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Sample records for bassiana regulates environmental

  1. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Suppression of a methionine synthase by calmodulin under environmental stress in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Oh, Junsang; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE, EC 2.1.1.14) catalyses the final step in the methionine biosynthetic pathway. Methionine biosynthesis plays a major role in protein biogenesis and is the source of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), the universal donor of methyl groups. In this study, we demonstrated that BbMetE acts as a typical MetE enzyme in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. In addition, we found that BbMetE binds to calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo. The functional role of CaM binding to BbMetE was to negatively regulate BbMetE activity in B. bassiana. Our proton-nuclear magnetic resonance data revealed that CaM inhibitor W-7 increases methionine content in B. bassiana, suggesting that CaM negatively regulates the BbMetE activity. Environmental stress stimuli such as salt, H 2 O 2 and heat suppressed BbMetE activity in B. bassiana. W-7 reversed this effect, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbMetE plays an important role in methionine biosynthesis, which is mediated by environmental stress stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A novel bioassay to evaluate the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 and the Insect growth regulator novaluron against Lygus lineolaris on a non-autoclaved solid artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the insect growth regulator novaluron are potential candidates for the control of Lygus lineolaris. Efforts are being made for their use in the Mississippi Delta. B. bassiana and novaluron highly affected TPB survival when they were applied directly...

  4. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefa Chrzanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  5. Environmental regulation and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena

  6. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Genetic Variability of Beauveria bassiana and a DNA Marker for Environmental Monitoring of a Highly Virulent Isolate Against Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, D V; Munhoz, C F; Neves, P M O; Ferracin, L M; Sartori, D; Vieira, M L C; Fungaro, M H P

    2012-12-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is one of a number of pests that attack banana crops. The use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana as a biological control agent for this pest may contribute towards reducing the application of chemical insecticides on banana crops. In this study, the genetic variability of a collection of Brazilian isolates of B. bassiana was evaluated. Samples were obtained from various geographic regions of Brazil, and from different hosts of the Curculionidae family. Based on the DNA fingerprints generated by RAPD and AFLP, we found that 92 and 88 % of the loci were polymorphic, respectively. The B. bassiana isolates were attributed to two genotypic clusters based on the RAPD data, and to three genotypic clusters, when analyzed with AFLP. The nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers confirmed that all isolates are in fact B. bassiana. Analysis of molecular variance showed that variability among the isolates was not correlated with geographic origin or hosts. A RAPD-specific marker for isolate CG 1024, which is highly virulent to C. sordidus, was cloned and sequenced. Based on the sequences obtained, specific PCR primers BbasCG1024F (5'-TGC GGC TGA GGA GGA CT-3') and BbasCG1024R (5'-TGC GGC TGA GTG TAG AAC-3') were designed for detecting and monitoring this isolate in the field.

  8. Current environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the Federal environmental statutes and implementation regulations is provided, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Recent developments which may have a direct impact on waste repository siting and management activities include: final promulgation of National Emission Standards for hazardous Air Pollutants for radionuclides, the DOE-EPA memorandum of understanding which brings mixed radioactive and chemical waste under the requirements of RCRA, and the proposed designation of additional sole source aquifers

  9. Comparative genomics of Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A.; Faino, Luigi; Spring in 'T Veld, Daphne; Smit, Sandra; Zwaan, Bas J.; Kan, van Jan A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences

  10. Environmental regulation and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of ´dirty´ domestic industries, and as a result, ´pollution havens´ emerge in countries where environmental

  11. A novel bioassay to evaluate the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 and the insect growth regulator novaluron against Lygus lineolaris on a non-autoclaved solid artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Snodgrass, Gordon; Luttrell, Randall; Jaronski, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A non-autoclaved solid diet was used to evaluate the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain NI8 and the insect growth regulator novaluron (Diamond® 0.83EC insecticide) for control of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The diet was composed of toasted wheat germ, ground lima bean meal, soy flour, yolk of chicken eggs, inhibitor, and agar. It was prepared in one step by blending the ingredients in boiling water. The diet was used to bioassay L. lineolaris from the second instar to the adult stage. Fourth and fifth instars and adults of L. lineolaris were more susceptible than second and third instars to infection by B. bassiana , whereas second, third, and fourth instars had higher mortality than fifth instars 10 days after exposure to novaluron. No effects on longevity were observed in adults treated with novaluron when compared with the control, but longevity was significantly different from that of adults exposed to B. bassiana . Adults of L. lineolaris were maintained for over a month without changing the diet. The non-autoclaved diet is semi-liquid before it cools, which facilitates the mechanics of diet packaging similar to food packaging or lepidopteran diet preparation. This solid artificial diet for Lygus bugs provides improved research capacity for studying the ecology and susceptibility of Lygus spp. to a number of different control agents, including beneficial organisms, insect pathogens, and insecticidal toxins being developed for transgenic technologies. PMID:25368059

  12. The PacC transcription factor regulates secondary metabolite production and stress response, but has only minor effects on virulence in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhibing; Ren, Hui; Mousa, Jarrod J; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Zhang, Yongjun; Bruner, Steven D; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2017-02-01

    The PacC transcription factor is an important component of the fungal ambient pH-responsive regulatory system. Loss of pacC in the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana resulted in an alkaline pH-dependent decrease in growth and pH-dependent increased susceptibility to osmotic (salt, sorbitol) stress and SDS. Extreme susceptibility to Congo Red was noted irrespective of pH, and ΔBbpacC conidia showed subtle increases in UV susceptibility. The ΔBbPacC mutant showed a reduced ability to acidify media during growth due to failure to produce oxalic acid. The ΔBbPacC mutant also did not produce the insecticidal compound dipicolinic acid, however, production of a yellow-colored compound was noted. The compound, named bassianolone B, was purified and its structure determined. Despite defects in growth, stress resistance, and oxalate/insecticidal compound production, only a small decrease in virulence was seen for the ΔBbpacC strain in topical insect bioassays using larvae from the greater waxmoth, Galleria mellonella or adults of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. However, slightly more pronounced decreases were seen in virulence via intrahemcoel injection assays (G. mellonella) and in assays using T. molitor larvae. These data suggest important roles for BbpacC in mediating growth at alkaline pH, regulating secondary metabolite production, and in targeting specific insect stages. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Successful Development of Cordyceps bassiana Stromata from Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2010-01-01

    A specimen of Beauveria bassiana was collected from Yang-yang of Gangwon province, Korea in October 2006. Conidial isolates were prepared from the specimen by the dilution method and inoculated in brown rice medium for fruiting body production. After nearly two months incubation for perithecial stromata developed from single isolates as well as from their combinations. They were determined as Cordyceps bassiana by observing the stromatal characters and their conidial structures. This is the first report of the development of C. bassiana from B. bassiana cultures. PMID:23956619

  14. Environmental considerations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Methods used to control the radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle are described. This control is exercised through the application of a series of federal laws and regulations that are used as the basis for licensing nuclear facilities. The control is exercised more directly by the use of radwaste treatment equipment at the nuclear facilities to limit the release of radioactive materials. Federal laws and regulations are summarized and their applications in licensing actions are discussed. Radiological doses from materials released from licensed facilities are compared with doses from natural background. A series of cost/benefit engineering surveys are being made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radwaste systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model fuel cycle facilities and to determine the benefits in terms of reduction in dose commitment to individuals and populations in surrounding areas

  15. Environmental Regulation and International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A. [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    We empirically investigate the responsiveness of international trade to the stringency of environmental regulation. Stringent environmental regulation may impair the export competitiveness of 'dirty' domestic industries, and as a result, 'pollution havens' emerge in countries where environmental regulation is 'over-lax.' We examine the impact of pollution abatement and control costs on net exports in order to grasp this phenomenon. Theoretically, our analysis is related to a general equilibrium model of trade and pollution nesting the pollution haven motive for trade with the factor endowment motive. We analyze data on two-digit ISIC manufacturing industries during the period 1977-1992 in Germany, the Netherlands and the US, and show that trade patterns in 'dirty' commodities are jointly determined by relative factor endowments and environmental stringency differentials.

  16. Metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using an LC-MS-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ruili; Jin, Song; Chen, Yihui; Fan, Meizhen; Huang, Bo; Li, Zengzhi; Hu, Fenglin

    2016-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is commonly used as a biological agent for pest control. Environmental and biological factors expose the fungus to oxidative stress; as a result, B. bassiana has adopted a number of anti-oxidant mechanisms. In this study, we investigated metabolites of B. bassiana that are formed in response to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed differences between the control and the H2O2-treated groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed 18 up-regulated metabolites and 25 down-regulated metabolites in the H2O2-treated fungus. Pathway analysis indicated that B. bassiana may be able to alleviate oxidative stress by enhancing lipid catabolism and glycometabolism, thus decreasing membrane polarity and preventing polar H2O2 or ROS from permeating into fungal cells and protecting cells against oxidative injury. Meanwhile, most of the unsaturated fatty acids that are derived from glycerophospholipids hydrolysis can convert into oxylipins through autoxidation, which can prevent the reactive oxygen of H2O2 from attacking important macromolecules of the fungus. Results showed also that H2O2 treatment can enhance mycotoxins production which implies that oxidative stress may be able to increase the virulence of the fungus. In comparison to the control group, citric acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were down-regulated, which suggested that metabolic flux was occurring to the TCA cycle and enhancing carbohydrate metabolism. The findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of how the molecular mechanisms of fungus respond to environmental and biological stress factors as well as how the manipulation of such metabolisms may lead to selection of more effective fungal strains for pest control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Genetics of Beauveria bassiana Infection of Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Keyhani, N O

    2016-01-01

    Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages. Beauveria bassiana is a broad host range insect pathogen that has the ability to form intimate symbiotic relationships with plants. Indeed, there is an increasing realization that the latter may be the predominant environmental interaction in which the fungus participates, and that insect parasitism may be an opportunist lifestyle evolved due to the carbon- and nitrogen-rich resources present in insect bodies. Here, we will review progress on the molecular genetics of B. bassiana, which has largely been directed toward identifying genetic pathways involved in stress response and virulence assumed to have practical applications in improving the insect control potential of the fungus. Important strides have also been made in understanding aspects of B. bassiana development. Finally, although increasingly apparent in a number of studies, there is a need for progressing beyond phenotypic mutant characterization to sufficiently investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying B. bassiana's unique and diverse lifestyles as saprophyte, insect pathogen, and plant mutualist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Information, Interests, and Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...

  19. Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinnon, Aimee C.; Saari, Susanna Talvikki; Moran-Diez, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increased focus on the potential of endophytic Beauveria bassiana for the biocontrol of insect herbivores. Generally, detection of endophytes is acknowledged to be problematic and recovery method-dependent. Herein, we critically analyse the methodology reported...... for the detection of B. bassiana as endophytes following experimental inoculation. In light of the methodology, we further review the effects of endophytic B. bassiana on insect herbivores. Our review indicated the need for stringent protocols for surface sterilisation including thorough experimental controls....... For molecular detection protocols by PCR, residual DNA from surface inocula must also be considered. The biocontrol potential of B. bassiana endophytes appears promising although both negative and neutral effects on insect herbivores were reported and there remains ambiguity with respect to the location...

  20. Down-regulation of a chitin synthase a gene by RNA interference enhances pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana ANU1 against Spodoptera exigua (HÜBNER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Youngjin

    2017-02-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A). The SeCHS-A contains an open reading frame of 4,698 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 1,565 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 177.8 kDa. The SeCHS-A mRNA was expressed in all developmental stages and specifically in the epidermis and tracheae tissue by quantitative real-time-PCR analysis. Expression of SeCHS-A gene was suppressed by feeding double-stranded RNA (dsCHS-A, 400 ng/larva) in the third instar larvae of S. exigua. Suppression of the SeCHS-A gene expression significantly increased 35% of mortality on pupation of S. exigua. Also, the third instar larvae fed with dsCHS-A significantly increased susceptibility to entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana ANU1 at 3 days after treatment. These results suggest that the SeCHS-A gene plays an important role in development of S. exigua and RNA interference may apply to effective pest control with B. bassiana. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Conidiogenesis-related DNA photolyase gene in Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Mi Rong; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jong Cheol; Park, So Eun; Shin, Tae Young; Kim, Jae Su

    2018-03-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungi used in environmentally mindful pest management. Its main active ingredient, conidia, is commercially available as a fungal biopesticide. Many studies of conidia production have focused on how to optimize culture conditions for maximum productivity and stability against unfavorable abiotic factors. However, understanding of how conidiogenesis-related genes provide improved conidial production remains unclear. In this study, we focus on identifying conidiogenesis-related genes in B. bassiana ERL1170 using a random mutagenesis technique. Transformation of ERL1170 using restriction enzyme-mediated integration generated one morphologically different transformant, ERL1170-pABeG #163. The transformant was confirmed to represent B. bassiana, and the binary vector was successfully integrated into the genome of ERL1170. Compared to the wild type, transformant #163 showed very slow hyphal growth and within 6 days only produced bassiana exhibits thread-like hyphae and conidiophore structures and circular conidia. To determine the location of the randomly inserted DNA, we conducted thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR and Escherichia coli cloning to clearly sequence the disrupted region. We identified one colony (colony No. 7) with an insertion site identified as DNA photolyase. This was confirmed through a gene knock-out study. It is possible the gene that encodes for DNA photolyase was disrupted during the insertion process and might be involved in fungal conidiogenesis. This work serves as a platform for exploring the function of a variety of B. bassiana genes involved in pest management and their downstream processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental regulation and technological innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, A.E. [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Government policies are a major factor in the determination of structural conditions of competition. The innovative activity comprises the following: invention, adoption, and diffusion. Invention involves research and development activities such as patenting, research and development budgets. The adoption phase is concerned with deployment. As for the diffusion phase, it involves commercialization, and scale-economies. The process of introducing new technologies that are adopted by small numbers of customers in a niche market was explained. Once costs are lowered through experience gained in designing, manufacturing and servicing the new technology, mew applications generally lead to larger markets. Environmental technologies have no early adopters, implying that governments have an important role to play. However, commercial processes are not normally as well known to government as it is to the private sector. The electoral cycle also interferes with long term research and development efforts for technological clusters. A look at sulphur dioxide control at United States power plants illustrated the problem. The author then explained the reasons behind low allowance prices. Low-sulphur western coal was rendered economic in large areas of the United States by rail deregulation. Electricity restructuring was also a factor. The author indicated that binding government regulation must come before adoption and diffusion of emission controls. A summary of recent research was provided, in which the author stated that no single policy instrument was likely to properly stimulate innovative activity. In those cases where both supply and demand are stimulated by government, the technological innovation is greatest. Stringent regulations induce innovation, as do greater flexibility and greater regulatory certainty. Knowledge transfer within the industry is vital. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo.) for the management of mungbean insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, M. S. Y. I.; Prayogo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce the use of insecticide, the application of Beauveria bassiana may be an alternative control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of B. bassiana for controlling mungbean pest. The experiment was conducted in Ngale Research Station from February to May 2017, using randomized block design, seven treatments, four replicates. The treatments were frequency of application; P1= six times, P2= five times, P3= four times, P4= three times, P5= once, P6= full protection using chemical insecticide, and P7= no protection. Application of B. bassiana four to six times can suppress the population of Empoasca sp., Riptortus linearis, and Maruca testulalis, but did not significantly different with the application of chemical insecticide. Based on the seed weight, application of B. bassiana six times (659.7 g/plot) led to significantly high as compare with the application of chemical insecticide (374 g/plot). Application of B. bassiana tended to be secure to natural enemies, especially Coccinella sp., Oxyopes javanus, and Paederus fuscipes. Both of those predators were not found on the application of chemical insecticide. Hence, B. bassiana can be recommended as a biological agent in integrated pest management component on mungbean because of effective and environmentally friendly.

  4. 75 FR 4817 - Beauveria Bassiana Strain GHA; Notice of Receipt of a Request for an Amendment to Delete a Use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0029; FRL-8809-2] Beauveria Bassiana Strain GHA; Notice of Receipt of a Request for an Amendment to Delete a Use in a Pesticide Registration AGENCY... Beauveria bassiana Tomato Strain GHA Users of this product who desire continued use on the crop being...

  5. Comparative transcriptome and gene co-expression network analysis reveal genes and signaling pathways adaptively responsive to varied adverse stresses in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Wang, Huifang; Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Fanqin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. Beauveria bassiana is an economically important insect-pathogenic fungus which is widely used as a biocontrol agent to control a variety of insect pests. The fungal pathogen unavoidably encounters a variety of adverse environmental stresses and defense response from the host insects during application of the fungal agents. However, few are known about the transcription response of the fungus to respond or adapt varied adverse stresses. Here, we comparatively analyzed the transcriptome of B. bassiana in globe genome under the varied stationary-phase stresses including osmotic agent (0.8 M NaCl), high temperature (32 °C), cell wall-perturbing agent (Congo red), and oxidative agents (H 2 O 2 or menadione). Total of 12,412 reads were obtained, and mapped to the 6767 genes of the B. bassiana. All of these stresses caused transcription responses involved in basal metabolism, cell wall construction, stress response or cell rescue/detoxification, signaling transduction and gene transcription regulation, and likely other cellular processes. An array of genes displayed similar transcription patterns in response to at least two of the five stresses, suggesting a shared transcription response to varied adverse stresses. Gene co-expression network analysis revealed that mTOR signaling pathway, but not HOG1 MAP kinase pathway, played a central role in regulation the varied adverse stress responses, which was verified by RNAi-mediated knockdown of TOR1. Our findings provided an insight of transcription response and gene co-expression network of B. bassiana in adaptation to varied environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmentally Regulated Facilities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A unique record for each facility site with an environmental interest by DNR (such as permits). This brings together core environmental information in one place for...

  7. Harnessing science for environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    An introductory chapter by Graham frames the issues to be discussed; then the following three chapters describe the formation and character of three organizations. These chapters are written by authors who have each had an active management role in the organization they are writing about: Terry F. Yosie, now at the American Petroleum Institute, who staffed the SAB (Science Advisory Board) while he was at EPA; Robert A. Neal, who headed CIIT (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology) before leaving for a position at Vanderbilt University; and Thomas P. Grumbly, former executive director of HEI (Health Effects Institute) now president of Clean Sites, Inc. While these chapters are well written and make a vital contribution to the overall development of the book's themes, the most valuable and enjoyable parts of the book are the succeeding five chapters, which present case studies dealing with EPA's regulatory efforts on unleaded gasoline, perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, nitrates in drinking water, and carbon monoxide. Each of these case studies, nominally historical accounts of how one or more of these (three) organizations participated in the regulatory controversy, offer insight into the broader issues of dealing with, and incorporating into regulations scientific information that has high uncertainty. One of the richest aspects of the five case studies is the extensive use of referenced interviews with identified participants from all aspects of the regulatory process. This material illuminates the motivation, emotions, and goals of the different players, helping the reader to understand their positions and other issues, such as why industry pursues, and EPA and the environmental movement appear to resist, good science; what underlies EPA's preferences for one regulatory option over another; and why scientists are histant to give yes-or-no answers in accord with the real time needs of the regulatory agency

  8. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    What role should governments play in protecting the environment and controlling the environmental impacts of industry? Do regulations benefit the environment, and how do they affect industrial innovation? Since the modern era of environmental management began in the early 1970s, regulations have been used with ...

