the time when Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response to increased Greco-Roman land use and fire. Ostracode valve geochemistry (Sr/Ca, δ18O) suggests significant changes in early vs. late Holocene hydrochemistry, either as changes in salinity or in the seasonality of precipitation. Harmonizing the autecological and geochemical data from

  2. Immagini di città. Nuove prospettive per il paesaggio urbano contemporaneo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Pierluisi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lo scritto si pone come una sorta di teoria delle immagini presentate, riflette sul rapporto tra prospettiva paesaggio e nuove tecnologie. Prospettiva come sistema di costruzione dello spazio tra immagine e realtà. Prospettiva come macchina tridimensionale: Brunelleschi. Prospettiva e spazio urbano nella Firenze tra Trecento e quattrocento. I due spazi prospettici di Google: vista zenitale e dal basso. La rappresentazione del paesaggio attraverso l'uso di viste zenitali e viste dal basso. Prospettiva e montaggio di immagini in sequenza: Google maps e Canaletto. Il dominio del fotografico come ritorno del mondo prospettico. Tecnica mista tra mano e digitale o “digitale caldo”. Fotografia come scrittura automatica. Pittura come traccia dell'osservatore fisica e concettuale.

  3. [Socio-economic context in the Lower Iseo Lake area after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    In the second part of the 20th century, the Basso Sebino Area (Northern Italy) underwent a transformation into an industrial context. The first factories were engaged in the production of textiles, clothes and pasta. This was followed by a major development of mechanic, plastic and rubber industry. The latter activity was concentrated on the production of buttons. This text describes the evolution of the unions'activity in order to obtain a more decent salary and better working conditions in all productive areas. Within this reality, the production of asbestos goods started in 1950 in the Colombo enterprise, run by Rinaldo Colombo, The latter was also the manager of the chrysotile quarry in Balangero, province of Torino (the biggest asbestos mine in Western Europe). Through these connections, asbestos was conveyed from Balangero to the Basso Sebino Area in such a way that most of the asbestos chain (extraction, processing of asbestos goods and sales) was under the control of the same firm.

  4. Scrivere e leggere. Etnografia politica di un corso per l’alfabetizzazione di adulti sinti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Trevisan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fin dai primi anni Sessanta diverse famiglie sinte imparentate fra loro cominciarono a svernare nelle città di Modena, Bologna e Reggio Emilia, continuando invece a spostarsi, da marzo a fine ottobre, lungo itinerari interprovinciali che toccavano fiere e sagre in Emilia Romagna, basso Veneto e bassa Lombardia (si partiva il 19 marzo, per la fiera di san Giuseppe, e si ritornava per la celebrazione dei morti.

  5. Le Ipocolesterolemie

    OpenAIRE

    Antic, Tijana

    2012-01-01

    Ipocolesterolemia o il colesterolo basso è un disordine metabolico caratterizzato da basse concentrazioni di colesterolo nel sangue. Mentre il problema opposto, definito ipercolesterolemia, è piuttosto comune negli abitanti dei Paesi industrializzati a causa dei ben noti eccessi alimentari, livelli di colesterolo particolarmente bassi si registrano soprattutto nelle regioni afflitte da denutrizione. Anche per questo motivo il significato clinico dell'ipocolesterolemia è per certi aspetti anco...

  6. Data Driven Device Failure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    or business -relevant rules. Unfortunately, the complexity of modern architectures has outpaced such static statistical-based analysis. OFP differs...and that fault injection accurately simulates those errors [3]. Unfortunately, G-SWFIT has only previously been implemented for Java applications [28...Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2002), pp. 483–487, 2002. 29. B. Sanches, T. Basso, and R. Moraes, “J-SWFIT: A java software fault injec- tion tool,” in

  7. Longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, Nicola; Soricelli,Emanuele; Casella,Giovanni; Di Rocco,Giorgio; Redler,Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Emanuele Soricelli, Giovanni Casella, Giorgio Di Rocco, Adriano Redler, Nicola BassoDepartment of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza, University of Rome, ItalyAbstract: Since the early 2000s, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has increasingly gained consensus in bariatric surgery, thanks to good to excellent results in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution, and to simpler technical aspects than in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. In yearly consen...

  8. Prevalenza di donne fumatrici in gravidanza

    OpenAIRE

    Bianconi, B.; Baiocchi, F.B.; Romani, L.; Paolucci, S.; Guidoni, C.; Giacchi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Obiettivi: il fumo in gravidanza è estremamente dannoso per il feto; il basso peso alla nascita e la prematurità sono le conseguenze più frequenti. Obiettivo dello studio è capire l’efficacia dei corsi di preparazione al parto nella cessazione del fumo in gravidanza.

    Metodi: lo studio è stato effettuato da maggio 2000 a marzo 2002. Sono stati somministrati dei brevi questionari durante gli incontri dei corsi ...

  9. Il fuoco della fusione termonucleare controllata

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero; Sindoni, Elio

    1984-01-01

    Per realizzare la fusione termonucleare controllata, cioè catturare e dominare il fuoco che accende gli astri, e ottenere così una nuova fonte di energia praticamente illimitata e a basso costo, si richiede uno sforzo collettivo e unitario globale: non esiste infatti nazione al mondo che sia in grado, singolarmente presa, di affrontare il problema, sia per le risorse finanziarie necessarie all'impresa sia per il numero dei ricercatori che dovranno dedicarvisi.

  10. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B Brandon; Henne, Paul; Mezquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calo, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690–6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000–8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response to increased Greco-Roman land use and fire. Ostracode valve geochemistry (Sr/Ca, δ18O) suggests significant changes in early vs. late Holocene hydrochemistry, either as changes in salinity or in the seasonality of precipitation. Harmonizing the autecological and geochemical data from Gorgo Basso suggests the latter was more likely, with relatively more late Holocene precipitation falling during the spring, summer, and fall, than winter compared to the early Holocene. Our ostracode-inferred paleosalinity data indicate that moisture availability did not decline during the late Holocene in the central Mediterranean region. Instead, moisture availability was lowest during the early Holocene, and most abundant during the late Holocene.

  11. FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE ROLE OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ANGRI, MATTEO

    2016-01-01

    La sicurezza e la qualità degli alimenti sono tutt’ora un problema critico per i paesi in via di sviluppo. Le diete a basso contenuto di acido folico, per esempio, possono causare gravi problemi di salute, soprattutto nei bambini. Gravi disturbi legati al tubo neurale (DTN) nei neonati possono derivare infatti da madri che hanno insufficiente apporto di acido folico (400-600 g / giorno) durante il periodo di gravidanza. Inoltre, se non adeguatamente protetti o trattati, I prodotti alimentari ...

  12. Einstein on Race and Racism, presented by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger

    2007-10-01

    It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''

  13. O stilu i kulturnom značenju Marulićeve Poslanice papi Adrijanu VI.

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Ruggero

    2008-01-01

    Nella comunicazione quotidiana assistiamo oggi a un singolare rinnovamento del genere epistolografico, tutte le volte che scriviamo (digitiamo) e scambiamo messaggi di posta elettronica (e-mail) privati o ufficiali, o anche, a un più basso ma non meno vitale livello stilistico, messaggi SMS, che somigliano talora a mini-lettere, o più spesso a epigrammi. Sono le nuove, ma ormai onnipresenti forme della comunicazione elettronica, che danno spazio anche a una parola più intima e confidenziale, ...

  14. Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    GF. (2014, July). Simulation of muscle work during hip/knee exoskeleton-assisted Gait. Presented at the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA...the 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, Boston, MA. 11. Behrman A, Basso, DM; Buehner J, Forrest GF; Kern, M; Wojciehowski S; Schmidt Read, M. Spinal...Medicine, 2013 12-16th at Disney Contemporary Resort, Walt Disney , November, 13-16th Florida, 2013. 14. Cavadini NA, Kirshblum S, Wojciehowski S

  15. Characteristics of low-level radioactive waste disposed during 1987--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roles, G.W.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the volume, activity, and radionuclide distributions in low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposed during 1987 through 1989 at the commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. The report has been entirely assembled from descriptions of waste provided in LLW shipment manifests. Individual radionuclide distributions are listed as a function of waste class, of general industry, and of waste stream. In addition, information is presented about disposal of wastes containing chelating agents, about use of solidification media, about the distribution of radiation levels at the surfaces of waste containers, and about the distribution of waste container sizes. Considerably more information is presented about waste disposed at the Richland and Beatty disposal facilities than at the Barnwell disposal facility

  16. Proceedings of a Workshop on V/STOL Aircraft Aerodynamics. Volume I. Held at Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 16-18 May 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-18

    jets in a crossflow being conducted by the Computational Mechanics Corp. The Vought VAPE program will incorporate - in addition to the Wooler-Ziegler...Beatty Vought Corporation Dallas, TX This paper describes the V/STOL Aircraft Propulsive Effects Computer Program ( VAPE ), developed at the Vought...regions of flight. The VAPE program is capable of evaluating: o effects of relative wind about the aircraft o effects of propulsive lift jet entrainment

  17. 1980 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented on the volumes, curie values, sources, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in each state. The wastes are segmented into 2 broad categories - institutional/industrial and commercial power reactor wastes. The volumes and curie values were obtained from the commercial site operators. The percentage of LLW disposed of at each of the 3 operating disposal sites located at Barnwell, SC, Beatty, NV, and Richland, WA are included

  18. A Century of Misunderstanding: The History of the Development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Understanding in the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    progression of PTSD from its roots as the concept of WWI shell-shock, through WWII, Korea, Vietnam, and finally the Global War on Terror (GWOT) to its...Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Mark D. Gerges, Ph.D. , Member Richard McConnell , M.A. , Member Patrick Beatty, M.A...progression of PTSD from its roots as the concept of WWI shell-shock, through WWII, Korea, Vietnam, and finally the Global War on Terror (GWOT) to its

  19. Self-Regulation as an Aid to Human Effectiveness and Biocybernetics Technology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    reduction, the contribution of the alpha-training procedure to pain relief when combined with hypnosis was "not due to increased’EEG alpha as such but...Beatty, J. T. Migraine: Management by operant control of vaso- constriction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, in press. 36 i :;: ^ t...Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D., Jr., & Beck, L. H. A continuous performance test of brain damage. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 1956

  20. A Comprehensive Investigation of Facility Effects on the Testing of High-Power Monolithic and Clustered Hall Thruster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    I. D., Beattie J. R., Cappelli, M., Chamber Effects on Plume Expansion for a Low - Power Hydrogen Arcjet , IEPC-93-126, 23rd International Electric...The traces show a stiucture similar to those of the monolithic thrusters. Beal observes similar results for the low - power cluster. The only difference...2001. 240 37. Hruby, V., Monheiser, J., Pote, B., Rostler, P., Kolencik, J., Freeman, C., Development of Low Power Hall Thrusters, AIAA-99-3534, 30th

  1. Seed cleaning of Strychnos ramentifera (Loganiaceae) by ants inMaracá island, Brazilian Amazonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes

    2005-01-01

    Thousands of plant species rely on ants to disperse their seeds, including many South American epiphytes and vines, which, apart from minimizing competition among seedlings, may also reduce competition among different plant species (Handel & Beattie, 1990). The lianas of the Genus Strychnos (Loganiaceae) are recognized as having fruits with highly poisonous seeds containing strychnine in the integuments, which are, nevertheless, dispersed endozoochorously by highly-specialized frugivores (i.e...

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management: case studies on commercial burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The two case studies of the low-level waste disposal facilities in Barnwell, South Carolina, and in Beatty, Nevada, have been prepared as informational documents for use by officials of states and local communities when they consider the desirability and feasibility of establishing a low-level waste facility in their communities. Contents covered are: site description; licensing and regulation; operation; community relations; problems and solutions; operational lessons; and role of the state of South Carolina

  3. Fabrication of High Strength Lightweight Metals for Armor and Structural Applications: Large Scale Equal Channel Angular Extrusion Processing of Aluminum 5083 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    BARBER D FOLEY 17 DIR USARL (PDF) RDRL WMM J BEATTY R DOWDING M VANLANDINGHAM RDRL WMM D R CARTER K CHO S WALSH...Department, Georgia Institute of Technology; February 2014. 14. Whelchel RL, Thadhani NN, Sanders TH, Kecskes LJ, Williams CL. Spall properties of Al...MARYLAND HALL 115 T WEIHS 1 THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV (PDF) HOPKINS EXTREME MATERIALS INSTITUTE MALONE HALL K RAMESH 1 UNIVERISTY OF

  4. Does IFRIC 15 Matter? The Decision Usefulness of Accelerated Revenue and Earnings Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lau Chee Kwong

    2013-01-01

    The newly issued IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate are likely to cause Malaysian property developers to change their revenue recognition policy from a stage-of-completion basis (accelerated) to a completion basis (conservative). In the US, consistent with the approach taken by the Financial Accounting standards Board (FASB), Altomuro, Beatty and Weber (2005) found that reported earnings based on accelerated revenue recognition are value relevant. The subsequent eliminati...

  5. Human Pregnancy-Specific Glycoproteins Function as Immunomodulators In Vitro by Inducing Secretion of IL-10 and IL-6 in Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-29

    antigen gene family members in submandibular salivary gland : demonstration ofpregnancy-specific glycoproteins by cDNA cloning. Biochem Biophys Res...presence ofCEA in serum has been used diagnostically to monitor progression ofpatients with colon cancer (Shively and Beatty, 1985). CEA transcripts...levels ofserum PSGs have also been associated with non-trophoblastic tumors like ovarian cancer (Searle et. aI., 1978), tumors ofthe breast (Home et. aI

  6. Fumo attivo e passivo, consumo di caffè ed effetti sulla gravidanza: uno studio caso controllo in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fantuzzi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: alcune abitudini di vita possono influenzare lo sviluppo fetale durante il periodo di gravidanza. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di indagare gli effetti di alcune abitudini voluttuarie sulle nascite premature e sul basso peso alla nascita.

    Metodi: è stato condotto uno studio caso controllo nel periodo ottobre 1999 settembre 2000 in 9 città italiane (Genova, Udine, Modena, Parma, Siena, Roma, L’Aquila, Napoli e Catania. Sono stati identificati come casi 525 neonati pretermine (26ma, 38ma settimana di gravidanza e 317 neonati a termine ma con peso ‹ al 10° P. Sono stati arruolati come controllo 871 bambini nati a termine e normopeso. Le informazioni relative all’esposizione al fumo attivo e passivo e al consumo di caffè e i dati personali sono stati raccolti attraverso un apposito questionario.

    Risultati: dai risultati dell’analisi univariata è emerso un maggior rischio di basso peso alla nascita nei bambini le cui madri avevano fumato durante l’ultimo trimestre di gravidanza, con un chiaro effetto dose risposta. (OR: 2.09, 95% CI:1.45 - 3.00 per 1 9 sigarette/giorno, e OR= 2.76, 95% CI: 1.67 - 4.45 per 10 ed oltre sigarette al giorno. Anche la nascita pretermine sembra influenzata dall’abitudine tabagica della madre anche se in modo meno evidente. OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05 - 2.04 per 1 9 sigarette/giorno e un OR: 1,30 95% CI: 0.78 - 4.81 per 10 e più sigarette/giorno. Per quanto riguarda l’esposizione al fumo passivo (più di due fumatori nelle abitazioni è stata osservata una positiva associazione con il basso peso alla nascita (OR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.19 - 7.79. Il consumo di caffè non sembra influenzare lo sviluppo fetale. La regressione logistica multipla ha confermato solo l’influenza del fumo attivo della madre sulla basso peso alla nascita. (AOR= 2.49, 95% CI: 1.74 - 3.56.

    Conclusioni: questo studio conferma che

  7. Contaminant migration at two low-level radioactive waste sites in arid western United States - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilshire, H.G.; Friedman, I.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of the unsaturated zone and ground water at the Beatty, Nevada and Richland, Washington low-level radioactive waste sites shows that pathways exist for rapid lateral and vertical migration of contaminants through unconsolidated clastic sediments that comprise the 100 m-thick unsaturated zones of those arid disposal sites. Disposal of liquid wastes at the Beatty site until 1975 may have contributed to rapid migration of contaminants, but negligible amounts of liquid wastes reportedly were disposed at the Richland LLRW site and similar problems of contaminant migration exist. Pathways for vertical migration in the unsaturated zone include fractures and, at Richland, clastic dikes; lateral migration pathways likely are facies-controlled. Disturbance of the disposal sites contributed to increased infiltration of the unlined waste trenches after closure; simulations that used Beatty sample data show dramatic increases in recharge with disturbances necessary to develop the site. Because neither and arid climate nor presence of a thick unsaturated zone offer effective barriers to ground-water contamination, reliance on those factors at proposed sites such as Ward Valley, California and elsewhere is unwarranted. (orig.)

  8. Estimating a theoretical model of state banking competition using a dynamic panel: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Miessi Sanches

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set up a model of regional banking competition based on Bresnahan (1982, Lau (1982 and Nakane (2002. The structural model is estimated using data from eight Brazilian states and a dynamic panel. The results show that on average the level of competition in the Brazilian banking system is high, even tough the null of perfect competition can be rejected at the usual significance levels. This result also prevails at the state level: Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Minas Gerais have high degree of competition.

  9. Holocene paleoclimate inferred from salinity histories of adjacent lakes in southwestern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B Brandon; Henne, Paul; Mezquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marrone, Federico; Pieri, Valentina; La Mantia, Tommaso; Calo, Camilla; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Marked uncertainties persist regarding the climatic evolution of the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. For instance, whether moisture availability gradually decreased, remained relatively constant, or increased during the last 7000 years remains a matter of debate. To assess Holocene limnology, hydrology and moisture dynamics, the coastal lakes Lago Preola and Gorgo Basso, located in southwestern Sicily, were investigated through several stratigraphic analyses of ostracodes, including multivariate analyses of assemblages, transfer functions of salinity, and biochemical analyses of valves (Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C). During the early Holocene, the Gorgo Basso and Lago Preola ostracode records are similar. After an initial period of moderate salinity (1690–6100 mg/l from ca. 10,000–8190 cal yr BP), syndepositional or diagenetic dissolution of ostracode valves suggests that salinity declined to <250 mg/L from ca. 8190 to 7000 cal yr BP at both sites. After ca. 6250 cal yr BP, the ostracode records are strikingly different. Lago Preola became much more saline, with paleosalinity values that ranged from 2270 to about 24,420 mg/L. We suggest that Lago Preola's change from a freshwater to mesosaline lake at about 6250 cal yr BP was related to sea level rise and resulting intrusion of seawater-influenced groundwater. In contrast, Gorgo Basso remained a freshwater lake. The salinity of Gorgo Basso declined somewhat after 6250 cal yr BP, in comparison to the early Holocene, ranging from about 550 to 1680 mg/L. Cypria ophtalmica, a species capable of rapid swimming and flourishing in waters with low dissolved oxygen levels, became dominant at approximately the time when Greek civilization took root in Sicily (2600 cal yr BP), and it completely dominates the record during Roman occupation (roughly 2100 to 1700 cal yr BP). These freshwater conditions at Gorgo Basso suggest high effective moisture when evergreen olive-oak forests collapsed in response

  10. Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the Central Alps as indicators of holocene climatic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Tinner, W. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Pollen and plant-macrofossil data are presented for two lakes near the timberline in the Italian (Lago Basso, 2250 m) and Swiss Central Alps (Gouille Rion, 2343 m). The reforestation at both sites started at 9700-9500 BP with Pinus cembra, Larix decidua, and Betula. The timberline reached its highest elevation between 8700 and 5000 BP and retreated after 5000 BP, due to a mid-Holocene climatic change and increasing human impact since about 3500 BP (Bronze Age). The expansion of Picea abies at Lago Basso between ca. 7500 and 6200 BP was probably favored by cold phases accompanied by increased oceanicity, whereas in the area of Gouille Rion, where spruce expanded rather late (between 4500 and 3500 BP), human influence equality might have been important. The mass expansion of Alnus viridis between ca. 5000 and 3500 BP probably can be related to both climatic change and human activity at timberline. During the early and middle Holocene a series of timberline fluctuations is recorded as declines in pollen and macrofossil concentrations of the major tree species, and as increases in nonarboreal pollen in the pollen percentage diagram of Gouille Rion. Most of the periods of low timberline can be correlated by radiocarbon dating the climatic changes in the Alps as indicated by glacier advances in combination with palynological records, solifluction, and dendroclimatical data. Lago Basso and Gouille Rion are the only sites in the Alps showing complete palaeobotanical records of cold phases between 10,000 and 2000 BP with very good time control. The altitudinal range of the Holocene treeline fluctuations caused by climate most likely was not more than 100 to 150 m. A possible correlation of a cold period at ca. 7500-6500 BP (Misox oscillation) in the Alps is made with paleoecological data from North American and Scandinavia and a climate signal in the GRIP ice core from central Greenland 8200 yr ago (ca. 7400 yr uncal. BP).

  11. 近代プロテスタンティズムにおけるキリスト像の変遷(1)

    OpenAIRE

    安酸, 敏眞

    1998-01-01

    Christology is a sort of basso ostinato in modern Protestant theology. Though no such heated “christological controversies” have taken place in modern times as in antiquity, the christological problem has certainly been latent in modern theology for the past three centuries. If we take “Christology” as the doctrine that deals with “the person and work of Christ” or “the identity and significance of Jesus Christ,” then we can say that modern Protestant theology, without exception, has had to c...

  12. 十九世紀のキリスト像 : 十九世紀中葉から二十世紀初頭にかけて

    OpenAIRE

    安酸, 敏眞

    1999-01-01

    Christology is a sort of basso ostinato in modern Protestant theology. Though no such heated “Christological controversies” have taken place in modern times such as in antiquity, the Christological problem has certainly been latent in modern theology for the past three centuries. If we take “Christology” as the doctrine that deals with “the person and work of Christ” or “the identity and significance of Jesus Christ,” then we can say that modern Protestant theology, without exception, has ha...

  13. Acerca de la localidad tipo y la distribución geográfica de Melanophryniscus klappenbachi Prigione & Langone, 2000 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldo, Diego

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dada la distribución geográfica de esta especie en Argentina, Prigioni y Langone (op. cit. sugieren que las citas de M. stelzneri fulvoguttatus para las provincias de Santa Fe (Baldo y Arzamendia, 1997 y Santiago del Estero (Basso y Williams, 1996 y para la localidad formoseña de Bartolomé de las Casas (Gallardo, 1961; 1966 debían ser reexaminadas. Del examen del material en el que se basaron dichas citas, concluyo que pertenecen a M. klappenbachi.

  14. Cooperativismo solidario y sus desafíos para el dearrollo rural en el municipio de Lima-San Pedro - Py

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos Vera, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Trabajo de Conclusión de Curso presentado al Instituto Latino-Americano de Economía Sociedad y Política de la Universidad Federal de la Integración Latino-Americana, como requisito parcial para la obtención del título de licenciado en desarrollo rural y seguridad alimentaria. Orientador: Prof. Doctor Dirceu Basso La presente monografía se basa en analizar porque las formas de asociaciones (cooperativas, comités) desaparecen o permanecen inactivos cuando las políticas p...

  15. [ Monotherapy with tamsulosin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    G.G. è un paziente di 62 anni, in condizioni generali discrete, che giunge alla nostra osservazione per la presenza di sintomi urinari del basso tratto urinario, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) pari a 16. Anamnesi familiare negativa per carcinoma prostatico. Il paziente esegue terapia con calcio antagonista per ipertensione arteriosa. Ha subito un intervento di colecistectomia. Il paziente riferiva inoltre una qualità di vita negativamente influenzata da sintomi minzionali irritativi che lo portavano ad alzarsi più di 3 volte a notte per urinare ed una pollachiuria diurna ogni 3 ore. Viene inoltre riferita un'attività sessuale moderatamente insoddisfacente.

  16. «A Man not a Man …»: Aeneid VI and the Hermeneutics of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christopher Smith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Partendo dall’esempio del libro VI dell’Eneide di Virgilio, questo articolo esplora ciò che potrebbero diventare il linguaggio e la «verità» se, al contrario di ciò che Platone propone per la formazione dei guardiani dello stato, invece di procedere verso l’alto, dalla percezione dei sensi all’essere univoco e intelligibile, ci si muove verso il basso, in direzione del regno ambiguo del sonno, dei sogni e della morte.

  17. I Passiuna tu Christù - Rito e teatro di una cantica popolare della Grecìa Salentina

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Costa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract – IT Questo articolo si basa sugli esiti di una ricerca di campo condotta nei paesi della Grecìa Salentina,una zona del basso Salento, dove si riscontra una peculiare modalità di esecuzione della cantica popolare grìca conosciuta come I Passiuna tu Christù (La Passione di Cristo). Attorno alla metà degli anni ´90 del ´900 la tradizione della cantica è stata oggetto di un prezioso recupero, fondato sulla memoria e disponibilità di alcuni anziani cantori, che l’ha riportata in vita dop...

  18. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    On 8 October, H.E. Mr David Beattie, British Ambassador to Switzerland, Mr John R. Nichols, H.M. Consul-General in Geneva and, Prof. Christopher Llewellyn Smith, CERN*'s Director General, formally opened the industrial exhibition of thirty-three British hi-tech companies at CERN, which takes place from 8 to 11 October, 1996. The exhibition offers British companies the opportunity to display their products in fields that are of immediate importance to the scientists, engineers and technicians working at CERN, and also to scientists from non-Member States who take part in research projects at CERN.

  19. Buckling of an elastic half-space with surface imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Y

    1999-01-01

    Over the years, linear analysis of the stability of pre-stressed elastic half-spaces has been carried out for various kinds of materials and various forms of pre-stress; see Biot (1965), Nowinski (1969a, b), Willson (1973a, b), Usmani \\& Beatty (1974), Chadwick \\& Jarvis (1979), Wu (1979, 1980), Reddy (1983), Ogden (1984), Wu \\& Cao (1983, 1984), and Dowaikh \\& Ogden (1990, 1991). Furthermore, Wu \\& Cao (1984) showed that the bifurcation condition for an elastic half-space is in fact the same...

  20. Energy and Urban Policies/Programs: official transcript of public briefing and addendum, April 27, 1978, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Sixty-one questions are indexed that were raised relative to the DOE public briefing on Energy and Urban Policies/Programs. Questions 1 through 40 were submitted by consumer and public interest groups prior to the briefing and answered by DOE program offices. With Ms. Tina Hobson as moderator, the speakers and panelists answered some of the questions in their presentations. Those presenting speeches were Dr. James Schlesinger, Sam Hughs, Alvin Alm, Donald A. Beattie, William Peacock, Fr. Geno C. Baroni, Walter Jabzanka. Three additional questions were read into the official record of the proceedings at the conclusion of the public briefing. Their answers were prepared by DOE program offices. (MCW)

  1. References

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Aldridge, H., Kenway, P. and Born, T. (2015), ‘What Happened to Poverty Under the Coalition’. New Policy Institute. Armour, R. (2014) ‘Charity Shops Buck Trend’, http://thirdforcenews.org.uk,24 March 2014. Beatty, C. and Fothergill, S. (2016), The Uneven Impact of Welfare Reform. The Financial Losses to Places and People, Centre for Regional and Social Economic Research and Sheffield Hallam University, https://www4.shu.ac.uk/research/cresr/sites/shu.ac.uk/files/welfare-reform-2016_1.pdf Belfi...

  2. Isotopic analysis of radioactive waste packages (an inexpensive approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, D.A.; Richmond, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer printout of the isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages containing resins, or other aqueous filter media is now required at the disposal sites at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Beatty, Nevada. Richland, Washington requires an isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages. The NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), through 10 CFR 61, will require shippers of radioactive waste to classify and label for disposal all radioactive waste forms. These forms include resins, filters, sludges, and dry active waste (trash). The waste classification is to be based upon 10 CFR 61 (Section 1-7). The isotopes upon which waste classification is to be based are tabulated. 7 references, 8 tables

  3. Specific mutation screening of TP53 gene by low-density DNA microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Angelica; Tenorio,Alfonso; Beattie,Kenneth; Salcedo,Mauricio; Mendoza,Patricia; Vàzquez-Ortiz ,Guelaguetza; Plasencia,C; Sanchez Becerra,; Flores,; Rodriguez,

    2009-01-01

    Angélica Rangel-López1–3, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio3, Kenneth L Beattie4, Rogelio Maldonado3, Patricia Mendoza1, Guelaguetza Vázquez1, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia5, Martha Sánchez2, Guillermo Navarro6, Mauricio Salcedo11Laboratorio de Oncología Genómica, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Oncológicas, Hospital de Oncología, CMN Siglo XXI-IMSS, Mexic...

  4. Perry Nuclear Plant's Plans for on-site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratchen, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Because of current radwaste disposal legislation and the eventual denial of access to the Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty burial sites, it was imperative for the Perry nuclear power plant to develop alternative means for handling its generated radioactive waste. The previous radwaste facilities at Perry were developed for processing, packaging, short-term storage, and shipment for burial. In order to meet the changing needs, new facilities have been constructed to handle the processing, packaging, and 5-yr interim storage of both dry active waste (DAW) and dewatered or solidified resin, filter media, etc

  5. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  6. Identità, famiglia, relazioni fra gruppi e svantaggio socio-educativo come fattori di insuccesso scolastico. Uno studio trasversale in un gruppo di studenti siciliani di scuola media inferiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pellerone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro che proponiamo tratta di una ricerca sul periodo adolescenziale e, in particolare, delle relazioni che gli adolescenti sviluppano in abito scolastico. La ricerca si è sviluppata su un piano multidimensionale influenzato da variabili personali come lo sviluppo dell’identità; variabili relazionali come il rapporto che lo studente struttura con la famiglia e la scuola, ed ancora il rapporto tra i genitori e gli insegnanti; variabili economico-culturali quali le caratteristiche dell’ambiente socio-educativo. In sintesi i risultati indicano che gli studenti con basso profilo identitario mostrano difficoltà nell’adattamento scolastico e nell’accettazione del proprio corpo; studenti con relazioni familiari conflittuali manifestano ridotta maturità emotiva e scarso adattamento familiare. Inoltre, la percezione negativa che i genitori hanno dei loro ruoli all’interno della famiglia e un basso livello di regolazione emotiva dello studente spesso determinano disagio scolastico. Attraverso questa indagine si è voluto esplorare il valore e l’influenza del contesto socio-educativo ed emotivo come passo essenziale nella conoscenza del disadattamento scolastico.

  7. Innovation and Academic Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    2006-01-01

    Literature on skill-biased technological and organisational change has established that these kinds of changes are positively related with demand for highly skilled (and highly educated) labour. Most of the literature is based on the hypothesis that technological and organisational change cause...... a larger demand for highly skilled labour (see e.g. Abramovitz and David 1996; Bresnahan 1999), but it has also been argued that ample supply of highly skilled labour may affect technological change (Acemoglu 2002), and that the relationship is likely to be complementary and interdependent (Caroli and Van...... will be written on an assumption of a positive relationship between innovation and use of academic skills subject to a continuing importance of practical know-how and non-formal learning processes. Confronting this assumption with Danish empirics, interesting research questions arise. Danish empirics thus show...