  9. Frontiers of environmental regulation: environmental management systems: a regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.J. [South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Leading edge companies throughout the world have embraced management systems to achieve optimal sustainable performance in the ever changing business environment of the 1990s. Given that the natural environment and environmental performance have become major issues affecting organizations, the need for integrating environmental management with all the other components of an organization`s overall management approach is now widely recognized. This paper is organized in five parts. The first explores recently released environmental standards, the interim environmental management systems (EMS) general guidelines standard AS/NZS ISO 14004 (Int) and identifies how this has dealt with the regulator/community/company interface. The second identifies company requirements for addressing environmental issues. The third, considers regulatory theory to identify current requirements for an effective regulatory system and how this can interface with a company`s EMS. These form the basis in the fourth section for identifying some opportunities which occur at the company/ regulator interface. The fifth and final section draws a number of conclusions about the current frontiers of environmental regulation. The coincidence of the requirements of a regulatory framework with the areas of interface between what is referred to in the draft International Standard for EMS as `Interested Parties`, the regulators and community, are identified. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 20 refs.

  10. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, M.P.; Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them

  11. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. [Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  12. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations......During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  13. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Book cover Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: ... in steering the behaviour of economic agents in industrial production. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  14. Retooling for new environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is subject to regulations which require better management of emissions. This presentation discussed those regulations that dealt specifically with gasoline and diesel fuels and how they impact on vehicle emissions. The review showed that since 1975 the average fuel economy and improvements in tailpipe emissions for a light duty vehicle has increased significantly. Nitrogen oxide emissions were reduced by 94 per cent, carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 96 per cent, and hydrocarbon emissions from tailpipes were reduced by 98 per cent. The phase-out of lead in fuel formulations, the controversy over the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT and a major study underway investigating the reduction of sulphur in gasoline, were also discussed. Future developments in regulations are likely to include capture of vapour emissions, mandatory inspection and maintenance programs, remote sensing of tailpipe emissions, and scrapping of old high emitting vehicles.5 figs

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 44-page Technology Transfer Environmental Regulations and Technology publication is an update of a 1980 EPA publication that has been revised to reflect changes in the EPA regulations, as well as in the pollution control technologies that affect the electroplating industry. ...

  16. Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations....... Three key findings emerge: that farmers’ awareness of rules plays a critical role; that normative and social motivations are as influential as calculated motivations in enhancing compliance; and that inspectors’ enforcement style affects compliance differently from that posited in much of the literature...... compliance with social and environmental regulations....

  17. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  18. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  19. The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana: what happens after an endophytic phase in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, J; Dubois, T; Coyne, D; Kyamanywa, S

    2010-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious constraint to banana (Musa spp.) production throughout the world. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) offers a potential weevil management option, but conventional delivery mechanisms have limited its success. As an endophyte, however, B. bassiana can be efficiently delivered to banana planting materials for the potential management of C. sordidus. However, entomopathogens can change morphology and efficacy against their target host when successively sub-cultured on artificial media or when exposed to certain physical and chemical environmental conditions. Whether such changes occur in B. bassiana after an endophytic phase inside a banana plant remains unknown. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the viability, growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of endophytic B. bassiana. To attain this, two sets of experiments, namely morphological characterization and larval bioassays, were conducted under laboratory conditions. In these experiments, growth and pathogenicity of the wild-type B. bassiana strain G41, obtained originally from banana farms, was compared with the endophytic B. bassiana strain G41, re-isolated from the rhizome of B. bassiana-inoculated banana plants at one month post-inoculation. Morphological characterization, conidial germination, colony growth and sporulation rate was assessed on SDAY media while pathogenicity was determined 15 days after immersing the larvae of C. sordidus in different conidial doses. No differences were observed in colony appearance and growth rate between the endophytic and wild-type strain. Percentage conidial germination for the endophytic strain (91.4-94.0%) was higher than for the wild-type (86.6-89.7%). LD50 equated 1.76 x 10(5) and 0.71 x 10(5) conidia/ml for the wild-type and endophytic B. bassiana strains, respectively, but did not differ between strains. Our study

  20. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  1. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  2. Revenue rules when environmental regulation agencies collude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarn Hansen, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the welfare implications of earmarking of revenues from environmental taxes in analyzed using a principal-agent model in the incomplete contracting tradition of constitutional design. In the model the public has very limited knowledge of the emissions problem to be regulated. Government has full knowledge and is given a general mandate to regulate, however government may be biased toward an interested party. To curb the welfare effects of government bias the public may either earmark revenues from environmental taxes for environmental expenditures or for transfers to the polluters. We find that earmarking for transfers to the polluters (under certain conditions) can be expected to maximize welfare when government bias is strong and the direction of bias is uncertain. (au) 10 refs

  3. Native strains of Beauveria bassiana for the control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Iatta, Roberta; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Porretta, Daniele; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-05

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks are widespread worldwide due to their adaptability to survive under different environmental conditions. They may act as vectors of a wide range of pathogens to humans and animals and their control is based on the use of chemical products on dogs and in the environment. Alternative control strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi as bio-control agents have also been investigated. The ability of native strains of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato in causing mortality in different tick species (e.g., Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus) has been demonstrated. However, limited studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of R. sanguineus s.l. and none of them have employed native strains of this fungus. Here we investigated the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against all developmental stages of R. sanguineus s.l.. Batches of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were immersed in a suspension of 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana s.l., isolated from a R. sanguineus s.l. engorged female. All treatment and control groups were observed for 20 days, and the biological parameters (i.e., mortality, hatching, moulting percentage, pre-oviposition period, oviposition period and rate, eggs production efficiency, reproductive efficiency and fitness indexes) were assessed. The effect of the B. bassiana strain tested herein on eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults showed a significantly higher mortality than those of the control groups (p bassiana strain is highly virulent towards all life-cycle developmental stages of R. sanguineus s.l. and may be of potential interest as a biological control agent against these ticks.

  4. Regulatory cascade and biological activity of Beauveria bassiana oosporein that limits bacterial growth after host death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanhua; Liu, Xi; Keyhani, Nemat O; Tang, Guirong; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Wenwen; Tong, Sheng

    2017-02-28

    The regulatory network and biological functions of the fungal secondary metabolite oosporein have remained obscure. Beauveria bassiana has evolved the ability to parasitize insects and outcompete microbial challengers for assimilation of host nutrients. A novel zinc finger transcription factor, BbSmr1 ( B. bassiana secondary metabolite regulator 1), was identified in a screen for oosporein overproduction. Deletion of Bbsmr1 resulted in up-regulation of the oosporein biosynthetic gene cluster ( OpS genes) and constitutive oosporein production. Oosporein production was abolished in double mutants of Bbsmr1 and a second transcription factor, OpS3 , within the oosporein gene cluster ( ΔBbsmr1ΔOpS3 ), indicating that BbSmr1 acts as a negative regulator of OpS3 expression. Real-time quantitative PCR and a GFP promoter fusion construct of OpS1 , the oosporein polyketide synthase, indicated that OpS1 is expressed mainly in insect cadavers at 24-48 h after death. Bacterial colony analysis in B. bassiana -infected insect hosts revealed increasing counts until host death, with a dramatic decrease (∼90%) after death that correlated with oosporein production. In vitro studies verified the inhibitory activity of oosporein against bacteria derived from insect cadavers. These results suggest that oosporein acts as an antimicrobial compound to limit microbial competition on B. bassiana -killed hosts, allowing the fungus to maximally use host nutrients to grow and sporulate on infected cadavers.

  5. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of two Beauveria bassiana strains grown on cuticle extracts of the silkworm uncovers their different metabolic response at early infection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jie; Bai, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Jing; Chen, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Yuan; Xiang, Ting-Ting; Liu, Ren-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Bao-Ling; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2017-05-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus which not only widely distributes in the environment but also shows phenotypic diversity. However, the mechanism of pathogenic differences among natural B. bassiana strains has not been revealed at transcriptome-wide level. In the present study, in order to explore the mechanism, two B. bassiana strains with different pathogenicity were isolated from silkworms (Bombyx mori L.) and selected to analyze the gene expression of early stage by culturing on cuticle extracts of the silkworm and using RNA-sequencing technique. A total of 2108 up-regulated and 1115 down-regulated genes were identified in B. bassiana strain GXsk1011 (hyper-virulent strain) compared with B. bassiana strain GXtr1009 (hypo-virulent strain), respectively. The function categorization of differential expressed genes (DEGs) showed that most of them involved in metabolic process, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, catalytic activity, and some involved in nutrition uptake, adhesion and host defense were also noted. Based on our data, distinct pathogenicity among different strains of B. bassiana may largely attribute to unique gene expression pattern which differed at very early infection process. Most of the genes involved in conidia adhesion, cuticle degradation and fungal growth were up-regulated in hyper-virulent B. bassiana strain GXsk1011. Furthermore, in combination with fungal growth analysis, our research provided a clue that fungal growth may also play an important role during early infection process. The results will help to explain why different B. bassiana strains show distinct pathogenicity on the same host even under same condition. Moreover, the transcriptome data were also useful for screening potential virulence factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental regulations and their effects on the nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental regulations are discussed from the point of view of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB's mission includes the environment, namely 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose any undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment'. The regulatory process was governed by the Atomic Energy Control Act, which at the time of the conference was outdated and due for replacement by a new version, and by the Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order, which was due to be replaced by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, still not in force at the time of the conference. Through court decisions, the Guidelines Order had effectively acquired statutory authority. Public hearings and review can result in some considerable delay to the approval of a project, yet the AECB has no choice but to ensure that the requirements of the Guidelines Order are fulfilled. Collaboration between the federal and provincial governments is very evident in Saskatchewan. Of six mining projects being considered by the AECB, five were being reviewed by a joint federal provincial panel. For the future, it was hoped that the new Atomic Energy Control Act would increase fines and the powers of inspectors, require financial guarantees for decommissioning, regularize cooperation with the provinces, and empower the AECB to hold hearings that could effectively substitute for those prescribed by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act

  8. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.

    1992-01-01

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW) [de

  9. Environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness: evidence from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stavropoulos (Spyridon); R.S. Wall (Ronald); Xu, Y. (Yuanze)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEconomic activities are closely related to real-world environmental issues. Currently, more attention is paid to the association between environmental regulations and industrial competitiveness (IC) because of pressures on economic development and environmental protection. In this study,

  10. Environmental regulation of tourism: impact on business innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca.......Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca....

  11. Genes involved in Beauveria bassiana infection to Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anhui; Wang, Yulong; Shao, Ying; Zhou, Qiumei; Chen, Shanglong; Wu, Yonghua; Chen, Hongwei; Liu, Enqi

    2018-05-01

    The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a natural pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. Many genes involved in fungal insecticide infection have been identified but few have been further explored. In this study, we constructed three transcriptomes of B. bassiana at 24, 48 and 72 h post infection of insect pests (BbI) or control (BbC). There were 3148, 3613 and 4922 genes differentially expressed at 24, 48 and 72 h post BbI/BbC infection, respectively. A large number of genes and pathways involved in infection were identified. To further analyze those genes, expression patterns across different infection stages (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 h) were studied using quantitative RT-PCR. This analysis showed that the infection-related genes could be divided into four patterns: highly expressed throughout the whole infection process (thioredoxin 1); highly expressed during early stages of infection but lowly expressed after the insect death (adhesin protein Mad1); lowly expressed during early infection but highly expressed after insect death (cation transporter, OpS13); or lowly expressed across the entire infection process (catalase protein). The data provide novel insights into the insect-pathogen interaction and help to uncover the molecular mechanisms involved in fungal infection of insect pests.

  12. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  13. Beauveria bassiana: quercetinase production and genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eula Maria de M. B Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana genetic diversity and ability to synthesize quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (quercetinase were analyzed. B. bassiana isolates, obtained from Brazilian soil samples, produced quercetinase after induction using 0.5 g/L quercetin. B. bassiana ATCC 7159 (29.6 nmol/mL/min and isolate IP 11 (27.5 nmol/ml/min showed the best performances and IP 3a (9.5 nmol/mL/min presented the lowest level of quercetinase activity in the culture supernatant. A high level of polymorphism was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. The use of internal-transcribed-spacer ribosomal region restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP did not reveal characteristic markers to differentiate isolates. However, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequence analysis provided more information on polymorphism among the isolates, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity into three large groups. Correlation was tested according to the Person's correlation. Data of our studies showed, that lower associations among groups, level of quercetinase production, or geographical origin could be observed. This study presents the production of a novel biocatalyst by B. bassiana and suggests the possible industrial application of this fungal species in large-scale biotechnological manufacture of quercetinase.

  14. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  15. Beauveria bassiana: Quercetinase production and genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eula Maria de M. B., Costa; Fabiana Cristina, Pimenta; Christian, Luz; Valéria de, Oliveira; Marília, Oliveira; Elda, Bueno; Silvana, Petrofeza

    2011-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana genetic diversity and ability to synthesize quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (quercetinase) were analyzed. B. bassiana isolates, obtained from Brazilian soil samples, produced quercetinase after induction using 0.5 g/L quercetin. B. bassiana ATCC 7159 (29.6 nmol/mL/min) and isolate IP 11 (27.5 nmol/ml/min) showed the best performances and IP 3a (9.5 nmol/mL/min) presented the lowest level of quercetinase activity in the culture supernatant. A high level of polymorphism was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The use of internal-transcribed-spacer ribosomal region restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) did not reveal characteristic markers to differentiate isolates. However, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequence analysis provided more information on polymorphism among the isolates, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity into three large groups. Correlation was tested according to the Person's correlation. Data of our studies showed, that lower associations among groups, level of quercetinase production, or geographical origin could be observed. This study presents the production of a novel biocatalyst by B. bassiana and suggests the possible industrial application of this fungal species in large-scale biotechnological manufacture of quercetinase. PMID:24031599

  16. Expression profiling of Bombyx mori gloverin2 gene and its synergistic antifungal effect with cecropin A against Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Dingding; Geng, Tao; Hou, Chengxiang; Qin, Guangxing; Gao, Kun; Guo, Xijie

    2017-02-05

    Gloverin2 is a cationic and glycine-rich antimicrobial peptide whose expression can be induced in fat body of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae exposed to bacteria. The purpose of this study is to identify the roles of Bombyx mori gloverin2 (Bmgloverin2) during entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana infection. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the relative expression level of Bmgloverin2 gene was up-regulated in the silkworm larvae infected by B. bassiana. The cDNA of Bmgloverin2 was cloned from the silkworm by RT-PCR and the DNA segment of the Bmgloverin2 peptide (without signal peptide sequence) was inserted into pCzn1 expression plasmid and expressed in E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3). SDS-PAGE results revealed that soluble recombinant Bmgloverin2 was successfully expressed and purified. Polyclonal antibody against the Bmgloverin2 was successfully produced with the expressed recombinant protein. Western blot analysis indicated that Bmgloverin2 could be detected in the fat body of silkworm larvae infected with B. bassiana, suggesting that the expression of Bmgloverin2 could be induced by B. bassiana infection in silkworm. Antifungal assays indicated that the Bmgloverin2 had a synergistic antifungal activity with B. mori cecropin A (BmCecA) to entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana both in vitro and in vivo in the silkworm larvae. This is the first report that Bmgloverin2 exhibits synergistic effect with BmCecA in antifungal activity against B. bassiana. The study demonstrates that Bmgloverin2 is an antifungal protein which plays an important role in synergistic antifungal activity with other antimicrobial peptide in silkworm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  18. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  19. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    , contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts......Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However...

  20. Scanning electron microscopy and histopathological observations of Beauveria bassiana infection of Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulin; Wu, Hui; Ma, Zhiyan; Yang, Liu; Ma, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis. After 48 h, the conidia invaded the larvae with germ tubes and began to enter the haemocoel. By 72 h, hyphae had covered the host surface and had colonized the body cavity. The dermal layer was dissolved, muscle tissues were ruptured and adipose tissue was removed. The mycelium had damaged the intestinal wall muscles, and invaded into intestinal wall and midfield cells resulting in cell separation and tracheal deformation. After 96 h of inoculation, the internal structure of the larvae was destroyed. The research shows that B. bassiana NDBJJ-BFG surface inoculation resulted in a series of histopathological changes to the potato beetle larvae that proved lethal within 72 h. This indicated that this fungus has a high pathogenicity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on detoxification enzyme transcription in pyrethroid resistant Anopheles arabiensis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Luisa; Blanford, Simon; Coetzee, Maureen; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2014-04-01

    Fungal biopesticides are of great interest to vector control scientists as they provide a novel and environmentally friendly alternative to insecticide use. The aim of this study was to determine whether genes associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Sudan and South Africa are further induced following exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA). Following B. bassiana bioassays, RNA was extracted from infected mosquitoes and the transcription of four important insecticide resistance genes, CYP9L1, CYP6M2 and CYP4G16 (cytochrome P450s) and TPX4 (thioredoxin peroxidase) was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Beauveria bassiana strain GHA was highly infective and virulent against An. arabiensis. In terms of changes in gene transcription, overall, the fold change (FC) values for each gene in the infected strains, were lower than 1.5. The FC values of CYP9L1, CYP6M2 and TPX4, were significantly lower than the FC values of the same genes in uninfected resistant An. arabiensis. These data suggest that B. bassiana does not enhance the pyrethroid resistant phenotype on a molecular level as the two An. arabiensis strains used here, with different pyrethroid resistance mechanisms, revealed no increase in pre-existing metabolic transcripts. This supports the fact that fungal pathogens are suitable candidates for vector control, particularly with regard to the development of novel vector control strategies.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of a native strain of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-15

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (pbassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient genome editing via blastospore-based transformation in entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Lai, Yiling; Wang, Lili; Zhai, Suzhen; Zou, Gen; Zhou, Zhihua; Cui, Chunlai; Wang, Sibao

    2017-04-03

    Beauveria bassiana is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides against various agricultural insect pests and vectors of human diseases. However, its application has been limited due to slow kill and sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and physiological characteristics would facilitate improvement of the fungal performance. Loss-of-function mutagenesis is the most powerful tool to characterize gene functions, but it is hampered by the low rate of homologous recombination and the limited availability of selectable markers. Here, by combining the use of uridine auxotrophy as recipient and donor DNAs harboring auxotrophic complementation gene ura5 as a selectable marker with the blastospore-based transformation system, we established a highly efficient, low false-positive background and cost-effective CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing system in B. bassiana. This system has been demonstrated as a simple and powerful tool for targeted gene knock-out and/or knock-in in B. bassiana in a single gene disruption. We further demonstrated that our system allows simultaneous disruption of multiple genes via homology-directed repair in a single transformation. This technology will allow us to study functionally redundant genes and holds significant potential to greatly accelerate functional genomics studies of B. bassiana.

  4. The Mosquito Melanization Response Is Implicated in Defense against the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osta, Mike A.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito immunity studies have focused mainly on characterizing immune effector mechanisms elicited against parasites, bacteria and more recently, viruses. However, those elicited against entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood, despite the ubiquitous nature of these microorganisms and their unique invasion route that bypasses the midgut epithelium, an important immune tissue and physical barrier. Here, we used the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae as a model to investigate the role of melanization, a potent immune effector mechanism of arthropods, in mosquito defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, using in vivo functional genetic analysis and confocal microscopy. The temporal monitoring of fungal growth in mosquitoes injected with B. bassiana conidia showed that melanin eventually formed on all stages, including conidia, germ tubes and hyphae, except the single cell hyphal bodies. Nevertheless, melanin rarely aborted the growth of any of these stages and the mycelium continued growing despite being melanized. Silencing TEP1 and CLIPA8, key positive regulators of Plasmodium and bacterial melanization in A. gambiae, abolished completely melanin formation on hyphae but not on germinating conidia or germ tubes. The detection of a layer of hemocytes surrounding germinating conidia but not hyphae suggested that melanization of early fungal stages is cell-mediated while that of late stages is a humoral response dependent on TEP1 and CLIPA8. Microscopic analysis revealed specific association of TEP1 with surfaces of hyphae and the requirement of both, TEP1 and CLIPA8, for recruiting phenoloxidase to these surfaces. Finally, fungal proliferation was more rapid in TEP1 and CLIPA8 knockdown mosquitoes which exhibited increased sensitivity to natural B. bassiana infections than controls. In sum, the mosquito melanization response retards significantly B. bassiana growth and dissemination, a finding that may be exploited to design transgenic

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, D.

    2013-07-01

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 10 6 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT 50 ) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 10 6 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x10 6 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  6. Interactome analysis of transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1 unveils a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor involved in oxidation tolerance of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Oxidation tolerance is an important determinant to predict the virulence and biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana, a well-known entomopathogenic fungus. As a transcriptional coactivator, multiprotein bridging factor 1 mediates the activity of transcription factor in diverse physiological processes, and its homolog in B. bassiana (BbMBF1) contributes to fungal oxidation tolerance. In this study, the BbMBF1-interactomes under oxidative stress and normal growth condition were deciphered by mass spectrometry integrated with the immunoprecipitation. BbMBF1p factor has a broad interaction with proteins that are involved in various cellular processes, and this interaction is dynamically regulated by oxidative stress. Importantly, a B. bassiana homolog of yeast AP-1-like transcription factor (BbAP-1) was specifically associated with the BbMBF1-interactome under oxidation and significantly contributed to fungal oxidation tolerance. In addition, qPCR analysis revealed that several antioxidant genes are jointly controlled by BbAP-1 and BbMBF1. Conclusively, it is proposed that BbMBF1p protein mediates BbAP-1p factor to transcribe the downstream antioxidant genes in B. bassiana under oxidative stress. This study demonstrates for the first time a proteomic view of the MBF1-interactome in fungi, and presents an initial framework to probe the transcriptional mechanism involved in fungal response to oxidation, which will provide a new strategy to improve the biocontrol efficacy of B. bassiana.

  7. Efek Beauveria bassiana pada Anopheles maculatus Fase Aquatik di Laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Ikawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBeauveria bassiana can be used both as for controlling agricultural insect and protecting health. Thisstudy aims to examine the effects of aquatic phase of B. bassiana on An. maculatus in the laboratory.Samples were eggs and larvae of An. maculatus reared from Banjarnegara colony. Eggs and instarlarvae II, III and IV and their control which consisted of 10 larvae/eggs were replicated six times andcontacted to B. bassiana spores for 15 minutes and then transferred to aquades to be maintained forobservation, in every 24 hours as long as 192 hours (8 days. Probit analysis found that applicationof B. bassiana caused damage of external coat of eggs and inhibited >60% of unhatched eggs. Lethaldosage was dosage spores of 1,713x107 (16 days, whereas the lethal dose required to make 50% ofunperached eggs is a dose of spore concentration of 1,361x107 (11.6 days. Higher concentrationswill be needed to know the faster effects B bassiana on An. maculatus larvae or eggs.Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Anopheles maculatus, aquatic phase, laboratory AbstrakBeauveria bassiana dapat digunakan baik sebagai pengendali serangga pertanian maupun kesehatan.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji efek B. bassiana terhadap An. maculatus pada fase akuatik dilaboratorium. Sampel uji berupa telur dan larva An. maculatus dari koloni Banjarnegara. Telur danlarva instar II,III dan IV serta kontrol masing-masing sebanyak 10 ekor/butir dengan replikasi 6 kalidikontakkan dengan spora B. bassiana selama 15 menit dan selanjutnya dipindahkan ke aquadesuntuk dipelihara untuk dilakukan pengamatan, pengamatan dengan mikroskop compound terutamapada larva yang lemah/mati setiap 24 jam selama 192 jam (8 hari. Analisis probit membuktikanbahwa aplikasi B. bassiana pada telur menimbulkan efek kerusakan pada lapisan luar telur diketahuidari pengamatan dengan mikroskop serta mampu menghambat >60% telur tidak menetas. Simulasidengan análisis probit menunjukkan lethal dose yang dibutuhkan

  8. Environmental impact statement law and environmental impact statement administration regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution does not deal with the question - as might be suggested by the heading - that the execution of the environmental impact statement law might be uncertain if there are no further accompanying legal transformatory acts. Putting the environmental impact statements into action is concerned in partiuclar with procedural provisions regarding the Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Act. The author deals with aspects of the environmental impact statement law and the state-of-the-art achieved so far. He also deals with legislative intent, with further points of putting the law into practice, i.e. the information requirements in the administrative provisions and the integrating aspect, the amalgamating aspect, the requirements made on the state of the environment, and the significance of administrative provisions. Also treated are legal procedures in the Federal Laender and on an international level. (RST) [de

  9. The 2010 amendments to the environmental emergency regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, E.; Ketcheson, K.; Shrives, J.; Hradecky, K.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gave notice of amendments to the Environmental Emergency Regulations, pursuant to section 200 of the 1999 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. At the time of publication, the Regulations required the development and implementation of environmental emergency plans for 174 substances with associated thresholds that, if released to the environment, could harm human health or environmental quality. Substances of concern, including CEPA toxic substances are reviewed regularly by the Environmental Emergencies Division of Environment Canada to determine whether they should be added to the Regulations. An evaluation of substances has been completed and, as a result, 33 new substances have been proposed to be added to the Regulations. Thirty are known CEPA toxics and the other 3 are substances of concern, notably acetic acid, ammonium nitrate and styrene. These substances of concern are considered to pose an unacceptable level of risk from their release and would require environmental emergency planning. This paper also identified the substances from the Chemicals Management Plan that have been evaluated using environmental criteria and have been found to be candidates for possible future addition to the Regulations. The process used to determine regulated threshold quantities was also described. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)

  11. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of ... are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. ... In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a ...

  12. Competitiveness Implications of Environmental Regulations: Case Studies (1992- 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of reports is part of a series of case studies designed to examine Michael Porter’s hypothesis that innovative companies responding to environmental regulation can create competitive advantage through lower costs or higher sales.

  13. Analysis of whitefly transcriptional responses to Beauveria bassiana infection reveals new insights into insect-fungus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Shan; Li, Fang-Fang; Feng, Ming-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is an efficient biocontrol agent against a variety of agricultural pests. A thorough understanding of the basic principles of insect-fungus interactions may enable the genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana to enhance its virulence. However, the molecular mechanism of insect response to Beauveria bassiana infection is poorly understood, let alone the identification of fungal virulent factors involved in pathogenesis. Here, next generation sequencing technology was applied to examine the expression of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genes in response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana. Results showed that, compared to control, 654 and 1,681genes were differentially expressed at 48 hours and 72 hours post-infected whiteflies, respectively. Functional and enrichment analyses indicated that the DNA damage stimulus response and drug metabolism were important anti-fungi strategies of the whitefly. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was also likely involved in the whitefly defense responses. Furthermore, the notable suppression of general metabolism and ion transport genes observed in 72 hours post-infected B. tabaci might be manipulated by fungal secreted effectors. By mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome, we also identified a number of differentially expressed fungal genes between the early and late infection stages. These genes are generally associated with fungal cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism. The expression of fungal cell wall protein genes might play an important role in fungal pathogenesis and the dramatically up-regulated enzymes of carbon metabolism indicate the increasing usage of energy during the fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular mechanism of fungus-whitefly interactions. Our results provide a road map for future investigations on insect-pathogen interactions and genetically modifying the fungus to enhance its efficiency in whitefly

  14. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their ...

  15. Addressing environmental contamination through market regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to the prevailing view that the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) law, which amended the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), is the 'gold standard' for chemical regulation, the central premise of this article is that the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act for the ...

  16. Environmental regulation and MNEs location : does CSR matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether firms with relatively low environmental standards are more often located in countries that are poor, corrupt or have weak environmental regulations. We find new empirical evidence in favor of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, which states that MNEs are transferring their dirty

  17. Environmentally Friendly Concept in Spatial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Taryono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial order of a region include purpose of structure and interrelatedness of spatial order which as a unity of development mechanism. Spatial order can’t be part from law basic that is UUD’45 and GBHN, in order to the management can be integrated and keep the environment. Spatial order also take note of physical factor and non physical factor. Physical factor consist of soil, water, flora, and fauna. Non physical factors consist of environment, social, economic, and soon. The principle of arrangement of spatial order in a region include national region, regional and local, and a region as an administrative baoundary, that is local government authority, like province, district, subdistrict, and village. The effort for spatial ordering of the environment, for example ordering resource, arrangement of allocation and location, arrangement of environmental aesthetic  and arrangement of environmental quality.

  18. Environmental regulations and emissions trading in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.-C.; Wang Nannan

    2010-01-01

    This paper begins with the international context concerning climate change and how China fits into this context. Concentration is then turning into the emissions control system in China including environmental planning, legislation, policy instruments and measures as well as institutional setting in China's environmental governance system. Special attentions also being paid to emissions control in China's power sector. It should be noted that the pollution discharge permit system in China only exists superficially in many places. Insufficient resources are applied to the implementation of the said permit system, which in turn means that the system is applied according to differing standards in different parts of the country. The findings of this paper suggested that emissions trading programmes are usually introduced alongside the existing policies. The power sector usually has numerous other policy objectives and therefore the design and implementation of emissions trading programmes in the sector will have to address concern about the compatibility of existing industry policies.

  19. Study of Beauveria bassiana growth, blastospore yield, desiccation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... process from the point of view of efficiency and profit-. *Corresponding .... fluence of nitrogen sources like: peptone, yeast extract. (Hegedus et al. .... carbohydrates may prolong the shelf life of a B. bassiana formulation or ...

  20. Dispersal of Beauveria bassiana by the activity of nettle insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyling, Nicolai V; Pell, Judith K; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana occurs naturally on the phylloplanes of several plants, including nettles. Insects could, by their activity, be contributing to this inoculum by dispersing it from other sites. The potential of nettle aphids Microlophium carnosum and their predator Anthocoris nemorum to disperse conidia of B. bassiana from soil to nettles and from sporulating cadavers in the nettle canopy was investigated in laboratory experiments. In petri dish assays, aphids showed potential to distribute B. bassiana from soil to nettle leaves. Predators dispersed inoculum from both soil and cadavers to nettle leaves in petri dishes. In microcosms, aphids did not disperse B. bassiana from the soil or from cadavers confined in the canopy, but A. nemorum were able to transfer inoculum from soil into the nettle canopy and to distribute conidia from cryptic cadavers. In some instances, infections were initiated in aphids and predators as a consequence of dispersal.

  1. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  2. Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, Mitesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

  3. Study on effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Man Ok; Lim, Hyun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    For Korea, the claim that the enhancement of environmental regulation is worsening the international competitiveness of the business is dominant. However, it is too early to reestablish a relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness with the above new aspect. In fact, the economic development, which is brought a quantitative growth, and the maintenance of environmental quality, which is brought a qualitative growth, are very important on decision making in economic and social policy. In this study, it represents the results of existing positive studies on the relationship between the enhancement of environmental regulation, trade and productivity. Moreover, the objective of this study is on applying it based on the data of Korea. 86 refs., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Environmental regulation of a power investment in an international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemo, H.; Halseth, A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects: energy conservation, a natural gas fired CCGT and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and the environmental costs of these emissions are not, in general, fully reflected in market prices. We develop a theory of second best optimal regulation for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate substantially from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, we find it optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO 2 emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax

  5. The role of fungus Beauveria bassiana in reducing the number of Pissodes castaneus (Col., Curculionidae in young forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus is one of the most dangerous pests of Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets. The lack of effective and environmentally safe methods of limiting the number of the pest justified to undertake the studies aimed at the laboratory and field evaluation of biological activity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana used to reduce the numbers of small banded pine weevil.

  6. Extended Producer Responsibility and corporate performance: Effects of environmental regulation and environmental strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Benhong; Tu, Yu; Elahi, Ehsan; Wei, Guo

    2018-07-15

    While contemporary manufacturing technologies stimulate the industrial revolution and promote the rapidly changing global economy, it has caused enormous environmental negative externalities and managing the industrial waste remains a primary challenge, especially for fast developing countries such as China. Though existing studies explored the influence of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislations on environmental externalities, only fewer researches aimed at policy issues. Particularly, the relationship among environmental regulations, environmental strategies and corporate performance in the EPR system has not been deeply investigated. To fill this gap, this research will focus to assess the economic aspect and environmental performance associated with the environmental regulations and strategies. For this purpose, 208 cross-sectional questionnaires were administered with three major high-pollution industries, electrical and electronic, automobile and lead-acid storage battery industries. To accomplish this study objective, we employ a two-step approach: firstly, validity tests for environmental regulation and environmental strategy along with the corporate performance are performed by the factor analysis method, and secondly, the structural equation model is utilized to test the study hypotheses. Results reveal that command and control (CAC) and market-based incentive (MBI) environmental regulations are significantly impacting on the reactive environmental strategy (RES); however, the proactive environmental strategy (PES) only has a significant relationship with MBI regulation. On the other hand, RES only has a significant relationship with the enterprises economics performance, while PES has a statistically significant relationship with both economic and environmental performance of enterprises. Therefore, the central government and its local offices are strongly urged to coordinate the industries by making, implementing and monitoring necessary and

  7. Is environmental impact assessment regulation a 'burden' to private firms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annandale, David; Taplin, Ross

    2003-01-01

    The impact of environmental regulation on macroeconomic performance has been studied in some depth over the last 15 years. Similarly, impact on profit performance, investment intention and location decisions of firms has also been studied, although in less depth. There has been less academic interest, however, in the impact that environmental regulation has on the strategic objectives of companies. This article reports on a research project that focused on the impact that environmental approvals regulation (predominantly environmental impact assessment, EIA) has on proposed new development in the international mining sector. Based on a large and externally valid survey of senior mining company executives in Australia and Canada in the late 1990s, the research indicated that a significant majority of firms consider the environmental approvals process to be an important determinant of investment strategy. An initial reaction to these figures might suggest that the majority of respondents believe the environmental approvals process to be a negative influence. However, further questioning indicated that only a small proportion of companies in both countries thought of the environmental approvals process as an impediment to development. Instead, it is clear that most firms see EIA as a catalyst for integrating environmental design into the early planning of a project, thereby alleviating the need to spend money on overcoming environmental problems once a poorly designed project has been commissioned. The somewhat surprising conclusion that companies see environmental approvals regulation as important, but as an encouragement to development rather than as an impediment, goes against much previous industry and academic comment and, at least in relation to the mining sector, refutes the idea that EIA is ''burdensome''

  8. Environmental regulation in a network of simulated microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2008-07-29

    The Earth possesses a number of regulatory feedback mechanisms involving life. In the absence of a population of competing biospheres, it has proved hard to find a robust evolutionary mechanism that would generate environmental regulation. It has been suggested that regulation must require altruistic environmental alterations by organisms and, therefore, would be evolutionarily unstable. This need not be the case if organisms alter the environment as a selectively neutral by-product of their metabolism, as in the majority of biogeochemical reactions, but a question then arises: Why should the combined by-product effects of the biota have a stabilizing, rather than destabilizing, influence on the environment? Under certain conditions, selection acting above the level of the individual can be an effective adaptive force. Here we present an evolutionary simulation model in which environmental regulation involving higher-level selection robustly emerges in a network of interconnected microbial ecosystems. Spatial structure creates conditions for a limited form of higher-level selection to act on the collective environment-altering properties of local communities. Local communities that improve their environmental conditions achieve larger populations and are better colonizers of available space, whereas local communities that degrade their environment shrink and become susceptible to invasion. The spread of environment-improving communities alters the global environment toward the optimal conditions for growth and tends to regulate against external perturbations. This work suggests a mechanism for environmental regulation that is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  9. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1146 - Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1146 Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Beauveria bassiana Strain GHA is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1273 - Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1273 Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Beauveria bassiana HF23 are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on all food...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1205 - Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1205 Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the... the insecticide Beauveria bassiana (ATCC #74040) in or on all food commodities when applied or used as...

  13. Just who is at risk? The ethics of environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ted

    2011-08-01

    The willingness to view risk as part of daily life has vanished. A risk-averse mindset among environmental regulators engenders confusion between the ethics of intention and the ethics of consequence, leading to the elevation of the precautionary principle with unintended and often unfortunate outcomes. Environmental risk assessment is conservative, but the actual level of conservatism cannot be determined. High-end exposure assumptions and current toxicity criteria from the USEPA, based on linear extrapolation for carcinogens and default uncertainty factors for systemic toxicants, obscure the degree of conservatism in risk assessments. Ideally, one could choose a percentile of the target population to include within environmental standards, but this choice is complicated by the food, pharmaceutical and advertising industries, whose activities, inadvertent or not, often promote maladaptive and unhealthy lifestyle choices. There has lately been much discussion about background exposures and disease processes and their potential to increase the risk from environmental chemicals. Should these background exposures or disease processes, especially those associated with maladaptive individual choices, be included as part of a regulatory risk evaluation? A significant ethical question is whether environmental regulation should protect those pursuing a self-destructive lifestyle that may add to or synergize with otherwise innocuous environmental exposures. Choosing a target percentile of protection would provide an increased level of transparency and the flexibility to choose a higher or lower percentile if such a choice is warranted. Transparency and flexibility will lead to more responsive environmental regulation that balances protection of public health and the stewardship of societal resources.

  14. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.