  8. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Iden, C.R.; Nine, B.; Chang, C.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14 C, 3 H, 90 Sr, 134 137 Cs, 60 Co, 241 Am, and 238 239 240 Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  9. Development of New Correlation and Assessment of Correlations for Two-Phase Pressure Drop in Rectangular Microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chi Woong; Yu, Dong In; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-01-01

    There are two kinds of models in two-phase pressured drop; homogeneous flow model and separated flow model. Many previous researchers have developed correlations for two-phase pressure drop in a microchannel. Most correlations were modified Lockhart and Martinelli's correlation, which was based on the separated flow model. In this study, experiments for adiabatic liquid water and nitrogen gas flow in rectangular microchannels were conducted to investigate two-phase pressure drop in the rectangular microchannels. Two-phase frictional pressure drop in the rectangular microchannels is highly related with flow regime. Homogeneous model with six two-phase viscosity models: Owen(21)'s, MacAdams(22)'s, Cicchitti et al.(23)'s, Dukler et al.(24)'s, Beattie and Whalley(25)'s, Lin et al.(26)'s models and six separated flow models: Lockhart and Martinelli(27)'s, Chisholm(31)'s, Zhang et al.(15)'s, Lee and Lee(5)'s, Moriyama and Inue(4)'s, Qu and Mudawar(8)'s models were assessed with our experimental data. The best two-phase viscosity model is Beattie and Whalley's model. The best separated flow model is Qu and Mudawar's correlation. Flow regime dependency in both homogeneous and separated flow models was observed. Therefore, new flow pattern based correlations for both homogeneous and separated flow models were individually proposed

  10. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  11. Dance and Its Importance in Bach’s Suites for Solo Cello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Hebson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Before J. S. Bach, the cello was rarely used as a solo instrument. With his suites for solo cello, however, Bach took the instrument out of the background of dance accompaniment and basso continuo, and placed it on the center stage for musical audiences. He accomplished this by using dance movements, a style in which the cello was already a familiar accompanying instrument. The forms of these dance movements were also used in such a way as to uniquely express the cello’s potential as a solo instrument. Ultimately, it was these suites that would inspire other composers to write solo works for the cello. By looking to the past, Bach created a work that looked to the future. This paper explores the musical elements in this work that contribute to their lasting influence.

  12. Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Rossi, Foteini Vakiarou, Federica Zoratto, Loredana Bianchi, Anselmo Papa, Enrico Basso, Monica Verrico, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Salvatore Evangelista, Guilia Rinaldi, Francesca Perrone-Congedi, Gian Paolo Spinelli, Valeria Stati, Davide Caruso, Alessandra Prete, Silverio TomaoDepartment of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, ItalyAbstract: Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features.Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer, patient clinical features, tumor biology, multidisciplinary approach

  13. Bootstrapping six-gluon scattering in planar ${\\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J; Duhr, Claude; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We describe the hexagon function bootstrap for solving for six-gluon scattering amplitudes in the large $N_c$ limit of ${\\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory. In this method, an ansatz for the finite part of these amplitudes is constrained at the level of amplitudes, not integrands, using boundary information. In the near-collinear limit, the dual picture of the amplitudes as Wilson loops leads to an operator product expansion which has been solved using integrability by Basso, Sever and Vieira. Factorization of the amplitudes in the multi-Regge limit provides additional boundary data. This bootstrap has been applied successfully through four loops for the maximally helicity violating (MHV) configuration of gluon helicities, and through three loops for the non-MHV case.

  14. [Learning concepts of diagnosis in family medicine: the "mark robinson sign" - the traces that should not be there].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabián, José Luis; Samarín-Ocampos, Elena; Minier, Luis; Pérez-Franco, Benjamín

    2015-11-01

    We review the mechanisms of the mental operation to identify the disease in family medicine, using five cases where the diagnosis process began in "the trace that should not be there" or "Robinson sign" as happened to Robinson Crusoe when he saw a human footprint on the beach of the "desert island". How could it be there?; It was a mystery, and based on metaphors, we framed the mechanism of "the trace that should not be there" mainly in the first phase of clinical or intuitive reasoning, but this intuition of the doctor should be accompanied by the diagnostic process, like the "basso continuo" of Baroque music, allowing improvisation and personal style, and in this way, eventually observing the footprint "that should not have been there" that may arise in the analytical, as well as in the verification phase of the assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Politica bancaria e sviluppo economico: rileggendo l'era menichelliana e quella attuale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Il basso tasso di crescita dell’Italia, anche nel contesto internazionale ed europeo, ha spinto a confrontare gli anni ’50 con gli ultimi dieci o quindici. Dall’analisi emerge che, se si esclude l’iniziale liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale, il periodo che vide la più vigorosa crescita dell’Italia fu caratterizzato dall’economia mista, da monopoli pubblici e posizioni private dominanti, da una politica monetaria e bancaria basata su controlli diretti ed esercizi di persuasione morale individuale, tutte condizioni oggi ritenute sfavorevoli alla crescita. Al contrario, nella fase attuale l’enfasi è stata sul modello di economia liberale, con liberalizzazioni, privatizzazioni di imprese produttive e di banche, politiche incentrate sugli incentivi e sul mercato. Purtroppo, la scienza economica non ha ancora trovato il paradigma generale che spiega la ricchezza delle nazioni a prescindere dal contesto e dagli uomini che lo animano.

  16. Il rumore elettrico Dalla fisica alla progettazione

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottino, Giovanni Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    L’opera fornisce una trattazione chiara, agile ed essenziale, ma completa, del rumore elettrico, argomento considerato generalmente oscuro e specialistico. Molto più breve (circa 275mila battute) dei testi attualmente disponibili. Il contenuto copre gli aspetti essenziali della matematica e della fisica del rumore (termico, shot. 1/f, …), e della sua rappresentazione nei circuiti. Discute quindi il rumore nei dispositivi passivi e attivi, e introduce i criteri di progettazione a basso rumore. Affronta infine brevemente questioni quali l’estrazione del segnale dal rumore e gli impieghi utili del rumore. L’attenzione è generalmente rivolta alla strumentazione fisica a bassa frequenza, in relazione alla pluridecennale esperienza specifica dell’autore. Si tratta di una estensione delle dispense, utilizzate per anni, di un corso universitario. Pertanto la trattazione è fortemente didattica, con particolare attenzione a rimuovere ambiguità e incertezze, discutendo il materiale in termini fisici intuit...

  17. Sviluppi di Ricevitori E di Componentistica Per Banda 3 mm Ad INAF-OA Cagliari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrini, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    L'INAF-OA Cagliari (OACa) sta sviluppando un ricevitore criogenico a basso rumore basato su un mixer SSB (Single Side Band) a superconduttore SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) per la banda 3 mm. Il ricevitore, acquistato da IRAM, è stato fortemente modificato per essere adattato al fuoco Gregoriano di SRT (Sardinia Radio Telescope). Lo strumento è caratterizzato da una nuova criogenia a ciclo chiuso 4 K (per evitare l'uso di elio liquido in antenna), da un nuovo oscillatore locale (di tipo ALMA Banda 3) e da un nuovo sistema di controllo e di monitoraggio basato su schede Raspberry ed Arduino sviluppato ad OACa. Verranno presentati i recenti sviluppi sul ricevitore, inclusi i risultati preliminari della misura della temperatura di rumore, che raggiunge un valore pari a Trec=66 K alla frequenza di 86 GHz, nonostante la criogenia non sia ancora ottimizzata. L'INAF-OACa è coinvolto nel progetto AETHRA (Advanced European Technologies for Heterodyne Receivers for Astronomy) nel quadro del programma Radionet/Horizon2020 per il quale sta contribuendo al WP1 (Work Package 1). Lo scopo del WP1 è di sviluppare e costruire un dimostratore di un array di ricevitori a doppia polarizzazione per la banda 3 mm basato su amplificatori criogenici a basso rumore (LNA) in tecnologia a semiconduttore MMIC. Nell'ambito del WP1 l'OACa ha in carico il progetto di un OrthomodeTransducer (OMT) in guida d'onda o in tecnologia planare per la banda 72-116 GHz che sia integrabile con amplificatori MMICs ed adatto all'integrazione in un array da installare nel piano focale di un radiotelescopio. Verranno presentati i design preliminari degli OMT per AETHRA, che sono basati su prototipi sviluppati in passato da OACa.

  18. Demographic survey centered around the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard-Haggard, K.

    1983-03-01

    Demographic data were gathered for several small population centers on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Population projections were made for the three townships that include most of the major population centers in the study area, based on the share approach. These townships were Alamo Township (Lincoln County), Beatty and Pahrump townships (Nye County). It was estimated that the total population of these three townships, plus Clark County, would reach a maximum of 934,000 people by the year 2000. It was assumed that the on-site population of the NTS would continue to be a function of activity at the site, and that this would, if anything, aid in the attainment of site objectives

  19. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    Contents include articles entitled: USGS report supports previous conclusions re tritium migration at Beatty; Ohio selects new contractor for screening; Maine Yankee`s future uncertain; Southeast Compact limits funds for North Carolina project; California, Energy, and Interior exchange correspondence on Ward Valley testing; TCC meets in Salt Lake City, Utah; Garner named executive director and forum participant for Northwest Compact; Seventh Circuit upholds Energy Secretary`s determination re distribution of surcharge rebates; US Ecology sues Nebraska re wetlands mitigation; US Supreme Court hears line-item veto challenge; Court rules NAS must provide public access; WCS sues Envirocare of Texas; DOE and Envirocare sign consent agreement; NRC issues performance assessment guidance; NRC to publish final decommissioning rule; House subcommittee passes Texas Consent Act; Environmental justice bill introduced in the House; and International nuclear safety body established.

  20. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    Contents include articles entitled: USGS report supports previous conclusions re tritium migration at Beatty; Ohio selects new contractor for screening; Maine Yankee's future uncertain; Southeast Compact limits funds for North Carolina project; California, Energy, and Interior exchange correspondence on Ward Valley testing; TCC meets in Salt Lake City, Utah; Garner named executive director and forum participant for Northwest Compact; Seventh Circuit upholds Energy Secretary's determination re distribution of surcharge rebates; US Ecology sues Nebraska re wetlands mitigation; US Supreme Court hears line-item veto challenge; Court rules NAS must provide public access; WCS sues Envirocare of Texas; DOE and Envirocare sign consent agreement; NRC issues performance assessment guidance; NRC to publish final decommissioning rule; House subcommittee passes Texas Consent Act; Environmental justice bill introduced in the House; and International nuclear safety body established

  1. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume IA. Nevada-Utah Verification Studies, FY 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-24

    STUDIES. i-m K% K, "’ " BEATTY, , , K , Ao SCALE ;:500,000 010 20 m A I STATUTE MILES , iO 20 KI LOMETERS " SCAL ;: 50001 - - • .- / 1IKABOO CDP, NEVADA...1539) 20i f 0 7 (1 3 2 6 I 5 5 I 3+’ l 0- 1 3 420 (433) J - 30 - 7 95 300 95 50 - 1 170 I 60 3200 s iso I I 20 -- . - I10oI I I0 , 7O -- I [ 80-3200 1...sand toward the basin center. T =NO NATIONAL, INC. OIL- FN -TR- 27-1 A 65 o Older lacustrine deposits - These deposits consist of iso - lated sandy and

  2. 1995 Area 1 bird survey/Zone 1, Operable Unit 2, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Robins Air Force Base is located in Warner Robins, Georgia, approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. As part of the Baseline Investigation (CDM Federal 1994) a two day bird survey was conducted by M. C. Wade (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and B.A. Beatty (CDM Federal Programs) in May 1995. The subject area of investigation includes the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, and the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two ponds). This is known as Area 1. The Area 1 wetlands include bottomland hardwood forest, stream, and pond habitats. The objectives of this survey were to document bird species using the Area I wetlands and to see if the change in hydrology (due to the installation of the Sewage Treatment Plant effluent diversion and stormwater runon control systems) has resulted in changes at Area 1 since the previous survey of May 1992 (CDM Federal 1994).

  3. Combining Human Resource and Stakeholder Management Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mormino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores collaborative learning activities involving HR and external stakeholders that organizations decide to plan and implement in order to obtain benefits in terms of knowledge sharing, stakeholder understanding and value creation. The increasing uncertainty and multiplicity...... of competitive pressures and stakeholder demands (Harrison, St. John, 1996) require organizations, and in particular HR, to take on a more strategic role aimed to build new capability and support the overarching business strategy (Ulrich, Beatty 2001). This study draws on Strategic Human Resource Management......, Strategic Human Resource Development and Stakeholder Management studies and, on this basis, investigates the case of an Italian bank to understand the nature and characteristics of collaborative learning activities towards external stakeholders. The investigation supports the proposition that HR development...

  4. Shipment of LLW by intercoastal maritime service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Transportation costs are a significant element of total waste disposal costs. In 1982, Nuclear Metals, Inc. (NMI) began a series of tests and investigations to examine the feasibility of using alternative modes for its low-level waste (LLW) shipments. NMI's investigations and experience have identified significant problems in transporting LLW by rail. Intercoastal maritime service, however, has been demonstrated as a safe and cost-effective way of transporting LLW from eastern seaboard generation sites to the repository at Beatty, Nevada. Intuition is an unreliable guide in this area. Waste managers need to periodically assess and compare combined transportation and burial costs for all site options to ensure that disposal operations are conducted in the most rational way

  5. Applications of the Basic programming language in X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J.P.; Roca, M.

    1981-01-01

    An assembly of programs written in ''Basic'' language and related with the calculation needs at the X-ray spectrometry laboratory of the Spanish J.E.N. has been developed. The principal problems considered, concerning the X-ray fluorescence technique, are the following: selection of the instrumental parameters; correction of the effects due to the dead time, background and spectral interferences; fitting of polynomial functions, which relate the variables intensity-concentration; application of some empirical-mathematical methods (Lucas-Tooth, Beattie and Brissey and Tertian procedures) to the correction of the inter-element effects; addition method, and statistical treatment of the results (correlation coefficient and ''F'' and ''t'' tests). Likewise, programs for the computation of spacings from powder diffraction patterns (Debye-Scherrer and counter diffractometer procedures) have been written. The proposed programs run following conversational patterns, in which different possibilities and incidences have been foreseen. (author)

  6. Dynamic behaviour of the contact line for 350 km/h on the new line Wuhan - Guangzhou; Dynamisches Verhalten der Oberleitung fuer 350 km/h auf der neuen Strecke Wuhan - Guangzhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmert, Gerhard [Balfour Beatty Rail, Beijing (China)

    2010-04-15

    Only after four and a half years of construction activities regular services started on the approximately 1 000 km long new high-speed line Wuhan - Guangzhou in the People's Republic of China. Achieving 320 to 330 km/h commercial speed, this line is the fastest railway connection in the world. The dynamic interaction between contact line and pantograph determines the maximally possible speed to an increasing extent. Worldwide, there is only low experience on the contact line dynamic behavior at this speed level. Balfour Beatty Rail designed the contact line for this installation, participated essentially in the implementation and, therefore, was in charge of proving the contact line quality. A series of test runs concerning the geometrical requirements and the contact force behaviour eventually proved the suitability of the system. (orig.)

  7. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  8. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  9. Mechanistic model of the inverted annular film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ho; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to predict the heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor in the inverted annular film boiling. The developed model is based on two-fluid mass, momentum and energy balance equations and a theoretical velocity profile. The predictions of the proposed model are compared with the experimental data and the well-established correlations. For the heat transfer coefficient, they agree with the experimental data and are more promising than those of Bromely and Berenson correlations. The present model also accounts the effects of the mass flux and subcooling on the heat transfer. The friction factor predictions agree qualitatively with the experimental measurements, while some cases show a similar behavior with those of the post-CHF dispersed flow obtained from Beattie's correlation

  10. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  11. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data

  12. Combining Human Resource and Stakeholder Management Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mormino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    of competitive pressures and stakeholder demands (Harrison, St. John, 1996) require organizations, and in particular HR, to take on a more strategic role aimed to build new capability and support the overarching business strategy (Ulrich, Beatty 2001). This study draws on Strategic Human Resource Management......, Strategic Human Resource Development and Stakeholder Management studies and, on this basis, investigates the case of an Italian bank to understand the nature and characteristics of collaborative learning activities towards external stakeholders. The investigation supports the proposition that HR development...... and corporate learning in a stakeholder-oriented perspective can play a strategic role in supporting business strategy, providing organizations the resources to meet internal and external needs (Wilson, 2005) and to interconnect with their value network....

  13. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha [Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management LLC, Newtown Square, PA (United States); Amran, Martha [WattzOn, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective. The program was delivered on-time and on-budget, and its success is based on the teamwork of local BB staff and the WattzOn team. The following graphic shows Switch4Good “by the numbers”, e.g. the scale of operations achieved during Phase I.

  14. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960's through 1990's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960's through early 1990's), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site's general design, (2) each site's inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site's chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington

  15. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada's Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona

  16. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada's Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona

  17. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  18. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Repetitive Treatment with Diluted Bee Venom Attenuates the Induction of Below-Level Neuropathic Pain Behaviors in a Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The administration of diluted bee venom (DBV into an acupuncture point has been utilized traditionally in Eastern medicine to treat chronic pain. We demonstrated previously that DBV has a potent anti-nociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-nociceptive effect of repetitive DBV treatment in the development of below-level neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI rats. DBV was applied into the Joksamli acupoint during the induction and maintenance phase following thoracic 13 (T13 spinal hemisection. We examined the effect of repetitive DBV stimulation on SCI-induced bilateral pain behaviors, glia expression and motor function recovery. Repetitive DBV stimulation during the induction period, but not the maintenance, suppressed pain behavior in the ipsilateral hind paw. Moreover, SCI-induced increase in spinal glia expression was also suppressed by repetitive DBV treatment in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord. Finally, DBV injection facilitated motor function recovery as indicated by the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan rating score. These results indicate that the repetitive application of DBV during the induction phase not only decreased neuropathic pain behavior and glia expression, but also enhanced locomotor functional recovery after SCI. This study suggests that DBV acupuncture can be a potential clinical therapy for SCI management.

  20. Site fidelity of male roe deer in a Mediterranean fragmented area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Melis

    2004-06-01

    "basso rischio e basso guadagno", volta a ottimizzare la sopravvivenza e la durata della vita riproduttiva.

  1. Tossinfezioni alimentari: conseguenze ed impatto economico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bonaccorsi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: nella discussione sulla sicurezza degli alimenti, un settore di grande importanza e sempre maggior attualità riguarda le tossinfezioni alimentari. Tali patologie, apparentemente a “basso impatto”, determinano in realtà profonde ripercussioni, sia in termini di danno economico diretto per l’industria che indiretto per l’intera società: pur essendo generalmente lievi, comportano una frequente ospedalizzazione e talora anche la morte dei soggetti colpiti.

    Una buona quota di casi è potenzialmente prevenibile, attraverso strategie di facile impiego, che consentono di realizzare un “guadagno netto” in termini di salute e in ragione delle conseguenze economiche. Per valutare l’ordine di grandezza dei possibili vantaggi che derivano dall’attuazione di una prevenzione mirata, con questo lavoro abbiamo voluto calcolare il peso economico che le tossinfezioni comportano.

    Metodi: la valutazione dei costi è stata eseguita utilizzando sia tecniche “complete” (CMA, CEA, CUA, CBA che “parziali” (CA per avere un quadro completo su costi, vantaggi ed eventuali alternative, compresa la non azione.

    Risultati: l’analisi ha evidenziato, anche in numerose ricerche internazionali e nazionali, il forte impatto economico che le tossinfezioni esercitano per i paesi ad elevato tenore sociale ma soprattutto, come sottolineato dall’OMS e dalla FAO, sulle precarie economie dei Paesi in via di sviluppo.

    Conclusioni: la sottovalutazione dei costi economici totali è oltremodo marcata, stante la sottonotifica (in quote variabili da 1:10 a 1:100 in studi diversi che sussiste anche nei quadri clinici pronunciati. Nonostante i costi sanitari diretti siano elevati, non rappresentano la prima voce di spesa: l’assorbimento di risorse è molto superiore per i costi indiretti ed intangibili.

    Infine, per la quota notevole di costi sostenuta

  2. The triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor DOV 216,303 promotes functional recovery after spinal cord contusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tak-Ho; Cummins, Karen; Stys, Peter K

    2018-03-22

    Serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine are important neuromodulators for locomotion in the spinal cord. Disruption of descending axons after spinal cord injury resulted in reduction of excitatory and neuromodulatory inputs to spinal neurons for locomotion. Receptor agonists or reuptake inhibitors for these neuromodulators have been shown to be beneficial in incomplete spinal cord injury. In this study, we tested a triple re-uptake inhibitor, DOV 216,303, for its ability to affect motor function recovery after spinal cord injury in mice. We impacted C57 mouse spinal cord at the T11 vertebral level and administered vehicle or DOV 216,303 at 10 mg/kg, b.i.d via intraperitoneal injections for 7 days. We monitored motor function with the Basso Mouse Scale for locomotion for 4 weeks. Spinal cords were harvested and histological examinations were performed to assess tissue sparing and lesion severity. Results showed that DOV 216,303-treated mice recovered significantly better than vehicle treated mice starting at 14 days post injury until the end of the survival period. Lesion size of the DOV 216,303 treated mice was also smaller compared to that of vehicle treated mice. This study suggests DOV 216,303 as a potential therapeutic after spinal cord injury warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interfacce e tecnologie visual 3D per conoscere, condividere e valorizzare il patrimonio culturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ippoliti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo illustra gli esiti della ricerca “Modelli informativi integrati per conoscere, valorizzare e condividere il patrimonio urbano e ambientale. Sperimentare interfacce 3D per oggetti culturali geografici: l'architettura delle informazioni e l'architettura informatica” che si è posta come principale obiettivo quello di dilatare il concetto di “modello informativo integrato”, approfondendolo, attraverso integrazioni e sovrapposizioni con diversi ambienti, nelle direzioni sia dello spazio geografico (3D-GIS e dello spazio Web (3D-WEB e 3D-GIS-WEB, sia della Realtà Aumentata e del Virtuale Aumentato. La ricerca ha mirato ad individuare sistemi tecnologici, procedurali e operativi, diversamente articolati in relazione a casi individuati, privilegiando anche tecnologie basate su strumentazioni di facile uso, a basso costo e/o open source, ma sempre affidabili relativamente alla qualità dei dati elaborati. In tale contesto si sono condotte differenti sperimentazioni, secondo vari percorsi/scale di lettura e corrispondenti organizzazioni dei dati, scegliendo come ambito privilegiato delle applicazioni il centro storico di Ascoli Piceno.

  4. SUL TERREMOTO PROFONDO DELLE ISOLE EOLIE DEL 23 NOVEMBRE 1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONINO GIRLANDA

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available È accertato che la zona del basso Tirreno, comprendente il gruppo
    delle Eolie con l'isola di Ustica e parzialmente limitata dall'arco tracciato
    dalla costa occidentale della Calabria e dalla costa settentrionale
    della Sicilia, è anche sede di centri sismici profondi. Dagli studi microsismici
    fino ad oggi eseguiti risulterebbe che tali centri, la cui profondità
    è compresa tra 200 e 300 km., si dispongono lungo un arco
    parallelo all'arco costituito dall'Appennino calabro-campano, cioè lungo
    la fascia vulcanica attiva che comprende l'Etna, lo Stromboli ed
    il Vesuvio.
    Alcune caratteristiche della zona (vulcanismo attivo o recentemente
    spento, notevoli profondità marine, anomalia isostatica positiva
    la rendono, sotto certi aspetti, somigliante ad alcuni tratti dell'arco
    circnm-pacifico, che, secondo l'elaborazione statistica di Gutenberg e
    Richter (11, è sede del 90r/c ca. dei terremoti con profondità compresa
    tra 60 e 300 km.

  5. Mechanochemical process to recover heavy metals from industrial ash; Procedimenti meccanochimici per l'estrazione di metalli pesanti da ceneri industriali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Barbera, A.; Bimbi, C.; De Francesco, M.; Padella, F. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Ranaldi, E. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    An innovative mechanochemical process has been conceived to recover heavy metals from industrial ashes. The low environmental impact process is based on the transformation of heavy metals oxides into soluble salts. In particular high energy ball milling has been successfully applied on real samples from iron electrometallurgy. Heavy metals extractions higher than the ones resulting from the typical acid attack were obtained. [Italian] A partire da simulazioni termidinamiche, e' stato ideato un innovativo processo meccanochimico a basso impatto ambientale per il recupero di metalli pesanti da ceneri pericolose di origine industriale. Il processo, che prevede la conversione in fasi solubili di metalli pesanti presenti nelle ceneri sotto forma di ossidi misti insolubili, e' stato sperimentato con successo sia su campioni di laboratorio che su campioni reali. In particolare la macinazione ad alta energia e' stata applicata a campioni di cenere provenienti da elettrometallurgia del ferro, con un elevato contenuto di zinco, ottenendo risultati migliori di quelli ottenibili da un tradizionale attacco acido.

  6. JOHNSON & KASKA 1965 FOSSIL CORALLINE ALGAE FROM GUATEMALA (REVISION OF THE JESSE HARLAN JOHNSON COLLECTION, PART 4

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    DANIELA BASSO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The original collections of eight species described by Johnson & Kaska (1965 from several Guatemalan localities and ages, have been examined, re-documented and critically revised. The generic placement of Aethesolithon guatemalaensum, Lithothamnium? primitiva, Lithothamnium diagramaticum, Lithothamnium guatemalense, Lithothamnium toltecensum, and Jania occidentalis resulted incorrect under modern taxonomic criteria, and changed accordingly, while a lectotype specimen was selected for Amphiroa guatemalense and Amphiroa kaskaella. We place tentatively L. diagramaticum in the new combination Sporolithon? diagramaticum on the base of the occurrence of secondary pit-connections and vegetative and reproductive anatomy corresponding to some extant species of the genus Sporolithon. L. toltecensum was based on few Miocene sterile thalli occurring with some fertile specimens of the same age - the latter incorrectly identified under the name L. florea brassica (Millet Lemoine - both corresponding to the extant, long-lasting species Lithothamnion crispatum Hauck. The occurrence of large cell fusions and trichocytes, the shape and structure of the uniporate conceptacles and the dimerous construction collectively indicate that Aethesolithon guatemalaensum belongs to the genus Hydrolithon, with the new combination H. guatemalaensum (Johnson & Kaska Basso & Granier. The vegetative anatomy of Jania occidentalis corresponds to that of a co-occurring Corallina, already identified as C. matansa Johnson. Lithothamnium? primitiva is not a coralline alga, since it is conspecific with Marinella lugeoni Pfender. The vegetative features of the sterile “Lithothamnium guatemalense” exclude it from the genus Lithothamnion, but the absence of important diagnostic characters suggests leaving it incertae sedis under the original binomial.

  7. Epidemiological study on the Trichinellosis of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Tuscany (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the years 2004-2005, 112 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 4 badgers (Meles meles were caught in different areas of Tuscany (Central Italy and examined for Trichinella infection, using the diagnostic technique of artificial digestion through Stomacher. No animal was positive for Trichinella larvae. According to our results, Tuscany can be considered a low-risk area for trichinellosis in the fox. In this region the presence of the parasite cannot be ruled out, two cases of infection being reported in 1993. Riassunto Epidemiologia della trichinellosi della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Toscana (Italia centrale. Nel corso degli anni 2004-2005, 112 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 4 tassi (Meles meles sono stati catturati ed esaminati per la presenza di infestione da Trichinella in differenti aree della Toscana (Italia centrale. L'indagine di laboratorio è stata condotta mediante digestione artificiale tramite Stomacher. Nessun animale è risultato positivo. Da questi risultati si può ritenere la Toscana una regione a basso rischio di infezione. La presenza del parassita non può però essere esclusa totalmente. Infatti, nel 1993 sono stati riportati due casi di infestione.

  8. Longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soricelli E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emanuele Soricelli, Giovanni Casella, Giorgio Di Rocco, Adriano Redler, Nicola BassoDepartment of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza, University of Rome, ItalyAbstract: Since the early 2000s, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has increasingly gained consensus in bariatric surgery, thanks to good to excellent results in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution, and to simpler technical aspects than in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. In yearly consensus summits, surgical indications, technical details, and management of complications, together with continuous update of data concerning clinical outcome, have been debated on the basis of increasing collective experience. In experimental studies and clinical trials, the pathophysiological mechanisms of weight loss and remission of cardiometabolic comorbidities subsequent to sleeve gastrectomy have been extensively discussed. The aim of this paper is to offer a review of state of the art laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and to focus attention on the currently most debated topics and future prospects of this procedure.Keywords: sleeve gastrectomy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, revisional, quality of life

  9. A progressive compression model of thoracic spinal cord injury in mice: function assessment and pathological changes in spinal cord

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    Guo-dong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic injury accounts for approximately half of clinical spinal cord injury, including chronic spinal cord compression. However, previous rodent spinal cord compression models are mainly designed for rats, few are available for mice. Our aim is to develop a thoracic progressive compression mice model of spinal cord injury. In this study, adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups: in the surgery group, a screw was inserted at T9 lamina to compress the spinal cord, and the compression was increased by turning it further into the canal (0.2 mm post-surgery every 2 weeks up to 8 weeks. In the control group, a hole was drilled into the lamina without inserting a screw. The results showed that Basso Mouse Scale scores were lower and gait worsened. In addition, the degree of hindlimb dysfunction in mice was consistent with the degree of spinal cord compression. The number of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was reduced in all groups of mice, whereas astrocytes and microglia were gradually activated and proliferated. In conclusion, this progressive compression of thoracic spinal cord injury in mice is a preferable model for chronic progressive spinal cord compression injury.

  10. Differenze craniometriche in popolazioni di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes L. nel Mediterraneo occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatino Maurizio Siracusa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La Volpe rossa (Vulpes vulpes ha un ampio areale e una tassonomia complessa, ancora non ben definita; poco numerosi sono inoltre gli studi sulla craniometria delle popolazioni mediterranee. In questo studio abbiamo misurato 21 variabili di 78 crani appartenenti a popolazioni della Penisola italiana (22, della Sardegna (6, della Sicilia (8 e della Spagna (42. I dati sono stati sottoposti ad indagine statistica mediante tecniche univariate (t-test e analisi discriminante. I risultati del t-test tra Italia e Spagna mostrano differenze statisticamente significative per 13 variabili (11 per i maschi e 13 per le femmine, tra Italia e Sardegna per 17 variabili, tra Spagna e Sardegna per 17 variabili, tra Italia e Sicilia 7 variabili, tra Spagna e Sicilia 11 variabili e tra Sicilia e Sardegna 8 variabili. Dal confronto tra i sessi sono risultate differenti, in modo statisticamente significativo, 11 variabili per il campione della Penisola italiana e 15 per la Spagna; di queste variabili differenti statisticamente, solo otto risultano comuni. Per Sicilia e Sardegna non abbiamo effettuato nessun confronto, dato il basso numero di campioni. L?analisi discriminante applicata agli stessi dati craniometrici ha permesso di estrarre funzioni discriminanti capaci di distinguere in maniera statisticamente significativa (p<0,001 differenti clusters che non sempre però concordano sia con la sistematica classica, sia con le recenti indagini genetiche.