    1980-08-01

    A guide to environmental laws and regulations which have special significance for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, federal regulations, and state regulations are discussed. This handbook has been designed as a planning tool and a convenient reference source. The 16 states included comprise the major oil-producing states in various regions of the state. The major topics covered are: general guidelines for complying with environmental laws and regulations; air pollution control; water pollution control; protecting drinking water: underground injection control; hazardous waste management; and federal laws affecting siting or operation of EOR facilities. (DMC)

  15. Institutionalizing environmental protection through self-regulation: the case of environmental standards adoption in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bileisis, Mantas; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of human activity in the environment have a global dimension, but there are no effective global governance instruments to enforce environmental standards. At the same time, many national governments lack incentives to pursue strict environmental policies. In this context, self-regulation is seen as an alternative venue to address environmental challenges. This work aims to identify factors that influence companies to engage in environmental self-regulation? For this aim in March 2015 a survey of 482 companies was conducted. The target group were companies operating in Lithuania that hold ISO14001 certificates - one of the most prolific instruments for self-regulation. The questionnaire was designed to test assumptions developed in new institutionalist literature which claim that common practices can emerge through isomorphism.- The results showed that the main motive for environmental self-regulation is the desire to improve company image, rather than protecting the environment per se. Another important finding was that the main source of pressure to adopt self-regulation was based less on the perceived demands but the customers. Rather the driver for the adoption was a feeling of a need no to fall behind industry leaders. Thus, normative isomorphism is the main mechanism through which environmental self-regulation proliferates. We claim for a rapid proliferation of environmental self-regulation perceived industry leaders need to be identified and they need to be persuaded that environmental standards are key for the development of the industry. However, this also raises questions of sustainability. Few industries have long standing leaders, and through successful investment and technological development new actors can arise and this may risk stalling or even reversing self-regulation.

  16. The problem of the information in the environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra León R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two outstanding elements for the recent studies of environmental regulation: Firsdy the importance of recognizing the rationality agents that participate in the process to be regulated and in the other hand the asymmetric information problem. So, this context shows a mechanism regulation theory to price a natural resource, just like water, under moral hazard and adverse selection. These are issues concerned by every social scientist; therefore geographers must take these tools trying to develop harder works that engage some academic subjects.

  17. Regulations on environmental data for the petroleum activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The publication deals with the regulations on environmental data for the petroleum activity, stipulated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate on 1 December 1989 pursuant to Royal Decree of 28 June 1985, cf. Sections 7 and 33, cf. delegation of authority by the Ministry of Local Government and Labour of 28 June 1985. 1 tab

  18. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2006 ... Environmental Regulation and Food Safety intéressera les artisans des politiques et les ONG , les chercheurs et les spécialistes de l'économie ... This funding will help strengthen the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization's (STIPRO) role as a credible public policy institution in ...

  19. Strategic choices in the environmental debate: Environmental regulation and self-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    Den aktuelle miljødebat, der føres i litteraturen, kan give direkte anledning til den uheldige opfattelse, at det overvejende er et spørgsmål om miljøregulering eller indirekte regulering baseret på markedskræfterne. Dette er i modstrid med den kendsgerning, at der findes mange kombinationer i...

  20. A strategy for addressing environmental regulations in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, an assessment was made concerning environmental regulatory trends and the electric power industry and an eight point environmental permitting strategy and approach was outlined in 1989 to handle the environmental approvals for new power plants in the 1990s. The main features of the suggested strategy included: (1) development of a comprehensive and coordinated approach to environmental permitting, (2) inclusion of all levels of government and appropriate jurisdictions, (3) disclosure of considerably more information than previously required, (4) maintenance of records to allow traceability of issues, technical data, and environmental licensing positions, (5) development of legal and technical reviews and develop positions on a wider range of environmental issues, (6) encourage the development of both a global as well as a project-specific perspective, (7) review of existing plants and projects against contemporary environmental trends and patterns to assure continued compliance, and (8) prepare to entertain more project or facility reviews, audits, inspections and independent reviews. Since then this strategy and approach has been tested on several power and non-power projects and has proven to be a viable and constructive approach to the problem of environmental regulation. This paper summarizes the main features of this strategy and reviews the results of its application to these various projects and reviews its applicability to non-utility power projects

  1. Effects of new environmental regulations on coal-fired generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCount, R.

    1999-01-01

    As restructuring of the electricity industry places downward pressure on power production costs, new environmental regulations are having the opposite effect. Although power plants may be subject to a variety of environmental regulations over the next ten years including reductions in mercury, toxics, and carbon dioxide, new regulations for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are poised to impact the electricity industry in the very short term. The cost for coal-fired power plants to comply with these new regulations has the potential to alter their competitive position. January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of Phase II for the Environmental Protection Agency's SO2 allowance market. Starting in January, all coal and oil plants above 25 MW will be required to comply with the federal SO2 provisions. Regulatory deadlines for NOX are also fast approaching; though the ultimate requirements are still subject to change. On May 1, 1999, a NOX allowance market began for states within the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC). A second phase of this program is scheduled to begin in 2003 that will lower the overall cap for allowable NOX emissions in the participating states. EPA is also working to expand the reach of regional NOX reductions in 2003 through its NOX SIP call. This program, which is currently subject to litigation, would require NOX reductions in 14 states outside of the OTC. A new study by Resource Data International (RDI), Coal-Fired Generation in Competitive Power Markets, assessed the potential impact that the new SO2 and NOX regulations may have on the competitiveness of coal-fired generation. Overall, the study shows that coal-fired generation will continue to grow despite significant environmental costs and competition from natural gas-fired units. The new environmental regulations have the effect of increasing the dispatch cost of coal-fired units from $0.65/MWh on average in the WSCC to $4.14/MWh on average in the MAAC region. The addition

  2. Production of extracellular chitinase Beauveria bassiana under submerged fermentation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elawati, N. E.; Pujiyanto, S.; Kusdiyantini, E.

    2018-05-01

    Chitinase-producing microbes have attracted attention as one of the potential agents for control of phytopathogenic fungi and insect pests. The fungus that potentially produces chitinase is Beauveria bassiana. This study aims to determine the growth curve and chitinase activities of B. bassiana isolated from Helopeltis antonii insects after application. Method of measuring growth curve was done by dry cell period method, while for measurement of enzyme activity done by measuring absorbance at spectrophotometer. The results showed optimum growth time of B. bassiana with the highest cell count of 0.031 g on day 4 which was log phase, while the highest enzyme activity was 0,585 U / mL on the 4th day for 7 days incubation. Based on these results when correlated growth with enzyme production, chitinase enzyme products are produced in log phase and categorized as primary metabolism.

  3. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-01-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE's Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled open-quotes Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Makingclose quotes. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments

  4. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  5. An international comparison of the outcomes of environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouldson, Andy; Carpenter, Angela; Afionis, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Whilst there is much discussion about the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries, there are very few robust evaluations that allow meaningful comparisons to be made. This is partly because data scarcity restricts the ability to make ‘like for like’ comparisons across countries and over time. This paper combines data on benzene emissions from Pollution Release and Transfer Registers with data on industrial production from oil refineries to generate normalized measures of industrial environmental performance across eight Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and the EU-15. We find that normalized emissions levels are improving in nearly all countries, and that there is some convergence in emissions performance between countries, but that there are still very significant variations across countries. We find that average emissions levels are lower in Japan and Germany than in the USA and Australia, which in turn are lower than in Canada and the EU-15, but we note that average emissions in the EU-15 are significantly affected by particularly high emissions in the UK. These findings have significant implications for wider debates on the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries. (paper)

  6. Successful treatment of Beauveria bassiana fungal keratitis with topical voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Yaguchi, Takashi; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We describe a 66-year-old woman who suffered from fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation. The causative organism was identified as Beauveria bassiana on the basis of morphological characteristics and the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene. The patient was successfully treated with topical voriconazole (VRCZ) use only. We, hereby, present the first report of a case with B. bassiana fungal keratitis that responded to topical antifungal VRCZ treatment. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  8. The impact of environmental regulations on drilling fluid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    A multitude of new drilling fluid products, systems, and treatment processes have been developed in recent years in response to increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Many fluid additives and systems that once played a major role in the drilling industry are little used today or are no longer available. New water-base mud systems are approaching the performance levels typical of conventional oil-base muds, levels largely achieved by the new synthetic-base fluids. However, these new drilling fluids do not have the adverse environmental impact associated with oil-base systems when waste fluids and cuttings are discarded. 65 refs., 3 tabs

  9. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  10. A study on the relationship of environmental regulations and economic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Jia; Chen, Shen

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism transmission of environmental regulation affecting on economic performance from a new perspective. It shows that environmental regulations affect country’s economic performance through direct transmission and indirect transmission. Direct transmission means that environmental regulations affect economic performance from influencing corporation’s cost and revenue, and indirect transmission is that environmental regulations affect economic performance through leading to the increased effort of corporations in improving the quality of environment and building the image of fulfilling environmental responsibility.

  11. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Herrera; Laura González; Daniel Calegari; Bruno Rienzi

    2017-01-01

    In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with ...

  12. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Salvador; Campos, Sergio; Montoya, Pablo [Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahotales S/N, Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas 30860 (Mexico); Villasenor, Antonio; Valle, Alvaro; Enkerlin, Walther [Codireccion Mexico, Programa Regional Moscamed Mexico- Guatemala-Estados Unidos (Guatemala); Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo [Departamento Agricultura Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto, Tapachula, Chiapas 30700 (Mexico)

    2014-01-15

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  13. Globalization of environmental regulations for offshore E & P operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the enduring legacies of the Rio Environmental Summit of 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED) is Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 - Protection of the Oceans), which among other things called for the assessment of the need for a global authority to regulate offshore Exploration & Production (E&P) discharges, emissions and safety. Despite advice to the contrary from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), interest is building within the European community for the standardization of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international of regulations for offshore E&P activities. Several international frameworks or forums have been mentioned as possible candidates. These include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (UNCLOS); London Convention 1972 (LC 1972) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) 73/78. International offshore oil and gas operators operate within requirements of regional conventions under the United Nations Environmental Program`s (UNEP) - Regional Seas Program. Domestic offshore operations are undertaken under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Minerals Management Service.

  14. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  15. Incorporating Environmental Regulation and Litigation in Earth Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A. R.

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental knowledge of geological processes is not only needed for effective environmental regulation and litigation, but Earth Science students find that relevance motivating in their studies of those processes. Crustal abundance and redox reactions suddenly become personally meaningful when they are used to account for the presence of high levels of carcinogenic Cr(VI) in the students' drinking water. Similarly, epithermal mercury deposits and the element's speciation gain new importance when they are related to the warning signs on the consumption of fish that the students catch and eat. And even those students that are not motivated by these, and many other, applications of geology find solace in learning that anthropogenic perturbations of the global lead cycle may partially account for their short attention span, lack of interest, and inability to learn the material. Consequently, a number of courses in environmental toxicology and ground water contamination have been developed that are based on (1) case studies in environmental regulation and litigation and (2) active student participation as "expert witnesses" opining on the scientific basis of environmental decisions.

  16. Environmental effects on hormonal regulation of testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2006-01-01

    cause some cases of undescended testis. Similarly, androgen insensitivity or androgen deficiency can cause cryptorchidism. Estrogens have been shown to down regulate INSL3 and thereby cause maldescent. Thus, a reduced androgen-estrogen ratio may disturb testicular descent. Environmental effects changing......Regulation of testicular descent is hormonally regulated, but the reasons for maldescent remain unknown in most cases. The main regulatory hormones are Leydig cell-derived testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the secretion of these hormones...... hypothesize that an exposure to a mixture of chemicals with anti-androgenic or estrogenic properties (either their own activity or their effect on androgen-estrogen ratio) may be involved in cryptorchidism....

  17. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Beauveria Bassiana pada Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Suharto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae is key pest on cabbage. P. xylostella can be infected by Beauveria bassiana from other insects. The objective of this study was to determine the pathogenicity five isolates of B. bassiana on P. xylostella. Those isolates were BbUj1 (larvae of Lepidoptera, BbUj2 (rice brown plant hopper, BbUj3 (rice brown plant hopper, BbUj4 (rice seed bug, and BbUj5 (rice black bug. In the laboratory every isolate was inoculated 5 µL spore suspension at rate 107 spores/mL to third instar P. xylostella larva used micro liter syringe. Each treatment used 10 larvae and was replicated five times. The pathogenicity of B. bassiana was determined based on mortality and LT50 value. The potential isolate was tested to find LC50 subsequently tested on cabbage crop in the green house. The result of the study showed that BbUj1 from larvae of Lepidoptera was the potential isolate with LC50 of 9.49 x 10^5 spores/mL. LT50 was 2.67 days for the concentration 107 spores/mL. Green house application of B. bassiana at rate of 5 x 10^12 spores/ha caused 57 percent mortality of P. xylostella larva in seven days after treatment and LT50 was 5.67 days.

  18. Environmental Regulation in Uganda: Successes and Challenges - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Echookit Akellol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of environmental regulatory framework in Uganda was initiated by the national environment action planning process in 1990, as a realization that environment needed special focus. As a result of the said process environmental policy and law were developed. The 1995 constitutional of the Republic of Uganda was among the first ever such constitution in the East African region to deliberately enshrine the right to a decent environment and to provide for sustainable development, in addition to the principle that natural resources are held in trust for the people and should be responsibly managed for their benefit. Following the constitution, a number of environment legislations were enacted and others were revised to take into account environmental cardinal principles and considerations, including embedding in them environmental regulatory provisions. Hence, in addition to the framework of National Environment Act, a number of environment sect oral legislation exists and environmental management is spread throughout the respective institutions responsible for aspects of the environment. It is therefore safe to say that Uganda has developed a lot of legislation on the environment but the challenge remains that of developing more regulations under the relevant parent Acts, effective monitoring and enforcement.

  19. Hubungan antara Zea mays L., Ostrinia furnacalis (Lep.:Pyralidae dan Beauveria bassiana Vuill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itji Diana Daud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Connection between Zea mays L., Ostrinia furnacalis (Lep.:Pyralidae and  Beauveria bassiana Vuill. The entomopatogen fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, is obtained in the tissue of corn plant through submersion of seed in cinidia 1010/ml. Tissue observation showed that hifa B. bassiana appears when the plant attain the age of three weeks and when it reaches six weeks B bassiana appears in all sample plants. Hifa obtained in parenchyma tissue passively without causing illness the mother plant. The appearance of B. bassiana is remained until the 12th weeks of plant. Bio test of plan which contain the endofit of B. bassiana showed the percentage of tested insect mortality is 64%. The observation showed that the corn plant can still produce the toxin of beauverisin.

  20. JAK/STAT signaling pathway-mediated immune response in silkworm (Bombyx mori) challenged by Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Lv, Ding-Ding; Huang, Yu-Xia; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Qin, Guang-Xing; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2016-12-20

    Innate immunity was critical in insects defensive system and able to be induced by Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription cascade transduction (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Currently, it had been identified many JAK/STAT signaling pathway-related genes in silkworm, but little function was known on insect innate immunity. To explore the roles of JAK/STAT pathway in antifungal immune response in silkworm (Bombyx mori) against Beauveria bassiana infection, the expression patterns of B. mori C-type lectin 5 (BmCTL5) and genes encoding 6 components of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in silkworm challenged by B. bassiana were analyzed using quantitative real time PCR. Meanwhile the activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway by various pathogenic micro-organisms and the affect of JAK/STAT signaling pathway inhibitors on antifungal activity in silkworm hemolymph was also detected. Moreover, RNAi assay of BmCTL5 and the affect on expression levels of signaling factors were also analyzed. We found that JAK/STAT pathway could be obviously activated in silkworm challenged with B. bassiana and had no response to bacteria and B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV). However, the temporal expression patterns of JAK/STAT signaling pathway related genes were significantly different. B. mori downstream receptor kinase (BmDRK) might be a positive regulator of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in silkworm against B. bassiana infection. Moreover, antifungal activity assay showed that the suppression of JAK/STAT signaling pathway by inhibitors could significantly inhibit the antifungal activity in hemolymph and resulted in increased sensitivity of silkworm to B. bassiana infection, indicating that JAK/STAT signaling pathway might be involved in the synthesis and secretion of antifungal substances. The results of RNAi assays suggested that BmCTL5 might be one pattern recognition receptors for JAK/STAT signaling pathway in silkworm. These findings yield insights for better

  1. Impact of Environmental Regulation on Productivity: Case Studies of Three Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chalermthanakom, Adisak; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Although fi rms bear the cost of compliance, strict but fl exible environmental regulation may benefi t them by spurring the innovation process. However, the relationship between environmental regulation and productivity is unclear. We calculate productivity growth by using data envelopment analysis; we then conduct regression analysis, using panel data on productivity growth by environmental regulation stringency. A one-year lag of environmental regulation stringency is included in the model...

  2. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  3. State environmental regulation and economic development: Are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1992-01-01

    An underlying assumption of the partial preemption approach is the belief that minimum federal standards contribute to the prospective decentralization of environmental protection programs by removing or reducing industry incentives to shop around for states with a more lenient regulatory stance. This assumption was examined through a survey of chiev executive officers of pollution-generating firms. The data suggest that corporate officials see regulatory climate as an important component of overhead costs. The author concludes that the desire to retain industries within state boundaries does inhibit the promulgation of strict environment regulations by public officials. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  4. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We

  5. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  6. Can local environmental regulation of companies deal with a broader environmental view?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper; Smink, Carla

    Environmental concern of companies has gradually expanded from a focus on local environmental problems to a broader inclusion of inputs as well as lifecycle perspectives. At the same time, the regulatory approach has changed from a “pure” command-and-control regime, towards a governance regime......, where strict regulations increasingly are supplemented with other regulatory instruments such as economic incentives, information and facilitation. In Denmark, municipalities are the competent authority for companies. Throughout the last decade, several attempts to expand competences of municipalities...

  7. In vivo gene expression profiling of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana elucidates its infection stratagems in Anopheles mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiling; Chen, Huan; Wei, Ge; Wang, Guandong; Li, Fang; Wang, Sibao

    2017-08-01

    The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control mosquitoes is a promising tool for reducing vector-borne disease transmission. To better understand infection stratagems of insect pathogenic fungi, we analyzed the global gene expression profiling of Beauveria bassiana at 36, 60, 84 and 108 h after topical infection of Anopheles stephensi adult mosquitoes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 5,354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are identified over the course of fungal infection. When the fungus grows on the mosquito cuticle, up-regulated DEGs include adhesion-related genes involved in cuticle attachment, Pth11-like GPCRs hypothesized to be involved in host recognition, and extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation and penetration of the mosquito cuticle. Once in the mosquito hemocoel, the fungus evades mosquito immune system probably through up-regulating expression of β-1,3-glucan degrading enzymes and chitin synthesis enzymes for remodeling of cell walls. Moreover, six previous unknown SSCP (small secreted cysteine-rich proteins) are significantly up-regulated, which may serve as "effectors" to suppress host defense responses. B. bassiana also induces large amounts of antioxidant genes to mitigate host-generated exogenous oxidative stress. At late stage of infection, B. bassiana activates a broad spectrum of genes including nutrient degrading enzymes, some transporters and metabolism pathway components, to exploit mosquito tissues and hemolymph as a nutrient source for hyphal growth. These findings establish an important framework of knowledge for further comprehensive elucidation of fungal pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of Beauveria-mosquito interactions.

  8. Study on environmental results improvement plan through flexible industrial environmental regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo; Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Young Soon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    As the economic environment has been changed to the direction of decentralization and diversification, there shows various changes in the area and method of market intervention by the government. In the environmental sector, it has been discussed to extend its use of economic incentive coming out of an existing direct regulation policy. Recently the importance on the new forms of government role such as voluntary agreements and information opening have been emphasized. Although the existing direct regulation policy has an advantage of visible and direct effect, it blocked the chance to explore technological and economical alternatives toward environmental problems by business sector. Therefore it is recognized that there is a fundamental limit on inducing the efficient pollution resisting activities from the business sector. Therefore this study analyzed and recommended theoretical characteristics on mechanism that a voluntary approach can bring appropriate results on policy objectives. 98 refs. 7 figs., 47 tabs.

  9. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  10. Heterogeneity of the environmental regulation of industrial wastewater: European wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Sánchez, Isabel M; Aznar-Sánchez, José A; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    The European legislation of the pollution of industrial wastewater shows a high degree of heterogeneity. This fact implies that there is a market failure with relevant consequences. Within the European Union, each Member State performs a specific transposition of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. The member states introduce different sanitation fees to correct water pollution. In this paper, the case of the European wine industry is analyzed. It studies the sanitation fees of the five major wine producing countries: France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal. Results show significant differences among the wastewater fees and the study reveals how such heterogeneity leads to relevant market distortions. The research concludes that more homogeneous environmental regulation would promote more sustainable wine production processes with more efficient water management and purification systems, as well as the introduction of cutting edge technologies.

  11. The precautionary principle in environmental regulations for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crawford-Brown, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The precautionary principle has been proposed as a means of providing increased safety for consumers of drinking water. While the principle has received increased attention over the past 2 decades, it remains rather poorly defined both in law and practice. Hence, the implications for application in risk-based decisions on water quality are not fully developed. This paper examines a series of philosophical, practical and decision-theoretic issues related to the application of the principle in such decisions, highlighting areas where at least the intent of the principle is already well embedded in environmental regulation through margins of safety, and identifying residual issues. A conclusion is drawn that full application of the principle may be driven forward both by programmes such as REACH in the EU, and by the emerging Water Framework Directive and multi-stakeholder approaches to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  12. Molecular targets of epigenetic regulation and effectors of environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, Supratim; Cui Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    The true understanding of what we currently define as epigenetics evolved over time as our knowledge on DNA methylation and chromatin modifications and their effects on gene expression increased. The current explosion of research on epigenetics and the increasing documentation of the effects of various environmental factors on DNA methylation, chromatin modification, as well as on the expression of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have expanded the scope of research on the etiology of various diseases including cancer. The current review briefly discusses the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation and expands the discussion with examples on the role of environment, such as the immediate environment during development, in inducing epigenetic changes and modulating gene expression.

  13. Bestrijding van de slawortelboorder Hepialus lupulinus met de insectenpathogene schimmel Beauveria bassiana : praktijkproeven pioenroos 2004 - 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Uit het onderzoek kan geconcludeerd worden dat Beauveria bassiana een goede bestrijder is van de slawortelboorder Hepialus lupulinus L. Door de schimmel aangetaste rupsen zijn makkelijk aan te treffen in en buiten het behandelde perceel. Doordat in deze proeven Beauveria bassiana ook werd

  14. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdigoudarzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. 

  15. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Juliet; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Coyne, Daniel; Nakavuma, Jessica; Paparu, Pamela

    2007-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is considered a virulent pathogen against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. However, current field application techniques for effective control against this pest remain a limitation and an alternative method for effective field application needs to be investigated. Three screenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the ability of B. bassiana to form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana (Musa spp.) plants and to evaluate the plants for possible harmful effects resulting from this relationship. Three Ugandan strains of B. bassiana (G41, S204 and WA) were applied by dipping the roots and rhizome in a conidial suspension, by injecting a conidial suspension into the plant rhizome and by growing the plants in sterile soil mixed with B. bassiana-colonized rice substrate. Four weeks after inoculation, plant growth parameters were determined and plant tissue colonization assessed through re-isolation of B. bassiana. All B. bassiana strains were able to colonize banana plant roots, rhizomes and pseudostem bases. Dipping plants in a conidial suspension achieved the highest colonization with no negative effect on plant growth or survival. Beauveria bassiana strain G41 was the best colonizer (up to 68%, 79% and 41% in roots, rhizome and pseudostem base, respectively) when plants were dipped. This study demonstrated that, depending on strain and inoculation method, B. bassiana can form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana plants, causing no harmful effects and might provide an alternative method for biological control of C. sordidus.

  16. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  17. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Sethupathy, Praveen [Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression.

  18. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: Transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized an in silico bioinformatic approach to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n = 847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as − 1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n = 128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. - Highlights: • Transcription factors that regulate environmentally-modulated miRNA expression are understudied • Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located within DNA promoter regions of miRNAs were identified. • Specific transcription factors may serve as master regulators of environmentally-mediated microRNA expression

  19. Some problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references

  20. Problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references, 1 figure

  1. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates

  2. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests with S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-A; Son, Hyeong-U; Yoon, Cheol-Sik; Nam, Sung-Hee; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Han

    2014-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungi that is well-known for demonstrating a resistance to environmental change. To confirm whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester (DHFAME) produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 causes phototoxicity when used for cosmetic purposes due to its anti-tyrosinase activity, we conducted in vitro and in vivo phototoxicity tests. There were no significant changes or damage observed in the compound-treated group with regards to skin phototoxicity, while 8-methoxypsoralen, which served as a positive control, induced toxic effects. The in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, an alternative assessment, was used for further confirmation of the phototoxicity. The results showed that DHFAME did not exhibit phototoxicity at the designated concentrations, with or without UV irradiation in the 3T3 cells. These results indicated that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana KACC46831 does not induce phototoxicity in the skin. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that DHFAME shows potential for use as a cosmetic ingredient that does not cause skin phototoxicity.

  3. Rtt109-dependent histone H3 K56 acetylation and gene activity are essential for the biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Wang, Juan-Juan; Shao, Wei; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2018-04-27

    Rtt109 is a histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3K56 acetylation required for genomic stability, DNA damage repair and virulence-related gene activity in yeast-like human pathogens but remains functionally unknown in fungal insect pathogens. This study seeks to elucidate catalytic activity of Rtt109 orthologue and its possible role in sustaining biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen. Deletion of rtt109 in B. bassiana abolished histone H3K56 acetylation and triggered histone H2A-S129 phosphorylation. Consequently, the deletion mutant showed increased sensitivities to the stresses of DNA damage, oxidation, cell wall perturbation, high osmolarity and heat shock during colony growth, severe conidiation defects under normal culture conditions, reduced conidial hydrophobicity, decreased conidial UV-B resistance, and attenuated virulence through normal cuticle infection. These phenotypic changes correlated well with reduced transcript levels of many genes, which encode the families of H2A-S129 dephosphorylation-related protein phosphotases, DNA damage-repairing factors, antioxidant enzymes, heat-shock proteins, key developmental activators, hydrophobins and cuticle-degrading Pr1 proteases respectively. Rtt109 can acetylate H3K56 and dephosphorylate H2A-S129 in direct and indirect manners respectively, and hence plays an essential role in sustaining genomic stability and global gene activity required for conidiation capacity, environmental fitness and pest-control potential in B. bassiana. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic insights into the alternative splicing-mediated adaptation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to host niches: autophagy-related gene 8 as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Gao, Yang; Peng, Yue-Jin; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates various biological processes in fungi by extending the cellular proteome. However, comprehensive studies investigating AS in entomopathogenic fungi are lacking. Based on transcriptome data obtained via dual RNA-seq, the first overview of AS events was developed for Beauveria bassiana growing in an insect haemocoel. The AS was demonstrated for 556 of 8840 expressed genes, accounting for 5.4% of the total genes in B. bassiana. Intron retention was the most abundant type of AS, accounting for 87.1% of all splicing events and exon skipping events were rare, only accounting for 2.0% of all events. Functional distribution analysis indicated an association between alternatively spliced genes and several physiological processes. Notably, B. bassiana autophagy-related gene 8 (BbATG8), an indispensable gene for autophagy, was spliced at an alternative 5' splice site to generate two transcripts (BbATG8-α and BbATG8-β). The BbATG8-α transcript was necessary for fungal autophagy and oxidation tolerance, while the BbATG8-β transcript was not. These two transcripts differentially contributed to the formation of conidia or blastospores as well as fungal virulence. Thus, AS acts as a powerful post-transcriptional regulatory strategy in insect mycopathogens and significantly mediates fungal transcriptional adaption to host niches. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A methodology for determining environmental threshold quantities for substances covered by CEPA's Environmental Emergency Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketcheson, K.; Shrives, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sections 199 and 200 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 1999 oblige persons who own or manage specified toxic and hazardous substances to develop and implement environmental emergency plans. This paper discussed the methodology for determining how a chemical is assessed for recommending an environmental emergency plan. For Section 199, once substances are declared toxic, each chemical is assessed to determine whether it requires a plan or not. For Section 200, any chemical can be added under the E2 regulations, as long as it can be ascertained that the substance is toxic according to the following criteria: it has an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity; it constitutes a danger to the environment on which human life depends; and/or it constitutes a danger in Canada to human life or health. An overview of the risk evaluation framework was provided, including details of the pre-assessment filter. Summaries of trigger criteria were presented, as well as environmental hazard ratings and details of persistence of organic chemicals in the environment and bioaccumulation. Aquatic toxicity and ingestion toxicity details were also provided. Human hazard ratings included carcinogenicity, inhalation toxicity, dermal toxicity, rabbit and rat toxicity and corrosion and skin irritation ratings. Issues concerning vapour cloud explosions were examined. A reactivity table was presented with hazard descriptions. European Union Threshold quantities were examined, as well as a list of comparisons of selected substances of CEPA with the European Union. It was concluded that the Environmental Emergency Branch (EEB) has created environmental thresholds by first examining how other countries have protected the environment. Substance thresholds for the United States have focused on protecting humans, while Europe has established threshold quantities that work for their countries. The EEB has selected classification tables

  6. Politics of environmental regulation: acid rain in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogarth Wood, G P

    1984-01-01

    This study looks at the case of the Ontario government and Inco Limited in order to explain political responses to the acid rain issue and to generalize about the dynamics of environmental regulation. Existing accounts of the acid rain situation neglect a systematic explanation of the political processes that guide the selection of policy. This reflects a tendency in Canadian public policy analysis generally. Most literature in this field is both apolitical and atheoretical. In addition, most models of public policy focus attention on a narrow range of policy determinants, making the models inappropriate as exclusive guides for public policy analysis. This study follows an approach that assumes that no variable can, a priori, be viewed as the primary determinant of a policy choice. Instead, relevant features of the economic, social, and political environment surrounding the policy process have to be examined in addition to that process itself. Accordingly, a number of potential influences on the acid rain policy outcome in Ontario are explored: the economic structure of Ontario, political-geographic factors, the role of science and technology, political power in the province, political values and attitudes, the institutional structure of Ontario politics, and finally, the policy process itself. This exercise points to the overriding influence of the political system environment, particularly the economic structure of the province, in explaining the policy choice. The findings of this study can be extended to explain regulatory responses to the issue in other political jurisdictions.

  7. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi M. Korpela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507 evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS. The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM. Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  8. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Kalevi M.; Pasanen, Tytti; Repo, Veera; Hartig, Terry; Staats, Henk; Mason, Michael; Alves, Susana; Fornara, Ferdinando; Marks, Tony; Saini, Sunil; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Soares, Ana L.; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2018-01-01

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation. PMID:29720955

  9. Enzymatic comparison and mortality of Beauveria bassiana against cabbage caterpillar Pieris brassicae LINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Manish; Joshi, Neelam

    Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is the alternative biocontrol agent exploited against major economic crop pests. Pieris brassicae L. is an emerging pest of the Brassicaceae family. Therefore, in the present study, fungal isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. MTCC 2028, MTCC 4495, MTCC 6291, and NBAII-11, were evaluated for their virulence against third instar larvae of P. brassicae. Among all these fungal isolates, maximum mortality (86.66%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 at higher concentration of spores (10 9 conidia/ml), and the minimum mortality (30.00%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291 at a lower concentration (10 7 conidia/ml) after ten days of treatment. The extracellular cuticle-degrading enzyme activities of fungal isolates were measured. Variability was observed both in the pattern of enzyme secretion and the level of enzyme activities among various fungal isolates. B. bassiana MTCC 4495 recorded the maximum mean chitinase (0.51U/ml), protease (1.12U/ml), and lipase activities (1.36U/ml). The minimum mean chitinase and protease activities (0.37 and 0.91U/ml, respectively) were recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291. The minimum mean lipase activity (1.04U/ml) was recorded in B. bassiana NBAII-11. Our studies revealed B. bassiana MTCC 4495 as the most pathogenic isolate against P. brassicae, which also recorded maximum extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting the possible roles of extracellular enzymes in the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against P. brassicae. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Perumal; Kavitha, Thangaraj; Karthi, Sengodan; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2018-03-03

    Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana -28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana -22 extract. The LC 50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae) values of B. bassiana -28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus . Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana -28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm -1 . Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm -1, assigned to N-H stretching, 2927.94 cm -1 assigned to C-H bonding and 1595.13 cm -1 assigned to C-O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N -hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%); Z,Z -9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%); 9-eicosyne (10.832%); heptacosane (5.148%); tetrateracontane (5.801%); and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%). Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana -28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana -28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  11. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana-28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana-22 extract. The LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae values of B. bassiana-28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana-28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm−1. Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm−1, assigned to N–H stretching, 2927.94 cm−1 assigned to C–H bonding and 1595.13 cm−1 assigned to C–O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N-hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%; Z,Z-9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%; 9-eicosyne (10.832%; heptacosane (5.148%; tetrateracontane (5.801%; and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%. Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana-28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana-28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  12. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  13. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental regulations and plant exit: A logit analysis based on established panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bioern, E; Golombek, R; Raknerud, A

    1995-12-01

    This publication uses a model to study the relationship between environmental regulations and plant exit. It has the main characteristics of a multinomial qualitative response model of the logit type, but also has elements of a Markov chain model. The model uses Norwegian panel data for establishments in three manufacturing sectors with high shares of units which have been under strict environmental regulations. In two of the sectors, the exit probability of non-regulated establishments is about three times higher than for regulated ones. It is also found that the probability of changing regulation status from non-regulated to regulated depends significantly on economic factors. In particular, establishments with weak profitability are the most likely to become subject to environmental regulation. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  16. 75 FR 14593 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Management Plan for Reef Fish Resources, Addresses Bycatch of Sea Turtles in the Bottom Longline Component of... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8989-4] Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments Availability of EPA comments prepared pursuant to the Environmental Review Process...

  17. 28 CFR 91.68 - Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.68 Compliance with other Federal environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders. (a) Other Federal environmental laws. All projects...

  18. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer considered regulated articles under the...

  19. Analysis of variation in virulence of Beauveria bassiana against insect pests of pigeonpea using qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilraja, Govindasamy; Anand, Theerthagiri; Mohankumar, Subbarayalu; Raguchander, Thiruvengadam; Samiyappan, Ramasamy

    2018-03-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a broad spectrum microbial bioagent used for the control of agriculturally important insect pests. However, in our experiments, two virulent isolates of B. bassiana (B2 and B10) showed specific preference toward Maruca vitrata and Helicoverpa armigera of pigeonpea. To better understand this feature, we developed a qPCR assay to quantify the chitinase (virulence factor) of B. bassiana during the infection process. Isolates of B. bassiana were grown on insect cuticle amended medium and minimal medium (without insect cuticle) to assess the induction of chitinase. Our results revealed a positive correlation between expression of chitinase by B. bassiana and the substrates (with or without cuticles of M. vitrata and H. armigera) used. This study showcases the methodology to quantify the chitinase and analysis of variation in virulence of B. bassiana (B2 and B10) against M. vitrata and H. armigera. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and Assessment of Stability of Six Formulations of Entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A

    2016-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is the most widely studied and exploited entomopathogen. The development of a suitable formulation for B. bassiana is a critical component in aiding the entomopathogen germinate and infect the host. In addition to being economical to produce, having high residual activity, it is also important that the formulation is easy to handle, stable during storage, and convenient to mix and apply and be consistently effective in controlling the target pest.In this chapter we describe preparation of experimental formulations of conidia of B. bassiana. The formulations are prepared with barley, rice, wheat bran, clay, kaolin, and peat. The protocol for assessing the stability of the formulations of B. bassiana is also described.

  2. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  3. Environmental regulation in the new exploration climate: After Rio, what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millison, D.

    1993-01-01

    Exploration activities of U.S.-headquartered petroleum companies have increasingly shifted to international targets, in large part due to excessive environmental regulation. However, governments hosting new exploration venues are promulgating environmental regulations, often based on U.S. EPA regulations, which affect the economics of oil and gas operations. New host-country regulations, combined with a growing worldwide open-quotes green movement,close quotes require the new exploration climate to be evaluated in terms of environmental restrictions on drilling, production, and downstream operations. Is the industry truly fleeing regulation, but destined to dead-end in a never-never land of dwindling opportunity? Or is there hope for a system of reasonable regulations which encourage open-quotes sustainable developmentclose quotes of new petroleum resources? The green movement now places a new burden on trade. Exporters must verify to open-quotes greenclose quotes consumers that their products are open-quotes environmentally friendlyclose quotes, effectively introducing a non-tariff trade restriction. The playing field of international trade is leveled by adaption of US or European-style environmental regulation. THe UNCED conference in Rio has further promoted a system of international environmental regulation which will likely grow stronger as globalization of trade increases. This presentation focuses on the increasing standardization of international regulations which affect petroleum development. Key issues discussed are: the effect of atmospheric emissions controls on energy development policy and petroleum operations, environmental regulations in Latin America-risk vs. technology-based policies, and linking environmental regulations and international trade

  4. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  5. Kompatibilitas Cendawan Entomopatogen Beauveria Bassiana (Bals) Vuill (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) dengan Minyak Serai Wangi

    OpenAIRE

    Trizelia,; Rusli, Rusdi

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are important natural control agents of many insects and can be potentially used as a bioinsecticide against several pests. Other potential source of bioinsecticide is certain plants such as fragrant lemongrass oil. The in vitro compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana and fragrant lemongrass oil was evaluated. Fragrant lemongrass oil was tested in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%). Fragrant lemongrass oi...

  6. Treatment of bark beetle attacked trees with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin

    OpenAIRE

    Jakuš, Rastislav; Blaženec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We carried out an experiment with using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. for sanitation of active infested trees. We used 15 active infested trees from which 5 stems were treated with an insecticide, 5 were treated with solution of the tested entomopathogenic fungus and 5 were left as control. The used insecticide was pyretroid Fury 10 EW. We used a biopreparation based on the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana in form of wettable powder. The material was diluted...