  11. From Phoenician Nora to Punic Nora and Beyond

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    Stefano Finocchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulla base dei risultati conseguiti dalla missione dell’Università della Tuscia a Nora si esaminano i dati circa le più antiche fasi dell’insediamento fenicio di Nora in Sardegna e le prime forme di organizzazione urbana (fine dell’VIII - seconda metà del VI secolo a.C.. Si illustrano quindi gli aspetti urbanistici legati all’affermazione dell’egemonia cartaginese a Nora (dall’ultimo quarto del VI secolo a.C. e le trasformazioni urbanistiche e topografiche che interessano un settore della città, il “Colle di Tanit”, tra l’età ellenistica e le ultime fasi di vita dell’età repubblicana. Grazie ai dati delle ricognizioni territoriali, si esaminano le modalità della diffusione e dello sfruttamento delle relative risorse tra l’età fenicia e punica prima, quella romana repubblicana e imperiale poi e quella di età bizantina e basso medievale in seguito.

  12. Materiali acustici fonoisolanti e fonoassorbenti di origine vegetale - Acoustic materials of vegetable origin for sound absorption and sound insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Asdrubali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available I materiali acustici di origine vegetale possono rappresentare delle valide alternative sia dal punto di vista prestazionale che ambientale ai materiali sintetici e minerali, ma al momento attuale un esiguo numero di essi è già pronto da essere commercializzato. La presente memoria propone uno stato dell’arte su questa famiglia di materiali, fornendo le caratteristiche di fonoisolamento/assorbimento a partire dai materiali più diffusi fino a quelli meno convenzionali. Tali prodotti sono realizzati dagli scarti delle coltivazioni e delle aziende di trasformazione: ciò comporta un impatto ambientale basso se i materiali sono disponibili localmente e non in conflitto con colture alimentari. ------ Acoustic materials of vegetable origin can be a good alternative to traditional ones both from the technical and environmental point of view but very few of them are technologically mature enough to be commercialized. The present paper reports a state of the art of this family of materials, providing the acoustic characteristics starting from the most widespread and promising products to the unconventional ones. These products are realized using the residuals of the cultivation process or of the processing industry so their environmental impact is very low, if the raw materials are local and are not in contrast with food crops.

  13. Music: Creativity and Structure Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocini, Emanuela

    Music, compared to other complex forms of representation, is fundamentally characterized by constant evolution and a dynamic succession of structure reference models. This is without taking into account historical perspective, the analysis of forms and styles, or questions of a semantic nature; the observation rather refers to the phenomenology of the music system. The more abstract a compositional model, the greater the number and frequency of variables that are not assimilated to the reference structure; this "interference" which happens more often than not in an apparently casual manner, modifies the creative process to varying but always substantial degrees: locally, it produces a disturbance in perceptive, formal and structural parameters, resulting more often than not in a synaesthetic experience; globally, on the other hand, it defines the terms of a transition to a new state, in which the relations between elements and components modify the behavior of the entire system from which they originated. It is possible to find examples of this phenomenon in the whole range of musical production, in particular in improvisations, in the use of the Basso Continuo, and in some contrapuntal works of the baroque period, music whose temporal dimension can depart from the limits of mensurability and symmetry to define an open compositional environment in continuous evolution.

  14. Ultrasound-galactography correlation in the diagnosis of discharging breast. A work in progress; Correlazione tra ecografia e galattografia nella diagnostica della mammella secernente: risultati preliminari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilotti, A.; Marini, C.; Marinari, A.; Armillotta, N. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Oncologia, Sez. di Radiodiagnostica; Traino, A.C.; Falleni, A. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dip. di Fisica Sanitaria

    1999-10-01

    Several pathologic conditions involving the breast ductal tree can cause bloody or serous nipple discharge. Galactography plays a major clinical role in identifying and localizing intraductal masses, but its sensitivity in detecting cancer is certainly suboptimal. Presently high-frequency ultrasound US probes allow detection and guided biopsy of intraductal lesions. It is here compared the specific information provided by US and galactography in the discharging breast. [Italian] La secrezione del capezzolo, soprattutto se ematico o sieroematica, monoporica e spontanea rappresenta il sintomo di diverse condizioni patologiche che coinvolgono l'albero duttale. La glattografia ha un ruolo determinante nell'individuazione della lesione intraduttale. Tuttavia tale indagine ha bassa specificita' e basso valore preditivo positivo per il carcinoma. L'impiego di frequenze elevate nell'ecografia rende possibile l'identificazione di masse intraduttali nonche' la successiva valutazione citologica delle stesse mediante agoaspirato ecoguidato. Scopo del lavoro e' paragonare le informazioni specifiche fornite dall'ecografia e dalla galattografia al fine di stabilire l'eventuale contributo diagnostico della ecografia nello studio della mammella secernente.

  15. I nomi del tempo la seconda rivoluzione scientifica e il mito della freccia temporale

    CERN Document Server

    Bellone, Enrico

    1989-01-01

    Ogni persona colloca i fatti ordinandoli lungo una freccia psicologica del tempo e così distingue tra il passato e il futuro. La distinzione è netta, poiché i fatti disposti nel passato non sono modificabili, mentre quelli che si verificheranno sono, in linea di massima, solo prevedibili: non possiamo esercitare alcuna influenza sugli eventi passati, ma possiamo nutrire la speranza di condizionare, almeno in parte, quelli che non si sono ancora verificati. La questione della freccia psicologica è collegata alla circostanza per cui l'individuo ha coscienza d'essere sempre situato in un «qui e ora», così da ricordare solo certi fatti del passato e da non avere alcuna memoria del futuro. Questo stato di cose, pur manifestandosi in modo del tutto naturale, presenta però analogie con quel particolare stato di cose grazie al quale ciascuno di noi parla di oggetti che si trovano «in alto» o «in basso», sulla base di una distinzione che non è poi dissimile da quella che riguarda il «prima» e il «dopo�...

  16. Criteria for Selecting Optimal Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Basso

    Full Text Available Yield rates vary spatially and maps produced by the yield monitor systems are evidence of the degree of withinfield variability. The magnitude of this variability is a good indication of the suitability of implementing a spatially variable management plan. Crop simulation models have the potential to integrate the effects of temporal and multiple stress interaction on crop growth under different environmental and management conditions. The strength of these models is their ability to account for stress by simulating the temporal interaction of stress on plant growth each day during the season. The objective of paper is to present a procedure that allows for the selection of optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates to be applied spatially on previously identified management zones through crop simulation modelling. The integration of yield maps, remote sensing imagery, ground truth measurements, electrical resistivity imaging allowed for the identifications of three distinct management zones based on their ability to produce yield and their stability over time (Basso et al., 2009. After validating the model, we simulated 7 N rates from 0 to 180 kg N/ha with a 30 kg N/ha increment. The model results illustrate the different N responses for each of the zone. The analysis allowed us to identify the optimal N rate for each of the zone based on agronomic, economic and environmental sustainability of N management.

  17. Criteria for Selecting Optimal Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Basso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Yield rates vary spatially and maps produced by the yield monitor systems are evidence of the degree of withinfield variability. The magnitude of this variability is a good indication of the suitability of implementing a spatially variable management plan. Crop simulation models have the potential to integrate the effects of temporal and multiple stress interaction on crop growth under different environmental and management conditions. The strength of these models is their ability to account for stress by simulating the temporal interaction of stress on plant growth each day during the season. The objective of paper is to present a procedure that allows for the selection of optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates to be applied spatially on previously identified management zones through crop simulation modelling. The integration of yield maps, remote sensing imagery, ground truth measurements, electrical resistivity imaging allowed for the identifications of three distinct management zones based on their ability to produce yield and their stability over time (Basso et al., 2009. After validating the model, we simulated 7 N rates from 0 to 180 kg N/ha with a 30 kg N/ha increment. The model results illustrate the different N responses for each of the zone. The analysis allowed us to identify the optimal N rate for each of the zone based on agronomic, economic and environmental sustainability of N management.

  18. The fool, the androgynous and the hybrid: grotesque and carnivalesque elements in The Incal by Jodorowsky and Moebius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Di Nobile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del presente lavoro è quello di individuare, attraverso un’analisi basata sulle chiavi di lettura bachtiniane, gli elementi grotteschi e carnevaleschi risalenti al repertorio della cultura comica popolare presenti ne L’Incal di Jodorowsky e Moebius, al fine di comprendere pienamente il messaggio veicolato dal fumetto. L’analisi è condotta a partire da tre personaggi principali, figure grottesche per eccellenza, ossia il folle, l’androgino e l’ibrido, per arrivare a stabilire un parallelo fra il mondo de L’incal e il carnevale e la festa medievale. Si procede dunque analizzando le immagini, sia grafiche che linguistiche, legate al basso materiale e corporeo, incentrate innanzitutto sulla materia scatologica, in secondo luogo sulla tematica della fecondità-inseminazione, e infine sulle tematiche dello smembramento, dell’invecchiamento e della morte gravida, per dimostrare la teoria bachtiniana del “corpo creatore [considerato] sotto l’aspetto storico, come tema dell’immortalità e della crescita della cultura umana’, come ‘progresso storico dell’umanità” (Bachtin, 1979: 355. Il risultato dell’analisi è l’individuazione, in una satira sociale distopico-fantascientifica (quindi con caratteristiche tendenzialmente negative, di un messaggio positivo e utopico.

  19. Deletion of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 attenuates neuronal loss and improves locomotor function in a mouse model of spinal cord trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan-Feng; Xu, Da-Yuan; Zhang, Yuntong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Xia, Yan; Zhou, Pan-Yu; Fu, Qing-Ge; Xu, Shuo-Gui

    2017-07-01

    Neuronal cell death following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an important contributor to neurological deficits. The purpose of our work was to delineate the function of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1), a pro-apoptotic kinase and key mediator of apoptotic signaling, in the pathogenesis of an experimental mouse model of SCI. Male mice received a mid-thoracic spinal contusion injury, and it was found that phosphorylation of Mst1 at the injured site was enhanced significantly following SCI. Furthermore, when compared to the wild-type controls, Mst1-deficient mice displayed improved locomotor function by increased Basso mouse scale score. Deletion of Mst1 in mice attenuated loss of motor neurons and suppressed microglial and glial activation following SCI. Deletion of Mst1 in mice reduced apoptosis via suppressing cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation following SCI. Deletion of Mst1 attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and increased ATP formation following SCI. Deletion of Mst1 in mice inhibited local inflammation following SCI, evidenced by reduced activities of myeloperoxidase and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that deletion of Mst1 attenuated neuronal loss and improved locomotor function in a mouse model of SCI, via preserving mitochondrial function, attenuating mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, and suppressing inflammation, at least in part.

  20. La correlazione di immagini per la generazione di modelli 3D per il patrimonio costruito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Chiabrando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I modelli dettagliati 3D derivati dalle tecniche di rilievo metrico digitale vengono impiegati con crescente sviluppo in moltissimi campi applicativi, dal rilievo del territorio e delle aree urbane, per i quali sono stati testati e messi a punto processi di elaborazione di dati satellitari o aerei, ai beni paesaggistici strettamente correlati al territorio fino alla sfera dei Beni Culturali. L’elevato dettaglio ottenibile delle superfici e la loro accuratezza li rende particolarmente stimati per un largo insieme di finalizzazioni. Questo contributo esamina in particolare i cosiddetti sensori passivi e i relativi sistemi di correlazione d’immagine, poiché l’efficacia dei modelli ottenibili, il basso costo e la ricchezza d’informazione offerta, rendono questi modelli di importanza strategica nei settori caratterizzati da scarse risorse come quello dei Beni Culturali. Dopo una breve rassegna dei metodi disponibili, è riportato un esame dell’applicazione degli algoritmi di base implementati in due diffusi software; a corredo alcune valutazioni circa le strategie di matching in riferimento alle geometrie di acquisizione, alle tipologie di materiali e finiture superficiali degli oggetti rilevati. Una sezione sperimentale finale descrive alcuni test ed una loro lettura critica per la comparazione di differenti soluzioni da riferire a diversi casi studio.

  1. Bibliometric indicators: spread reflections for a focusing and conscious use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Piazzini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel mondo scientifico e accademico l'uso di indicatori bibliometrici è ormai largamente diffuso ed è diventato un  parametro di giudizio per assegnare fondi di ricerca e valutare i risultati degli investimenti. Lo scopo di questo articolo è quello di fornire, senza alcuna pretesa di completezza, spunti di riflessione e consigli pratici per un utilizzo consapevole degli indicatori bibliometrici più consolidati, segnalandone i limiti e le peculiarità. Oltre al più noto e discusso indicatore bibliometrico, l'Impact factor, sono stati sviluppati negli ultimi anni alcuni sistemi alternativi legati all'open acess. Le più valide alternative sono rappresentate da Scimago, strumento gratuitamente consultabile on-line nato da un gruppo di ricerca del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC in collaborazione con alcune università spagnole e Eigenfactor, progetto di ricerca accademica non-commerciale sponsorizzato dal Bergstrom lab dell’Università di Washington. Molto affermato è infine l'H-index (o Indice di Hirsch, messo a punto nel 2005 da Jorge E. Hirsch professore all’Università della California di San Diego. Questo recente indice cerca di ridimensionare alcuni eccessi del Citation index, equilibrando e rendendo compatibili autori molto prolifici, ma con un basso numero di citazioni per articolo e studiosi meno produttivi, ma con un alto rapporto citazione/articolo.

  2. Crowdfunding per il Patrimonio Culturale nei Centri Storici Minori: la Chiesa di San Michele a Savoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo illustra la campagna di crowdfunding “Save the Soul of Savoca” per finanziare il restauro di un ciclo di dipinti settecenteschi nel piccolo borgo di Savoca (ME. Si presenta questa iniziativa come un modello per la salvaguardia del patrimonio culturale del nostro Paese che è vastissimo, distribuito su numerose piccole realtà locali e spesso non adeguatamente tutelato. Il finanziamento erogato dallo Stato e dagli enti locali rappresenta, ancora oggi, la fonte di sostentamento principale per le iniziative che coinvolgono il settore dei beni culturali. Tuttavia, l’attuale congiuntura economica ha favorito la nascita e la diffusione di strumenti e modalità di finanziamento alternativi attraverso i quali poter supportare il restauro del nostro Patrimonio Culturale. Il crowdfunding è il metodo che più si sta diffondendo ed è una forma di microfinanziamento dal basso finalizzato alla creazione e al supporto di un processo collaborativo tra singoli soggetti che utilizzano il proprio denaro per sostenere iniziative di singoli individui o di organizzazioni più strutturate. Molteplici sono gli esempi attuali di impiego del crowdfunding, da parte di associazioni e comitati, per il restauro di monumenti di interesse nazionale.

  3. A critical exploration of "Working Together, Learning Together"--does it meet the learning needs of nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Amanda

    2003-10-01

    Recent government educational initiatives have emphasised the need for lifelong learning to facilitate and equip nurses with the appropriate knowledge and skills to operate in a dynamic healthcare delivery system. In this paper I will critically explore a recent educational framework from an educational ideology and curriculum design perspective. It is recognised that any educational program cannot be devised or constructed in a socio-political vacuum and any developments must acknowledge this influence on the context in which nurse education operates. The framework is debated from an ideological perspective and I surmise that an ideological change from Romanticism to Revisionism will facilitate change in curriculum design that is in keeping with the realties of healthcare needs. The educational initiative is explored from a curriculum design perspective utilising Beattie's Fourfold Model. I further surmise that the educational initiative fails to acknowledge the uniqueness of nursing knowledge and the integral learning processes such as reflection thus marginalising nursing as a profession. In this paper I suggest that any educational initiative must recognise the evolving role of nursing, the profession and the realties of healthcare systems to ensure the present and future workforce is skilled and empowered to aspire to these multifaceted demands.

  4. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  5. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-06-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.

  6. Simulations of long-term health risk from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for up to 1000 years following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be considered by model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include:groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Off-site population and individual doses and cancer risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. Some simulation results for the Barnwell site are presented. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. Polar poisons: did Botulism doom the Franklin expedition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2003-01-01

    In 1845 the Franklin expedition left London with 2 ships and 134 men on board in an attempt to find the route through the Northwest Passage. The ships were built with state-of-the-art technology for their day, but provisioned with supplies from the lowest bidder. After taking on fresh provisions in the Whalefish Islands, off the coast of Greenland, the entire crew was never heard from again. Graves found on remote Beechey Island indicate that three able-bodied seamen died during the first winter. A note written on a ship's log, later found in a cairn, indicate that the expedition's leader, Sir John Franklin, died during the second winter entrapped on the ice, by which time 24 men had also perished. The remaining crew failed in their attempt to walk out of the Arctic by an overland route. In 1981 Owen Beattie, from the University of Alberta, exhumed the remains of the sailors from the three graves on Beechey Island. Elevated lead levels were found in all three sailors. While lead poisoning has been a leading theory of the cause of the crew's deaths, blamed on the crudely tinned provisions the ships carried with them from England, chronic lead exposure may only have weakened the crew, not necessarily killed them. One of three exhumed sailors also had in his intestine the spores of an unspecified Clostridium species. The theory put forth by this article is that Botulism, type E, which is endemic in the Arctic, may have been responsible for their deaths.

  8. US Geological Survey studies of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites - a summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has completed geohydrologic investigations of five commercial low-level, radioactive-waste disposal sites. Final reports on two of the sites have been released and the remaining three will be published this year. A highly permeable glacial sand, originally thought to be discontinuous, has proven to be continuous in narrow channel deposits at the site near Sheffield, Illinois. These deposits have provided pathways for tritium-contaminated ground water to move off site. At another site, near West Valley, New York, the distribution and geohydrologic characteristics of the fine-grained glacial sediments have been studied and documented. Contaminants have not been detected in ground water away from the site. Studies at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site, indicated that only 0.1 inches of precipitation percolates through bedrock from the site to the valley floor annually. Investigations at the arid Beatty, Nevada site, have been directed toward the geohydrologic characterization of unaturated sediments at the site. A significant finding of geohydrologic investigation of the Barnwell, South Carolina site, was that cobalt 60 in ground water percolating through the bottom of one trench diminished to undetectable levels of concentration within 6 feet of the trench bottom. This fact suggests that soil characteristisc at the site are effective in impending transport of that, and perhaps other, radionuclides. 6 references

  9. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  10. Resistivity profiling for mapping gravel layers that may control contaminant migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Abraham, Jared D.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous contaminants, including CFC 113, chloroform, and tritiated compounds, move preferentially in unsaturated subsurface gravel layers away from disposal trenches at a closed low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert about 17 kilometers south of Beatty, Nevada. Two distinct gravel layers are involved in contaminant transport: a thin, shallow layer between about 0.5 and 2.2 meters below the surface and a layer of variable thickness between about 15 and 30 meters below land surface. From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey used multielectrode DC and AC resistivity surveys to map these gravel layers. Previous core sampling indicates the fine-grained sediments generally have higher water content than the gravel layers or the sediments near the surface. The relatively higher electrical resistivity of the dry gravel layers, compared to that of the surrounding finer sediments, makes the gravel readily mappable using electrical resistivity profiling. The upper gravel layer is not easily distinguished from the very dry, fine-grained deposits at the surface. Two-dimensional resistivity models, however, clearly identify the resistive lower gravel layer, which is continuous near the facility except to the southeast. Multielectrode resistivity surveys provide a practical noninvasive method to image hydrogeologic features in the arid environment of the Amargosa Desert.

  11. EPA risk assessment model for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for a period (nominally 1000 years) following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be evaluated include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water off-site. Population and individual doses and risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Collective health effects in terms of deaths from cancer are calculated for the population over the assessment period using a life-table approach. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York

  12. Low-level waste management in the South. Task 4.2 - long-term care requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the long-term care requirements of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Among the topics considered are the technical requirements for long-term care, the experiences of the three inactive and three active commercial disposal facilities concerning perpetual care and maintenance, and the financial management of a perpetual care fund. In addition, certain recommendations for the establishment of a perpetual care fund are provided. The predominant method of disposing of low-level radioactive wastes is shallow land burial. After studying alternative methods of disposal, the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concluded that there are no compelling reasons for abandoning this disposal method. Of the 22 shallow land burial facilities in the U.S., the federal government maintains 14 active and two inactive disposal sites. There are three active (Barnwell, South Carolina; Hanford, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada) and three inactive commercial disposal facilities (Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Sheffield, Illinois; and West Valley, New York). The life of a typical facility can be broken into five phases: preoperational, operational, closure, postclosure observation and maintenance, and institutional control. Long-term care of a shallow land burial facility will begin with the disposal site closure phase and continue through the postclosure observation and maintenance and institutional control phases. Since the postclosure observation and maintenance phase will last about five years and the institutional control phase 100 years, the importance of a well planned long-term care program is apparent. 26 references, 1 table

  13. Mixed convection heat transfer between a steam/non-condensable gas mixture and an inclined finned tube bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cachard, F.; Lompersky, S.; Monauni, G.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Thermal Hydraulic Lab.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental and analytical program was performed at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute) to study the performance of a finned-tube condenser in the presence of non-condensable gases at low gas mass fluxes. The model developed for this application includes mixed convection heat transfer between the vapour/non-condensable mixture and the finned tubes, heat conduction through the fins and tubes, and evaporative heat transfer inside the tubes. On the gas, heat transfer correlations are used, and the condensation rate is calculated using the heat/mass transfer analogy. A combination of various available correlations for forced convection in staggered finned tube bundles is used, together with a correction accounting for superimposed natural convection. For the condensate heat transfer resistance, the beatty and Katz model for gravity driven liquid films on the tubes is used. The fine efficiency is accounted for using classical iterative calculations. Evaporative heat transfer inside the tubes is predicted using the Chen correlation. The finned tube condenser model has been assessed against data obtained at the PSI LINX facility with two test condensers. For the 62 LINX experiments performed, the model predictions are very good, i.e., less then 10% standard deviation between experimental and predicted results.

  14. Evaluation of shale hosted low-level waste disposal sites in semi-arid environments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggenthen, W.M.; Rahn, P.H.; Arthur, R.C.; Miller, J.R.; Bangsund, W.J.; Eberlin, J.

    1985-09-01

    This report covers the findings of a multidisciplinary investigation intended to delineate critical factors and concerns associated with shale hosted, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites located in semiarid environments. The investigations focus primarily upon concerns regarding the hydrology, geochemistry, and meteorology of such an environment. The studies described within this report specifically do not constitute an evaluation of any one particular site nor even a particular class of sites. Rather, it is the intention of the report to present data and insights that would assist private concerns and governmental agencies in the efficient and prudent development of such disposal areas. This report assumes that the hypothetical waste site in question would be developed as a trench type operation similar to that used at Barnwell, South Carolina, with variations upon the techniques used at Beatty Flat, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington. The trench design (Figures 1 and 2) is assumed to be similar to that generic design described in ''Procedures and Technology for Shallow Land Burial, DOE/LLw-13Td, 1983) although it is also assumed that improvements and adaptations will be made upon this basic design to meet the individual needs of a particular site. During the preparation of this report it became apparent that new types of trench design are being studied. Discussions of these trench design proposals are not central to this report. The examples of trench design in Figures 1 and 2 are presented only to give an idea as to the general philosophy of construction of shallow burial facilities

  15. A study on relationship between organizational culture and communication apprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Farhangi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and communication apprehension among some employees who worked for Iran broadcasting channel. The study has adopted two well-known questionnaires developed by Hofstede (1984 [Hofstede, G. (1984. Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (2nd ed.. Beverly Hills CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-8039-1444-X] for organizational culture and McCroskey et al. (1985 [McCroskey, J. C., Beatty, M. J., Kearney, P., & Plax, T. G. (1985. The content validity of the PRCA‐24 as a measure of communication apprehension across communication contexts. Communication Quarterly, 33(3, 165-173.] for communication apprehension (CA. We have used Chi-Square test to verify different hypotheses of the survey and the results of the survey have indicated that while there was no relationship between CA and three components including cultures of masculinity, individualistic culture and ambiguity aversion, there was a significance relationship between CA and power distance. The results of our survey indicate that as the power distance increases we may expect a higher level on CA.

  16. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan N Beatty

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Megan N Beatty, Paul D BlumenthalDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS is a safe, effective and acceptable form of contraception used by over 150 million women worldwide. It also has a variety of noncontraceptive benefits including treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia. The LNG-IUS has also been used in combination with estrogen for hormone replacement therapy and as an alternative to hysterectomy. Overall, the system is very well tolerated and patient satisfaction is quite high when proper education regarding possible side effects is provided. However, despite all of the obvious benefits of the LNG-IUS, utilization rates remain quite low in the developed countries, especially in the United States. This is thought to be largely secondary to the persistent negative impressions from the Dalkon Shield intrauterine experience in the 1970s. This history continues to negatively influence the opinions of both patients and health care providers with regards to intrauterine devices. Providers should resolve to educate themselves and their patients on the current indications and uses for this device, as it, and intrauterine contraception in general, remains a largely underutilized approach to a variety of women’s health issues.Keywords: Mirena®, levonorgestrel-releasing, intrauterine system, intrauterine contraceptive device

  17. Can taking the perspective of an expert debias human decisions? The case of risky and delayed gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    In several previously reported studies, participants increased their normative correctness after being instructed to think hypothetically, specifically taking the perspective of an expert or researcher (Beatty and Thompson, 2012; Morsanyi and Handley, 2012). The goal of this paper was to investigate how this manipulation affects risky or delayed payoffs. In two studies, participants (n = 193) were tested online (in exchange for money) using the adjusting procedure. Individuals produced certain/immediate equivalents for risky/delayed gains. Participants in the control group were solving the problem from their own perspective, while participants in the experimental group were asked to imagine "what would a reliable and honest advisor advise them to do." Study 1 showed that when taking the perspective of an expert, participants in experimental group became more risk aversive compared to participants in the control group. Additionally, their certain equivalents diverged from the expected value to a greater extent. The results obtained from the experimental group in Study 2 suggest that participants became less impulsive, which means they tried to inhibit their preferences. This favors the explanation, which suggests that the perspective shift forced individuals to override their intuitions with the social norms. Individuals expect to be blamed for impatience or risk taking thus expected an expert to advise them to be more patient and risk aversive.

  18. Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.

  19. Condensation heat transfer coefficients of flammable refrigerants on various enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jung; Jung, Dong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In this study, external condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTCs) of six flammable refrigerants of propylene (R1270), propane (R290), isobutane (R600a), butane (R600), dimethylether (RE170), and HFC32 were measured at the vapor temperature of 39 .deg. C on a 1023 fpm low fin and turbo-C tubes. All data were taken under the heat flux of 32∼116 and 42∼142 kW/m 2 for the low fin and turbo-C tubes respectively. Flammable refrigerants' data obtained on enhanced tubes showed a typical trend that external condensation HTCs decrease with increasing wall subcooling. HFC32 and DME showed up to 30% higher HTCs than those of HCFC22 due to their excellent thermophysical properties. Propylene, propane, isobutane, and butane showed similar or lower HTCs than those of HCFC22. Beatty and Katz' correlation predicted the HTCs of the flammable refrigerants obtained on a low fin tube within a mean deviation of 7.3%. Turbo-C tube showed the best performance due to its 3 dimensional surface geometry for fast removal of condensate

  20. PRESTO low-level waste transport and risk assessment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Emerson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial trenches. The model is intended to be generic and to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for a 1000-y period following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios considered by the model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population inlude: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses are calculated as well as doses to the intruder and farmer. Cumulative health effects in terms of deaths from cancer are calculated for the population over the thousand-year period using a life-table approach. Data bases are being developed for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York

  1. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  2. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report

  3. Microbial effects on radioactive wastes at SLB sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the significance of microbial degradation of organic wastes on radionuclide migration on shallow land burial for humid and arid sites, establish which mechanisms predominate and ascertain the conditions under which these mechanisms operate. Factors contolling gaseous eminations from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrogen from the site stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or 14 C into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste materials, primary emphasis of the study involved on examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Although the methane and carbon dioxide production rate indicates the degradation rate of the organic substances in the waste, it does not predict the methane evolution rate from the trench site. Methane fluxes from the soil surface are equivalent to the net synthesis minus the quantity oxidized by the microbial community as the gas passes through the soil profile. Gas studies were performed at three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (West Valley, New York; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky) during the period 1976 to 1978. The results of these studies are presented. 3 tables

  4. Characteristics of wastes and soils which affect transport of radionuclides through the soil and their relationship to waste management. Annual report FY78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1979-04-01

    Soil samples were collected from Beatty, NV, the University of California, Los Angeles/University of California, Berkeley (UCLA/UCB) project, California and Nebraska. Results of waste/soil interaction studies indicate that waste radionuclides can be categorized into three broad forms; filterable (insoluble) and sorbable and nonsorbable (soluble). The relative distribution of the three depends on the storage time of the waste and on the soil which is interacted with the waste. In the filterable (insoluble) fraction the radionuclides are associated with both organic and inorganic particulates. The primary inorganic particulate was identified as calcium carbonate. The soluble nonsorbable waste radionuclides possess a negative charge with the exception of 137 Cs; that species is positively charged. The presence of negatively charged species is attributed to complexing with either carbonate or chelating compounds. Changes in the soluble fraction of waste radionuclides on storage of waste are attributed in part to the dissolution or precipitation of calcium carbonate and perhaps the degradation of organic material or growth of microorganisms in the waste. 11 figures, 31 tables

  5. Impact of technology applications to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes are generated from reactor sources (nuclear power reactors) as well as from nonreactor sources (academic, medical, governmental, and industrial). In recent years, about 50,000 m 3 per year of such wastes have been generated in the United States and about 10,000 m 3 per year in Canada. Direct disposal of these wastes in shallow ground has been a favored method in both countries in the past. In the United States, three operating commercial sites at Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington, receive most of the commercial low-level waste generated. However, with recent advances in waste management, technologies are being applied to achieve optimum goals in terms of protection of human health and safety and the environment, as well as cost-effectiveness. These technologies must be applied from the generation sources through waste minimization and optimum segregation -- followed by waste processing, conditioning, storage, and disposal. A number of technologies that are available and can be applied as appropriate -- given the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste -- include shredding, baling, compaction, supercompaction, decontamination, incineration, chemical treatment/conditioning, immobilization, and packaging. Interim and retrievable storage can be accomplished in a wide variety of storage structures, and several types of engineered disposal facility designs are now available. By applying an integrated approach to radioactive waste management, potential adverse impacts on human health and safety and the environment can be minimized. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system

  7. Geologic evaluation of the Oasis Valley basin, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridrich, C.J.; Minor, S.A.; and Mankinen, E.A.

    2000-01-13

    This report documents the results of a geologic study of the area between the underground-nuclear-explosion testing areas on Pahute Mesa, in the northwesternmost part of the Nevada Test Site, and the springs in Oasis Valley, to the west of the Test Site. The new field data described in this report are also presented in a geologic map that is a companion product(Fridrich and others, 1999) and that covers nine 7.5-minute quadrangles centered on Thirsty Canyon SW, the quadrangle in which most of the Oasis Valley springs are located. At the beginning of this study, published detailed maps were available for 3 of the 9 quadrangles of the study area: namely Thirsty Canyon (O'Connor and others, 1966); Beatty (Maldonado and Hausback, 1990); and Thirsty Canyon SE (Lipman and others, 1966). Maps of the last two of these quadrangles, however, required extensive updating owing to recent advances in understanding of the regional structure and stratigraphy. The new map data are integrated in this re port with new geophysical data for the Oasis Valley area, include gravity, aeromagnetic, and paleomagnetic data (Grauch and others, 1997; written comm., 1999; Mankinen and others, 1999; Hildenbrand and others, 1999; Hudson and others, 1994; Hudson, unpub. data).

  8. Financial assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    US Ecology is a full service waste management company. The company operates two of the nation's three existing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities and has prepared and submitted license applications for two new LLRW disposal facilities in California and Nebraska. The issue of financial assurances is an important aspect of site development and operation. Proper financial assurances help to insure that uninterrupted operation, closure and monitoring of a facility will be maintained throughout the project's life. Unfortunately, this aspect of licensing is not like others where you can gauge acceptance by examining approved computer codes, site performance standards or applying specific technical formulas. There is not a standard financial assurance plan. Each site should develop its requirements based upon the conditions of the site, type of design, existing state or federal controls, and realistic assessments of future financial needs. Financial assurances at U.S. Ecology's existing sites in Richland, Washington, and Beatty, Nevada, have been in place for several years and are accomplished in a variety of ways by the use of corporate guarantees, corporate capital funds, third party liability insurance, and post closure/long-term care funds. In addressing financial assurances, one can divide the issue into three areas: Site development/operations, third party damages, and long-term care/cleanup

  9. Socioeconomic profile of Nye County, Nevada: Community services inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is preparing socioeconomic profiles of Nye County, Nevada, and communities in Nye County that could be affected by siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, located in Nye County. These profiles serve as a data base for evaluating local community service impacts; store existing socioeconomic data in a uniform, readily accessible format; identify the need for additional data; and assist in developing a plan for monitoring and mitigating any significant adverse impacts that may be associated with site characterization and potential repository development. This element of the socioeconomic profiles contains an inventory of community services provided by local, county, and state agencies and volunteer organizations to residents of Amargosa Valley, Beatty, and Pahrump. Services inventoried for each community include housing, growth management, general government, education, police protection, transportation networks, public clinics, private health personnel, parks and recreation, social services, libraries, ambulances, electric power, heating fuel, water, sewers and wastewater treatment, solid waste, and fire protection. The report includes a summary overview of service providers in Nye County, discussions of services provided to residents of the three communities, and summary tables. Data presented in this profile were collected through early 1985. Data collection efforts are ongoing and this profile will be updated periodically

  10. Repeat biopsy in patients with initial diagnosis of PIN; La biopsia ripetuta nei pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Matteis, Massimo [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Albertoni; Poggi, Cristina; De Martino, Antonietta; Pavlica, Pietro [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Palagi, Dipartimento area radiologica; Corti, Barbara [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Anatomia ed istologia patologica, Dipartimento oncologico ed ematologico; Barozzi, Libero [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia d' urgenza, Dipartimento emergenze ed accettazione

    2005-09-15

    indirizzare i pazienti alla biopsia ripetuta. Materiale e metodi. Abbiamo valutato i risultati di 72 biopsie ripetute in pazienti con una diagnosi di PIN ad una prima agobiopsia prostatica ecoguidata. A tutti e stato effettuato un numero minimo di 6 prelievi. Tutti avevano un PSA>4 ng/ml. Risultati. Sono stati rilevati alla biopsia ripetuta 15 adenocarcinomi su 50 pazienti (30%) con diagnosi iniziale di PIN a basso grado e 10 carcinomi su 22 (45,4%) con PIN ad alto grado. Sono stati diagnosticati 7 carcinomi in 18 pazienti (39%) nei quali il PSA era diminuito durante l'intervallo di osservazione, in 16 su 46 (35%) nei quali il PSA in aumento e 2 su 8 casi (25%) con PSA stabile. Conclusioni. I risultati sembrano confermare che il PIN puo essere considerato un precursore dell'adenocarcinoma prostatico o un'alterazione istologica frequentemente associata ad esso. I pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN a basso grado e soprattutto quelli con PIN ad alto grado dovrebbero sistematicamente essere sottoposti a biopsia ripetuta a breve distanza per l'elevata frequenza di diagnosi finale di carcinoma. Non esistono ancora indicazioni condivise sull'intervallo temporale tra le due biopsie. Le variazioni del PSA che si possono riscontrare durante il periodo di osservazione non rappresentano un parametro statisticamente significativo per proporre o meno al paziente la ripetizione della biopsia prostatica.

  11. Railway traffic noise pollution. Source, propagation and abatement systems; L'inquinamento acustico prodotto da traffico ferroviario. Origine, propagazione e sistemi di attenuazione. Progetto Apparati silenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M.; Salernitano, E. [ENEA, Div. Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    specifico alla Legge Quadro n. 447 del 26/10/95 e al D.P.R. n. 459 del 18/11/98. Vengono poi trattati, da un punto di vista fenomenologico e di modellizzazione, i meccanismi di generazione e di propagazione del rumore, con particolare riferimento al processo di attenuazione del livello sonoro, ad opera di dispositivi naturali o artificiali. Lo studio di quest'ultimo aspetto rappresenta la parte centrale del presente lavoro: sono state esaminate diverse configurazioni di barriere antirumore artificiali, riportando i risultati sia di sperimentazioni condotte in situ, sia di simulazioni avanzate. Le prestazioni di diverse soluzioni schermanti, caratterizzate da geometrie e materiali differenti, sono state messe a confronto in base a parametri tecnici, economici e di fattibilita'. Infine sulla base delle attuali tecnologie, viene proposta una soluzione progettuale innovativa per la realizzazione di un sistema antirumore efficace e a basso impatto visivo. Essa e' costituita da una barriera fissa, adiacente ai binari e realizzata in plastica riciclata, e da uno schermo mobile, solidale al vagone, in materiale composito. Secondo i criteri di confronto sopra esposti, tale soluzione sembra rispondere alle esigenze di riduzione del fonoinquinamento, basso impatto ambientale e costi contenuti.

  12. Lack of adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1): consequences on corticospinal tract development and on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Taleb Ali, H; Morel, M P; Doulazmi, M; Scotto-Lomassese, S; Gaspar, P; Dusart, I; Bennis, M

    2014-02-26

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathways are involved in axonal growth and regeneration. The calcium-calmodulin- stimulated adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1), a regulator of cAMP levels, is strongly expressed in the corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in cerebral cortex layer V during development, but its role in the development of the corticospinal tract (CST) is unknown. Here, we analyse the organization of the CST pathway using anterograde and retrograde tracers in the barrelless (brl) mouse that carries an inactivating mutation of the AC1 gene. We show that in brl mice the general organization of the CST is normal but there is an increase in the number of axons in the ipsilateral contingent in the dorsal and ventral medial funiculi of the cervical spinal cord. The density of CSMN in layer V of the motor cortex is increased in brl compared to wild-type mice. Thus, lack of AC1 likely perturbs late phases of CSMN and CST development. Next, we examine the motor recovery after a spinal cord injury (SCI). We find that brl mice show enhanced locomotor functions as assessed by the BMS (Basso mouse scale) as early as 6h and up to 6 weeks after SCI, indicating a smaller responsiveness of brl mice to SCI. It is therefore possible that developmental effects on motor systems might decrease the locomotor effects consecutive to a SCI. This point is particularly important with regards to the use of transgenic animals for testing SCI recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupare spazi, liberare luoghi della mente e della cittadinanza: esperienze di riappropriazione a Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ranaldi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni l’utilizzo degli spazi pubblici e abitativi è diventato una delle sfide più significative per le amministrazioni locali che si trovano a dover mediare tra gli interessi di soggetti pubblici e privati, associazioni e residenti per migliorare la qualità dei luoghi di vita urbani. Amministratori locali, urbanisti e organizzatori di comunità sono alcuni degli attori di queste nuove forme di cambiamento urbano che emergono dal basso, grazie ad un confronto costante con le esigenze del territorio che spinge ad una rimodulazione di spazi e strutture pubbliche ridando così nuova vita ad interi pezzi di città, spesso abbandonati o dismessi o in annosa attesa di recupero. Esperienze di questo tipo di ri-appropriazione, sia esso con la pratica dell’occupazione o dell’esito di un processo di progettazione partecipata tra cittadini e istituzioni, si susseguono sempre più spesso in Europa e negli Stati Uniti. Come può definirsi uno spazio pubblico? Può essere definito come ogni luogo di proprietà pubblica o di uso pubblico accessibile e fruibile a tutti gratuitamente e senza scopi di lucro. Gli spazi pubblici rappresentano i luoghi della vita collettiva delle comunità e un elemento decisivo per il benessere individuale e sociale in quanto dotati di specifiche caratteristiche spaziali, storiche, ambientali, sociali ed economiche. Lo spazio è una condizione perché le modalità spaziali di esperienza in qualche modo indirizzano il configurarsi delle forme sociali, ma assume un significato sociologico in quanto simbolo della relazione sociale. Riappropriarsi in qualche modo di questo simbolo, declinandone gli esiti in forme differenti di partecipazione, può significare liberare luoghi della mente e dell’espressività.

  14. Does vitamin C have the ability to augment the therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Nesrine; Salem, Mohamed Y; Elmaghrabi, Mohammed M; Elawady, Moataz A; Elawady, Mona A; Sabry, Dina; Shamaa, Ashraf; Elkasapy, Abdel-Haleem H; Ibrhim, Noha; Elamir, Azza

    2017-12-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the only drug confirmed to exhibit a neuroprotective effect on acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Vitamin C (VC) is a natural water-soluble antioxidant that exerts neuroprotective effects through eliminating free radical damage to nerve cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), as multipotent stem cells, are promising candidates in SCI repair. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MP, VC and BMMSCs on traumatic SCI, 80 adult male rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, SCI (SCI induction by weight-drop method), MP (SCI induction, followed by administration of 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein, once every other 6 hours, for five times), VC (SCI induction, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg VC once a day, for 28 days), MP + VC (SCI induction, followed by administration of MP and VC as the former), BMMSCs (SCI induction, followed by injection of 3 × 10 6 BMMSCs at the injury site), and BMMSCs + VC (SCI induction, followed by BMMSCs injection and VC administration as the former). Locomotor recovery was assessed using the Basso Mouse Scale. Injured spinal cord tissue was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 genes was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. BMMSCs intervention better promoted recovery of nerve function of rats with SCI, mitigated nerve cell damage, and decreased expression of transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 genes than MP and/or VC. More importantly, BMMSCs in combination with VC induced more obvious improvements. These results suggest that VC can enhance the neuroprotective effects of BMMSCs against SCI.

  15. Intermittent fasting in mice does not improve hindlimb motor performance after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streijger, Femke; Plunet, Ward T; Plemel, Jason Ryan; Lam, Clarrie K; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-06-01

    Previously, we reported that every-other-day-fasting (EODF) in Sprague-Dawley rats initiated after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) effectively promoted functional recovery, reduced lesion size, and enhanced sprouting of the corticospinal tract. More recently, we also showed improved behavioral recovery with EODF after a moderate thoracic contusion injury in rats. In order to make use of transgenic mouse models to study molecular mechanisms of EODF, we tested here whether this intermittent fasting regimen was also beneficial in mice after SCI. Starting after SCI, C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow diet either with unrestricted access or feeding every other day. Over a 14-week post-injury period, we assessed hindlimb locomotor function with the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) open-field test and horizontal ladder, and the spinal cords were evaluated histologically to measure white and grey matter sparing. EODF resulted in an overall caloric restriction of 20% compared to animals fed ad libitum (AL). The EODF-treated animals exhibited a ∼ 14% reduction in body weight compared to AL mice, and never recovered to their pre-operative body weight. In contrast to rats on an intermittent fasting regimen, mice exhibited no increase in blood ketone bodies by the end of the second, third, and fourth day of fasting. EODF had no beneficial effect on tissue sparing and failed to improve behavioral recovery of hindlimb function. Hence this observation stands in stark contrast to our earlier observations in Sprague-Dawley rats. This is likely due to the difference in the metabolic response to intermittent fasting as evidenced by different ketone levels during the first week of the EODF regimen.

  16. I mutamenti tecnologici nelle condizioni odierne: riflessioni di un economista. (Technological changes in present-day conditions: reflections of an economist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tutti gli economisti concordano sul fatto che i cambiamenti tecnologici costituiscono la principale fonte di sviluppo economico . Tuttavia , molti economisti sono convinti che tali cambiamenti sono importanti solo per spinegre verso l'alto il tasso di sviluppo economico, che a lungo andare sarebbe altrimenti più basso e costante , con l'accumulazione di capitale e forza lavoro di crescita in atto gradualmente . Al contrario , il presente lavoro sostiene che nel lungo periodo , il progresso tecnico non è il fattore principale dello sviluppo economico , ma piuttosto una condizione necessaria . L'autore esamina l'evoluzione tecnologica nella teoria economica e la storia dello sviluppo economico . La disoccupazione tecnologica e la disoccupazione keynesiana sono quindi analizzate , così come la riduzione dell'orario di lavoro . Infine , l'autore considera più recenti sviluppi tecnologici ed economici e la loro relazione con il lavoro manuale e intellettuale .All economists agree that technological changes constitute the main source of economic development. Nonetheless, many economists are convinced that such changes are important only in pushing up the rate of economic development, which in the long run would otherwise be lower and constant, with capital accumulation and labor force growth taking place gradually. To the contrary, the present work argues that in the long run, technical progress is not the main factor of economic development, but rather a necessary condition. The author examines technological change in economic theory and the history of economic development. Technological unemployment and Keynesian unemployment are then considered as well as the reduction of working hours. Finally, the author considers more recent technological and economic developments and their relation to manual and intellectual labour.JEL: O33, E24

  17. Precopulatory sexual behavior of male mice is changed by the exposure to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintão, Thales Chagas; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Alvarez, T G S; Guimarães, A T; Rodrigues, A S L; Cardoso, L S; Ferreira, R O; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-03-01

    Although the toxic potential of tannery effluents (TE) is acknowledged, the impacts these residues have on mammals who intake water contaminated with this pollutant are not completely known. Thus, in order to broaden the knowledge about how these contaminants affect the biota, the aim of the current study is to assess different behavioral categories (e.g.: sexual odor preference, opposite-sex attraction, and sexual discrimination) related to the sexual motivation and pre-copulation of male Swiss mice subjected to TE intake for 30 days, at concentrations 0.8% and 22%. The animals were subjected to locomotor performance evaluation through the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), as well as to the open field (OF), odor preference (OPT), sexual orientation (SOT) and to scent marking tests (SMT) one week before the experiment ended. Our results evidenced that the treatments did not affect the animals' locomotor activity (in OF and BMS) or caused changes compatible to anxiogenic or anxiolytic behavior (in OF). However, mice exposed to TE (at both concentrations) presented discriminatory capacity deficit in the OPT test at the time to distinguish conspecific odors from the same sex, and from the opposite sex. They randomly explored (without preference) males and females, did not responded to stimuli in the SOT test, as well as did not appear capable of detecting female odor (in estrus phase) during the SMT. Thus, the current study was pioneer in evidencing that TE can influence the reproduction and the population dynamics of small rodents who intake water contaminated with the pollutant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transplanted Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Mobilized by Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Promoted Hindlimb Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Koda, Masao; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Furuya, Takeo; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kei; Okawa, Akihiko; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Maki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Mannoji, Chikato

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) derived from bone marrow. We hypothesized that intraspinal transplantation of PBSCs mobilized by G-CSF could promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Spinal cords of adult nonobese diabetes/severe immunodeficiency mice were injured using an Infinite Horizon impactor (60 kdyn). One week after the injury, 3.0 µl of G-CSF-mobilized human mononuclear cells (MNCs; 0.5 × 10(5)/µl), G-CSF-mobilized human CD34-positive PBSCs (CD34; 0.5 × 10(5)/µl), or normal saline was injected to the lesion epicenter. We performed immunohistochemistry. Locomotor recovery was assessed by Basso Mouse Scale. The number of transplanted human cells decreased according to the time course. The CD31-positive area was significantly larger in the MNC and CD34 groups compared with the vehicle group. The number of serotonin-positive fibers was significantly larger in the MNC and CD34 groups than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of apoptotic oligodendrocytes was significantly smaller in cell-transplanted groups, and the areas of demyelination in the MNC- and CD34-transplanted mice were smaller than that in the vehicle group, indicating that cell transplantation suppressed oligodendrocyte apoptosis and demyelination. Both the MNC and CD34 groups showed significantly better hindlimb functional recovery compared with the vehicle group. There was no significant difference between the two types of transplanted cells. Intraspinal transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized MNCs or CD34-positive cells promoted angiogenesis, serotonergic fiber regeneration/sparing, and preservation of myelin, resulting in improved hindlimb function after spinal cord injury in comparison with vehicle-treated control mice. Transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized PBSCs has advantages for treatment of spinal cord injury in the ethical and immunological viewpoints, although further exploration

  19. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  20. Politica bancaria e sviluppo economico: rileggendo l'era menichelliana e quella attuale (Banking policy and economic development: re-reading the menichellian era and the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il basso tasso di crescita dell’Italia, anche nel contesto internazionale ed europeo, ha spinto a confrontare gli anni ’50 con gli ultimi dieci o quindici. Dall’analisi emerge che, se si esclude l’iniziale liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale, il periodo che vide la più vigorosa crescita dell’Italia fu caratterizzato dall’economia mista, da monopoli pubblici e posizioni private dominanti, da una politica monetaria e bancaria basata su controlli diretti ed esercizi di persuasione morale individuale, tutte condizioni oggi ritenute sfavorevoli alla crescita. Al contrario, nella fase attuale l’enfasi è stata sul modello di economia liberale, con liberalizzazioni, privatizzazioni di imprese produttive e di banche, politiche incentrate sugli incentivi e sul mercato. Purtroppo, la scienza economica non ha ancora trovato il paradigma generale che spiega la ricchezza delle nazioni a prescindere dal contesto e dagli uomini che lo animano.  The low growth rate of Italy, also in international and European context, has led to compare the 50s with the last ten or fifteen. The analysis shows that, apart from the initial liberalization of international trade, the period that saw the most vigorous growth in Italy was characterized from a mixed economy, with public monopolies and dominant positions private, from a monetary and banking policy based of direct controls and exercises of individual moral suasion, all conditions previously deemed unfavorable to growth. On the contrary, at this stage the emphasis was on the model of liberal economy, with liberalization, privatization of productive enterprises and banks, policies based on incentives and market. Unfortunately, the economic science has not yet found a general paradigm that explains the wealth of nations regardless of the context and the men who animate it. JEL Codes: B31, E65, N14, O10Keywords: tasso di crescita, commercio internazionale, politica monetaria, politica bancaria

  1. Confronti craniometrici tra popolazioni di lupo (Canis lupus L. italiana e spagnola: primi dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatino Maurizio Siracusa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Le popolazioni di Lupo (Canis lupus dell?Appennino e della Spagna sono state descritte come appartenenti a due sottospecie distinte, rispettivamente italicus e signatus, sulla base di caratteri morfologici e di colorazione del mantello. Da indagini più recenti entrambe le sottospecie sono state invece assegnate alla forma nominale. Scopo di questo studio è quello di confrontare alcuni dati craniometrici delle due popolazioni tra loro e con i dati riportati in letteratura, appartenenti alla sottospecie lupus. Sono state pertanto identificate 19 variabili e misurati 50 crani di lupo, 20 italiani (10 maschi e 10 femmine e 30 spagnoli (15 maschi e 15 femmine. L?analisi univariata (t-test tra le due popolazioni ha evidenziato differenze significative (p<0,05 per 7 delle 19 variabili misurate. Dal confronto tra i sessi sono emerse differenze significative solo per alcune delle variabili; 10 di esse non sono risultate differenti statisticamente per i lupi italiani e 7 per i lupi spagnoli. Entrambi i campioni hanno lo stesso valore, basso, dell?indice di dimorfismo sessuale (indice di Storer e inoltre presentano valori del coefficiente di variabilità molto simili. Anche il confronto di alcune delle variabili da noi misurate con quelle riportate in letteratura per la sottospecie nominale, relativa all?Europa orientale, ha mostrato differenze statisticamente significative (p<0.001; più piccolo in modo significativo (p<0.001 è anche l?indice di dimorfismo sessuale. L?analisi discriminante applicata agli stessi dati craniometrici ha permesso di estrarre funzioni discriminanti capaci di distinguere in maniera statisticamente significativa (p<0,001 sia le popolazioni esaminate che i differenti sessi. In accordo con i dati genetici il campione italiano non differisce, se non nelle dimensioni minori, rispetto alla sottospecie lupus, al contrario del campione spagnolo che invece ha mostrato differenze nella forma.

  2. Trimebutine, a small molecule mimetic agonist of adhesion molecule L1, contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Curing spinal cord injury (SCI in mammals is a daunting task because of the lack of permissive mechanisms and strong inhibitory responses at and around the lesion. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM (L1 has been shown to favor axonal regrowth and enhance neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity but delivery of full-length L1 or its extracellular domain could encounter difficulties in translation to therapy in humans. We have, therefore, identified several small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth in an L1-dependent manner. Here, we assessed the functions of two L1 mimetics, trimebutine and honokiol, in regeneration following SCI in young adult mice. Using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS score, we found that ground locomotion in trimebutine-treated mice recovered better than honokiol-treated or vehicle-receiving mice. Enhanced hindlimb locomotor functions in the trimebutine group were observed at 6 weeks after SCI. Immunohistology of the spinal cords rostral and caudal to the lesion site showed reduced areas and intensities of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity in both trimebutine and honokiol groups, whereas increased regrowth of axons was observed only in the trimebutine-treated group. Both L1- and L1 mimetic-mediated intracellular signaling cascades in the spinal cord lesion sites were activated by trimebutine and honokiol, with trimebutine being more effective than honokiol. These observations suggest that trimebutine and, to a lesser extent under the present experimental conditions, honokiol have a potential for therapy in regeneration of mammalian spinal cord injuries.

  3. Effects of Swimming on Functional Recovery after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca R.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Baltzley, Ryan; Bunger, Michelle; Baldini, Angela; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, David S.K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most promising rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury is weight-supported treadmill training. This strategy seeks to re-train the spinal cord below the level of injury to generate a meaningful pattern of movement. However, the number of step cycles that can be accomplished is limited by the poor weight-bearing capability of the neuromuscular system after injury. We have begun to study swimming as a rehabilitation strategy that allows for high numbers of steps and a high step-cycle frequency in a standard rat model of contusive spinal cord injury. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of swimming as a rehabilitation strategy in rats with contusion injuries at T9. We used a swimming strategy with or without cutaneous feedback based on original work in the chick by Muir and colleagues. Adult female rats (n = 27) received moderately-severe contusion injuries at T9. Walking and swimming performance were evaluated using the Open-Field Locomotor Scale (BBB; Basso et al., 1995) and a novel swimming assessment, the Louisville Swimming Scale (LSS). Rats that underwent swim-training with or without cutaneous feedback showed a significant improvement in hindlimb function during swimming compared to untrained animals. Rats that underwent swim-training without cutaneous feedback showed less improvement than those trained with cutaneous feedback. Rats in the non-swimming group demonstrated little improvement over the course of the study. All three groups showed the expected improvement in over-ground walking and had similar terminal BBB scores. These findings suggest that animals re-acquire the ability to swim only if trained and that cutaneous feedback improves the re-training process. Further, these data suggest that the normal course of recovery of over-ground walking following moderately-severe contusion injuries at T9 is the result of a re-training process. PMID:16774475

  4. Test facilities for hybrid and electric drive trains; Stazione di prova sistemi di trazione ibridi ed elettrici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, G.; Ciancia, A.; De Andreis, L.; Pagni, G.; Pede, G.; Rossi, E.; Vellone, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1998-12-31

    ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) is conducting a large research and development programme on innovative vehicles with high energy efficiency and low environmental impact. In particular conducts activities on electric and hybrid vehicles. Testing and evaluation activities play a strong role in this programme. A complete characterization chain has been then defined and set up with a network of facilities which covers main testing needs for single components, subsystems and complete vehicles, in simulated and real operating conditions. The test facility which has been realised is able to experiment and fully characterise complete drive-trains (and subsystems) for pure electric and hybrid vehicles. It is composed by a different section for each subsystem: 1) power generation; 2) energy storage and management; 3) driving motors. Each section acts as an experimental island, able to operate alone or jointly with the other sections. In fact, all the sections are remotely controlled and managed in order to create different assembly of the drive-train. The facility has been sized to allow the testing of drive-trains and subsystems of small and medium-sized vehicles (up to minibuses), but an extension to larger vehicles is possible. During 1996 and part of 1997 the Drive train Test Facility has been completed and made operative. This paper mainly presents the final configurations of these novel testing systems with peculiar features and characteristics. [Italiano] ENEA (Ente Nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l`Energia e l`Ambiente) sta conducendo un vasto programma di ricerca e sviluppo sui veicoli innovativi ad alto rendimento energetico e basso impatto ambientale.

  5. Hexagon functions and the three-loop remainder function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar NN = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of hexagon functions which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematic limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operator product expansion and multi-Regge factorization directly at the function level, and thereby to fix uniquely a set of Riemann ζ valued constants that could not be fixed at the level of the symbol. The near-collinear limits agree precisely with recent predictions by Basso, Sever and Vieira based on integrability. The multi-Regge limits agree with the factorization formula of Fadin and Lipatov, and determine three constants entering the impact factor at this order. We plot the three-loop remainder function for various slices of the Euclidean region of positive cross ratios, and compare it to the two-loop one. For large ranges of the cross ratios, the ratio of the three-loop to the two-loop remainder function is relatively constant, and close to -7.

  6. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertation. Laura Baietto Una politica per le città. Rapporti fra papato, vescovi e comuni nell'Italia centro-settentrionale da Innocenzo III a Gregorio IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002   Giuseppe Banfo Compresenze e sovrapposizioni di poteri territoriali di qualità diversa tra X e XIII: il caso del basso Monferrato, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002   Francesca Dell'Acqua La vetrata tra l'età tardo imperiale e l'altomedioevo: le fonti, l'archeologia, Tesi di Perfezionamento in Storia dell'Arte Medievale, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 2001   Primo Giovanni Embriaco I vescovi di Albenga e gli sviluppi signorili nella Liguria occidentale (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2001   Antonella Ghignoli Documenti e proprietà altomedievali. Fondamenti e problemi dell'esegesi storica delle fonti documentarie nello specchio della tradizione delle carte pisane dei secoli VIII-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002   Vito Loré Espansione monastica e mutamenti politici. La Trinità di Cava nei suoi rapporti con i sovrani longobardi e normanni e con l'aristocrazia territoriale. Secoli XI-XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002   Rosaria Stracuzzi Messina nel '400, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2001   Stefania Tamburini Le "portate" ecclesiastiche nel piviere di San Giovanni in Firenze nel 1427. Spunti per una riflessione sul patrimonio ecclesiastico della diocesi fiorentina,Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e informatica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001

  7. Does vitamin C have the ability to augment the therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylprednisolone (MP is currently the only drug confirmed to exhibit a neuroprotective effect on acute spinal cord injury (SCI. Vitamin C (VC is a natural water-soluble antioxidant that exerts neuroprotective effects through eliminating free radical damage to nerve cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, as multipotent stem cells, are promising candidates in SCI repair. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MP, VC and BMMSCs on traumatic SCI, 80 adult male rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, SCI (SCI induction by weight-drop method, MP (SCI induction, followed by administration of 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein, once every other 6 hours, for five times, VC (SCI induction, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg VC once a day, for 28 days, MP + VC (SCI induction, followed by administration of MP and VC as the former, BMMSCs (SCI induction, followed by injection of 3 × 106 BMMSCs at the injury site, and BMMSCs + VC (SCI induction, followed by BMMSCs injection and VC administration as the former. Locomotor recovery was assessed using the Basso Mouse Scale. Injured spinal cord tissue was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 genes was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. BMMSCs intervention better promoted recovery of nerve function of rats with SCI, mitigated nerve cell damage, and decreased expression of transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 genes than MP and/or VC. More importantly, BMMSCs in combination with VC induced more obvious improvements. These results suggest that VC can enhance the neuroprotective effects of BMMSCs against SCI.

  8. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  9. Recovery of metal scrap from recycling processes for the manufacturing of shields for low frequency electromagnetic fields; Recupero di sfridi metallici ottenuti da processi di riciclo per la produzione di pannellature schermanti per campi magnetici a bassa frequenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plescia, P.; Maccari, D. [Consiglio delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Tecnologia dei Materiali e dei Processi Energetici, Milan (Italy); De Stefano, L. [Electric Power Production Company, Tuturano, Brindisi (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper the results about the recycling of metallic scraps for manufacturing of electromagnetic shields are presented. Preliminary data on shields for low frequency magnetic fields are reported. Shielding materials are prepared with metallic scraps derived by recycling process from many kinds of industrial productions. This new shielding material can reduce magnetic field at less than 55% and it can be easily produced at low cost from many kind of industrial wastes. Some characteristics of these new shields are reported. [Italian] Il problema della schermatura dei campi elettromagnetici alternati (CM) nelle strutture abitative sta diventando di interesse prioritario, soprattutto per la forte pressione esercitata dall'opinione pubblica e dalla ricerche epidemiologiche che sembrano indicare una diretta relazione tra campi elettromagnetici a bassa frequenza ed alcune gravi patologie. La ricerca che viene presentata in anteprima in questo lavoro riporta i dati preliminari relativi alla messa a punto di schermi per campi magnetici generati da tensioni alternate a frequenza industriale (50 Hz). I materiali schermanti sono stati preparati con sfridi metallici provenienti da cicli di riciclo di diverse produzioni industriali. Il tipo di materiale prodotto scelto ha una capacita' schermante del campo magnetico pari al 55% del valore iniziale e puo' essere prodotto con facilita' ed a basso costo, partendo da diverse tipologie di polimeri e di rifiuti a base metallica. La particolare tipologia di polimeri utilizzati permette di preparare materiali schermanti con differenti spessori, colori e caratteristiche meccaniche. Il principio di funzionamento, il processo di produzione e i materiali ottenuti sono oggetto di brevetto industriale.

  10. Gliopathy ensures persistent inflammation and chronic pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsebosch, Claire E

    2008-11-01

    Research focused on improving recovery of function, including the reduction of central neuropathic pain (CNP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is essential. After SCI, regional neuropathic pain syndromes above, at and below the level or spinal injury develop and are thought to have different mechanisms, but may share common dysfunctional glial mechanisms. Detloff et al., [Detloff, M.R., Fisher, L.C., McGaughy, V., Longbrake, E.E., Popovich, P.G., Basso, D.M., Remote activation of microglia and pro-inflammatory cytokines predict the onset and severity of below-level neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury in rats. Exp. Neurol. (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.04.009.] describe events in the lumbar region of the spinal cord after a midthoracic SCI injury, the so called "below-level" pain and compares the findings to peripheral nerve lesion findings. This commentary briefly reviews glial contributions and intracellular signaling mechanisms, both neuronal and glial, that provide the substrate for CNP after SCI, including the persistent glial production of factors that can maintain sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in segments remote from the spinal injury; ie. dorsal horn hyperexcitability to formerly non noxious stimuli that become noxious after SCI resulting in allodynia. The term "gliopathy" is proposed to describe the dysfunctional and maladaptive response of glial cells, specifically astrocytes and microglia, to neural injury that is initiated by the sudden injury induced increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate and concomitant production of several proinflammatory molecules. It is important to understand the roles that different glia play in "gliopathy", a condition that appears to persist after SCI. Furthermore, targeted treatment of gliopathy will attenuate mechanical allodynia in both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes.