  7. The regulation of the EC on the environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupei, J.

    1985-01-01

    In March 1985, the Council of Ministers of the European Communities agreed on a draft directive for an environmental impact assessment. Preparations and difficult negotiations lasted for nearly ten years. An important step was the draft of the Commission of 1980. Besides the history of the draft topics of discussion are the following: Scope of the directive, procedural problems of the environmental impact assessment, phases of the investigation, content and scope of the assessment, periodical control of the installation and its environmental effects, problems of communication. (DR)

  8. [Antagonism against Beauveria bassiana by lipopeptide metabolites produced by entophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SWB16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjie; Zhao, Dongyang; Liu, Yonggui; Ao, Xiang; Fan, Rui; Duan, Zhengqiao; Liu, Yanping; Chen, Qianqian; Jin, Zhixiong; Wan, Yongji

    2014-07-04

    We screened bacterial strains that have strong antagonism against Beauveria bassiana, an important pathogen of silkworm industry, and detected the antagonistic activity of lipopeptide metabolites. We identified bacterium SWB16 by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical experiments, 16SrRNA, and gyrA gene sequence analysis, tested antagonistic activity of strain SWB16 against Beauveria bassiana by measuring the inhibition zone diameter using filter paper diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method), obtained lipopeptide metabolites of the strain using methanol extraction and observed the antagonism of strain SWB16 lipopeptide extracts against the conidia and hyphae of Beauveria bassiana, detected main ingredients and genes of lipopeptide metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and PCR amplification. SWB16 isolated from tissue of plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright belongs to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and showed high antagonistic activity to Beauveria bassiana, and the lipopeptide extracts of isolate SWB16 exhibited significant inhibition to conidial germination and mycelial growth of Beauveria bassiana. The result of mass spectrometric detection indicated main component of the lipopeptide metabolites were fengcin and iturin, and genes fenB, ituA involved in the synthesis of them were amplified in the genome. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SWB16 could produce lipopeptide antibiotics with strong antagonism to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, and the results suggested that strain SWB16 has potential application value for controlling white muscardine of economic insects including silkworm.

  9. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  10. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  11. Environmental regulations: their impact on the battery and lead industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, John R.

    This paper presents a general overview of the past and current position of the lead industry in relation to environmental legislation and its impact. The lead industry has watched environmental lead levels being steadily reduced down to levels that, ten years ago, would have been considered unachievable. Nevertheless, the industry has managed to survive the effect of the ever-increasing demands of environmental controls. During the last ten to twenty years, lead producers and users have had to assess their future positions, as the cost implications of environmental laws have had a significant impact on their bottom lines. Without doubt, this consideration most definitely affected the viability of many plants. The need to be aware of the existence of new and proposed legislation is of paramount importance, as the threat from the vast array of EEC legislation is ever apparent. Lead companies have all considered environmental legislation to have no more than a nuisance value, but it is of vital importance to the future of the industry that such legislation is approached in a positive and sensible way in order to demonstrate a full commitment to protecting both employees and the general environment. Lead must receive the credit that it so richly deserves.

  12. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  13. Environmental Regulation and Innovation Dynamics in the Oil Tanker Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played a signifi......The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played...

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and acaricidal effects of Beauveria bassiana obtained from cattle farm soils against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Agustin; Alonso Díaz, Miguel Angel; Alonso Morales, Rogelio Alejandro; Lezama-Gutierrez, Roberto; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio

    2018-03-16

    The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R. microplus ("Media Joya" resistant strain or "CLAR" susceptible strain to chemical acaricides) using the adult immersion test. The BbV03 strain produced an 86.7% and a 60% of mortality on resistant and susceptible ticks on day 20, respectively; whereas the mortality scored with the BbV04 strain was 66.7% and 53.5% on resistant and susceptible ticks at the same day, respectively. The BbV03 and BbV04 strains reduced egg-laying on both R. microplus populations. There were not statistical differences in the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana strains, between the R. microplus susceptible or resistant populations (P > 0.05). The BbV03 strain was the most virulent against R. microplus with a LC50 of 2 x 107 and a LC99 of 7 x 108 conidia/ml. We found that the 6 B. bassiana isolated were clustered into the same clade with other previously reported B. bassiana strains (from GenBank); however, they were separated into 3 different sub-clades. This study shows that some B. bassiana strains might be a promising coadjuvant alternative for biological tick control, including those that are resistant to chemical acaricides. Beauveria bassiana is present in the pastures of tropic cattle farms and there are genetic variations between members of the bassiana specie that are living in this ecosystem. This last showed that B. bassiana might play an important roll in the natural control of R. microplus at paddocks of cattle farms.

  15. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  16. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on the Locational Choice of Japanese Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper assesses the impact of environmental regulation in host countries on Japanese foreign direct investment decision-making. It tests the pollution haven hypothesis using data on national environmental regulation standards and Japanese inward FDI in five dirty industries. The results do not support the pollution haven haven hypothesis. On the contrary, inward Japanese FDI appears to be attracted to countries which have committe themselves to a tranparent and stable ...

  17. Do Countries with Lax Environmental Regulations Have a Comparative Advantage in Polluting Industries?.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Quiroga; Martin Persson; Thomas Sterner

    2009-01-01

    We study whether lax environmental regulations induce comparative advantages, causing the least-regulated countries to specialize in polluting industries. We seek to improve three areas in the empirical literature based on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek’s factor content of trade, more specifically in Tobey’s (1990) approach: the measurement of environmental endowments, the possible endogeneity due to an omitted variable that has not been considered, and the influence of the industrial level of agg...

  18. Have Countries with Lax Environmental Regulations a Comparative Advantage in Polluting Industries?

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Miguel; Sterner, Thomas; Persson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We aim to study whether lax environmental regulations induce comparative advantages, causing the least-regulated countries to specialize in polluting industries. The study is based on Trefler and Zhu’s (2005) definition of the factor content of trade. For the econometrical analysis, we use a cross-section of 71 countries in 2000 to examine the net exports in the most polluting industries. We try to overcome three weaknesses in the empirical literature: the measurement of environmental endowme...

  19. Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-01-07

    Jan 7, 2005 ... The environment can play a significant role in the production of phenotypes. However, the developmental mechanisms by which the environmental agents effect normal development are just becoming known. At least three paths have been found through which the environment can modify gene activity.

  20. Regulation and decision-making in environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The EC-funded project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental impact), which completed in 2003, has developed an assessment framework for evaluating the environmental impact of ionising radiation on biota in natural ecosystems. The FASSET framework comprises: source characterisation and initial hazard analysis; ecosystem description and selection of reference organisms (ca 30, with defined geometry and life history); exposure analysis, including conversion of input data to external and internal radionuclide concentrations, and subsequent conversion to dose rates; effects analysis, supported by an effects database; and, guidance for interpretation. The framework provides practical and scientific support to the international development of recommendations for radiological protection of the environment through the International Commission on Radiological Protection (cf. ICRP Publication 91). However, on the basis of experiences from FASSET and other recent developments, it can be concluded that there are challenges remaining before environmental radiological protection can be seen as a natural component of general environmental protection. The major future challenge is the development of an integrated approach where decision-making can be guided by sound scientific judgements. This requires, inter alia, filling in gaps in basic knowledge of relevance to assessment and protection, through targeted experimental, theoretical (including expert judgements) and real case studies; development of risk characterisation methodologies, based on both theoretical and experimental studies; development of screening standards, where appropriate; development of user-friendly assessment tools; and stakeholder involvement, including development of supporting communication strategies. A new EC-funded project, ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and management), has recently started. The project has four operational work packages, being devoted to

  1. Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment and its Relevance to Environmental Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment is increasingly being recognised for the role it might play in the global spread of clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance. Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals into the environment (e.g., antimicrobials, metals, biocides. Hence, environmental regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR action plans. It is argued that the lack of environment-facing mitigation actions included in existing AMR action plans is likely a function of our poor fundamental understanding of many of the key issues. Here, we aim to present the problem with AMR in the environment through the lens of an environmental regulator, using the Environment Agency (England’s regulator as an example from which parallels can be drawn globally. The issues that are pertinent to environmental regulators are drawn out to answer: What are the drivers and pathways of AMR? How do these relate to the normal work, powers and duties of environmental regulators? What are the knowledge gaps that hinder the delivery of environmental protection from AMR? We offer several thought experiments for how different mitigation strategies might proceed. We conclude that: 1 AMR Action Plans do not tackle all the potentially relevant pathways and drivers of AMR in the environment; and 2 AMR Action Plans are deficient, in part, because the science to inform policy is lacking and this needs to be addressed.

  2. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Abul Fadl, H.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x10 10 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x10 8 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  3. Decree 435/994 Environmental Impacts : establish a standard joint complex named Evaluation Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Regulation of Evaluation of environmental Impact in the chapter I art.2 item 14 it establishes that It will require the previous Environmental Authorization the activities that refer to the construction of production factories and transformation of Nuclear Energy r, without damage of that settled down for the articulate 215 of the law 16.226 of October 29 1991 [es

  4. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien [Department of Public Finance, National Taipei University (China)

    2008-05-15

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  5. Trade agreements, domestic environmental regulation, and transboundary pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Yu-Bong; Hu, Chia-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a second-best trade agreement between two countries that takes the distortion arising from their non-coordinated environmental policies into consideration. In a reciprocal-markets model with bidirectional transboundary pollution, we find that if the transboundary pollution is sufficiently strong, the second-best trade agreement requires that both countries subsidize the imported goods whose consumption gives rise to pollution. We also find that a bilateral tariff reduction is beneficial to the global environment. (author)

  6. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  7. The C-terminal MIR-containing region in the Pmt1 O-mannosyltransferase restrains sporulation and is dispensable for virulence in Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Luo, Linli; Keyhani, Nemat O; Yu, Xiaodong; Ying, Shenghua; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    Protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmts) belong to a highly conserved protein family responsible for the initiation of O-glycosylation of many proteins. Pmts contain one dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferases (PMT) domain and three MIR motifs (mannosyltransferase, inositol triphosphate, and ryanodine receptor) that are essential for activity in yeast. We report that in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, deletion of the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region (Pmt1∆ 311-902 ) does not alter O-mannosyltransferase activity, but does increase total cell wall protein O-mannosylation levels and results in phenotypic changes in fungal development and cell wall stability. B. bassiana mutants harboring the Pmt1 ∆ 311-902 mutation displayed a significant increase in conidiation with up-regulation of conidiation-associated genes and an increase in biomass accumulation as compared to the wild-type parent. However, decreased vegetative growth and blastospore production was noted, and Pmt1 ∆ 311-902 mutants were altered in cell wall composition and cell surface features. Insect bioassays revealed little effect on virulence for the Pmt1 ∆ 311-902 strain via cuticle infection or intrahemocoel injection assays, although differences in hyphal body differentiation in the host hemolymph and up-regulation of virulence-associated genes were noted. These data suggest novel roles for Pmt1 in negatively regulating conidiation and demonstrate that the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region is dispensable for enzymatic activity and organismal virulence.

  8. Eco-Efficiency Assessments as a Tool for Revealing the Environmental Improvement Potential of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public regulations can result in improved environmental performance of products. In this paper eco-efficiency is used to assess the most likely outcome of potential new regulations. The paper presents a case study of furniture production in Norway where different scenarios for improving the environmental performance of the products are presented. Four regulatory options for imposing environmental improvements are assessed; (1 an introduction of a tax on emissions, (2 an increase of the tax on landfills, (3 an introduction of a tax on raw material consumption, and (4 introduction of take-back legislation.

  9. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  10. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria bassiana is a ubiquitous dimorphic entomopathogenic fungus commonly used for controlling numerous insect pests worldwide. The goal of the present study was to optimize the production of B. bassiana to achieve high yields of the preferred morphology, a yeast-like blastospore, rather than my...

  12. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Master-point and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Withagen, C.A.A.M. [Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area.

  13. Environmental regulation and competitiveness. A meta-analysis of international trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulatu, A.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential relationship between domestic environmental regulation and international competitiveness has evoked various speculations. The common neoclassical train of thought is that strict environmental regulation is detrimental to the competitiveness of industry, and that it induces phenomena such as ecological dumping, ecological capital flight, and regulatory 'chill' in environmental standards. A different view is that strict environmental regulation triggers industry's innovation potential, and subsequently increases its competitiveness. The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness has been analyzed in terms of international capital movements, new firm formation, and international trade. This paper focuses on a statistically rigorous analysis of international trade studies, using a technique that is known as meta-analysis. The paper presents a statistically supported evaluation of the literature, in order to assess what the main conclusions regarding the relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness are when it comes to studies on international trade flows. The synthesis of the literature is subsequently used to present guidelines for future primary research in this area

  14. Epigenetic regulation of ageing: linking environmental inputs to genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Brunet, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Preface Ageing is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Here, we review the chromatin-based epigenetic changes that occur during ageing, the role of chromatin modifiers in modulating lifespan and the importance of epigenetic signatures as biomarkers of ageing. We also discuss how epigenome remodeling by environmental stimuli impacts several aspects of transcription and genomic stability, with important consequences on longevity, and outline epigenetic differences between the ‘mortal soma’ and the ‘immortal germline’. Finally, we discuss the inheritance of ageing characteristics and potential chromatin-based strategies to delay or reverse hallmarks of ageing or age-related diseases. PMID:26373265

  15. Environmental regulation of a power market investment in an international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-01

    This document examines the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects, energy conservation, a natural gas fired combined cycle gas turbine and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and in general the environmental costs of these emissions are not optimally reflected in market prices. A theory of second best optimal regulation is developed for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate considerably from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, it is found optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Lessons learned implementing environmental regulations at non-Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, R.B.; Dippo, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) has been involved in the implementation of environmental regulations at non-Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for > 5 years. If any common thread has been identified in working at these sites, it is that no two sites can be treated the same. Each site and its associated wastes, governing regulations, and environmental conditions are different. The list of technical lessons learned is long, and their applicability to other sites must be looked at for each specific case. That is far too large a task to undertake here. The most important lesson HAZWRAP learned is not technical. Implementing environmental regulations at non-DOE sites is not any different from implementing regulations or anything else done at DOE facilities. The key to success lies in quality, planning, and communication. Taking the time to implement a good quality program based on sound planning and open communication will ensure program success

  17. Efeito de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos de Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae = Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on adults of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos do parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov. Foram utilizados os isolados Esalq 447 de B. bassiana e E9 de M. anisopliae, na concentração de 107 conídios mL-1. Os resultados mostraram que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae não reduziram a longevidade média do parasitóide. B. bassiana proporcionou porcentagem de mortalidade total de 26% e porcentagem de mortalidade confirmada de 21%, já M.anisopliae causou mortalidade total de 15% e confirmada de 9%, demonstrando que M. anisopliae foi menos agressivo. Portanto, em função dos resultados apresentados, a implementação no manejo integrado de P. xylostella com M. anisopliae, B. bassiana e O.sokolowskii pode ser uma excelente alternativa para otimizar o sistema produtivo das brássicas.The selectivity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to adults of the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov was evaluated. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and Esalq 447 of B. bassiana were used at the concentration of 107 conidia mL-1. The results showed that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae reduced significantly the mean longevity of the adults about 6.7 and 4.7 days respectively. B. bassiana induced 26% and 21% of total and confirmed mortalities, respectively, while M. anisopliae caused 15% and 9% of total and confirmedmortalities, showing that the isolate of M. anisopliae was less aggressive. Therefore, in function of the presented results the combination of M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and O. sokolowskii in the integrated management of P. xylostella may be an excellent alternative for optimizing the cabbage growing system.

  18. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  19. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  20. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  1. Probiotics for Plants? Growth Promotion by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Depends on Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Susanna; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2018-03-28

    Cultivation of crops requires nutrient supplements which are costly and impact the environment. Furthermore, global demands for increased crop production call for sustainable solutions to increase yield and utilize resources such as nutrients more effectively. Some entomopathogenic fungi are able to promote plant growth, but studies over such effects have been conducted under optimal conditions where nutrients are abundantly available. We studied the effects of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA) seed treatment on the growth of maize (Zea mays) at high and low nutrient conditions during 6 weeks in greenhouse. As expected, B. bassiana seed treatment increased plant growth, but only at high nutrient conditions. In contrast, the seed treatment did not benefit plant growth at low nutrient conditions where the fungus potentially constituted a sink and tended to reduce plant growth. The occurrence of endophytic B. bassiana in experimental plant tissues was evaluated by PCR after 6 weeks, but B. bassiana was not documented in any of the above-ground plant tissues indicating that the fungus-plant interaction was independent of endophytic establishment. Our results suggest that B. bassiana seed treatment could be used as a growth promoter of maize when nutrients are abundantly available, while the fungus does not provide any growth benefits when nutrients are scarce.

  2. Repressed Beauveria bassiana Infections in Delia antiqua due to Associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Letian; Guo, Shuhai; Chen, Guanhong; Zhang, Xinjian

    2018-05-23

    Insects form both mutualistic and antagonistic relationships with microbes, and some antagonistic microbes have been used as biocontrol agents (BCAs) in pest management. Contextually, BCAs may be inhibited by beneficial insect symbionts, which can become potential barriers for entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. Thus, by using the symbioses formed by one devastating dipteran pest, Delia antiqua, and its associated microbes as a model system, we sought to determine whether the antagonistic interaction between BCAs and microbial symbionts could affect the outcome of entomopathogen-dependent pest biocontrol. The result showed that in contrast to non-axenic D. antiqua larvae, i.e., onion maggots, axenic larvae lost resistance to the entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana, and the re-inoculation of microbiota increased the resistance of axenic larvae to B. bassiana. Furthermore, bacteria, including Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter ludwigii, Pseudomonas protegens, Serratia plymuthica, Sphingobacterium faecium, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, frequently isolated from larvae suppressed B. bassiana conidia germination and hyphal growth, and the re-inoculation of specific individual bacteria enhanced the resistance of axenic larvae to B. bassiana. Bacteria associated with larvae, including C. freundii, E. ludwigii, P. protegens, S. plymuthica, S. faecium, and S. maltophilia, can inhibit B. bassiana infection. Removing the microbiota can suppress larval resistance to fungal infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with flufenoxuron and azadirachtin against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M M; Martínez-Villar, E; Peace, C; Pérez-Moreno, I; Marco, V

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory studies were developed to evaluate the compatibility of flufenoxuron and azadirachtin with Beauveria bassiana against Tetranychus urticae larvae along with the required Probit analysis of the involved chemicals on all of the life stages of this mite. Flufenoxuron displayed parallel regression lines for the mortality of eggs, deutonymphs and adults. Larvae and protonymphs were the most susceptible life stages. Protonymphs were 35 times more sensitive than eggs and adults. Azadirachtin gave equal mortality on proto- and deutonymphs. The response of eggs and adults was equivalent when treated with azadirachtin. The regression lines for proto- and deutonymphs were parallel to those of adults and eggs yet three times more sensitive. The effects of separate combinations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana at its LC(20) with flufenoxuron and azadirachtin at their corresponding LC(40) were evaluated on mite larvae. The application of flufenoxuron with B. bassiana revealed a clear synergy. While the combination of azadirachtin and B. bassiana had an additive effect. These combinations with B. bassiana could improve mite control by contributing to a decline in the likelihood of resistance so often described in the literature.