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Knappert

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available - M. Heerma van Voss, J. Vergote, De godsdienst van de Egyptenaren. Romen, Roermond 1971. 125 p., plaat op omslag. - W. Thoden van Velzen-van Wetering, Alan Harwood, Witchcraft, sorcery and social categories among the Safwa. Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, London 1970. 160 p. - J.G. Oosten, E.E. Evans Pritchard, Nuer Religion, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1970. 335 p., 15 pl., 5 figs. - A.A. Trouwborst, Robert Brain, Bangwa Funerary Sculpture. Art and Society Series, Edited by Peter J. Ucko. Gerald Duckworth & Company Limited, London 1971, XII en 148 pp., plates, figures, colour plates., Adam Pollock (eds. - A.A. Trouwborst, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, The Azande. History and political institutions. Oxford University Press, London 1971. 444 pages, maps, figures, plates. - John Beattie, Jack Goody, Technology, tradition and the state in Africa. Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, London 1971. 88 pp. - D.H. Reader, Mia Brandel-Syrier, Reeftown elite: A study of social mobility in a modern African community on the Reef. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London 1971. 335 p., 4 figs. - R. Buijtenhuijs, Ariane Deluz, Organisation sociale et tradition orale: Les Guro de Côte d’Ivoire. Cahiers de l’Homme, Mouton et Co., Paris-La Haye 1970, 196 p. - John Beattie, Samwiri Rubaraza Karugire, A history of the Kingdom of Nkore in Western Uganda to 1896. Clarendon Press, Oxford Studies in African Affairs, Oxford 1971. 291 pp. - Jan Vansina, D.W. Cohen, The historical tradition of Busoga. Mukama and Kintu. (Oxford Studies in African Affairs, Clarendon Press: Oxford Univesity Press, Oxford 1972. Pp. X + 218, 9 kaartjes. - Th. Gerold-Scheepers, Alexander Alland jr., Adaptation in cultural evolution: an approach to medical anthropology. Columbia University Press, New York and London, 1970. IX + 188 p. and 6 p. bibliography. - J. Prins, Heribert Adam, South Africa. Sociological Perspectives

  12. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Seavey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sports Medicine & Allied Health Sciences, 2016;2(1 ISSN: 2376-9289 Seavey, Beatty, Lenhoff, & Krause. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Douglas M. Seavey, AT, Christopher T. Beatty, Tyler L. Lenhoff, & Bentley A. Krause, PhD, AT Ohio University, College of Health Sciences & Professions, Division of Athletic Training. ____________________________________________________________________ Context: Athletic trainers (ATs, more than any other healthcare professional, has expertise in areas of on-field assessment and management of sport related concussion and spinal cord injury. A search of the key words “brain” (n=>100 or “spinal cord/spine” (n=~50 were identified in National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statements on Concussion and Spinal Cord Injury. However, a significant gap exists in the basic science knowledge of neuroscience and neuroanatomy. Objective: The goal of this study is to identify the basic science coursework in professional and post-professional athletic training curricula. Design and Setting: This is a descriptive, curricula analysis of CAATE Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Programs using web-based search and review. Participants: Curricula for accredited Professional (n=336 and Post-Professional (n=15 Athletic Training Programs were reviewed and analyzed to characteristics basic science content. Interventions: This web-based program review of CAATE standard course content and elective options occurred. Main Outcome Measures: Course titles, numbers and descriptions were accessed at CAATE.net and offerings of anatomy, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy and neuroscience, human physiology, exercise physiology, psychology, chemistry and physics content were quantified. Main outcome measures include frequencies and distributions of courses in each subject area. Results: We reviewed 309

  13. The effect of lower limb length on the energetic cost of locomotion: implications for fossil hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudel-Numbers, Karen L; Tilkens, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of the relatively short lower limbs characteristic of AL 288-1 have been widely discussed, as have the causes and consequences of the short limbs of Neanderthals. Previous studies of the effect of limb length on the energetic cost of locomotion have reported no relationship; however, limb length could have accounted for as much as 19% of the variation in cost and gone undetected (Steudel and Beattie, 1995; Steudel, 1994, 1996). Kramer (1999) and Kramer and Eck (2000) have recently used a theoretical model to predict the effect of the shorter limbs of early hominids, concluding that the shorter limbs may actually have been energetically advantageous. Here, we took an experimental approach. Twenty-one human subjects, of varying limb lengths, walked on a treadmill at 2.6, 2.8, 3.0 and 3.2m.p.h., while their expired gases were analyzed. The subjects walked for 12 minutes at each speed and their rates of oxygen consumption (VO2) over four minutes were averaged to estimate VO2. We also measured each subject's height, weight and lower limb length. Lean body mass and % fat were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. ANCOVA with total VO2 at either speed as the dependent variable and total lean mass, % fat and lower limb length as covariates resulted in all three covariates having a significant positive effect on VO2 at p<0.01. Subjects with relatively longer lower limbs had lower locomotor costs. Thus the short lower limbs characteristic of some hominid taxa would have resulted in more costly locomotion, barring some physiological anomaly. The magnitude of this effect is substantial; Neanderthals are estimated to have had locomotor costs 30% greater than those of contemporary anatomically modern humans. By contrast the increase in lower limb length seen in H. erectus would have mitigated the increase in locomotor costs produced by the increase in body size.

  14. RMDF leach-field decontamination. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.W.; Marzec, J.M.; Stelle, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the decontamination effort was to place the Radioactive Materials Disposal Facility (RMDF) leach field in a condition suitable for release for unrestricted use. Radioactively contaminated soil was excavated from the leach field to produce a condition of contamination as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The contaminated soil was boxed and shipped to an NRC-licensed burial site at Beatty, Nevada, and to the DOE burial site at Hanford, Washington. The soil excavation project successfully reduced the contamination level in the leach field to background levels, except for less than 0.6 mCi of Sr-90 and trace amounts of Cs-137 that are isolated in cracks in the bedrock. The cracks are greater than 10 ft below the surface and have been sealed with a bituminous asphalt mastic. A pathways analysis for radiation exposure to humans from the remaining radionuclides was performed, assuming intensive home gardening, and the results show that the total first year whole body dose equivalent would be about 0.1 mrem/year. This dose equivalent is a projection for the hypothetical ingestion of vegetables grown on the site. Assuming that an average adult consumes 64 kg of green leafy vegetables per year and that the entire yearly supply could be grown on the site, the amount of ingested Sr-90 and Cs-137 is calculated to be 1100 pCi/year and 200 pCi/year. This ingested quantity would produce a total first year whole body dose equivalent of 0.10 mrem, using the accepted soil-to-plant transfer factors of 0.0172 and 0.010 for Sr-90 and Cs-137, respectively. The whole body dose equivalent exposure value of 0.1 mrem/year is far below the tentative limit established by NRC of 5 mrem/year for areas released for unrestricted use

  15. 1984 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The 1984 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,429 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 600,909 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1984. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1984. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Non-reactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1984. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. Academic includes university hospitals and medical and nonmedical research facilities. The medical category includes hospitals and clinics, research facilities, and private medical offices. The industrial category includes private entities such as research and development companies, manufacturers, nondestructive testing, mining, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers. Government includes state and federal agencies. Data from previous publications were also used as a comparison. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project study area includes five major vegetation associations characteristic of the transition between the northern extent of the Mojave Desert and the southern extent of the Great Basin Desert. A total of 32 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals are known to occur within these associations elsewhere on the Nevada Test Site. Ten species of plants, and the mule deer, wild horse, feral burro, and desert tortoise were defined as possible sensitive species because they are protected by federal and state regulations, or are being considered for such protection. The major agricultural resources of southern Nye County included 737,000 acres of public grazing land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 9500 acres of irrigated crop land located in the Beatty/Oasis valleys, the Amargosa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Range lands are of poor quality. Alfalfa and cotton are the major crops along with small amounts of grains, Sudan grass, turf, fruits, and melons. The largest impacts to known ecosystems are expected to result from: extensive disturbances associated with construction of roads, seismic lines, drilling pads, and surface facilities; storage and leaching of mined spoils; disposal of water; off-road vehicle travel; and, over several hundred years, elevated soil temperatures. Significant impacts to off-site areas such as Ash Meadows are anticipated if new residential developments are built there to accommodate an increased work force. Several species of concern and their essential habitats are located at Ash Meadows. Available literature contained sufficient baseline information to assess potential impacts of the proposed project on an area-wide basis. It was inadequate to support analysis of potential impacts on specific locations selected for site characterization studies, mining an exploratory shaft, or the siting and operation of a repository

  17. Mediating Knowledge through Peer-to-Peer Interaction in a Multicultural Online Learning Environment: A Case Study of International Students in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Sadykova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous growth of online learning and its movement towards cross-border and cross-culture education has recently taken a new turn with the epic hype that currently surrounds the development of massive open online courses (MOOCs (Beattie-Moss, 2013. This development brings to focus the experiences of international students who take online courses designed and offered within the paradigm of Western pedagogy. Employing a sociocultural theoretical framework (Vygotsky, 1978; Scollon & Scollon, 2001, this paper examines the mediating roles that peers may play in the context of multicultural online learning environments. This two-stage, mixed methods study explored the experiences of 12 international graduate students who took fully online courses in a large research university in the northeastern region of the United States. The data included a survey, online interviews, as well as a case study that took a close look at the experiences of a female student from China. Findings of the study demonstrated that international students that come from diverse native academic backgrounds and cultures may necessitate a close relationship with peers they meet in the US courses. Peers become invaluable mediators of knowledge for international students who seek peer assistance to compensate for the lack of culture-specific knowledge and skills and to satisfy their interest in the host culture. The study suggests that course developers and facilitators should be proactive when assigning group projects and activities so as to enable close peer-to-peer interaction and opportunities for building personal relationships with other class members.

  18. Digital geologic map of the Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S.A.; Orkild, P.P.; Sargent, K.A.; Warren, R.G.; Sawyer, D.A.; Workman, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, dike, and caldera wall), and point (i.e., structural attitude) vector data for the Thirsty Canyon NW 7 1/2' quadrangle in southern Nevada. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic and tectonic interest. The Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle is located in southern Nye County about 20 km west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and 30 km north of the town of Beatty. The map area is underlain by extensive layers of Neogene (about 14 to 4.5 million years old [Ma]) mafic and silicic volcanic rocks that are temporally and spatially associated with transtensional tectonic deformation. Mapped volcanic features include part of a late Miocene (about 9.2 Ma) collapse caldera, a Pliocene (about 4.5 Ma) shield volcano, and two Pleistocene (about 0.3 Ma) cinder cones. Also documented are numerous normal, oblique-slip, and strike-slip faults that reflect regional transtensional deformation along the southern part of the Walker Lane belt. The Thirsty Canyon NW map provides new geologic information for modeling groundwater flow paths that may enter the map area from underground nuclear testing areas located in the NTS about 25 km to the east. The geologic map database comprises six component ArcINFO map coverages that can be accessed after decompressing and unbundling the data archive file (tcnw.tar.gz). These six coverages (tcnwpoly, tcnwflt, tcnwfold, tcnwdike, tcnwcald, and tcnwatt) are formatted here in ArcINFO EXPORT format. Bundled with this database are two PDF files for readily viewing and printing the map, accessory graphics, and a description of map units and compilation methods.

  19. Legislator's guide to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.M.; Melson, L.G.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the guide is to provide state legislators and their staff with information on low-level radioactive waste management, issues of special concern to the states, and policy options. During 1979, producers of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) faced a crisis. Two of the three commercial disposal sites were temporarily closed and some LLW producers were running short on storage space. For hospitals, clinics, research organizations, and some industries, this meant potential curtailment of activities that produced these materials. Commercial nuclear reactors were not as hard hit during the crisis because they have larger storage areas. The two sites at Beatty, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington, reopened and the immediate crisis was averted. However, the longer term problem of shortage of disposal capacity was just beginning to be recognized. States should be concerned with this problem for several reasons. First, all states produce LLW although the volumes differ among states. Second, states have the responsibility to protect the public health and welfare of their citizens. Third, states may be given the authority to regulate LLW disposal if they enter into agreements with the federal government (Agreement States Program), and 26 states have that authority. Fourth, because of the long-term monitoring and surveillance necessary at a disposal site, states rather than private industry will be held responsible for ensuring that the disposal site is performing safely. Finally, Congress established a policy in 1980 that each state is responsible for the safe disposal of LLW generated within its borders. This policy also includes provisions that could lead to excluding states from using disposal facilities unless they have entered into regional agreements with other states. Two primary options exist for a state: developing its own disposal facility for LLW generated within its borders or joining with other states to develop a regional disposal facility

  20. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  1. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards

  2. Lithology, fault displacement, and origin of secondary calcium carbonate and opaline silica at Trenches 14 and 14D on the Bow Ridge Fault at Exile Hill, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.M.; Huckins, H.E.

    1995-02-01

    Yucca Mountain, a proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository, is located in southern Nevada, 20 km east of Beatty, and adjacent to the southwest comer of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (fig. 1). Yucca Mountain is located within the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The climate is semiarid, and the flora is transitional between that of the Mojave Desert to the south and the Great Basin Desert to the north. As part of the evaluation, hydrologic conditions, especially water levels, of Yucca Mountain and vicinity during the Quaternary, and especially the past 20,000 years, are being characterized. In 1982, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (under interagency agreement DE-A104-78ET44802), excavated twenty-six bulldozer and backhoe trenches in the Yucca Mountain region to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting (Swadley and others, 1984). The trenches were oriented perpendicular to traces of suspected Quaternary faults and across projections of known bedrock faults into Quaternary deposits. Trench 14 exposes the Bow Ridge Fault on the west side of Exile Hill. Although the original purpose of the excavation of trench 14 was to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting on the Bow Ridge Fault, concern arose as to whether or not the nearly vertical calcium carbonate (the term ``carbonate`` in this study refers to calcium carbonate) and opaline silica veins in the fault zone were deposited by ascending waters (ground water). These veins resemble in gross morphology veins commonly formed by hydrothermal processes.

  3. Lithology, fault displacement, and origin of secondary calcium carbonate and opaline silica at Trenches 14 and 14D on the Bow Ridge Fault at Exile Hill, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.M.; Huckins, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, a proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository, is located in southern Nevada, 20 km east of Beatty, and adjacent to the southwest comer of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (fig. 1). Yucca Mountain is located within the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The climate is semiarid, and the flora is transitional between that of the Mojave Desert to the south and the Great Basin Desert to the north. As part of the evaluation, hydrologic conditions, especially water levels, of Yucca Mountain and vicinity during the Quaternary, and especially the past 20,000 years, are being characterized. In 1982, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (under interagency agreement DE-A104-78ET44802), excavated twenty-six bulldozer and backhoe trenches in the Yucca Mountain region to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting (Swadley and others, 1984). The trenches were oriented perpendicular to traces of suspected Quaternary faults and across projections of known bedrock faults into Quaternary deposits. Trench 14 exposes the Bow Ridge Fault on the west side of Exile Hill. Although the original purpose of the excavation of trench 14 was to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting on the Bow Ridge Fault, concern arose as to whether or not the nearly vertical calcium carbonate (the term ''carbonate'' in this study refers to calcium carbonate) and opaline silica veins in the fault zone were deposited by ascending waters (ground water). These veins resemble in gross morphology veins commonly formed by hydrothermal processes

  4. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  5. The 1985 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The 1985 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,909 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 748,903 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1985. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1985. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Nonreactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1985. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. New to the 1985 report is Appendix B, 1985 Assessments Listed By Ratified Compacts, as well as the proposed Western and Appalachian compacts. Inclusion of the most accurate information available from all sources has resulted in an improved national waste distribution profile of generator sectors. 11 refs

  6. Radium removal for a small community water-supply system. Research report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelson, K.A.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, a radium-removal treatment plant was constructed for the small community of Redhill Forest located in the central mountains of Colorado. The treatment plant consists of a process for removing iron and manganese ahead of an ion-exchange process for the removal of radium. The raw water comes from deep wells and has naturally occurring radium and iron concentrations of about 30-40 pCi/L and 7-10 mg/L, respectively. Before the raw water enters the main treatment plant, the raw water is aerated to remove radon gas and carbon dioxide. The unique features of the Redhill Forest Treatment Plant are related to the ways in which the radium removed from the raw water is further treated and eventually disposed of as treatment plant waste. A separate system removes only radium from the backwash/regeneration water of the ion exchange process and the radium is permanently complexed on a Radium Selective Complexer (RSC) resin made by Dow Chemical. The RSC resin containing radium is replaced with virgin resin as needed and the resin waste transported to a permanent final disposal site in Beatty, NV. This report presents a detailed description of the Redhill Forest treatment system and the results of in-depth monitoring of the processes and other factors relating to the overall operation of the radium-removal system. Included are descriptions of modifications made in the plant operation to improve the overall system operation and of the procedures for final disposal of the RSC resin-containing radium

  7. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  8. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2006-10-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on ''rapid'' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained more genera than we would likely encounter and because this larger number of genera required both more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher) more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Aquilina

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available - John Beattie, Aylward Shorter, Chiefship in Western Tanzania: A political history of the Kimbu. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1972. Pp. xxvi, 439: 5 plates, 13 maps. - Jan Knappert, Francis Mading Deng, The Dinka and their songs. Oxford Library of African Literature. Oxford University Press 1973. 301 pp. - J.H. Konter, Carsten Murmann, Change and development in East African husbandry. A study of four societies during the colonial period. Akademisk Forlag, Kopenhagen 1974, 125 blz., 4 kaarten en auteurs index. - J.G. Oosten, Jean Buxton, Religion and healing in Mandari. Oxford 1973, 268 pp. Clarendon Press. - J.G. Oosten, Jozef Franz Thiel, La situation religieuse des Mbiem. Ceeba Publications, Série II, vol. I, Steyler Verlag, St. Augustin. Bandundu 1972. - J.J. de Wolf, A.F. Droogers, De gevaarlijke reis. Jongensinitiatie bij de Wagenia van Kisangani (Zäire. Academisch proefschrift. 1974, Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. - John Beattie, J.W. van Nieuwenhuijsen, Diviners and their ancestor spirits: study of the izangoma among the Nyuswa in Natal, South Africa. Uitgave 3, Afdeling Culturele Antropologie, Antropologische-Sociologische Centrum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1974. 37 pp. - Geert A. Banck, Peter Kloos, Het Indianenprobleem in Zuid Amerika. Terreinverkenningen in de Culturele Antropologie no. 2. Assen, Van Gorcum/Orion. 144 pag., paperback. - H. Heijmerink, S. Reissig Ortiz, Uncertainties in peasant farming, a Colombian case. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. 46. University of London. The Athlone Press, New York. Humanities Press Inc., 1973, 294 pp. - Peter Kloos, Janet Siskend, To hunt in the morning. New York, Oxford University Press, 1973, 214 pp. - Ger van Roon, A.E. van Niekerk, Sociologie en sociale verandering in Latijns-Amerika. Deel II De naties, geredigeerd en ingeleid door Dr. A.E. van Niekerk. Universitaire Pers Rotterdam - Standaard Wetenschappelijke Uitgeverij Antwerpen 1974, 199 blz. - R

  10. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, in conjunction with three topical anesthetic formulations for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster LR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lynn R Webster1, John F Peppin2, Frederick T Murphy3,4, Jeffrey K Tobias5, Geertrui F Vanhove51Lifetree Clinical Research and Pain Clinic, Lifetree Medical Inc, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Clinical Research Division, The Pain Treatment Center of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Duncansville, PA, USA; 4University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5NeurogesX Inc, San Mateo, CA, USABackground: The objective of this study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, following pretreatment with three different topical anesthetics in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.Methods: This open-label, multicenter study enrolled 117 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy, or painful diabetic neuropathy. Patients received pretreatment with one of three lidocaine 4%-based topical anesthetics (L.M.X.4® [Ferndale Laboratories Inc, Ferndale, MI], Topicaine® Gel [Estela Basso, Jupiter, FL], or Betacaine Enhanced Gel 4 [Tiberius Inc, Tampa, FL] for 60 minutes followed by a single 60- or 90-minute NGX-4010 application, and were followed for 12 weeks. Tolerability and safety measures included “pain now” Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS scores, dermal assessments, medication use for treatment-related pain, adverse events (AEs, clinical laboratory parameters, physical examinations, and vital signs. The primary efficacy variable was the percentage change in mean NPRS scores for “average pain for the past 24 hours” from baseline to weeks 2 through 12.Results: Treatment with NGX-4010 following pretreatment with any of the three topical anesthetics was generally safe and well tolerated. Nearly all patients completed ≥90% of the planned NGX-4010 application duration. The most common treatment-related AEs, application-site burning and application-site pain, were transient, mostly mild or moderate

  11. La leucemia del bambino come causa di disgregazione familiare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Varchetta

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: le patologie del bambino, soprattutto se gravi e durature, possono essere definite come “malattie della famiglia” a causa dell’intensità di assistenza richiesta, delle difficoltà organizzative quotidiane e dello stress causato. Obiettivo: identificare il ruolo di alcuni potenziali fattori di rischio coinvolti nella rottura di famiglie di bambini leucemici.

    Materiali e metodi: mediante l’uso di questionari, sono state studiate, durante l’anno 2002, 150 cartelle cliniche di bambini leucemici dell’ospedale pediatrico “Santobono-Pausillipon”- Dipartimento di Oncologia; 11 casi sono stati esclusi per incompletezza dei dati. Outcome è stata considerata la “separazione familiare.” Sono state analizzate le seguenti variabili: trapianto di midollo osseo, lavoro del padre, della madre e loro età ed educazione, sesso ed età del bambino (CA, numerosità della famiglia, stato socio-economico, probabilità clinica di guarire (CPR, appartenenza ad una associazione. Sono state condotte analisi bivariate e logistiche. Risultati: all’analisi bivariata CA e CPR, entrambi stratificati in tre livelli, sono risultati associati alla separazione. L’Odds Ratio grezzo (OR della separazione familiare con CA di 5/10 anni e bambini di 11 anni o più a confronto con quelli d’età di 0/4 era, rispettivamente, di 8.68 (p=0.02 e di 5.7 (p=0.07. L’OR grezzo della separazione con un CPR medio e un CPR buono confrontato con un CPR basso ha dato rispettivamente 0.35 (p=0.02 e 0.08 (p‹0.001. Un modello logistico che includeva CPR come variabile principale e controllata per CA ha evidenziato che la probabilità di guarigione è media o alta e, dopo aver aggiustato per l’età del bambino, è stato ottenuto un rischio di rottura familiare rispettivamente di 0.29 (p=0.01 e 0.08 (p=0.02.

    Conclusioni: la rottura dell’unità familiare è evento frequente in caso di grave

  12. Le disuguaglianze sociali nell'abitudine al fumo in Italia, 1980- 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Federico

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: misurare la direzione e l’entità delle disuguaglianze socio-economiche nell’abitudine al fumo in Italia durante gli ultimi due decenni, con attenzione sia al livello nazionale che macro-regionale.

    Metodi: sono stati utilizzati dati provenienti da sei indagini ISTAT sullo stato di salute dal 1980 al 2000. Abbiamo usato il livello di istruzione come indicatore dello stato socio-economico. Per ogni indagine e livello di analisi (nazionale e macroregionale, è stata calcolata la prevalenza, standardizzata per età, del consumo di tabacco in diversi gruppi sociali.

    Per ottenere una misura di sintesi delle disuguaglianze, abbiamo stimato l’Odds Ratio (OR ed il Relative Index of Inequality (con intervallo di confidenza al 95% attraverso un’analisi di regressione logistica.

    Risultati: negli uomini di età compresa tra 25 e 49 anni, l’Odds Ratio del consumo di tabacco di una persona con un basso livello di istruzione confrontata con una di un alto livello è risultato pari a 1,26 (IC 95%: 1,16 - 1,37 nel 1980 ed a 1,71 (IC 95%: 1,62 - 1,80 nel 2000. Nelle donne della stessa fascia di età, l’associazione tra stato sociale ed abitudine al fumo si è trasformata da positiva (OR=0,43 in negativa (OR=1,12. Nelle donne più anziane, la prevalenza di fumatrici è risultata maggiore tra quelle più istruite, con un gap tra classi sociali che si restringe nel tempo. Nel periodo considerato le stime degli OR sono risultate costantemente inferiori nel Sud rispetto al Centro ed al Nord Italia, nonostante la somiglianza nei trend temporali nelle differenti macro-regioni.

    Conclusioni: le disuguaglianze tra gruppi sociali sono aumentate, specialmente nelle giovani generazioni. Le regioni meridionali seguono quelle del centro e nord Italia nel diffondersi dell’epidemia dell’abitudine al fumo.

  13. Biografie stilistiche e divulgazione nei primi trent’anni del Novecento. Appunti sull’editoria di dispense illustrate / Stylistic biographies and dissemination in the early 20th Century. Notes on publishing of illustrated lecture notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenella Rolfi Ožvald

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ricordando Cavalcaselle nel 1907 a Legnago, Adolfo Venturi indicava nel modello del “semplice catalogo” la strada che avrebbe dovuto percorrere la storia dell’arte. A quell’indicazione si conformò l’editoria d’arte del primo trentennio del Novecento, sia quella accademica che quella di divulgazione, immettendo sul mercato numerose tipologie di monografie artistiche a basso costo. Interpreti ne furono da Bergamo a Torino, Firenze e Roma le collane dei Maestri dell’arte o L’arte per tutti, dirette e curate da Corrado Ricci, Francesco Sapori, gli allievi di Venturi, ma anche la casa editrice romana fondata da Armando Ferri e Mario Recchi che diede vita alla collana della Biblioteca di storia dell’arte. La presenza di Ferri e Recchi, frequentatori con Roberto Longhi della “terza saletta” del romano Caffè Aragno, aiuta a comprendere il ricco e mosso panorama dell’editoria di dispense illustrate di primo Novecento.  In the Obituary of Cavalcaselle declaimed in 1907 at Legnago, Adolfo Venturi focuses on the form of catalog as the road of the new art publishing of the Twentieth Century. This reflection about the leadership of biographies of artists oriented the further essays of History of art; both the academics issues and the educational and popular books, with the series of monthly and cheap biographies of artists. From the collection of illustrated monographs published by the Istituto Italiano di Arti Grafiche – I grandi Maestri del colore –, until the series of L’Arte per tutti of the roman Istituto Luce, the leaders of these editorials projects were Corrado Ricci, Francesco Sapori, the disciples of Venturi but also a little roman house publishing directed by Armando Ferri and Mario Recchi with the series of Biblioteca d’arte illustrata. Recchi, and especially Ferri, playgoers of the “terza saletta” of the Caffé Aragno at Rome, frequented by Roberto Longhi, enliven the italian art publishing and disclosing

  14. Resti di Arvicola terrestris dell'Età del Bronzo rinvenuti sull'isola di Vivara, Procida (Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Nappi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nel corso degli scavi archeologici intrapresi sull?isola di Vivara, sono venuti alla luce resti di microfauna provenienti da un sito del Bronzo Medio. Tra essi, sono emersi frammenti cranici di Arvicola terrestris rinvenuti nell?abitato preistorico di Punta d?Alaca. In quest?area, strutture capannicole e reperti archeologici sono associati con oggetti d?importazione egea, a testimonianza del ruolo che doveva avere questo centro nell?ambito dei traffici transmarini che si svolgevano nel Mediterraneo intorno al XVII sec. a.C. Il materiale osseo rinvenuto si presenta estremamente frammentario rendendo difficile ogni considerazione tassonomica. Mancano, inoltre, testimonianze archeozoologiche o paleontologiche antecedenti l?età del Bronzo. L?isola di Vivara, di natura vulcanica, ricoperta di vegetazione mediterranea e priva di sorgenti naturali emerse, è, attualmente, del tutto inadeguata alle esigenze di suddetta arvicola. Le sole ipotesi che sembrano avanzabili di fronte a tale particolare presenza, dal momento che è poco probabile che i resti cranici in questione venissero portati come rifiuti dalla costa fino al villaggio, posto a circa 90m s.l.m., sono: 1. predazione da parte di rapaci sul continente e successiva emissione di borre a Vivara; 2. individui vivi, provenienti da altre zone, arrivati sull?isola accidentalmente insieme alle navi. Le ricerche geo-archeologiche intraprese negli ultimi anni hanno dimostrato che, durante l?età del Bronzo, la linea di costa, a Vivara, era oltre 10m più in basso rispetto all?attuale. Larghi tratti di costa sabbiosa, attualmente sommersi, la collegavano a Procida e non è da escludere il momentaneo instaurarsi, in essi, di stagni e lagune. Nel caso dunque di arvicole arrivate vive, la probabile presenza di specchi d?acqua, suggerita anche da altri reperti archeozoologici rinvenuti a punta d?Alaca quali resti di orate di dimensioni riconducibili a quelle cresciute in lagune costiere e molluschi

  15. Segnalazioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Monegato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antonietta Buonauro, Trauma, cinema e media. Immaginari catastrofici e cultura visuale del nuovo millennio, Roma, Bulzoni, 2014, 190 pp. ISBN 978-88-7870-921-8 Barbara Greco y Laura Pache Caballo, eds., Sobrenatural, fantástico y metarreal. La perspectiva de América Latina, Madrid, Biblioteca Nueva, 2014, 334 pp. ISBN 978-84-16095-64-3 Chiara Bolognese, Piste di un naufragio. Cartografia di Roberto Bolaño, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 322 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-59-3 Cinzia Scarpino, US Waste. Rifiuti e sprechi d’America. Una storia dal basso, Milano, Il Saggiatore, 2011, 325 pp. ISBN 9788865760871 Cinzia Schiavini, Sulle strade d’America. L’autobiografia di viaggio statunitense contemporanea, Milano, Shake, 2011, pp. 238, ISBN 978-88-97109-06-8 Gibson John, Fiction and the Weave of Life, Oxford & NY, OUP, 2007, 201 pp. ISBN 9780199299522 Gloria Staffieri, L’opera italiana. Dalle origini alle riforme del secolo dei Lumi (1590-1790, Roma, Carocci, 2014, 447 pp. ISBN 978-88-430-7108-1 Horacio Quiroga, I perseguitati, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 64 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-63-0 Lee Edelman, No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive, Durham, Duke University Press, 2004, 208 pp. ISBN 978-0822333692 Marco Canani and Sara Sullam, eds., Parallaxes. Virginia Woolf Meets James Joyce, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014, 206 pp. ISBN 978-1-4438-5623-2 Miklos David, eds., Estática doméstica. Tres generaciones de cuentistas peruanos (1951-1981, México, UNAM, 2005, 353 pp. ISBN 970-32-2525-X Óscar de Borbolla, Le vocali maledette, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 78 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-43-2 Roald Dahl, The Hitch-Hiker, Impara l’inglese con Roald Dahl, note e glossario a cura di Marta Cai, Milano, Vallardi, 2014, 77 pp. ISBN 978-88-6731-451-5 Roberto Arlt, Un viaggio terribile, Salerno, Arcoiris, 2014, 95 pp. ISBN 978-88-96583-57-9 Ziauddin Sardar and Borin Van Loon, Introducing Cultural Studies, Cambridge, Icon Books, 1998, 175

  16. Ambiguidade métrica no Presto da Sonata para violino solo BWV 1001 de J. S. Bach: apontamentos para uma performance historicamente informada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Fiaminghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A tradição interpretativa do séc. XIX consagrou ao Presto da Sonata I a violino solo senza basso, BWV 1001, de Bach, uma concepção de moto perpetuo que enfatiza a virtuosidade, a igualdade e a velocidade da performance, tendo como parâmetro as peças idiomáticas violinísticas de bravura, como moto perpetuo de Paganini. Esta concepção afeta diretamente a estrutura métrica da peça e o sentido rítmico a ela associada. Apesar de a fórmula de compasso indicar claramente uma métrica ternária (3/8, a tradição interpretativa herdada do séc. XIX concebe este movimento prioritariamente em uma métrica binária (6/16 em uma interminável sequência de semicolcheias. Exceções à métrica binária ocorrem quando as ligaduras originalmente marcadas duas a duas são respeitadas, o que consequentemente gera na narrativa rítmica um sentido polimétrico exógeno ao ideal estético do séc. XVIII. Além disso, o senso de movimento contínuo e igualdade rítmica presentes em um moto perpetuo do séc. XIX nega as preceptivas de um discurso retoricamente regrado que prioriza contrastes produzidos pela articulação de vozes em textura polifônica implícita, oculta na escrita das sequências de semicolcheias. Joel Lester (1999, por sua vez, defende que não há neste movimento preponderância métrica entre binário e ternário, e que qualquer opção de interpretação tomada é incapaz de impor-se à outra. Divergindo desta prerrogativa, acreditamos que, ao se superar uma análise estruturalista e adentrar-se em questões hermenêuticas (o mundo do texto e fenomenológicas (dança/gesto e tradições rítmico/interpretativas, pode-se trazer nova luz a este ícone do repertório violinístico para construção de uma performance historicamente informada ao violino e arco modernos.

  17. Prevalenza di donne fumatrici in gravidanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bianconi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: il fumo in gravidanza è estremamente dannoso per il feto; il basso peso alla nascita e la prematurità sono le conseguenze più frequenti. Obiettivo dello studio è capire l’efficacia dei corsi di preparazione al parto nella cessazione del fumo in gravidanza.

    Metodi: lo studio è stato effettuato da maggio 2000 a marzo 2002. Sono stati somministrati dei brevi questionari durante gli incontri dei corsi di preparazione al parto effettuati dal Servizio di Ginecologia e Ostetricia della Zona Amiata Senese dell’Azienda USL 7 di Siena. I questionari sono stati compilati in tre incontri diversi, l’ultimo dopo il parto.

    Risultati: su 111 donne intervistate 82 hanno partecipato al II° incontro e 59 anche al III°. Al I° incontro le fumatrici sono il 18%, le ex fumatrici il 28,8% e le non fumatrici il 53,2%. La prevalenza di fumatrici passa dal 18% al 12,2% ed al 10,2% nelle sedute successive; il numero medio di sigarette fumate rimane costante nei tre momenti (5/6. Considerando solo le donne che hanno partecipato a tutti gli incontri si nota che il 33,3% di quelle che fumavano all’inizio non lo fanno più al II° incontro ed il 45,5% al III°. Un dato molto interessante e che il 43,8% delle ex fumatrici ha smesso quando si è accorta di aspettare un bambino. Una sola donna ha smesso di fumare in gravidanza per poi ricominciare dopo il parto. Un’altra donna, al I° incontro ha dichiarato di fumare 2 sigarette al giorno, ma ha aggiunto che prima della gravidanza ne fumava 20.

    Conclusioni: la prevalenza di donne che continuano a fumare in gravidanza, soprattutto alla fine, è abbastanza bassa, anche se non si può essere soddisfatti di un risultato parziale. Questi dati dimostrano l’utilità di interventi di sensibilizzazione per tutte le donne fumatrici che intendono affrontare una gravidanza.

  18. Banks, environment and sustainable development. EMAS regulation n. 761/2001/EC applied to the financial institutions; Banche, ambiente e sviluppo sostenibile l'adesione degli istituti finanziari al regolamento EMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L.; Ingrisano, G.; Sampognaro, G. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    'ambiente: come investitori - sostenendo gli investimenti con finalita' ambientali; come finanziatori - sviluppando nuovi prodotti finanziari che incoraggino lo sviluppo sostenibile; come valutatori - stimando rischi e opportunita' ambientali nel project financing; come potenti stakeholders - come investitori e finanziatori esse possono esercitare una considerevole influenza sulle aziende; come soggetti inquinanti - sebbene non paragonabili alle industrie pesanti, gli istituti finanziari consumano risorse naturali. Dallo studio di tali aspetti ambientali e' emerso che la banca dovrebbe introdurre la variabile ambientale nella gestione interna per ridurre i propri impatti e, soprattutto, nella concessione di crediti, nello sviluppo di nuovi prodotti finanziari finalizzati ad incentivare le aziende ad investire in tecnologie a basso impatto ambientale e ad adottare sistemi di gestione ambientale (EMAS, ISO14001), e nell'assistenza ai piccoli risparmiatori nelle scelte di investimento, ad esempio consigliando Fondi verdi.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC transplantation has been proposed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of how NSCs exert their therapeutic plasticity is lacking. We transplanted mouse NSCs into the injured spinal cord seven days after SCI, and the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS score was performed to assess locomotor function. The anti-inflammatory effects of NSC transplantation was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining of neutrophil and macrophages and the detection of mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-12 (IL-12. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs were co-cultured with NSCs and followed by analyzing the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 with quantitative real-time PCR. The production of TNF-α and IL-1β by BMDMs was examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Transplanted NSCs had significantly increased BMS scores (p < 0.05. Histological results showed that the grafted NSCs migrated from the injection site toward the injured area. NSCs transplantation significantly reduced the number of neutrophils and iNOS+/Mac-2+ cells at the epicenter of the injured area (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in the NSCs transplantation group were significantly decreased compared to the control group. Furthermore, NSCs inhibited the iNOS expression of BMDMs and the release of inflammatory factors by macrophages in vitro (p < 0.05. These results suggest that NSC transplantation could modulate SCI-induced inflammatory responses and enhance neurological function after SCI via reducing M1 macrophage activation and infiltrating neutrophils. Thus, this study provides a new insight into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of NSC transplantation after SCI.

  20. La salute del christifidelis celiaco tra dieta gluten free e invalidità delle ostie quibus glutinum ablatum est

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Di Iorio

    2015-04-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. L’Eucarestia: “augusto” strumento per la salute deichristifideles nell’economia della salvezza - 2. La transustanziazione - 3. La malattia celiaca e l’unico rimedio terapeutico: la dieta gluten free - 4. Ilchristifidelis affetto dalla sprue celiaca tra dieta gluten free e pane mere triticeus - 5. Prime disposizioni sul divieto dell’uso di ostie quibus glutinum ablatum est - 6. La particola con “una minima quantità di glutine” - 7. Le vigenti prescrizioni sulla validità della materia eucaristica e l’uso di ostie a basso contenuto di glutine - 8. La normativa sulla comunione dei celiaci tra sospetti e apprezzamenti - 9. Ultime precisazioni sull’uso del pane con poca quantità di glutine - 10. Conclusioni. The health of the christifidelis celiac between diet gluten free and invalidity of the hosts quibus glutinum ablatum est.  ABSTRACT: The communion of celiac has aroused the attention of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for the direct connection between gluten, cause of the disease, and bread mere triticeus, precious element of the Eucharist. The complex matter concerns the impelling urgency to allow the christifidelis celiac to follow a super stricte gluten free diet, necessary way to the protection of his mental and physical health, without expelling him from the eucharistic banquet, indispensable instrument of salvation of his own soul. Therefore, in the saving mission of the Church called to the salus animarum of every man, without discriminating exclusions, direct specific norms are emanated to harmonize the dogmatic demands, connected to the Eucharestic, and the therapeutic needs related to mental and physical health of the faithful with the disease. Such norms have faced the validity of the eucharistic matter sealing the invalidity of the hosts quibus glutinum ablatum est, with a meaningful evolution, during the time. It stays, nevertheless, the suspect of an exhaustive solution of the question

  1. Lo stato delle conoscenze su Insettivori e Roditori della Basilicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Aloise

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I pochi dati disponibili per ristrette aree o desumibili da lavori di sintesi e/o su singole specie, fanno della Basilicata una delle regioni con maggiori carenze di informazioni sulla teriofauna. È stata intrapresa una indagine, ancora in corso, volta ad ampliare le conoscenze sulla distribuzione di Insettivori e Roditori nella regione. I metodi utilizzati comprendono l'analisi del contenuto delle borre di rapaci, trappolamenti, avvistamenti e tracce. I dati sono inseriti nella ?Banca dati per la mammalofauna della Calabria e della Lucania? che consente la restituzione cartografica su una maglia U.T.M. di 10 x10 Km. In base ai dati attualmente disponibili (N= 2154, da 0 e 1300 m s.l.m., il grado di esplorazione della regione appare molto basso, infatti, solo il 24% circa dei quadranti che compongono la regione presentano almeno un dato. Le specie di Insettivori e Roditori sino ad ora rinvenute sono: Erinaceus europaeus, Sorex minutus, S. antinorii, S. samniticus, Neomys anomalus, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Talpa romana, T. caeca, Sciurus vulgaris, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus savii, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Hystrix cristata. Tra quelle note per il sud Italia mancano dati concreti solo di Arvicola terrestris (da attribuire, però, certamente solo a carenza di dati, essendo accertata la sua presenza nelle aree limitrofe e data l?ecologia della specie e non si conoscono popolazioni stabili di Myocastor coypus (per la tipologia dei corsi d?acqua della regione che, come in tutto il meridione d?Italia, non ne favorisce l?insediamento se non in maniera puntiforme e in

  2. The use of peracetic acid in drinking water systems: flow tests; L'acido peracetico in potabilizzazione: prove in flusso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragazzo, P. [Consorzio per l' Acquedotto del Basso Piave, San Dona' di Piave, VE (Italy); Navazio, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. dei Processi Chimici dell' Ingegneria; Cavadone, A. [Solvay Chimica Italia S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

    2000-09-01

    In a previous research, a preliminary study was carried out on the disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA), comparing it to that of other disinfectants that are typically used, in batch tests with dosage values ranging from 0.5 to 5 ppm. The study was carried out on samples of water collected from several significant points of the treatment process at the main water treatment plant in Jesolo (Venice, Italy). On the basis of results (basically positive at that time) obtained from these tests, a 400 litre/hour pilot plant was built, as a lower scale reproduction of the drink water treatment system mentioned earlier, in order to study the characteristics of PAA even in tests that could more realistically simulate the flow of water along the process. These tests essentially confirmed the kinetics of the spontaneous hydrolysis to CH{sub 3} COOH+H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and those of dismutation to CH{sub 3}COOH+O{sub 2}, with half-life time values ranging from 3 to 12 hours, depending on the characteristics of the water (especially the pH factor) and the PAA concentration values. [Italian] In un precedente lavoro e' stato effettuato un preventivo studio sull'efficienza disinfettiva dell'acido peracetico, anche in confronto con gli altri piu' usuali disinfettanti, in prove condotte in batch, con dosaggi compresi tra 0.5 e 5 ppm, su campioni di acqua prelevati dai diversi punti significativi della linea di trattamento della centrale di Jesolo (Torre Caligo), gestita dal Consorzio Acquedottistico del Basso Piave di S. Dona' di Piave (Venezia). Sulla base dei risultati, sostanzialmente positivi, e' stato costruito un impianto pilota da 400l/h, riproducente, in scala, la linea di potabilizzazione su ricordata, per studiare le caratteristiche del PAA anche in prove piu' probanti condotte in flusso. In tali prove sono state sostanzialmente riconfermate le cinetiche delle reazioni spontanee di dirolisi a CH{sub 3}COOH+H{sub 2}O{sub 2} e di

  3. Trophic development in a volcanic lake with closed hydric balance. Lake Martignano; Evoluzione trofica di un lago vulcanico a bilancio idrico chiuso. Il lago di Martignano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falleni, F.; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Congestri, R. [Rome Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Gasperi, E.; Brambullo, M. [Azienda Sanitaria Locale A, Rome (Italy); Amadeio, R. [Comune di Campagnano, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Martignano lake is a particular charming volcanic lake in the countryside of Rome. Recently it was included in a project of Regional Wildlife Park. The lack of immissaries and emissaries, the quite long renewal time and the very short homeothermic period of two-months in a year, make the lake susceptible of trophic evolution. The comparison between the present data and those from previous studies seems to confirm such a slow development towards this way, with a nutrient level (nitrate 0.97 mg/L; total phosphorus 11.14 {mu}g/L) and chlorophyll a concentrations (10.68 {mu}g/L), typical of mesotrophic waters. The analysis of nutrient data expressed as annual mean value in percentage from the coastal stations, suggests an under lied farming influence, and points out the need to adopt fast reduction measures, to lower the phosphorus load in acceptable levels for the lake ecosystem. [Italian] Il lago di Martignano (207 m.s.l.m) e' situato nell'Italia centrale, a 35 Km a nord di Roma. I laghi di origine vulcanica rappresentano una tipologia relativamente rara rispetto all'insieme dei corpi d'acqua componenti la limnologia classica. La loro esistenza si determina in regioni con passata o attuale pronunciata attivita' tettonica. La mancanza di immissari ed emissari che caratterizza questo invaso rende particolarmente vulnerabile il suo livello trofico da parte delle contaminazioni da insediamenti urbani ed agricoli circostanti. Ai fini di valutare l'attuale velocita' di ricambio idrico del lago, il suo livello trofico e la conseguente capacita' di automantenimento di un basso livello trofico delle acque, e' stato pianificato il presente studio articolato in 13 mesi di campionamento. Si e' constatato che il valore medio annuale della clorofilla a, 10.68 {mu}g/L, mentre la presenza dei nitrati si aggira sul valore medio di 0.97 mg/L, cio' permette di ipotizzare l'origine agricola della maggior parte dei nutrienti del

  4. Assessment of the neuroprotective effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine A in an experimental spinal cord trauma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antar, Veysel; Baran, Oguz; Yuceli, Sahin; Erdogan, Hakan; Altintas, Ozge; Baran, Gozde E; Tasdemiroglu, Erol

    2018-04-01

    Spinal cord injury is nowadays still a challenging disease, and a treatment option aimed at the primary site of injury does not currently exist. Therefore, the management of acute spinal cord injury has recently focused on the reasons behind the aggravation of the initial insult through secondary mechanisms, and the search for pharmacological treatment protocols is generally aimed at reducing and minimizing the neural injury and neurological sequela. The secondary spinal cord injury usually develops following a primary lesion induced by spinal cord contusion and the emergence of apoptotic cells has been found to play an important role in the development of secondary injury. We propose that huperzine A may induce a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells because it possesses the ability to protect cells against glutamate, ischemia and staurosporine-induced cytotocity and apoptosis. Huperzine A was administered intraperitoneally to male Wistar Albino rats (220-340 g of body weight) after moderate static clip compression (70 g for 60 s) of the spinal cord at T7 level. Neurological functions were assessed using the Basso-Beattle-Breshanan (BBB) motor rating scale until 3th and 7th days before perfusion, following which the spinal cord was harvested for histopathological examinations and apoptotic cell counts. Histopathological evaluations of the spinal cord of the control, trauma and huperzine A treated groups were evaluated. Control group showed normal neuronal and vascular structures of the spinal cord. However, in both trauma groups 3rd- and 7th-day perfusion showed extensive cavitation and hemorrhage, areas of necrosis and edema in gray matter, and degeneration in motor neurons along with patchy areas of necrotic and apoptotic cells. In the group treated with huperzine A, an increased number of normal cells was observed, along with a lower number of necrotic cells, with a significant reduction in the apoptotic cells (Ptrauma motor performance

  5. I Passiuna tu Christù - Rito e teatro di una cantica popolare della Grecìa Salentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Questo articolo si basa sugli esiti di una ricerca di campo condotta nei paesi della Grecìa Salentina,una zona del basso Salento, dove si riscontra una peculiare modalità di esecuzione della cantica popolare grìca conosciuta come I Passiuna tu Christù (La Passione di Cristo. Attorno alla metà degli anni ´90 del ´900 la tradizione della cantica è stata oggetto di un prezioso recupero, fondato sulla memoria e disponibilità di alcuni anziani cantori, che l’ha riportata in vita dopo anni di silenzio. Lo studio si è quindi focalizzato sull'esecuzione di Zollino, uno dei comuni grecanico-salentini, dove opera l'associazione culturale "Bottega del Teatro" che per prima ha promosso il recupero di cui si è detto. Protagonista e interprete raffinato della versione zollinese è l'anziano cantore Antimo Pellegrino, la cui voce si fa teatro attraverso un uso sapiente del corpo fatto di gesti stilizzati, regolati da codici che consentono di comprendere il divenire performativo, ossia il testo in grìco, anche a chi non intende tale idioma. Abstract – EN This article is based on the results of a field research conducted in the countries of the Grecìa Salentina, an area of Salento, where there is a particular execution method of the folksong known as I Passiuna tu Christù (The Passion of the Christ. Around the mid-90s of the 20th century the tradition of this folksong has been the subject of a careful recovery, based on memory and availability of some older singers, who brought it back to life after years of silence. The study then focused on the Zollino’s execution, one of the grecanico-salentino’s common, in which works the cultural association "Bottega del Teatro", the first promoter of this recovery. The old singer Antimo Pellegrino is the player and interpreter of the Zollino’s refined version, whose voice becomes theater through a wise use of body made of stylized gestures, regulated by codes that allow you to

  6. Sieropositivitá per HIV, HBV e HCV negli utenti del Servizio di Tossicodipendenza di Formia (ASL di Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. La Torre

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutare la prevalenza sieropositività per HIV, HBV e HCV nei tossicodipendenti afferenti al Ser.T di Formia (LT.

    Materiali e metodi: sono state consultate le cartelle cliniche degli afferenti al Ser.T. nel 2002, estraendo dati relativi ai parametri socio-demografici ed alle sieropositività. L’analisi statistica ha previsto l’impiego del test del χ2 e della regressione logistica multipla.

    Risultati: sono stati presi in considerazione 135 tossicodipendenti, di cui 103 (76.3% maschi e 32 (23.7% femmine. L’età mediana dell’inizio della tossicodipendenza e della presa in carico presso il servizio erano, rispettivamente, di 18 e di 23 anni. Il 94.1% dei tossicodipendenti risulta dipendente primariamente da eroina, il 5.2% da cocaina e lo 0.7% da alcol. Relativamente alle positività per i virus considerati, 7 soggetti (5.2% sono risultati positivi all’HIV, 23 (17% sieropositivi per HBV e 50 (37% sieropositivi per HCV. L’analisi multivariata mostra che sono associate alla sieropositività per HCV la sieropositività per HBV (OR = 3.87 e l’età della presa in carico presso il servizio superiore a 25 anni (OR = 1.88; alla sieropositività per HBV l’occupazione saltuaria (OR = 4.58, la HCV positività (OR = 4.41 e la HIV positività (OR = 5.39; alla sieropositività per HIV l’età della presa in carico presso il servizio superiore a 25 anni (OR = 4.94.

    Discussione: l’indagine ha messo in evidenza prevalenze di sieropositività per HCV, HBV e HIV decisamente inferiori a quelle registrate in altre realtà italiane ed internazionali. Una possibile spiegazione potrebbe essere ricercata nei bassi livelli di sieropositività per questi virus nella popolazione generale del Basso Lazio, o nella scarsa abitudine di scambiarsi le siringhe fra tossicodipendenti di questa area geografica.

  7. LifePrint: a novel k-tuple distance method for construction of phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Reyes-Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabián Reyes-Prieto1, Adda J García-Chéquer1, Hueman Jaimes-Díaz1, Janet Casique-Almazán1, Juana M Espinosa-Lara1, Rosaura Palma-Orozco2, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio1, Rogelio Maldonado-Rodríguez1, Kenneth L Beattie31Laboratory of Biotechnology and Genomic Bioinformatics, Department of Biochemistry, National School of Biological Sciences, 2Superior School of Computer Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Amerigenics Inc, Crossville, Tennessee, USAPurpose: Here we describe LifePrint, a sequence alignment-independent k-tuple distance method to estimate relatedness between complete genomes.Methods: We designed a representative sample of all possible DNA tuples of length 9 (9-tuples. The final sample comprises 1878 tuples (called the LifePrint set of 9-tuples; LPS9 that are distinct from each other by at least two internal and noncontiguous nucleotide differences. For validation of our k-tuple distance method, we analyzed several real and simulated viroid genomes. Using different distance metrics, we scrutinized diverse viroid genomes to estimate the k-tuple distances between these genomic sequences. Then we used the estimated genomic k-tuple distances to construct phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining algorithm. A comparison of the accuracy of LPS9 and the previously reported 5-tuple method was made using symmetric differences between the trees estimated from each method and a simulated “true” phylogenetic tree.Results: The identified optimal search scheme for LPS9 allows only up to two nucleotide differences between each 9-tuple and the scrutinized genome. Similarity search results of simulated viroid genomes indicate that, in most cases, LPS9 is able to detect single-base substitutions between genomes efficiently. Analysis of simulated genomic variants with a high proportion of base substitutions indicates that LPS9 is able to discern relationships between genomic variants with up to 40% of nucleotide

  8. Focused ground-water recharge in the Amargosa Desert basin: Chapter E in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998–2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Niño that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04–0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1–0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12–15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9–22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early

  9. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  10. Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p < 0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p < 0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie

  11. Healthy Bread Initiative: Methods, Findings, and Theories—Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4±0.4 g% before study to 12±0.6 g% after the intervention (p<0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13±1.8 g% to 2±0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p<0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the long-standing problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID

  12. Specific mutation screening of TP53 gene by low-density DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Rangel-López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Angélica Rangel-López1–3, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio3, Kenneth L Beattie4, Rogelio Maldonado3, Patricia Mendoza1, Guelaguetza Vázquez1, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia5, Martha Sánchez2, Guillermo Navarro6, Mauricio Salcedo11Laboratorio de Oncología Genómica, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Oncológicas, Hospital de Oncología, CMN Siglo XXI-IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Nefrológicas, Hospital de Especialidades, CMN Siglo XXI-IMSS, Mexico City; Mexico; 3Laboratorio de Biotecnología y Bioinformática Genómica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN Mexico City, Mexico; 4Amerigenics, Inc., Crossville, TN, USA; 5Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México UNAM, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología INCAN, Mexico City, Mexico; 6Laboratorio de Organometálicos UNAM, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: TP53 is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers. Approximately 90% of mutations in this gene are localized between domains encoding exons 5 to 8. The aim of this investigation was to examine the ability of the low density DNA microarray with the assistance of double tandem hybridization platform to characterize TP53 mutational hotspots in exons 5, 7, and 8 of the TP53. Nineteen capture probes specific to each potential mutation site were designed to hybridize to specific site. Virtual hybridization was used to predict the stability of hybridization of each capture probe with the target. Thirty-three DNA samples from different sources were analyzed for mutants in these exons. A total of 32 codon substitutions were found by DNA sequencing. 24 of them a showed a perfect correlation with the hybridization pattern system and DNA sequencing analysis of the regions scanned. Although in this work we directed our attention to some of the most representative mutations of the TP503 gene, the results suggest

  13. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-10-24

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.

  14. The Effect of Strength Training on Performance Indicators in Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kris; Carson, Brian P; Lyons, Mark; Rossiter, Antonia; Kenny, Ian C

    2017-01-01

    Beattie, K, Carson, BP, Lyons, M, Rossiter, A, and Kenny, IC. The effect of strength training on performance indicators in distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 9-23, 2017-Running economy (RE) and velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite distance runners. In addition to cardiovascular function, RE and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 40-week strength training intervention on strength (maximal and reactive strength), VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, economy, and body composition (body mass, fat, and lean mass) in competitive distance runners. Twenty competitive distance runners were divided into an intervention group (n = 11; 29.5 ± 10.0 years; 72.8 ± 6.6 kg; 1.83 ± 0.08 m) and a control group (n = 9; 27.4 ± 7.2 years; 70.2 ± 6.4 kg; 1.77 ± 0.04 m). During week 0, 20, and 40, each subject completed 3 assessments: physiology (V2 mmol·L BLa, V2 mmol·L BLa [blood lactate], V4 mmol·L BLa, RE, VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), strength (1 repetition maximum back squat; countermovement jump and 0.3 m drop jump), and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall lean, and leg lean). The intervention group showed significant improvements in maximal and reactive strength qualities, RE, and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, at weeks 20 (p ≤ 0.05) and 40 (p ≤ 0.05). The control group showed no significant changes at either time point. There were no significant changes in body composition variables between or within groups. This study demonstrates that 40 weeks of strength training can significantly improve maximal and reactive strength qualities, RE, and VV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, without concomitant hypertrophy, in competitive distance runners.

  15. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  16. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    , Safdarhoseiniet all (2, Mazhari&Yazdani. Yet,foreign studies conducted in this area are varied in different sectors. For example, the studies Angelini&cetorell (15 andRezitis (24 in the banking system can be mentioned.Of the other foreign studies Leo (21, Bresnahan (12, Abayasiri (8, Boyle & Hall (14, Saitone& etal. (25, Koontz (20, Duravall (17, Steen (29, Salhofer and etAl. (28, Allender (10, Siton and et al. (25, Rigoberto et all (22, Lopez & etal. (22, Oustapassidis& etal. (23 can be cited. The model in this paper to estimate market power used for the food and beverage industries has been developed by Bresnahan& Leo. In this model,by considering demand and supply market powercan be investigated. In the next step, marginal cost (cost function is Translog cost and marginal revenue will be obtained. In the final step,by estimatingthe final equation market power can be calculated. The type of industrial classification used in this study is the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC. This kind of classification is widely used for empirical studies because of lack of industrial data on the basis of other classifications. We use firm level data aggregated to the4- digit ISIC code of industries. The purpose of this study is to estimate the market structure and market power of the food and drink industry in Iran.For estimating market power, conjectural variation is used. Results and DiscussionIn oligopoly theory, conjectural variation is the belief that one firm has about the way its competitors may react if it varies its output or price. The firm forms a conjecture about the variation in the other firm's output that will accompany any change in its own output. For example, in the classic Cournot model of oligopoly, it is assumed that each firm treats the output of the other firms as given when it chooses its output. This is sometimes called the "Nash conjecture" as it underlies the standard Nash equilibrium concept. However, alternative assumptions can be made

  17. PhD Dissertations Tesi di dottorato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Report of PhD dissertation.

    Laura Baietto

    Una politica per le città. Rapporti fra papato, vescovi e comuni nell'Italia centro-settentrionale da Innocenzo III a Gregorio IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002

     

    Giuseppe Banfo

    Compresenze e sovrapposizioni di poteri territoriali di qualità diversa tra X e XIII: il caso del basso Monferrato, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002

     

    Francesca Dell'Acqua

    La vetrata tra l'età tardo imperiale e l'altomedioevo: le fonti, l'archeologia, Tesi di Perfezionamento in Storia dell'Arte Medievale, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 2001

     

    Primo Giovanni Embriaco

    I vescovi di Albenga e gli sviluppi signorili nella Liguria occidentale (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2001

     

    Antonella Ghignoli

    Documenti e proprietà altomedievali. Fondamenti e problemi dell'esegesi storica delle fonti documentarie nello specchio della tradizione delle carte pisane dei secoli VIII-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002

     

    Vito Loré

    Espansione monastica e mutamenti politici. La Trinità di Cava nei suoi rapporti con i sovrani longobardi e normanni e con l'aristocrazia territoriale. Secoli XI-XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002

     

    Rosaria Stracuzzi

    Messina nel '400, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2001

     

    Stefania Tamburini

  18. An infrastructure for the integration of geoscience instruments and sensors on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, R.; Prica, M.; Kourousias, G.; Del Linz, A.; Curri, A.