  4. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  5. Interplay between calcineurin and the Slt2 MAP-kinase in mediating cell wall integrity, conidiation and virulence in the insect fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuaishuai; He, Zhangjiang; Zhang, Shiwei; Keyhani, Nemat O; Song, Yulin; Yang, Zhi; Jiang, Yahui; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2015-10-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is of environmental and economic importance as an insect pathogen, currently used for the biological control of a number of pests. Cell wall integrity and conidiation are critical parameters for the ability of the fungus to infect insects and for production of the infectious propagules. The contribution of calcineurin and the Slt2 MAP kinase to cell wall integrity and development in B. bassiana was investigated. Gene knockouts of either the calcineurin CNA1 subunit or the Slt2 MAP kinase resulted in decreased tolerance to calcofluor white and high temperature. In contrast, the Δcna1 strain was more tolerant to Congo red but more sensitive to osmotic stress (NaCl, sorbitol) than the wild type, whereas the Δslt2 strain had the opposite phenotype. Changes in cell wall structure and composition were seen in the Δslt2 and Δcna1 strains during growth under cell wall stress as compared to the wild type. Both Δslt2 and Δcna1 strains showed significant alterations in growth, conidiation, and viability. Elevation of intracellular ROS levels, and decreased conidial hydrophobicity and adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces, were also seen for both mutants, as well as decreased virulence. Under cell wall stress conditions, inactivation of Slt2 significantly repressed CN-mediated phosphatase activity suggesting some level of cross talk between the two pathways. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the Δslt2 and Δcna1 strains revealed alterations in the expression of distinct gene sets, with overlap in transcripts involved in cell wall integrity, stress response, conidiation and virulence. These data illustrate convergent and divergent phenotypes and targets of the calcineurin and Slt2 pathways in B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D F; Buchholz, A; Tillmann, R; Kleist, E; Wu, C; Rubach, F; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Rudich, Y; Wildt, J; Mentel, Th F

    2017-02-20

    The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition. Here we report how induced emissions eventually affect CCN activity of SOA, a key parameter in cloud formation. For boreal forest tree species, insect infestation by aphids causes additional VOC emissions which modifies SOA composition thus hygroscopicity and CCN activity. Moderate heat increases the total amount of constitutive VOC, which has a minor effect on hygroscopicity, but affects CCN activity by increasing the particles' size. The coupling of plant stresses, VOC composition and CCN activity points to an important impact of induced plant emissions on cloud formation and climate.

  8. Consolidated permit regulations and hazardous waste management system: Environmental Protection Agency. Notice of issuance of regulation interpretation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-10

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing today a Regulation Interpretation Memorandum (RIM) which provides official interpretation of the issue of whether a generator who accumulates hazardous waste pursuant to 40 CFR 262.34, may qualify for interim status after November 19, 1980. This issue arose when the requirements for submitting a Part A permit application (one of the prerequisites to qualifying for interim status) were amended on November 19, 1980. The provisions interpreted today are part of the Consolidated Permit Regulations promulgated under Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA).

  9. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  10. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  11. Hydrophobins contribute to root colonization and stress responses in the rhizosphere-competent insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonjely, Soumya; Keyhani, Nemat O; Bidochka, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    The hyd1/hyd2 hydrophobins are important constituents of the conidial cell wall of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This fungus can also form intimate associations with several plant species. Here, we show that inactivation of two Class I hydrophobin genes, hyd1 or hyd2, significantly decreases the interaction of B. bassiana with bean roots. Curiously, the ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant was less impaired in root association than Δhyd1 or Δhyd2. Loss of hyd genes affected growth rate, conidiation ability and oosporein production. Expression patterns for genes involved in conidiation, cell wall integrity, insect virulence, signal transduction, adhesion, hydrophobicity and oosporein production were screened in the deletion mutants grown in different conditions. Repression of the major MAP-Kinase signal transduction pathways (Slt2 MAPK pathway) was observed that was more pronounced in the single versus double hyd mutants under certain conditions. The ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant showed up-regulation of the Hog1 MAPK and the Msn2 transcription factor under certain conditions when compared to the wild-type or single hyd mutants. The expression of the bad2 adhesin and the oosporein polyketide synthase 9 gene was severely reduced in all of the mutants. On the other hand, fewer changes were observed in the expression of key conidiation and cell wall integrity genes in hyd mutants compared to wild-type. Taken together, the data from this study indicated pleiotropic consequences of deletion of hyd1 and hyd2 on signalling and stress pathways as well as the ability of the fungus to form stable associations with plant roots.

  12. Inefficient national environmental regulation as a signal of high abatement costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyses the importance of informational asymmetries in international environmental regulation by use of a game theoretic approach of signaling games. More specific it analysis whether it is possible for a government to try to extract higher compensation in an international unidirectoral environmental problem. This may be possible when the national environmental regulation carries a signal of the cost of the regulated industry. In this case the government e.g. by means of inefficient environmental regulation on a national level may try to signal high abatement costs. In spite of the fact that many international environmental problems seem to be solvable by the use of financial payments there are only few examples that compensation payment arrangements have been implemented. As many countries and especially many polluting firms possess better information about abatement costs than the countries that receive the pollution, it is worthwhile to include asymmetric information. Consequently, this paper analyses whether the introduction of asymmetric information about abatement costs may bring forward incentives to misrepresent the true abatement cost in order to capture more compensation. If these incentives turn out to be present, it may explain some of the suspicion against using financial payment in order to induce other countries to join an agreement. The analysis shows that it may indeed be the case that the expected gain from cheating is so large that it gives incentives to use an inefficient national environmental policy. (au) 13 refs.

  13. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  14. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers

  15. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  16. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo......) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae...... and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered...

  17. Pengaruh Beauveria bassiana terhadap Mortalitas Semut Rangrang Oecophylla smaragdina (F. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Sodiq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the laboratory and cacao plantation in Kaliwining Jember, during August to November 2008. The objective of this research was to study the effect of B. bassiana on the mortality of larvae, pupae and adults of O. smaragdina. A factorial completly randomized design was used in the laboratory experiment. Two factors were tested in the experiment, the first factor was spore concentration; the second factor was the stadia of the ants (larva, pupa and adult. The experiment was replicated, 4 (four times. The field research used a randomized block complete design with four treatments and four replications. Results of this study showed that B. bassiana was the mortality source of larva, pupa and adult stages of O. smaragdina. A concentration of 108 spores/ml B. bassiana was effective to control larvae and pupae of O. smaragdina.

  18. Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

  19. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of Beauveria bassiana on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2017-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard ® GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P. persimilis eggs at a concentration of 1×10 8 conidia/ml, corrected hatchability was less than 5%, and the corrected mortality of nymphs and adults was not significantly different from control 10days after treatment. Phytoseiulus persimilis nymphs that hatched from treated eggs showed no significant change in their development time, adult female longevity, hatch rate, survival rates over time, or offspring sex ratio. However, significant negative effects on fecundity and life table parameters (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, mean generation time, finite rate of increase, and doubling time) were found when B. bassiana was applied to the adult stage. Spraying B. bassiana at 1×10 8 conidia/ml on newly emerged adults of P. persimilis caused 44% reduction in the oviposition period, 26% in adult longevity, and 63% in fecundity. Due to these negative effects, B. bassiana should be used with careful adjustment of application timing (first spray B. bassiana and then release P. persimilis) to supplement biological mite control systems using P. persimilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Storage Temperature on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Viability on Several Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukamto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the entomopatogenous fungus types commonly observed and showed potency as myco-insectiside is Beauveria bassiana(Bals. Vuill.In order to support effectiveness and patogenous activity of B. bassiana, it is necessary to add a carrying agent that protects its spores from ultra violet ray. This study aims to investigate the effect of storage temperature on viability of B. Bassianaspores on the carrier material. The observation was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design by three factors. The first factor was carrier (C, that consists of C1 = rice flour, C2 = maize flour and C3 = tapioca flour. The second factor was dosage (D, that consists of D1 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 1 g carrier; D2 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 5 g carrier and D3 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 10 g carrier. The third factor was temperature of the storage (T,that consists of T1 = 5oC; T2 = 23oC and T3 = 29oC. Viability of B. Bassiana spores was examined by observing development of 100 blastopores randomly and determined under light microscope with 400 times magnification. Observation was conducted in two replicates after the spores of B. bassiana were kept in the storage for 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The result showed that by adding 1 g tapioca flour and temperature of storage of 5oC was potentiall in keeping viability of B. bassianaspores at least for 2 months. It was due to that tapioca flour gave better effect than rice and maize flours in keeping the storage and appropriate low temperature. Viability of B. bassianaspores decreased with increasing carrier dosage, temperature and duration of the storage. Whereas, storage at 5oC was found to be a better condition in keeping viability of dry pure B. bassianaspores longer than conditions of 23o and 29oC. Key word:Beauveria bassiana, temperature, viability,carrier.

  1. Enkapsulasi B. bassiana menggunakan maizena dan daya infeksinya terhadap larva Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Encapsulation formulae of mycoinsecticide have to be able to maintain fungus viability and pathogenicity. This mycoinsecticide was developed as an alternative way to control mosquito borne disease. The aim of this study was to encapsulate Beauveria bassiana as viable storage and have the capability to kill larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. Mosquito larvae obtained from laboratory reared at health research laboratory; Loka Litbang P2B2 Ciamis. The treatments made in this study were the formu-lation of cornstarch and controls for comparison. This study showed potential formulation of cornstarch encapsulation as a biolarvacidal. Cornstarch formulations proven to be succeed in maintaining fungus viability, however, the pathogenicity of the microcapsule still not effective to kill Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Keywords: encapsulation, Beauveria bassiana, Ae.aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp. Abstrak. Pembuatan formula bioinsektisida yang optimal sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk pengen-dalian nyamuk vektor perlu di kembangkan. Sediaan mikoinsektisida yang dibuat harus dapat memper-tahankan viabilitas jamur B. bassiana sehingga masih efektif pada saat penggunaannya. Salah satu cara yang digunakan untuk menjaga kestabilan sediaan mikoinsektisida yang berdampak langsung pada via-bilitas jamur adalah dengan menerapkan metode enkapsulasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meng-hasilkan sediaan mikokapsul dari Beauvaria bassiana melalui proses enkapsulasi menggunakan maizena yang memiliki kapabilitas tinggi sebagai penyimpan B. bassiana dan efektif dalam membunuh larva dan telur Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. dan Culex sp. Semua larva uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Pembuatan enkapsulasi dimulai dengan kultur dan pema-nenan B. bassiana, uji viabilitas, proses enkapsulasi serta uji larvasida di laboratorium. Uji dilakukan dengan satu perlakuan dan satu kontrol untuk

  2. In vivo expression of genes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during infection of lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galidevara, Sandhya; Reineke, Annette; Koduru, Uma Devi

    2016-05-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin is commercially available as a bio insecticide. The expression of three genes previously identified to have a role in pathogenicity in in vitro studies was validated in vivo in three lepidopteran insects infected with B. bassiana. Expression of all three genes was observed in all the tested insects starting from 48 or 72h to 10d post infection corroborating their role in pathogenicity. We suggest that it is essential to test the expression of putative pathogenicity genes both in vitro and in vivo to understand their role in different insect species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  4. RNA-Seq Analyses for Two Silkworm Strains Reveals Insight into Their Susceptibility and Resistance to Beauveria bassiana Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Xing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between treated samples and untreated controls, and between the two silkworm strains, were identified. DEGs and the enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways of the two strains exhibited an obvious difference. Several genes encoding cuticle proteins, serine proteinase inhibitors (SPI and antimicrobial peptides (AMP and the drug metabolism pathway involved in toxin detoxification were considered to be related to the resistance of K8 to B. bassiana. These results revealed insight into the resistance and susceptibility of two silkworm strains against B. bassiana infection and provided a roadmap for silkworm molecular breeding to enhance its resistance to B. bassiana.

  5. RNA-Seq Analyses for Two Silkworm Strains Reveals Insight into Their Susceptibility and Resistance to Beauveria bassiana Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Liang; Li, Qingrong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-02-10

    The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana ) and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana ) using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between treated samples and untreated controls, and between the two silkworm strains, were identified. DEGs and the enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the two strains exhibited an obvious difference. Several genes encoding cuticle proteins, serine proteinase inhibitors (SPI) and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and the drug metabolism pathway involved in toxin detoxification were considered to be related to the resistance of K8 to B. bassiana. These results revealed insight into the resistance and susceptibility of two silkworm strains against B. bassiana infection and provided a roadmap for silkworm molecular breeding to enhance its resistance to B. bassiana .

  6. The future of environmental protection: A U.S. regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. has the largest number of nuclear installations of any country in the world. This puts us at an extreme end of the spectrum. As a result, I have touched on many issues relative to environmental protection. Therefore in summary, let me list these issues: Before moving ahead, look at what has been done thus far. Executive policy and a national regulatory infrastructure. - Environmental Impact Statements. - Environmental Justice. Standards determined by law or courts. Consultation with other national agencies and countries. Improving the timetable for issuing regulations and supporting guidance. Improved communications and training of staff. Transparency and flexibility throughout the regulatory process. Differences in regulatory approaches are OK, as long as the end result is to achieve sound national environmental and public health and safety policy. I believe that this series of conferences represents an excellent opportunity to come to resolution about the future of environmental regulations and policies. Having this information will assist us in harmonizing any proposed recommendation(s) for radiological protection of the environment involving commodities containing radioactive materials or unrestricted release of slightly radioactive materials by using the existing environmental radiation protection framework as a starting point. Doing so in an open, encompassing manner will, in my opinion, go a long way towards resolving some of the current controversies about radiation protection standards in the U.S., as well as around the world, with the desirable end result of increasing public confidence in our environmental radiation protection programs. (author)

  7. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  8. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-01-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  9. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  10. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  11. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  12. A task management system for compliance with health, safety, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.J.; O'Gorman, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) has developed a new computer system to help it comply with health, safety, and environmental (HS and E) regulations. It is a task management system that functions at the detailed inventory level. It schedules work, instructs operations, and records compliance status. This article discusses design and development of the system

  13. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... making a determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa... status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101...

  14. Energy-economy relationship and environmental regulation in the presence of unrecorded economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, F.

    2008-12-01

    This PhD thesis including five manuscripts and a brief international comparison analysis proposes a multi-field study on the economic and environmental effects of energy consumption. It first investigates the causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in Turkey and then offers a new methodology for the estimation of unrecorded economy based on environmental data. The thesis develops also asymmetric information models, where the regulator does not know the true emission level of each firm that it wishes to regulate, so as to examine to what extend different enforcement mechanisms affect incentives for the firms to reduce polluting emissions and to invest in clean energy technologies. In order to provide a complete insight on the effects of both fiscal and environmental enforcement policies, some similar analysis are conducted taking into account the existence of unrecorded economy. The results in this thesis essentially show that: first, energy conservation policies can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without any adverse effect on the recorded economic activities; second, different audit mechanisms should be used depending on the environmental objective of the enforcement agency; third, in some cases, environmental regulations may increase the size of unrecorded economy; fourth, economic policies to combat unrecorded economy may not serve as a complement to energy conservation policies. (author)

  15. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  16. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with 210 Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  17. Institutional preconditions of socio-ecological-economic regulation of environmental management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Plaksunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to regulate environmental management activities of institutional entities arises when it affects the interests of third-party entities or threatened by the ongoing entity manufacturing practices its own resilience, to achieve the main goal. The complexity and diversity of the forms of socio-ecological and ecological-economic issues at different levels of the economic system leads to the development of many directions and views on the expansion of the management process of these levels (global, national, regional, local and techniques from rigid-deklorative state before combination with the market. In this respect, the neoclassical economic theory actively generated new analytical ideas and concept that enables to respond adequately to emerging economic realities. So we can distinguish the following approaches to regulate environmental management activities: T. Malthus and D. Ricardo, revealing issues of social, ecological and economic implications of limited natural resources in the context of the law of diminishing effectiveness and the need to regulate environmental management activities. John. St. Mill and George proved to be ineffective in addressing environmental problems in the industrial economy of the type of the imperfection of the institutions of society, justifying the occurrence of crises protohistoric speculation nature's benefits. A. Pigou developed the theory of externalities, which revealed the need for state regulation of the environmental management activities of economic entities, harmonization of individual and social interests. Research I. Kula, F. Khan and P. Samuelson identified a pattern about the formation of the system of regulation nature-safety activities, not only within individual States but also on a global level. R. Crows have shown that the methods of direct state regulation of nature economic activity is not as good as it seems at first glance and so you should not underestimate the role and potential

  18. Environmental Regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — KR305b 1994 coverage, used to support water quality programs, references water quality use designations and support levels. The KR305b 1994 coverage is available for...

  19. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  20. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI. PMID:29382112

  1. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity. The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  2. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress-Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-29

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications-high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  3. Characterization of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) isolates associated with Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louela A. Castrillo; Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research in Michigan on fungal entomopathogens of the emerald ash borer (EAB), a major invasive pest of ash trees, resulted in the isolation of Beauveria bassiana from late-instar larvae and pre-pupae. In the present study, some of these isolates were characterized and compared to ash bark- and soil-derived isolates to determine their...

  4. Reactive oxygen species production, induced by atmospheric modification, alter conidial quality of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guzmán, D; Montesinos-Matías, R; Arce-Cervantes, O; Gómez-Quiroz, L E; Loera, O; Garza-López, P M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and conidial infectivity in Beauveria bassiana. Beauveria bassiana Bb 882.5 was cultured in solid-state culture (SSC) using rice under three oxygen conditions (21%, or pulses at 16 and 26%). Hydrophobicity was determined using exclusion phase assay. Bioassays with larvae or adults of Tenebrio molitor allowed the measurements of infectivity parameters. A fluorometric method was used for ROS quantification (superoxide and total peroxides). NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity was determined by specific inhibition. Conidial hydrophobicity decreased by O2 pulses. Mortality of larvae was only achieved with conidia harvested from cultures under 21% O2 ; whereas for adult insects, the infectivity parameters deteriorated in conidia obtained after pulses at 16 and 26% O2 . At day 7, ROS production increased after 16 and 26% O2 treatments. NOX activity induced ROS production at early stages of the culture. Modification of atmospheric oxygen increases ROS production, reducing conidial quality and infectivity. This is the first study in which conidial infectivity and ROS production in B. bassiana has been related, enhancing the knowledge of the effect of O2 pulses in B. bassiana. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Effects of Beauveria bassiana on predation and behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Xing, Zhenlong; Sun, Weinan; Xu, Xuenong; Meng, Ruixia; Lei, Zhongren

    2018-03-01

    Determination of intraguild interactions between entomopathogens and predators is important when attempting to use a combination of these two natural enemy groups for biological control of their shared arthropod pest species. This study assessed the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation and associated behavior of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, against Tetranychus urticae. The functional response tests showed that P. persimilis exhibited a Holling type II response on the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, when treated with either a B. bassiana or Tween-80 suspension. There were no significant differences between the treatments in the number of T. urticae consumed. The laboratory choice test indicated that P. persimilis displayed a significant avoidance response to B. bassiana on bean leaves immediately following spray application. They also spent significantly longer time in self-grooming behavior on leaf disks sprayed with fungal conidia than on discs treated with Tween-80. There were no significant differences in the predation rates on T. urticae eggs between the different treatments. The potted plant investigations indicated that P. persimilis showed significant aversion behavior to the initial fungal spray, but gradually dispersed over the entire bean plants. Observations using scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal conidia were attached to the body of P. persimilis after mounting the leaf disk treated with B. bassiana, which would account for its varied behavioral responses. Our study suggests that fungal spray did not affect the predation capability of P. persimilis and poses a negligible risk to their behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial control of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, applied as BotaniGard ES, on newly colonised and well-established populations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were evaluated in the field using foliar and trunk sprays in Michigan in 2004-2005. Results from field trials at a newly colonised white ash...