    2009-04-01

    ). In this paper i) we define the need for integration of instrumentation in the Grid, ii) we introduce the solution of the Instrument Element, iii) we demonstrate a suitable end-user web portal for accessing Grid resources, iv) we describe from the Grid-technological point of view the process of the integration to the Grid of two advanced environmental monitoring devices. References [1] M. Surridge, S. Taylor, D. De Roure, and E. Zaluska, "Experiences with GRIA—Industrial Applications on a Web Services Grid," e-Science and Grid Computing, First International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing, 2005, pp. 98-105. [2] A. Chervenak, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, C. Salisbury, and S. Tuecke, "The data grid: Towards an architecture for the distributed management and analysis of large scientific datasets," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 23, 2000, pp. 187-200. [3] B. Allcock, J. Bester, J. Bresnahan, A.L. Chervenak, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, S. Meder, V. Nefedova, D. Quesnel, and S. Tuecke, "Data management and transfer in high-performance computational grid environments," Parallel Computing, vol. 28, 2002, pp. 749-771. [4] E. Frizziero, M. Gulmini, F. Lelli, G. Maron, A. Oh, S. Orlando, A. Petrucci, S. Squizzato, and S. Traldi, "Instrument Element: A New Grid component that Enables the Control of Remote Instrumentation," Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGRID'06)-Volume 00, IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA, 2006. [5] R. Ranon, L. De Marco, A. Senerchia, S. Gabrielli, L. Chittaro, R. Pugliese, L. Del Cano, F. Asnicar, and M. Prica, "A Web-based Tool for Collaborative Access to Scientific Instruments in Cyberinfrastructures." 1 The DORII project is supported by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. RI-213110. URL: http://www.dorii.eu 2 Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale. URL: http://www.ogs.trieste.it

  19. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Xiangjiaba site (mean 640.1 t ha-1 a-1) the maximum soil erosion of 1,115.4 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is negligible lower. Compared to these erosion rates the mean soil loss under current land use is considerably lower (Xiangxi Catchment: mean 161.5 t ha-1 a-1; Backwater area: mean 166.3 t ha-1 a-1; Quyuan: mean 211.2 t ha-1 a-1; Xiangjiaba: mean 158.6 t ha-1 a-1). However, soil loss of maximum 2,662.2 t ha-1 a-1 for Xiangxi Catchment, 2,397.9 t ha-1 a-1 for the backwater area, 1,689.9 t ha-1 a-1 for Quyuan site, and 957.1 t ha-1 a-1 for Xiangjiaba site are also potentially possible. According to the Chinese Soil Erosion Rate Standard (cf. Xu et al., 2008) almost 44 % of the area of the Xiangxi Catchment show extreme (> 80 t ha-1 a-1) soil erosion which mainly occur in the backwater area. Our results show that the Xiangxi Catchment is already highly prone to soil erosion under natural conditions. In places, the current land use in the mountainous relief of the Xiangxi Catchment still increases the potential soil erosion to an extreme high level. However, mean potential soil loss rates under current land use lie under those due to the natural disposition. This is due to the fact that the natural disposition to soil erosion does not consider the complete topography factor (LS factor), that effects the potential soil loss (R² = 0.77) by the human-influenced erosive slope length through farmland terraces. Moreover, our results indicate an urgent need of proper management and conservation decisions in order to reduce soil erosion against the background of a high land use dynamic in a region with low carrying capacity (Beattie, 2002). Literature Beattie, J. (2002): Dam Building, Dissent, And Development: The Emergence Of The Three Gorges Project. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 4(1): 138-158. Behrens, T., Schmidt, K. and Scholten, T. (2008). An approach to remove uncertainties in nominal environmental covariates and soil class maps. In: Hartemink, A. E., Mc

  20. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided; Nuova tecnica di centraggio TC-assistista nella neuromodulazione sacrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di radiologia e medicina nucleare; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Unita' operativa di radiologia; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    total of 38 centering. Eight patients underwent the PNE procedure on both the S3 foramina. The sacral foramen was centred at the first attempt in 36 out of 38 cases. Two cases required several attempts to centre correctly the foramen. In 4 patients out of 30 a second electrode was implanted. In one patient who had a non consolidated sacral fracture, CT guidance enabled insertion of the electrode inside the only practicable foramen, a manoeuvre that would have been impossible with fluoroscopic guidance. Only once was repositioned after a CT control. During the whole trial period we had a positive response to the PNE test in 18 out of 30 patients (60%), a partial response in 4 out of 30 patients and a negative response in the remaining 8 patients. None of the patients who underwent the PNE test had infectious complications and the procedure was well tolerated by all. The procedure lasted about 45 minutes. Conclusions: The PNE test under Ct guidance proved to be more efficient compared with the traditional technique as the direct view of the electrode position helped to define with greater reliability the patients who were non-responsive to sacral stimulation. Moreover, this method was particularly efficient in patients with sacral anomalies where the traditional guide might fail. The operators' reduced exposure to radiation is an advantage to be taken into consideration. Finally, the usage of mobile CT apparatus in an operating theatre can improve the technique for permanent implantations. [Italian] Scopo: La neuromodulazione sacrale ? una nuova procedura diagnostico-terapeutica pe ri disturbi funzionali del basso tratto urinario come l'incontinenza urinaria da urgenza, la ritenzione urinaria non ostruttiva, la sindrome urgenza/frequenza, il dolore pelvico cronico intrattabile e, di recente, anche per il trattamento della stipsi e dell'incontinemza fecale. Il trattamento prevede una prima fase definita PNE test (Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation) che consiste

  1. Blockade of interleukin-6 signaling inhibits the classic pathway and promotes an alternative pathway of macrophage activation after spinal cord injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent in vivo and in vitro studies in non-neuronal and neuronal tissues have shown that different pathways of macrophage activation result in cells with different properties. Interleukin (IL-6 triggers the classically activated inflammatory macrophages (M1 phenotype, whereas the alternatively activated macrophages (M2 phenotype are anti-inflammatory. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of a temporal blockade of IL-6/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R engagement, using an anti-mouse IL-6R monoclonal antibody (MR16-1, on macrophage activation and the inflammatory response in the acute phase after spinal cord injury (SCI in mice. Methods MR16-1 antibodies versus isotype control antibodies or saline alone were administered immediately after thoracic SCI in mice. SC tissue repair was compared between the two groups by Luxol fast blue (LFB staining for myelination and immunoreactivity for the neuronal markers growth-associated protein (GAP-43 and neurofilament heavy 200 kDa (NF-H and for locomotor function. The expression of T helper (Th1 cytokines (interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13 was determined by immunoblot analysis. The presence of M1 (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-positive, CD16/32-positive and M2 (arginase 1-positive, CD206-positive macrophages was determined by immunohistology. Using flow cytometry, we also quantified IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in neutrophils, microglia, and macrophages, and Mac-2 (macrophage antigen-2 and Mac-3 in M2 macrophages and microglia. Results LFB-positive spared myelin was increased in the MR16-1-treated group compared with the controls, and this increase correlated with enhanced positivity for GAP-43 or NF-H, and improved locomotor Basso Mouse Scale scores. Immunoblot analysis of the MR16-1-treated samples identified downregulation of Th1 and upregulation of Th2 cytokines. Whereas iNOS-positive, CD16/32-positive M1 macrophages were the

  2. Coenotic structure, skull asymmetries and other morphological anomalies in small mammals near an electronuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Amarena

    1994-05-01

    'installazione. È stata applicata l'analisi di otto indici biotici: i risultati mostrano un grado medio-elevato di diversificazione teriocenotica, un indice di livello trofico generalmente compreso tra il limite dei valori tipici dell'Italia centro-meridionale e inoltre un basso valore dell'indice di gestione ambientale. In particolare il sito compreso nell'area di rispetto della centrale nucleare, si caratterizza per un'elevata proporzione di Suncus etruscus e di Rattus rattus; per tale sito i valori di due indici di termoxerofilia mostrano rispetto agli altri siti del comprensorio un aumento che può essere messo in relazione con la variazione di qualche parametro ambientale. Si è quindi verificato se nelle aree considerate le asimmetrie etero-laterali delle file dentarie molari ed altre anomalie craniche fossero più elevate che in altri siti di confronto. È stato trovato un aumento significativo delle asimmetrie (P<0,02 in Microtus savii e delle anomalie craniche in Crocidura spp. (P<0,05.

  3. Heroe, Egregio, para contrabaixo e cravo: aspectos didáticos e interpretativos em uma transcrição de uma cantata do repertório colonial brasileiro Heroe, Egregio for double and harpsichord: interpretive and pedagogical aspects in a transcription of a cantata from the Brazilian colonial repertory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Borém

    2008-12-01

    (HIP, departing either from the adaptation of (aural and textual references already consolidated in the interpretation of the European repertoire or from the analysis of historical and formal elements and rhetorical figures. This article addresses these questions in Recitativo e Aria from the academic cantata Heroe, egregio, douto, peregrino (anonymous, Salvador, 1759 for soprano, two violins and basso continuo, transcribed for a solo orchestral string instrument (violin, viola, violoncello or double bass and harpsichord.

  4. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.

    2016-04-01

    , P., Garzanti, E., 2011. Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei, 22: 327-347. Andò, S., Garzanti, E., 2014. Raman spectroscopy in heavy-mineral studies. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 386 (1), 395-412. Blatt, H., (1985). Provenance studies and mudrocks. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 55 (1), 69-75. Borromeo, L., Zimmermann, U., Andò, S., Coletti, G., Bersani, D., Basso, D., Gentile, P., Garzanti, E., 2015. Raman Spectroscopy as a tool for magnesium estimation in Mg-calcite. Periodico di Mineralogia , ECMS, 35-36. France-Lanord, C., Spiess, V., Klaus, A., and the Expedition 354 Scientists, 2015. IODP, Exp. 354, Preliminary Report: Bengal Fan, Neogene and late Paleogene record of Himalayan orogeny and climate: a transect across the Middle Bengal Fan. Pandey, D.K., Clift, P.D., Kulhanek, D.K. and the Expedition 355 Scientists, 2015. IODP, Exp. 355, Preliminary Report: Arabian Sea Monsoon, Deep sea drilling in the Arabian Sea: constraining tectonic-monsoon interactions in South Asia.

  5. I mammiferi dell'area di Capo Feto (Trapani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Di Vittorio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nel contesto del Progetto di riqualificazione ambientale del territorio di Capo Feto, area SIC della Provincia di Trapani si è proceduto allo studio della comunità di mammiferi dell?area. Sono state in tal modo scelte, in base alle loro caratteristiche ambientali, tre aree campione omogenee. L?attività di censimento e trappolamento si è protratta per tre diversi periodi stagionali (dal 22 al 27/10/2001, dal 19 al 24/03/2002 e dal 21 al 26/08/2002 per un totale, per ogni periodo, di 6 giorni e 5 notti trappola. Gli animali catturati sono stati registrati in apposite schede e pesati. Sono stati riportati il sesso e le condizioni riproduttive (giovane, adulto, adulto riproduttore etc. e gli individui sono stati marcati attraverso un piccolo taglio alle orecchie, attraverso un codice di riconoscimento determinato a priori. Riguardo i micromammiferi si è effettuato un rilevamento quantitativo, attraverso la tecnica del trappolamento MCR (Cattura-marcaggio-ricattura. Sono state utilizzate 100 trappole incruente cosiddette di ?cattura e ricattura? (Ugglan modell 1, di dimensioni 250x78x65 mm. Per i mammiferi di media taglia, si è proceduto (nelle varie tipologie ambientali con censimenti condotti di giorno e di notte (in cui tali specie mostrano maggiore attività con l?ausilio di fari e di appositi visori per l?impiego notturno, ed attraverso rilevamenti diretti (OD: osservazione individui, esemplari rinvenuti morti ed indiretti (OI: tracce, tane, resti ossei in borre, escrementi. Tenendo conto del basso numero di ricatture (in qualche caso uguali a zero, è stato usato l?indice di Chapman, adatto a piccoli campioni. Inoltre i dati ottenuti sono stati elaborati mediante l?indice DAT, che esprime una frequenza relativa per ogni ambiente analizzato. Per la comparazione tra i risultati (a livello di specie catturate dei tre periodi si è utilizzato il valore medio dell?Indice di somiglianza (S di Sorensen. I risultati dell?intero periodo di

  6. Preserved processing of musical syntax in a person with agrammatic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhvi Saxena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work suggests that processing hierarchical structure in language and in music rely on shared systems (review: Slevc, 2012, however this conclusion is tempered by neuropsychological dissociations between linguistic and musical processing (i.e., aphasia and amusia; review: Peretz, 2006. An influential reconciliation comes from Patel’s (2003 shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH, which suggests that evidence for shared processes reflect reliance on shared syntactic integration processes whereas dissociations result from damage to domain-specific syntactic representations. The SSIRH thus predicts that patients with deficits in the processing of linguistic syntax–such as agrammatic aphasics–should show parallel deficits in musical structural (harmonic processing. This prediction is countered by findings of impaired harmonic processing in patients with (apparently spared linguistic syntactic processing (e.g., Sammler et al., 2011, however evidence for the opposite dissociation–preserved harmonic processing in agrammatic aphasia–is lacking. While there are reports of preserved musical abilities despite global aphasia (Basso & Capitani, 1985 or severe Wernicke’s aphasia (Luria, Tsvetkova, & Futer, 1965, of preserved reading and writing of music in the face of alexia and agraphia (Signoret et al., 1987, and of preserved musical sound naming in the face of severe anomia (Tzortzis et al., 2000, no study (to our knowledge has demonstrated preserved musical structural processing in an agrammatic patient. In addition, at least one group of agrammatic aphasics did not show normal effects of harmonic priming, and showed a relationship between accuracy on acceptability judgments in language and in music (Patel et al., 2008. Here, we report a detailed analysis of structural processing in language and in music in HV, a 63 year-old native English-speaking female musician who sustained a left peri-Sylvian stroke. She

  7. Scelta dell'habitat del tasso (Meles meles in un'area dell'Oltrepò pavese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rigo

    2003-10-01

    .f.=1; p<0.001 e siti che presentino, nelle vicinanze, la presenza di castagne: risorsa trofica importante per l'animale (Χ²=6.220; d.f.=1; p=0.013. A differenza di quanto emerso in altre ricerche, il substrato geo-litologico e la distanza dai corsi d'acqua non risultano parametri statisticamente significativi, mentre un basso sviluppo delle strade, che rappresentano un disturbo ed un reale pericolo per i tassi, caratterizza i luoghi scelti per le tane. L'animale sembra prediligere, per le proprie tane, secondo quanto emerge anche dall'analisi multivariata, luoghi con un minore disturbo antropico. In conclusione, il tipo di ambiente, la copertura arborea e arbustiva, l'esposizione dei versanti, la presenza di adeguate risorse trofiche nelle vicinanze, la lontananza da strade e lo sviluppo dei centri abitati sono componenti che influenzano significativamente la presenza del tasso. Fattori geologici, litologici, e idrogeologici sono invece di scarsa importanza nell'area considerata.

  8. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sarà

    1995-05-01

    boschi decidui di querce e faggio e, più in basso di noccioli, querce e castagni dei Nebrodi, Peloritani e Madonie. Il Ghiro è presente anche sull'Etna ed in un'area meridionale della Sicilia (Iblei. Il Quercino mostra la distribuzione più ampia (21,2% ed è presente in una gran varietà di habitat dal livello del mare fino alle faggete delle Madonie. I Mioxidi in Sicilia risultano predati finora occasionalmente dalla Volpe e dal Lanario e raramente dal Barbagianni e dall'Allocco. Solo il Ghiro risulta predato regolarmente (5% dall'Allocco e risulta la preda più importante in termini di biomassa (47% nei boschi dell'Etna e dei Nebrodi. Il periodo di letargo, desunto da osservazioni dirette e dalle borre, sembrerebbe normale (autunno inoltrato-primavera alle alte quote e assente o molto ridotto e discontinuo sotto i 400 m.

  9. Perfil sociodemográfico del suicida en México de 1990 a 2011/Socio-demographic profile of suicide in Mexico from 1990 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De Léon Palomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il suicidio è una condotta antisociale che si è imposta fin dall’inizio della storia dell’umanità. L’obiettivo di questa ricerca è quello di individuare i profili socio-demografici dei suicidi in Messico. I dati relativi ai suicidi verificatisi in Messico dal 1990 al 2011 sono stati ottenuti dall’Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI. Il profilo tracciato è il seguente: in Messico i suicidi vengono commessi da uomini (83,12%, aventi un’età compresa tra i 20 ed i 24 anni (16,85%, celibi (42,48%, con livello basso di scolarità (23,11%, occupati (64,17%. I suicidi si realizzano nella propria abitazione (68,2% ed i metodi comunemente più utilizzati sono l’impiccagione, lo strangolamento ed il soffocamento (75,08%. Questo profilo socio-demografico consente di mettere in evidenza alcuni elementi che influenzano tale comportamento antisociale e alcuni fattori di rischio suicidario nell’ambito della popolazione messicana, fornendo la possibilità di attivare adeguate misure preventive. Le suicide est un comportement antisocial qui a marqué l’histoire de l’humanité. L’objectif général de cette recherche était de dresser le profil sociodémographique du suicide au Mexique. Les données des suicides au Mexique entre 1990 et 2011 ont été obtenues de l’Institut National de Statistique et Géographie (INEGI. Le profil obtenu était : les suicides sont commis par des hommes (83,12%, âgés de 20 à 24 ans (16,85%, célibataires (42,48%, ayant un niveau d’éducation primaire (23,11%, qui travaillent (64,17%. Les suicides ont lieu à la maison (68,2% et les méthodes les plus couramment utilisées sont la pendaison, l’étranglement et l’étouffement (75,08%. Ce profil sociodémographique révèle des facteurs qui favorisent ce comportement antisocial et met en évidence certains facteurs de risque de commettre un suicide parmi la population mexicaine, permettant de prendre les mesures pr

  10. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    possono prevenire lo sviluppo di respiro sibilante (wheezing) attraverso i loro effetti antiossidanti contengono vitamina C e selenio; i livelli ematici di questi elementi sono correlati negativamente con il rischio di wheezing. Inoltre l'assunzione di vitamina E durante la gravidanza sembra essere correlato con un rischio ridotto di respiro sibilante per il nascituro. Allo stesso modo, basso apporto di zinco e di carotenoidi in donne in gravidanza è associata ad un aumentato rischio di wheezing e asma nell'infanzia. Anche le fibre hanno proprietà anti-infiammatorie ed effetti protettivi contro le malattie allergiche come la dermatite atopica e l’asma. Il consumo di grassi influenza lo sviluppo delle vie aeree. Le popolazioni dei paesi occidentali hanno aumentato il loro consumo di n-6 PUFA e, parallelamente, ridotto n-3 PUFA. Ciò ha portato alla diminuzione della produzione di PGE2, che si ritiene abbia un effetto protettivo contro l'infiammazione delle vie aeree. Ipotesi contrastanti riguardano la vitamina D, sia un eccesso che una carenza di vitamina D, infatti, sono stati associati ad un aumentato rischio di asma. Ulteriori studi sul ruolo di queste sostanze sono necessari prima di trarre conclusioni sul piano clinico. PMID:22651129

  11. Magma Mixing: Why Picrites are Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    porosity in regions where crustal-level magma chambers and flanking rift zones do not have a chance to form. Low-magma supply is favored. In the ocean basins, such upper mantle mainlining occurs only at certain fracture zones, deep propagating rifts at microplates, or ultra-slow spreading ridges, but no liquids (glasses) with >10% MgO occur at any of these places. On continents, rift structures through cratons might allow this, but so far no picrite, ferropicrite, or meimichite that has been adequately described from these places lacks evidence for end-member mixing. Low-temperature iron-rich magmas can accumulate in the deep lower crust and later rise to form substantial intrusions (e.g. Skaergaard) or erupt as flood basalts (Columbia River). Some komatiites might represent high-temperature liquids, but many are so altered that original liquid compositions cannot be deduced (e.g., Gorgona). The hottest intraplate volcano is Kilauea, Hawaii, where rare picrite glass with 15% MgO has an estimated eruptive temperature (1) of ~1350C and a potential temperature at 1 GPa of ~1420C. Lavas at all other linear island chains, Iceland and even west Greenland where picrites are abundant, are cooler than this. (1) Beattie, P., 1993. CMP 115: 103-111.

  12. VA FitHeart, a Mobile App for Cardiac Rehabilitation: Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexis L; Magnusson, Sara L; Fortney, John C; Sayre, George G; Whooley, Mary A

    2018-01-15

    "), a desire for introductory training ("Initially, training with a technical person, instead of me relying on myself"), and an expectation for sharing data with providers ("It would also be helpful to share with my doctor, it just being a matter of clicking a button and sharing it with my doctor"). With participant feedback and iterative revisions, we significantly improved the usability of a mobile app for CR. Patient expectations for using a mobile app for CR include tracking health metrics, introductory training, and sharing data with providers. Iterative mixed-method evaluation may be useful for improving the usability of health technology. ©Alexis L Beatty, Sara L Magnusson, John C Fortney, George G Sayre, Mary A Whooley. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 15.01.2018.

  13. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Oppong

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available - P. van de Velde, Chester G. Starr, Early man - Prehistory and the civilizations of the ancient near east. New York, London, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1973. 7 + 205 pp., num. ill. black and white colour. - H. Hoetink, Ashley Montagu, Man’s most dangerous myth: the fallacy of race. New York, Oxford University Press, 1974, 5th edition, 542 pp. - J. Tennekes, Margaret T. Hodgen, Anthropology, history and cultural change. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, number 52. The University of Arizona Press, pp. 108, 1974. - H.J.M. Claessen, Regna Darnell, Readings in the history of anthropology. New York etc., Harper & Row, 1974. 479 pp. - John Beattie, F. Allan Hanson, Meaning in culture. London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul (International Library of Anthropology, 1975. xi, 127 pp., bibl. - J. van Baal, Dan Sperber, Le symbolisme en général. Collection Savoir, Hermann, Paris, 1974. 163 pp. - David S. Moyer, Claude Levi-Strauss, La Voie des Masques. Les Sentiers de la Création, Editions d’art Albert Skira, Genève, 1975. Vol I, 142 pp. and vol. II, 147 pp. Figs., maps, colour plates. - W.C. Ultee, Suzanne Petra Schad, Empirical social research in Weimar-Germany. Mouton, Paris-The Hague, 1972. 155 pp. - C.J.J. Vermeulen, Paul-Henry Stahl, Ethnologie de l’Europe du Sud-est. Une anthologie. Mouton Éditeur, Paris/La Haye 1974. 312 p. - C.J.J. Vermeulen, Juliet du Boulay, Portrait of a Greek mountain village. Oxford monographs on social anthropology. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1974. viii, 296 pp., photogr. - Lodewijk Brunt, Jacob Black-Michaud, Cohesive force. Fued in the Mediterranean andthe Middle East. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1975. With a foreword by E.L. Peters. 270 pp. - J.H. van den Brink, D’arcy McNickle, Native American Tribalism - Indian survivals and renewals. Oxford University Press, New York, London, 1973. 190 pp., geïll. - Sjaak van der Geest, Christine Oppong, Marriage among a matrilineal elite. A family

  15. Mars Rover proposed for 2018 to seek signs of life and to cache samples for potential return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lisa; Beaty, David; Westall, Frances; Parnell, John; Poulet, François

    2010-05-01

    Mars Rover proposed for 2018 to seek signs of life and to cache samples for potential return to Earth Lisa Pratt, David Beatty, Frances Westall, John Parnell, François Poulet, and the MRR-SAG team The search for preserved evidence of life is the keystone concept for a new generation of Mars rover capable of exploring, sampling, and caching diverse suites of rocks from outcrops. The proposed mission is conceived to address two general objectives: conduct high-priority in situ science and make concrete steps towards the possible future return of samples to Earth. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C) to best reflect the dual purpose of the proposed mission. The scientific objective of the proposed MAX-C would require rover access to a site with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures in order to evaluate paleo-environmental conditions, characterize the potential for preservation of biosignatures, and access multiple sequences of geological units in a search for evidence of past life and/or prebiotic chemistry. Samples addressing a variety of high-priority scientific objectives should be collected, documented, and packaged in a manner suitable for possible return to Earth by a future mission. Relevant experience from study of ancient terrestrial strata, martian meteorites, and from the Mars exploration Rovers indicates that the proposed MAX-C's interpretive capability should include: meter to submillimeter texture (optical imaging), mineral identification, major element content, and organic molecular composition. Analytical data should be obtained by direct investigation of outcrops and should not entail acquisition of rock chips or powders. We propose, therefore, a set of arm-mounted instruments that would be capable of interrogating a relatively smooth, abraded surface by creating co-registered 2-D maps of visual texture, mineralogy and geochemical properties. This approach is judged to have particularly high

  16. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-01-01

    research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Beattie

    1967-01-01

    Baluba et de quelques autres peuplades dans le sud-est du Congo. Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Fribourg 1964, 49 pp. - K.A.H. Hidding, Armand Abel et al., Religions de Salut. Institut de sociologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1962. 228 pp. - H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen, John Beattie, Other cultures; Aims, methods and achievements in social anthropology. Cohen & West. London 1964, xii, 283 pp., index. 32 sh. - A.A. Trouwborst, G.P. Murdock, Culture and society, twenty-four essays, University of Pittsburgh, 1965, XII, 376 pp. - C. Nooteboom, Carl A. Schmitz, Festschrift Alfred Bühler, herausgegeben von Carl A. Schmitz und Robert Wildhaber. Basler Beiträge zur Geographie und Ethnologie, Ethnologische Reihe, Band 2. Pharos Verlag Hans Rudolf Schwabe A.G., Basel, 1965. 465 S., 93 Abb., Robert Wildhaber (eds. - H.A. van Oort, Michael Banton, The social anthropology of complex societies. A.S.A. Monographs 4, Tavistock Publications. London. 1966, pp. xli, 156. - J.W. Minderhout, P. Gregorius, Sociologie van de niet-Westerse volken: verwantschap en huwelijk. Prisma-Compendia 17, Specturm, Utrecht/Antwerpen 1965. 267 p. - K. Kortmulder, Peter Weidkuhn, Aggressivität Ritus Säkularisierung; Biologische Grundformen religiöser Prozesse. Basler Beitr. zur Ethnol. und Geographie, Ethn. Reihe, Band 3. Pharos-Verlag, Basel 1965. 143 pp.

  18. PREFACE: Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2010-04-01

    . Döbele (1993 - 1999) K. Muraoka (1999 - 2003) A. J. H. Donné (2003 - ) LOCAL ORGANIZERS: Leonardo Giudicotti, Consorzio RFX and Padova University (Chairman) Roberto Pasqualotto, Consorzio RFX Margherita Basso, Consorzio RFX Santolo De Benedictis, Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR Paolo Innocente, Consorzio RFX Alberto Alfier, Consorzio RFX Enrico Scek Osman, Consorzio RFX PREVIOUS LAPD MEETINGS 1983- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 1985- Oxford, U.K.: D. Evans (Organizer) 1987- Lake Arrowhead, USA: N. C. Luhmann, Jr. (Organizer) 1989- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 1991- Bad Honnef, Germany: F. Döbele (Organizer) 1993- Bar Harbor, USA: P. Woskov (Organizer) 1995- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 1997- Doorwerth, Netherlands: A. J. H. Donné (Organizer) 1999- Lake Tahoe, USA: N. C. Luhmann, Jr. (Organizer) 2001- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 2003- Les Houches, France: N. Sadeghi (Organizer) 2005- Snowbird, USA: N. C. Luhmann, Jr. (Organizer) 2007- Takayama, Japan: K. Kawahata (Organizer) 2009- Castelbrando, Italy: L. Giudicotti (Organizer)

  19. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes; Laboratorio di radiologia-Modulo di senologia: errori piu' frequenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra [U.O. Radiologia P.O. Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo [Genova Univ., Genova (Italy). U.O. Radiologia Clinica; Conti, Giovanni Maria [Istituto di Radiologia Ospedali Riuniti, Parma (Italy); Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo [P.O. Cremonese Azienda Istituti Ospedalieri, Cremona (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Santini, Dolores [Azienda USL Modena Poliambulatori Distretto 3, Modena (Italy). Screening Mammografico

    2005-03-01

    errate. Di queste 823 su 4288 risposte teoricamente attese negative (19,2%) sono risultate false positive, 357 su 1072 risposte teoricamente attese positive (33.3%) sono risultate false negative. Per quanto riguarda i 23 casi risultati piu' errati, erano rappresentati da 10/32 (31,25%) mammografie positive per patologia maligna e da 13/128 (10,15%) mammografie con patologia benigna o del tutto negative (Tab. I). Le 10 neoplasie comprendevano 7 carcinomi duttali infiltranti, 1 carcinoma cribriforme infiltrante, 1 carcinoma tubulare infiltrante, 1 carcinoma in situ. Le 13 mammografie risultate benigne all'esame cito-istologico o con follow-up prolungato (e considerate maligne dai partecipanti al test) corrispondevano a mastopatia fibroso cistica in 5 casi, esito cicatriziale di pregresso intervento in 1 caso, esito di ABBI in 1 caso, radial scar in 2 casi, microcalcificazioni stabili da anni in 2 casi, focolaio di scleroadenosi in 1 caso e focolaio di scleroelastosi in 1 caso. Conclusioni: L'errore e' stato determinato da: errore di analisi delle microcalcificazioni; patologia benigna simulante neoplasia; sovrapposizione di tessuto normale; visibilita' in una sola proiezione; localizzazione rispetto al corpus mammae; zone di asimmetria misconosciute. Va richiamata l'attenzione su questi aspetti semeiologici di patologia mammaria focale in quanto, opportunamente considerati, possono far diagnosticare precocemente carcinomi a basso grado con prognosi spesso favorevole.

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 20th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Catania (Italy; March 22-24, 2018; Session “Prematurity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2018-03-01

    . PREDICTION OF PRETERM BIRTH IN MULTIPLE PREGNANCIES WITH SERIAL MEASUREMENTS OF CERVICAL LENGTH • G. Pavone, I. Faralli, A. Finelli, B. Matarrelli, D. Buca, M. Leombroni, C. CelentanoABS 17. PREGNANCY COMPLICATED BY GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS: IS PRETERM DELIVERY CORRELATED TO METFORMIN TREATMENT? • C. Callegari, P. Algeri, S. Di Nicola, I. Crippa, E.M. Mariani, I. Cameroni, P. Vergani, N. RoncagliaABS 18. MATERNAL HYPERTENSION AND SURVIVAL IN VERY PRETERM SINGLETONS AND TWINS: NOT JUST ONE ANSWER… • L. Gagliardi, O. BassoABS 19. CARDIOVASCULAR AND METABOLIC EF­FECTS OF HYDROCORTISONE THERAPY FOR BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN PRETERM INFANTS • L. Antonini, A. Correani, L. Antognoli, I. Giretti, M. Maiorano, C. Rondina, V. CarnielliABS 20. DELIVERY AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES IN UNCOMPLICATED DICHORIONIC TWIN PREG­NANCIES ACCORDING TO MODE OF CON­CEPTION • P. Algeri, S. Ornaghi, I. Vaglio Tessitore, L. Brienza, S. Cozzolino, M. Incerti, P. VerganiABS 21. ROLE OF GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS ON PERINATAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANCY COMPLICATED BY PRETERM DELIVERY < 34 WEEKS • F. Accordino, A. Griggio, S. Ornaghi, I. Cameroni, P. Vergani

  1. Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    activities. Moreover, the competent authorities should increasing their efforts to limit unnecessary prescriptions and increase appropriateness of prescribing. Riassunto Introduzione Le mappe tematiche consentono una più rapida ed immediata lettura delle differenze geografiche nella distribuzione di dati riferiti ad un territorio specifico. Lo scopo dello studio è mostrare, per la prima volta, l’applicazione di alcuni strumenti statistici e cartografici, nell’analisi dell’uso dei farmaci nella popolazione pediatrica di una regione italiana e valutare le differenze intra-regionali. Metodi Per valutare il tipo di distribuzione geografica delle prescrizioni, sono stati calcolati i tassi di prevalenza standardizzati (punteggi-z) a livello di ASL, Distretti Sanitari e Comuni. Per valutare la correlazione con le ospedalizzazioni è stato usato il coefficiente di correlazione di Pearson; per valutare l’esistenza di autocorrelazione spaziale è stato usato l’indice I di Moran. Tramite l’uso della statistica G di Getis-Ord sono stati identificati cluster di aree ad alto e basso livello di prevalenza. Infine con un modello di regressione logistica è stata stimata la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione nel corso dell’anno per tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio. Risultati Con l’uso delle mappe è possibile vedere che le prescrizioni non sono correlate con lo stato di salute della popolazione, ma sono correlate con l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra. Questo è confermato anche dal modello di regressione logistica costruito per stimare la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione considerando come variabili indipendenti l’età, il sesso, la prevalenza di ricoveri nel distretto di residenza, l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra, la classe di età del pediatra e la durata della convenzione del pediatra con l’Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL). Conclusioni Gli interventi primari per razionalizzare l’uso degli antibiotici in et

  2. Hikikomori. La solitudine degli adolescenti giapponesi / Hikikomori. La solitude des adolescents japonais Hikikomori / Japanese teenagers’ loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Giappone oggi rappresenta la terza potenza economica mondiale in cui il costo della vita è alto, il tasso di natalità basso e le patologie psichiche derivate da stress sono in forte aumento. Allarmante è il fenomeno hikikomori, una volontaria e ostinata forma di “ritiro sociale” (social withdrawal, di auto reclusione che si sviluppa nell’adolescenza e che nei casi più gravi dura anche più di dieci anni. L’eziologia del fenomeno è piuttosto complessa ma, tra le ipotesi plausibili avanzate, si parla di un disagio psichico dovuto ad una serie di fattori tra cui l’interdipendenza fra genitori e figli, la presenza di una figura materna iperprotettiva a fronte di un’assenza del padre e soprattutto il contesto sociale omologante, coartativo e frustrante. Si tratta di elementi in grado di generare nell’adolescente un angoscioso senso di inadeguatezza, alimentato dalla paura in cui il confronto con l’altro diventa insostenibile ed il silenzio la sola forma di comunicazione. Un disagio relazionale che conta nel Paese del Sol Levante più di un milione di adolescenti, ma che va diffondendosi anche negli Stati Uniti e nel Nord Europa.Le Japon représente aujourd'hui la troisième puissance économique mondiale, où le coût de la vie est élevé, le taux de natalité bas et les pathologies psychiques causées par le stress en forte augmentation. Le phénomène de l’hikikomori, une forme volontaire et obstinée de "retrait social" (social withdrawal, devient de plus en plus alarmant. Il s’agit d’une auto-réclusion qui se développe dans l'adolescence et qui, dans les cas les plus graves, peut durer plus de dix ans. L’étiologie du phénomène est plutôt complexe mais, parmi les hypothèses plausibles avancées, l’on parle d’un trouble psychique du à une série de facteurs, parmi lesquels figurent l'interdépendance entre parents et enfants, la présence d'une figure maternelle hyper protectrice conjuguée à l

  3. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  4. Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia Massimo

    2012-12-01

    permanent education activities. Moreover, the competent authorities should increasing their efforts to limit unnecessary prescriptions and increase appropriateness of prescribing. Riassunto Introduzione Le mappe tematiche consentono una più rapida ed immediata lettura delle differenze geografiche nella distribuzione di dati riferiti ad un territorio specifico. Lo scopo dello studio è mostrare, per la prima volta, l’applicazione di alcuni strumenti statistici e cartografici, nell’analisi dell’uso dei farmaci nella popolazione pediatrica di una regione italiana e valutare le differenze intra-regionali. Metodi Per valutare il tipo di distribuzione geografica delle prescrizioni, sono stati calcolati i tassi di prevalenza standardizzati (punteggi-z a livello di ASL, Distretti Sanitari e Comuni. Per valutare la correlazione con le ospedalizzazioni è stato usato il coefficiente di correlazione di Pearson; per valutare l’esistenza di autocorrelazione spaziale è stato usato l’indice I di Moran. Tramite l’uso della statistica G di Getis-Ord sono stati identificati cluster di aree ad alto e basso livello di prevalenza. Infine con un modello di regressione logistica è stata stimata la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione nel corso dell’anno per tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio. Risultati Con l’uso delle mappe è possibile vedere che le prescrizioni non sono correlate con lo stato di salute della popolazione, ma sono correlate con l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra. Questo è confermato anche dal modello di regressione logistica costruito per stimare la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione considerando come variabili indipendenti l’età, il sesso, la prevalenza di ricoveri nel distretto di residenza, l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra, la classe di età del pediatra e la durata della convenzione del pediatra con l’Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL. Conclusioni Gli interventi primari per razionalizzare l’uso degli

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1994-01-01

    Leur. Hilversum: Verloren, 1992, 288 pp. - Jane A. Kusin, Brigit Obrist van Eeuwijk, Small but strong; Cultural context of (malnutrition among the Northern Kwanga (East Sepik province, Papua New Guinea. Basel: Wepf & Co. AG Verlag, Basler Beiträge zur ethnologie, Band 34, 1992, 283 pp. - J. Thomas Lindblad, Pasuk Phongpaichit, The new wave of Japanese investment in ASEAN. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1990, 127 pp. - Niels Mulder, Louis Gabaude, Une herméneutique bouddhique contemporaine de Thaïlande; Buddhadasa Bhikku. Paris: École Francaise d’Extrême-Orient, 1988, vii + 692 pp. - Marleen Nolten, Vinson H. Sutlive. Jr., Female and male in Borneo; Contributions and challenges to gender studies. Borneo research council Monograph series, volume 1, not dated but probably published in 1991. - Ton Otto, G.W. Trompf, Melanesian Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, xi + 283 pp., including select bibliography and index. - IBM Dharma Palguna, Gordon D. Jensen, The Balinese people; A reinvestigation of character. Singapore-New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 232 pp., Luh Ketut Suryani (eds. - Anton Ploeg, Jürg Schmid, Söhne des Krokodils; Männerhausrituale und initiation in Yensan, Zentral-Iatmul, East Sepik province, Papua New Guinea. Basel: ethnologisches seminar der Universitat und Musuem für Völkerkunde (Basler Beiträge zur ethnologie, band 36, 1992, xii + 321 pp., Christine Kocher Schmid (eds. - Raechelle Rubinstein, W. van der Molen, Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8. Leiden: Vakgroep talen en culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Oceanië, Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden, 1993. x + 129 pp. - Tine G. Ruiter, Arthur van Schaik, Colonial control and peasant resources in Java; Agricultural involution reconsidered. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap/Instituut voor Sociale geografie Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1986, 210 pp. - R. Schefold, Andrew Beatty, Society and exchange in Nias. Oxford: Clarendon press, (Oxford

  6. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available -Timothy P. Barnard, Cynthia Chou, Indonesian sea nomads; Money, magic, and fear of the Orang Suku Laut. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, xii + 159 pp. -R.H. Barnes, Toos van Dijk, Gouden eiland in de Bandazee; Socio-kosmische ideeën op Marsela, Maluku Tenggara, Indonesië. Leiden: Onderzoekschool voor Aziatische, Afrikaanse en Amerindische studies (CNWS, Universiteit Leiden, 2000, 458 pp. [CNWS Publications 94.] -Andrew Beatty, Peter G. Riddell, Islam and the Malay-Indonesian world; Transmission and responses. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2001, xvii + 349 pp. -Peter Boomgaard, Richard H. Grove ,El Niño - history and crisis; Studies from the Asia-Pacific region. Cambridge: White Horse Press, 2000, 230 pp., John Chappell (eds -Bernardita Reyes Churchill, Florentino Rodao, Franco y el imperio japonés; Imágenes y propaganda en tiempos de guerra. Barcelona: Plaza and Janés, 2002, 669 pp. -Matthew Cohen, Stuart Robson, The Kraton; Selected essays on Javanese courts. Translated by Rosemary Robson-McKillop. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2003, xxvi + 397 pp. [Translation series 28.] -Serge Dunis, Ben Finney, Sailing in the wake of the ancestors; Reviving Polynesian voyaging. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 2003, 176 pp. [Legacy of excellence.] -Heleen Gall, Jan A. Somers, De VOC als volkenrechtelijke actor. Deventer: Gouda Quint, Rotterdam: Sanders Instituut, 2001, x + 350 pp. -David Henley, Harold Brookfield, Exploring agrodiversity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001, xix + 348 pp. -David Hicks, Ernst van Veen ,A guide to the sources of the history of Dutch-Portuguese relations in Asia (1594-1797. With a foreword by Leonard Blussé. Leiden: Institute for the history of European expansion, 2001, iv + 378 pp. [Intercontinenta 24.], Daniël Klijn (eds -Nico Kaptein, Donald J. Porter, Managing politics and Islam in Indonesia. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002, xxi + 264 pp. -Victor T. King, Monica Janowski, The forest, source of life; The Kelabit of

  7. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonassyringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William S.; Chain, Patrick; Larimer, Frank; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, Alex; Lykidis, Athanasios; Trong,Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti,Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, John C.; Land, Miriam; Richardson, Paul M.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lindow, StevenE.

    2005-04-01

    producing avariety of different symptoms depending on the host species and site ofinfection. For example, it causes leaf spot diseases that defoliateplants such as tomato, bean, soybean, trunk cankers, and so-called"blast" diseases on fruit, nut and ornamental species. Considerablevariation occurs both between and within different pathovars of P.syringae (1). Because of its importance as a plant pathogen, it has beenthe subject of much research, especially of its epidemiology andvirulence mechanisms (2). Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) strainB728a is typical of most strains of this pathovar in that it exhibits avery pronounced epiphytic phase on plants. Such strains achieve andmaintain large populations on healthy plants, where they are exposed tostressful conditions such as dryness and sunlight that are hostile tobacterial growth(2). Epiphytic Pss populations serve as inocula that cansubsequently invade plants and initiate disease. Pss strains are distinctfrom many P. syringae strains, such as P. syringae pv. tomato (Pst)strain DC3000, that poorly colonize the exterior of plants; these strainsmay be considered "endophytes" based on their ability to multiply mostlywithin the plant (3). True epiphytes such as Pss B728a often reachsurface populations of over 107 cells/g while strains such as Pst DC3000seldom exceed 105 cells/g (2, 3). Thus, these strains might be consideredto occupy different ends of the epiphytic/endophytic spectrum of plantcolonization as described by Beattie and Lindow (4). As a pathogen and anepiphyte, Pss B728a has evolved to exploit at least two distincthabitats: the leaf surface and apoplast. Because rapid changes intemperature, low water content, and incident solar radiation occur onleaf surfaces, it has been hypothesized that the epiphyte Pss B728aposseses more genes conferring environmental stress tolerance than theendophyte Pst DC3000 (4). Pss B728a also exhibits several traits such asice nucleation activity and SR production (2) that are

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Trouwborst

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available - H.W. te Winkel, P. van Emst, Panorama der volken, deel III (Europa en Afrika. Roermond 1966. 491 blz., ills. - John Beattie, D.G. Jongmans, Anthropologists in the field. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen 1967. 277 pp., P.C.W. Gutkind (eds. - J. van Baal, Andreas Lommel, Primitieve Beschavingen. Uitgeverij W. Gaade, Den Haag 1966. 172 blz. - J. Prins, J. van Baal, Mensen in verandering. Ontstaan en groei van een nieuwe cultuur in ontwikkelingslanden. Voor het Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen uitgegeven door N.V. De Arbeiderspers, Amsterdam. 1967. (183 blz. plus 4 blz. verwijzingen. - C. Baks, A.N.J. den Hollander, De plurale samenleving; begrip zonder toekomst? J.A. Boom en Zn., Meppel 1966. 121 pp.,, O.D. van den Muijzenberg, J.D. Speckmann (eds. - Th. P. van Baaren, Jan de Vries, The study of religion, a historical approach, translated with an introduction by Kees W. Bolle. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York 1967. XXIII + 231 pp. - H. Th. Fischer, C. Staniland Wake, The development of marriage and kinship. Classics in Anthropology. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, 1967 (Eerste Uitg. 1899. XLVI (Inleiding R. Needham. 510 pp., Index. - E.M. Uhlenbeck, Arnold van Gennep, The semi-scholars; translated from the French and edited with an introduction by Rodney Needham. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1967. XXIII + 71 pp. - C.J. Lammers, H. van den Berg, Structuren van hulpverlening. Van Gorcum, Assen 1968. 34 blz. (Openbare Les bij aanvaarding van het lectoraat in de sociologie van het maatschappelijk werk in de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. - A.J. Bernet Kempers, G. Gauthier-Larouche, L’évolution de la maison rurale laurentienne. Les Presses de l’Université Laval. Quebec, 1967. 54 p., 12 pentekeningen. - H. Hoetink, S.M. Lipset, Elites in Latin America. Oxford Univ. Press, New York 1967, xii en 531 pp., A. Solari (eds. - H. Hoetink, Peter I. Rose, The subject is race: Traditional

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Sutherland

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available - Tim Behrend, Nancy K. Florida, Javanese literature in Surakarta manuscripts; Volume 2; Manuscripts of the Mangkunagaran palace. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 2000, 575 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Judith M. Heimann, The most offending soul alive; Tom Harrisson and his remarkable life. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1998, 468 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Victor T. King, Rural development and social science research; Case studies from Borneo. Phillips, Maine: Borneo Research Council, 1999, xiii + 359 pp. [Borneo Research Council Proceedings Series 6.] - J.G. de Casparis, Roy E. Jordaan, The Sailendras in Central Javanese history; A survey of research from 1950 to 1999. Yogyakarta: Penerbitan Universitas Sanata Dharma, 1999, iv + 108 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Francoise Douaire-Marsaudon, Les premiers fruits; Parenté, identité sexuelle et pouvoirs en Polynésie occidentale (Tonga, Wallis et Futuna. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, 1998, x + 338 pp. - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Andrew Beatty, Varieties of Javanese religion; An anthropological account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, xv + 272 pp. [Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology 111.] - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Sylvia Tiwon, Breaking the spell; Colonialism and literary renaissance in Indonesia. Leiden: Department of Languages and Cultures of Southeast Asia and Oceania, University of Leiden, 1999, vi + 235 pp. [Semaian 18.] - Freek Colombijn, Victor T. King, Anthropology and development in South-East Asia; Theory and practice. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1999, xx + 308 pp. - Bernhard Dahm, Cive J. Christie, A modern history of South-East Asia; Decolonization, nationalism and seperatism. London: Tauris, 1996, x + 286 pp. - J. van Goor, Leonard Blussé, Pilgrims to the past; Private conversations with historians of European expansion. Leiden: Research School CNWS, 1996, 339 pp., Frans-Paul van der Putten, Hans

  10. A revision of Metaleptobasis Calvert (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) with seven synonymies and the description of eighteen new species from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2013-11-25

    . Beatty, A. Cordero & J. Hoffmann leg., in FSCA); M. longicauda (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Mato Grosso State, C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajos, 1-31 viii 1956,  Sick leg., in MNRJ); M. orthogonia (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., San Juan, Río Amazonas, near Iquitos, viii 1939, J. Schunke leg., in FSCA); M. paludicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, swamp, 4°23'49''S, 73°14'57''W, 27 ii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. panguanae (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Biological Station Panguana, E side Río Yuyapichis, 9°37'S, 74°57'W, 6-17 iv 2003, H.J. & E.-G. Burmeister leg., in ZSM); M. peltata (Holotype ♂, Peru Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, 4°21'22''S, 73°11'0''W, 19 ii 2010, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. prostrata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Junín Dep., Satipo, v 1945, P. Paprzycki leg., in UMMZ); M. silvicola (Holotype ♂, Peru, Madre de Dios Dep., Explorer's Inn on Río Tambopata, 30 km SW Puerto Maldonado, main trail, 1 viii 1979, M. Perkins & P. Donahue leg., in FSCA); M. spatulata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Huánuco Dep., 10 km N of Cucharas, confluence of Huallaga and Pacay rivers, viii 1954, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. tridentigera (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Rondônia State, Porto Velho, Area Abunan, T11 Aleatorio, 8°46'S, 63°54'W, 86 m, 16 v 2010, Nogueira & Mendes leg., in MZUSP); M. truncata (Holotype ♂, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, xi 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); and M. turbinata (Holotype ♂, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest swamp (4°24'18''S, 73°14'38''W), 25 ii 2010, T. Fassen leg., in RMNH). Illustrations, keys, diagnoses, and distribution maps for all 31 currently known species are provided. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metaleptobasis are analyzed based on 33 adult morphological characters, including the 31 currently described species of Metaleptobasis and eleven outgroup taxa of other Coenagrionidae of the subfamily Teinobasinae. The cladistic analysis recovered

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Metcalf

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available - M.A. van Bakel, R. Borofsky, Making history; Pukapukan and anthropological constructions of knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. 201 pp.; ill. - Andrew Beatty, J.A. Feldman et al., Nias, tribal treasures: Cosmic reflections in stone, wood and gold, Delft: Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara, 1990. - A.G. van Beek, Christian F. Feest, Technologie und ergologie in der Völkerkunde, Band 2, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Ethnologische Paperbacks, 1989. xiv, 290 pp., Alfred Janata (eds. - N. Bootsma, Bernhard Dahm, José Rizal, Der nationalheld der Filipinos, Zürich: Munster-Schmidt Verlag Göttingen, 1988, 88 pp. - Aart G. Broek, John de Pool, Bolívar op / en Curaçoa: Historische novelle / leyende histórico [Inleiding door / introducción del L.W. Statius van Eps en / y E. Luckmann-Levy Maduro; vertaling uit het Spaans door L. Hoetink-Espinal], Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1988. - Martin van Bruinessen, Peter Kloos, Door het oog van de antropoloog: Botsende visies bij heronderzoek. Muiderberg: Dick Coutinho, 1988, 148 pp. - J.G. de Casparis, Charles Higham, The Archaeology of mainland Southeast Asia. From 10,000 B.C. to the fall of Angkor. Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. - H.J.M. Claessen, Luc de Heusch, Ecrits sur la royauté sacrée. Brussel, Institut de Sociologie: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles. 1987. 314 pp. - H. Dagmar, Erich Kolig, The Noonkanbah Story, Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1987. - Anke van Dijke, Linda Terpstra, Anil Ramdas, De strijd van de dansers; Biografische vertellingen uit Curaçao, Amsterdam: SUA, 1988. - B.F. Galjart, Hans-Dieter Evers, Strategische gruppen. Vergleichende studien zu staat, bürokratie und klassenbildung in der dritten welt. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1988, 279 pp., Tilman Schiel (eds. - J. Hoffenaar, G. Teitler, Anatomie van de Indische defensie: Scenario’s, plannen, beleid 1892-1920. [Anatomy of the defence of the

  12. Reproductive health indicators and fetal medicine - many things will change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2016-06-01

    become pregnant and this may affect estimates of recurrence risk. In any case, calculating recurrence risk for newborns following siblings with the CA in question will probably no longer work (maybe it never worked) since the desire to reach a given family size depends on many factors, including the perceived risk of a CA. Access to prenatal diagnostic data may therefore well produce data closer to recurrence risk than data recorded at the time of birth. Pediatrics and Perinatal Epidemiology recently published a series of papers initiated by Olga Basso (3, 4) addressing in part the problem of moving from time scale one (starting at conception) to time scale two (starting at birth). Part of the addressed problems relate to a lack of options for starting observations on causal factors at the onset of exposure or, at best, before exposure. If that exposure happens early in fetal life, outcomes will be complicated by fetal deaths that probably end observation for ≥30% of subjects. That equals mortality rates we see for ≥95-year-olds or equals a cumulative death risk seen for newborns from birth to ≥65 years of age. If the exposure of interest is related to fetal death that opens up for strong collider stratification bias and selection when we condition on survival in our analyses for observations at the beginning of the second time scale (5). A negative association on that time scale need not reflect "prevention" in any sense other than suicides early in life will prevent later cancer deaths. It is difficult to imagine a counterfactual comparison to an exposed had he/she not been exposed and had survived fetal life. Those who were susceptible did not all survive. If we study fetal programming of adult diseases, we have to "condition on birth" in our studies, but we should be aware of the selection bias that follows. Fetal medicine will in many ways produce better data or data we never have had before, but it will change the conditions in many aspects of reproductive

  13. Proceedings of the International Cancer Imaging Society (ICIS 16th Annual Teaching Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dow-Mu Koh

    2016-10-01

    pseudopapillary tumour of pancreas: imaging features of a rare neoplasm KY Thein, CH Tan, YL Thian, CM Ho P7 MDCT - pathological correlation in colon adenocarcinoma staging: preliminary experience S De Luca, C Carrera, V Blanchet, L Alarcón, E Eyheremnedy P8 Image guided biopsy of thoracic masses and reduction of pneumothorax risk: 25 years experience B K Choudhury, K Bujarbarua, G Barman P9 Tumour heterogeneity analysis of 18F-FDG-PET for characterisation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis-1 GJ Cook, E Lovat, M Siddique, V Goh, R Ferner, VS Warbey P10 Impact of introduction of vacuum assisted excision (VAE on screen detected high risk breast lesions L Potti, B Kaye, A Beattie, K Dutton P11 Can we reduce prevalent recall rate in breast screening? AA Seth, F Constantinidis, H Dobson P12 How to reduce prevalent recall rate? Identifying mammographic lesions with low Positive Predictive Value (PPV AA Seth (archana.seth@nhs.net, F Constantinidis, H Dobson P13 Behaviour of untreated pulmonary thrombus in oncology patients diagnosed with incidental pulmonary embolism on CT R. Bradley, G. Bozas, G. Avery, A. Stephens, A. Maraveyas P14 A one-stop lymphoma biopsy service – is it possible? S Bhuva, CA Johnson, M Subesinghe, N Taylor P15 Changes in the new TNM classification for lung cancer (8th edition, effective January 2017 LE Quint, RM Reddy, GP Kalemkerian P16 Cancer immunotherapy: a review of adequate imaging assessment G González Zapico, E Gainza Jauregui, R Álvarez Francisco, S Ibáñez Alonso, I Tavera Bahillo, L Múgica Álvarez P17 Succinate dehydrogenase mutations and their associated tumours O Francies, R Wheeler, L Childs, A Adams, A Sahdev P18 Initial experience in the usefulness of dual energy technique in the abdomen SE De Luca, ME Casalini Vañek, MD Pascuzzi, T Gillanders, PM Ramos, EP Eyheremendy P19 Recognising the serious complication of Richter’s transformation in CLL patients C Stove, M Digby P20 Body diffusion-weighted MRI in

  14. Von der »Entstehung des öffentlichen Strafrechts« zur »Fabrikation des Verbrechens«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Härter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available "Auss liebe der gerechtigkeit vnd umb gemeines nutz". Historische Beiträge zur Strafverfolgung, (Rothenburger Gespräche zur Strafrechtsgeschichte 1, hg. von GÜNTER JEROUSCHEK und HINRICH RÜPING, Tübingen: Edition Diskord 2000, 253 S., ISBN 3-89295-685-5. JOHN MAURICE BEATTIE, Policing and punishment in London, 1660-1750. Urban crime and the limits of terror, Oxford u. a.: Oxford University Press 2001, XIX, 491 p., ISBN 0-19-820867-7. ANDREAS BLAUERT, Das Urfehdewesen im deutschen Südwesten im Spätmittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit, (Frühneuzeit-Forschungen 7, Tübingen: Bibliotheca-Academica-Verlag 2000, 199 S., ISBN 3-928471-25-2. ANDREAS BLAUERT, EVA WIEBEL, Gauner- und Diebslisten: Registrieren, Identifizieren und Fahnden im 18. Jahrhundert. Mit einem Repertorium gedruckter südwestdeutscher, schweizerischer und österreichischer Listen sowie einem Faksimile der Schäffer& Benedict Carpzov. Neue Perspektiven zu einem umstrittenen sächsischen Juristen, hg. von GÜNTER JEROUSCHEK, WOLFGANG SCHILD und WALTER GROPP, Tübingen: Ed. Diskord 2000, 320 S., ISBN 3-89295-695-2. The Civilization of Crime. Violence in Town and Country since the Middle Ages, ed. ERIC A. JOHNSON and ERIC H. MONKKONEN, Urbana/Chicago: University of Illinois Press 1996, 290 p., ISBN 0-252-02242-4. Criminalità e giustizia in Germania e in Italia. Pratiche giudiziarie e linguaggi giuridici tra tardo Medioevo ed età moderna / Kriminalität und Justiz in Deutschland und Italien. Rechtspraktiken und gerichtliche Diskurse in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit, hg. von MARCO BELLABARBA, GERD SCHWERHOFF und ANDREA ZORZI, (Annali dell& Denunziation und Justiz. Historische Dimensionen eines sozialen Phänomens, hg. von FRISO ROSS und ACHIM LANDWEHR, Tübingen: Ed. Diskord 2000, 283 S., ISBN 3-89295-689-8. Denunziation. Historische, juristische und psychologische Aspekte, hg. von GÜNTER JEROUSCHEK, INGE MARSSOLEK und HEDWIG RÖCKELEIN, (Forum Psychohistorie 7, T

  15. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    ökull volcanic ash plume Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024004 Hoffman D J and Rosen J M 1983 Sulfuric acid droplet formation and growth in the stratosphere after the 1982 eruption of El Chichon Science 222 325-7 Krotkov N, Yang K and Carn S 2011 A-Train observations of Nabro (Eritrea) eruption on June 13-16, 2011 (http://aura.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/feature-20120305b.html, retrieved 23 July 2012) Krotkov N A, Schoeberl M R, Morris G A, Carn S and Yang K 2010 Dispersion and lifetime of the SO2 cloud from the August 2008 Kasatochi eruption J. Geophys. Res. 115 D00L20 McCormick M P, Thomason L W and Trepte C R 1995 Atmospheric effects of the Mt Pinatubo eruption Nature 373 399-404 Meinel A B and Meinel M P 1967 Volcanic sunset-glow stratum—origin Science 15 189 Miles G M, Grainger R G and Highwood E J 2004 The significance of volcanic eruption strength and frequency for climate Q. J. R. Met. Soc. 130 2361-76 Newhall C G and Self S 1982 The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism J. Geophys. Res. 87 1231-8 Pyle D M 2000 Sizes of volcanic eruptions Encyclopedia of Volcanoes ed H Sigurdsson et al (New York: Academic) pp 263-70 Pyle D M, Beattie P D and Bluth G J S 1996 Sulphur emissions to the stratosphere from explosive volcanic eruptions Bull. Volcanol. 57 663-71 Rampino M R and Self S 1982 Historic eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883) and Agung (1963), their stratospheric aerosols and climatic impact Quat. Res. 18 127-43 Rampino M R and Self S 1984 Sulfur-rich volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols Nature 310 677-9 Sawamura P et al 2012 Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere Environ. Res. Lett. 7 034013 Schroder W 1999 Were noctilucent clouds caused by the Krakatoa eruption? A case study of the research problems before 1885 Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 80 2081-5 Self S and Rampino M R 2012 The 1963-1964 eruption of Agung volcano (Bali, Indonesia) Bull

  16. Selected Abstracts of the 19th National Congress of the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (Società Italiana di Medicina Perinatale, SIMP; Naples (Italy; January 19-21, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    . Giardina, M. Zamarra, L. Di Fabrizio, E. Laurenti, F. Bavetta, F. Pauselli, C. Antonelli, G.C. Di RenzoABS 20. DIFFERENT 3D TECHNIQUES IN THE STUDY OF FETAL CORPUS CALLOSUM AND ROLE OF 5D CNS PLUS • E. Salzano, G. Nazzaro, M. Miranda, T. Palmieri, R. Iazzetta, M. LocciABS 21. EVALUATION OF UTERINE ARTERIES DOPPLER AND ESTROGEN MILIEU IN OOCYTE DONATION PREGNANCIES • L. Mandia, P. Cavoretto, A. Inversetti, P. Duca, I. Cetin, V. SavasiABS 22. EVALUATION OF HORMONAL MILIEU IN THREE DIFFERENT MODE OF CONCEPTION • E. Grossi, L. Mandia, E. Gjoni, I. Cetin, V. SavasiABS 23. BREASTFEEDING: BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL VARIABLES COMPARED TO MODE OF CONCEPTION • P. Pileri, I. di Bartolo, T. Kind, I. Cetin, V. SavasiABS 24. LAPAROTOMIC MYOMECTOMY AT 18 WEEKS’ GESTATION DUE TO UTERINE FIBROID TORSION DURING PREGNANCY: A CASE WITH SUCCESSFUL SURGERY AND SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL DELIVERY AT TERM • A. Basso, M.R. Catalano, G. Loverro, S. Nocera, E. Di Naro, M.T. Loverro, M. Natrella, S.A. MastroliaABS 25. MALPERFUSION WITH EARLY DISTAL VILLOUS HYPOPLASIA: A HISTOLOGICAL LANDMARK OF THE GREAT OBSTETRICAL SYNDROMES • S.A. Mastrolia, L. Resta, A. Basso, M.R. Catalano, F.P. Bianchi, S. Tafuri, N. Laforgia, T.A. Florio, M. Loverro, A. Di Mauro, G. LoverroABS 26. FAILED VACUUM EXTRACTION – IS IT ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM PEDIATRIC CARDIOVASCULAR, ENDOCRINE, AND INFECTIOUS MORBIDITY OF THE OFFSPRING? • S.A Mastrolia, A. Walfisch, T. Wainstock, D. Landau, E. SheinerABS 27. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FAILED VACUUM AND LONG-TERM PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGICAL MORBIDITY • S.A Mastrolia, A. Walfisch, T. Wainstock, D. Landau, E. SheinerABS 28. PERICONCEPTIONAL MATERNAL BIOMARKERS OF ONE-CARBON METABOLISM ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO THE CARNEGIE STAGES: THE ROTTERDAM PERICONCEPTIONAL COHORT (PREDICT STUDY • F. Parisi, M. Rousian, A.H.J. Koning, S.P. Willemsen, I. Cetin, R.P.M. Steegers-TheunissenABS 29. MATERNAL DIETARY PATTERNS AND HUMAN PRENATAL CEREBELLAR GROWTH: THE

  17. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Other”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    . Noditi, A. Gluhovschi, I. Enatescu, D. Anastasiu, D. Anastasiu, C. Dragomir, M. CrainaABS 32. PULSE OXIMETRY SCREENING IN COMMUNITY MIDWIFERY: ACCEPTABILITY OF MOTHERS AND COMMUNITY MIDWIVES • I.C. Narayen, N.A. Blom, M.S. Bourgonje-Verhart, C. Kolster-Bijdevaate, F. Posthumus, A.A. Kaptein, A.B. te PasABS 33. PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY WITHOUT ANTENATAL CARE • H. OrvosABS 34. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO CALCULATE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE COT AVAILABILITY • C. PetersABS 35. MONITORING HEART RATE IN PREMATURE INFANTS IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH: PRELIMINARY RESULTS • S. Uslu, S. Sozeri, U. Zubarioglu, A. Bulbul, M. Dursun, E. TurkogluABS 36. PROVIDING IMMEDIATE NEONATAL CARE AND RESUSCITATION AT BIRTH BESIDE THE WOMAN: PARENTS’ VIEWS, A QUALITATIVE STUDY • A. Sawyer, S. Ayers, S. Bertullies, M. Thomas, A.D. Weeks, C.W. Yoxall, L. DuleyABS 37. TRANSITIONAL CARE ON THE POSTNATAL WARD – IS IT TIME FOR A CHANGE? • C. SullivanABS 38. MONITORING OF ANTENATAL STEROIDS, DELAYED CORD CLAMPING AND THERMOREGULATION (MASCoT • S. Mohamed Cassim, L. Beattie, C. Granger, D. AnandABS 39. FEASIBILITY OF AN AGE-APPROPRIATE ADDITION TO A PREVENTIVE POST-DISCHARGE INTERVENTION FOR VERY PRETERM TODDLERS; A PILOT STUDY • M. Flierman, K. Koldewijn, D. Meijssen, A. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, C. Aarnoudse-Moens, P. van Schie, M. Jeukens-VisserABS 40. NEONATAL HEARING SCREENING: RESULTS IN TBILISI, GEORGIA • T. Devdariani, S. Japaridze, Z. KevanishviliABS 41. PROVIDING IMMEDIATE NEONATAL CARE AND RESUSCITATION AT BIRTH BESIDE THE WOMAN: CLINICIANS’ VIEWS, A QUALITATIVE STUDY • C.W. Yoxall, S. Ayers, A. Sawyer, S. Bertullies, M. Thomas, A.D. Weeks, L. DuleyABS 42. MORTALITY AND SERIOUS MORBIDITY RATES IN OUTBORN COMPARED WITH INBORN 22-27 WEEKS’ GESTATION INFANTS: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY • R. Boland, P. Davis, J. Dawson, L. DoyleABS 43. WELLBEING VERSUS BLOOD TESTING IN NEWBORNS ≥ 35 WEEKS’ GESTATION WITH RISK FACTORS OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY • A

  18. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, David

    2011-12-01

    a factor of two, which is a factor of eight in the volume and hence a factor of eight uncertainty in the densities in intergalactic space." [Interview of Bart Bok by David DeVorkin circa June 1978, AIP. www.aip.org/history/ohilist/] In 1961, Sandage's magisterial homage to his exemplar, The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies, became state of the art in the minds and hearts of young astronomers. "I have acted mainly as an editor," he claimed in his preface, "of a set of ideas and conclusions that were implicit" in Hubble's own unpublished notes, from the mind of the master. Intent upon finishing what Hubble had set out to do, Sandage ultimately surpassed him. With Gustav A. Tammann in 1981, he released a new reclassification and published it as the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog, an achievement that Vera Rubin hailed as an "unsurpassed ... source of consistent morphological types for bright galaxies." [Vera Rubin, Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters, AIP, 1997, p. 90] In 1985, Sandage, with Tammann and R. Cadonau, reported that supernovae of Type 1A could be reliable indicators of distance over extragalactic scales, a new rung in the distance ladder that has proven to be immensely useful in recent decades. Sandage was also the first to isolate the optical spectrum of an enigmatic radio star, one of many sources in the Cambridge radio surveys now known as quasars that defied confirmation in the visible spectrum. He was not able to untangle the odd spectrum although he showed that its light intensity varied over relatively short time scales. Sandage symbolized the epitome of the classic optical astronomer. He relished long and frequent nights at the telescope, facing the heavens and its mysteries head on, once remarking that it was only in situ observing that provided the isolation and concentration that put his mind "in a state when its more receptive to call things up from its deep recesses." [Quoted in Kelly Beatty "Tribute to a Pioneering Cosmologist," S&T website November 15, 2010