  7. Different strategies to kill the host presented by Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Fernández-Bravo, María; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Studies conducted over the last decades have shown the potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the biocontrol of some insect pests. Entomopathogenic fungi infect their host through the cuticle, so they do not need to be ingested to be effective. These fungi also secrete secondary metabolites and proteins that are toxic to insect pests. In this context, we analyzed the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) strains IBCB 384 and IBCB 425 and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. strains E 1764 and E 3158 against Galleria mellonella (Linn.) larvae, during pre-invasion and post-invasion phases. The results showed M. anisopliae, especially strain IBCB 384, was most virulent in the pre-invasion phase against G. mellonella, whereas B. bassiana, especially strain E 1764, was most virulent in the post-invasion phase. During in vivo development and in the production of toxic serum, B. bassiana E 3158 was the most virulent. Different fungal growth (or toxin) strategies were observed for studied strains. Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 425 prioritizes the growth strategy, whereas strain IBCB 384 and B. bassiana strains E 1764 and E 3158 have a toxic strategy. All strains have pathogenicity against G. mellonella, indicating their possible use for biocontrol.

  8. Effect of surfactants and temperature on germination and vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A; Laing, Mark D; Miller, Ray M

    2015-03-01

    Three non-ionic surfactants: Tween20, Tween80 and Breakthru (®) were screened for their effects on spore germination and mycelial growth rates and for their influence on three isolates of Beauveria bassiana spore germination at various temperatures. Tween20 and Tween80 were compatible with all the B. bassiana isolates in the germination studies, but inhibited germination at higher surfactant concentrations, irrespective of the conidial concentrations . Breakthru (®) had an inhibitory effect on germination even at the lowest concentration of 0.1% on all the B. bassiana isolates. The effects of the surfactants on spore germination did not correspond with their effects on colony growth. Conidial viability within the same formulation declined significantly with increases in temperature, irrespective of the surfactant. The optimal temperature for conidial germination of B. bassiana isolates was approximately 25 °C with an upper limit at 30 °C. Isolate 7320 was identified as the least affected by the different surfactants. This isolate was able to germinate rapidly in a broad temperature range of 25-30 °C after 24 h, this characteristic being an essential factor in controlling house fly populations in poultry houses.

  9. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion's leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  10. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  11. Acoustic activity cycles of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) early instars after Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a pest of many crop and ornamental palm tree species in subtropical regions worldwide. Larvae tunnel and feed unseen in the trunks, ultimately causing irreparable harm and killing the palm. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin is under evaluation as ...

  12. Molecular characterization of a novel amalgavirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Hrabáková, Lenka; Petrzik, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2015), s. 1585-1588 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13136; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Monopartite DsRNA Virus * Beauveria bassiana * amalgaviruses infecting fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2015

  13. Population density of Beauveria bassiana in soil under the action of fungicides and native microbial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether populations of naturally-occurring soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes influence the effect of fungicides on the survival and growth of Beauveria bassiana. The toxicity of methyl thiophanate, pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and copper oxychloride at the recommended doses was analyzed in culture medium and in soil inoculated with fungus at various time points after addition of fungicides. All fungicides completely inhibited the growth and sporulation of B. bassiana in the culture medium. The fungicides were less toxic in soil, emphasizing the action of the microbial populations, which interfered with the toxic effects of these products to the fungus. Actinomycetes had the greatest influence on the entomopathogen, inhibiting it or degrading the fungicides to contribute to the survival and growth of B. bassiana in soil. Native populations of fungi and bacteria had a smaller influence on the population density of B. bassiana and the action of fungicides towards entomopathogen. The toxic effect of the fungicides was greater when added to the soil one hour before or after inoculation than at 48h after inoculation.

  14. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were...

  15. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  16. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  17. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  18. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  19. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  20. Upholding science in health, safety and environmental risk assessments and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, Michael; Autrup, Herman N.; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Boobis, Alan R.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Creppy, Edmond E.; Dekant, Wolfgang; Doull, John; Galli, Corrado L.; Goodman, Jay I.; Gori, Gio B.; Greim, Helmut A.; Joudrier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A public appeal has been advanced by a large group of scientists, concerned that science has been misused in attempting to quantify and regulate unmeasurable hazards and risks. The appeal recalls that science is unable to evaluate hazards that cannot be measured, and that science in such cases should not be invoked to justify risk assessments in health, safety and environmental regulations. The appeal also notes that most national and international statutes delineating the discretion of regulators are ambiguous about what rules of evidence ought to apply. Those statutes should be revised to ensure that the evidence for regulatory action is grounded on the standards of the scientific method, whenever feasible. When independent scientific evidence is not possible, policies and regulations should be informed by publicly debated trade-offs between socially desirable uses and social perceptions of affordable precaution. This article explores the premises, implications and actions supporting the appeal and its objectives.

  1. Environmental regulation and competition in the U.S. electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Weyant, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The structural evolution of the electric utility industry, with reference to its dynamics with environmental regulation, is described, explicitly including suppliers to the industry, the consumers of the products of the industry, and the industries that produce substitutes for the products. The structure of the industry has changed dramatically over the years 1970-1990, and is likely to continue to evolve throughout the 1990s. This evolution has resulted from changes in the milieu within which the industry operates, for example changes in fuel and capital markets, as well as federal, state and local regulations governing its activities. The environmental regulations of the 1970s have had a significant impact on the structure, behavior and performance of the industry and changes in the structure have had a feedback effect on the types of environmental regulations likely to be successful within the industry in reducing emissions of SO 2 , NOx and CO 2 . This and numerous other studies using the framework designed by Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School have demonstrated that this expanded view of competition frequently provides a much better explanation for changes in industry structure and corporate strategy than conventional analyses. 10 refs., 3 figs

  2. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  3. Comparative genomics of Beauveria bassiana: uncovering signatures of virulence against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Faino, Luigi; Spring In't Veld, Daphne; Smit, Sandra; Zwaan, Bas J; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence. A high-quality, near-complete genome assembly was achieved for the highly virulent isolate Bb8028, which was compared to the assemblies of the four other isolates. Whole genome analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity between the five isolates (2.85-16.8 SNPs/kb), which grouped into two distinct phylogenetic clusters. Mating type gene analysis revealed the presence of either the MAT1-1-1 or the MAT1-2-1 gene. Moreover, a putative new MAT gene (MAT1-2-8) was detected in the MAT1-2 locus. Comparative genome analysis revealed that Bb8028 contains 163 genes exclusive for this isolate. These unique genes have a tendency to cluster in the genome and to be often located near the telomeres. Among the genes unique to Bb8028 are a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) secondary metabolite gene cluster, a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene, and five genes with homology to bacterial toxins. A survey of candidate virulence genes for B. bassiana is presented. Our results indicate several genes and molecular processes that may underpin virulence towards mosquitoes. Thus, the genome sequences of five isolates of B. bassiana provide a better understanding of the natural variation in virulence and will offer a major resource for future research on this important biological control agent.

  4. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  5. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf

  6. First record of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales on pleasing fungus beetle Episcapha quadrimacula (Coleoptera: Erotylidae in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Goh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana on Pleasing Fungus Beetle Episcapha quadrimacula has been reported on fruiting bodies of Ganoderma boninense for the first time in Malaysia.

  7. Plant responses to environmental stress: regulation and functions of the Arabidopsis TCH genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis TCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicates that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that at least a subset of the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  8. Patogenisitas Isolat Beauveria bassiana dan Metarhizium anisopliae asal Tanah Lebak dan Pasang Surut Sumatera Selatan untuk Agens Hayati Scirpophaga incertulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosdah Thalib

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogeicity of Beauveria bassiana and  Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates from Fresh Swamp and  Tidal Lowland, South Sumatra for Scirpophaga incertulas Biological Agents.  The objectives of the research weret o explore and to determine the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic  fungi againts the larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas, and to measure conidial viability and density of the fungi.  The method for fungi exploration used larvae of Tenebrio molitor baiting submerged in the soil.  The soil was taken from fresh swampand tidal lowland rice in South  Sumatra.  From the exploration study, we found two species of entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Mortality of S. incertulas larvae that had been treated topically with fungal conidia (1x106 conidia ml-1 varied among the isolates. The highest mortality (98.33% caused by BPlus isolate of B. Bassiana and the lowest by MtmIn  isolate of M. anisopliae (57.50% and BTmTr  isolate of B. bassiana (57.50%.  The fungal colonies grew fast from the second day up to the fourth day after incubation but the growth became slow after the fifth day.  The highest conidial density was resulted by   BPcMs of B. bassiana isolate (63.33x106 conidia ml-1 but  this density was not significantly different from that of the BPlus  of B. bassiana isolate (63.11x106 conidia ml-1.  The lowest conidial density found in BTmTr of B. bassiana isolate (20.97x106 conidia ml-1 .   The isolate B. bassiana was more effective than M. anisopliae againt the larvae of S.incertulas.

  9. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  10. The community regulation for environmental management and audit: an opportunity for firms. Some Enea promotion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, L.; Brunetti, N.; Caropreso, G.; Luciani, R.; Merelli, A.

    1999-01-01

    EMAS (Environmental Management and Audit Scheme), introduced by the 1836/93 Community regulation, is one of the tools activated by the European Union in the field of firm-environment interactions, to overcome the old Command and Control logic by means of the new Moral Suasion one. EMAS has a voluntary character: it intends to replace conflicting relations between control authority and firm with relations centred on a dialogue and action agreed upon by the parties, on the basis of impartial and reliable information. The report illustrates the procedure for applying this regulation, EMAS advantages for firms, its implementation in Italy and the most important pilot actions carried out by ENEA [it

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in emotion regulation and its relation to working memory in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    This is the first study to explore genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in emotion regulation in toddlers, and the first to examine the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the association between emotion regulation and working memory. In a sample of 304 same-sex twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ) at age 3, emotion regulation was assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BRS; Bayley, 1993), and working memory was measured by the visually cued recall (VCR) task (Zelazo, Jacques, Burack, & Frye, 2002) and several memory tasks from the Mental Scale of the BSID. Based on model-fitting analyses, both emotion regulation and working memory were significantly influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental effects were significant for working memory, but not for emotion regulation. Only genetic factors significantly contributed to the covariation between emotion regulation and working memory.

  12. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  13. Impacts of new environmental and safety regulations on uranium mining, milling and waste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping; Zheng Yuhui; Shi Xiangjun

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power progress has triggered the development and innovation of nuclear fuel industries in China. At present the Chinese government has put more emphasis on industrial readjustment and technical innovation in uranium mining and milling in order to fuel the nuclear power development, satisfy environmental protection and improve economic efficiency of the industry. The current organizations and approval procedure for establishing regulations and the implementation and consequences of the regulations, technical polices and development strategies concerning uranium mining, milling, treatment of waste ores and mill tailings, and reduction of the workers' suffered exposure dose etc. in China are discussed and the economic, health and environmental impacts of the uranium mining and metallurgy with reformation achievement and the introduction of advanced technologies such as the in-situ leaching and heap leaching mining technologies are assessed in this paper. (author)

  14. Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness: Evidence from Trade and Production in the Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tsung Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies of the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) have not reached a consistent conclusion. The existing literature is primarily based on anecdotes and scattered case studies. This study analyzes the trade flows and composition change of the most polluting industries in manufacturing sectors among countries in order to offer a more general conclusion. This study finds that stricter environmental regulation stringency decreases the net export and production share of the most p...

  15. Do Environmental Regulations Influence the Competitiveness of Pollution-Intensive Products?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Lu

    2010-01-01

    According to "Pollution Haven Effect," in order to circumvent stringent environment standards, polluting industries in developed countries will be chosen to locate into developing countries; another way is that developed countries increase imports of pollution-intensive products instead of producing by their own, both of which can contribute to the changes of comparative advantages in the past 30 years. Since 1990s, many scholars have paid special attention on whether environmental regulation...

  16. Exploring the Role of Peer Advice in Self-Regulated Learning: Metacognitive, Social, and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Hanin; Lebeau, Robert; Saks, Norma; Cianciolo, Anna T; Artino, Anthony R; Shea, Judy A; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-01-01

    This Conversation Starters article presents a selected research abstract from the 2016 Association of American Medical Colleges Northeast Region Group on Educational Affairs annual spring meeting. The abstract is paired with the integrative commentary of three experts who shared their thoughts stimulated by the pilot study. These thoughts explore the metacognitive, social, and environmental mechanisms whereby advice plays a role in self-regulated learning.

  17. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r 2 = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs

  18. Environmental factors related to water level regulation - a comparative study in northern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, S K [VTT Communities and Infrastructure. Water Engineering and Ecotechnology, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The environmental conditions of the littoral zone were studied in the regulated Lake Ontojaervi and the unregulated Lake Lentua in northern Finland. The general aims of the study were to analyse the environmental factors related to water level regulation in the littoral zone and to produce information for assessing the effects of hydroelectric development in northern lakes. The study was basically carried out by comparing the littoral environments of the two study lakes. The most visible effects of water level regulation were related to the raised water level, which yielded erosion of sandy shores at the beginning of the regulation. Another effect of lake regulation was the altered fluctuation of the water level, which led to bottom instability and increased the size of the frozen and ice penetration zones. The effect of ice penetration was also easy to recognize on the shores of Lake Ontojaervi, where the surface sediment was frozen to a greater depth and across wider areas than in Lake Lentua. Below the freezing zone, the ice just pressed down on the sediment. The shores of Lake Ontojaervi were steeper than those of Lake Lentua, which affected the distribution of bottom types, with sandy bottoms being more common in Lake Lentua than in Lake Ontojaervi. The factors related to site exposure included effective fetch and the shape of the shoreline. The sedimentation level correlated only with the slope and was not predicted by the fetch or shape. The vertical reduction of light was estimated on the basis of water colour. The main environmental factors from the two lakes were used in a discriminant analysis to predict the bottom type distribution of the littoral (r{sup 2} = 0.41). (orig.) 66 refs.

  19. Productivity and environmental regulations. A long run analysis of the Swedish industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar

    2008-01-15

    The aim with this study is to evaluate the potential effects on productivity development in the Swedish manufacturing industry due to changes in environmental regulations over a long time period. The issue is closely related to the so called Porter hypothesis, i.e. whether environmental regulations (of the right kind) that usually is associated with costs triggers mechanisms that enhances efficiency and productivity that finally outweighs the initial cost increase. To test our hypothesis we use historical data spanning over the period 1913-1999 for the Swedish manufacturing sector. The model used is a two stage model were the total factor productivity is calculated in the first stage, and is then used in a second stage as the dependent variable in a regression analysis where one of the independent variables is a measure of regulatory intensity. The results show that the productivity growth has varied considerably over time. The least productive period was the second world war period, whereas the period with the highest productivity growth was the period after the second world war until 1970. Development of emissions follows essentially the same path as productivity growth until 1970. After 1970, however, there is a decoupling in the sense that emissions are decreasing, both in absolute level and as emissions per unit of value added. A rather robust conclusion is that there is no evident relationship between environmental regulations and productivity growth. One explanation is that regulations and productivity actually is unrelated. Another potential explanation is that the regulatory measure used does not capture perceived regulations in a correct way

  20. Fiscal reform of fuel regulation in Brazil: recent developments and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, Miriam; Sauer, Ildo Luis; Guerra, Sinclair M.-G.

    2005-11-15

    Internationally the fossil fuel-based energy sector now faces increasing uncertainties due to changes in its fiscal regulation, prompted by pressure for environmental regulation. These changes typically eliminate some taxes at the beginning of the oil production chain, but compensate for these by increasing taxation on consumption. In Brazil, fiscal reform proposals focus not on environmental arguments but on the elimination of excess levies and red tape and on increasing equity across income classes. However, liberalization process of oil and gas industries in Brazil has led to modifications in fuels taxation. This article discusses current Brazilian fiscal policy as related to fossil fuels, explaining the nature of recently introduced contribution for economic regulation (Contribuicao de Intervencao ao Dominio Economico, CIDE) and the impacts on price formation. It also shows how those modifications tend to include external costs from activities in the fuel sector; through revenues from a levy earmarked for two purposes: i) funding investments in projects deemed to be environmentally beneficial, and, ii) improvements in road infrastructure aimed at reducing emissions from transportation. Some ideas on how to improve use of the levy to perk up fuel alcohol competitiveness are also discussed. (Author)

  1. The economic value of the flow regulation environmental service in a Brazilian urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.

    2017-11-01

    Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non

  2. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisalmi, T.; Riihimaeki, J.; Vehanen, T.; Yrjaenae, T.

    1997-01-01

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  3. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  4. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  5. Developing New Modelling Tools for Environmental Flow Assessment in Regulated Salmon Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2013-04-01

    There is a strong political drive in Scotland to meet all electricity demands from renewable sources by 2020. In Scotland, hydropower generation has a long history and is a key component of this strategy. However, many rivers sustain freshwater communities that have both high conservation status and support economically important Atlantic salmon fisheries. Both new and existing hydropower schemes must be managed in accordance with the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires that all surface water bodies achieve good ecological status or maintain good ecological potential. Unfortunately, long-term river flow monitoring is sparse in the Scottish Highlands and there are limited data for defining environmental flows. The River Tay is the most heavily regulated catchment in the UK. To support hydropower generation, it has an extensive network of inter- and intra- catchment transfers, in addition to a large number of regulating reservoirs for which abstraction legislation often only requires minimum compensation flows. The Tay is also considered as one of Scotland's most important rivers for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and there is considerable uncertainty as to how best change reservoir operations to improve the ecological potential of the river system. It is now usually considered that environmental flows require more than a minimum compensation flow, and instead should cover a range of hydrological flow aspects that represent ecologically relevant streamflow attributes, including magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and rate of change. For salmon, these hydrological indices are of particular interest, with requirements varying at different stages of their life cycle. To meet the WFD requirements, rationally alter current abstraction licences and provide an evidence base for regulating new hydropower schemes, advanced definitions for abstraction limits and ecologically appropriate flow releases are desirable. However, a good understanding

  6. [Research advance in nitrogen metabolism of plant and its environmental regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2004-03-01

    Nitrogen metabolism is not only one of the basic processes of plant physiology, but also one of the important parts of global chemical cycle. Plant nitrogen assimilation directly takes part in the synthesis and conversion of amino acid through the reduction of nitrate. During this stage, some key enzymes, e.g., nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthase (GOGAT), aspargine synthetase (AS), and asparate aminotransferase (AspAT) participate these processes. The protein is assimilated in plant cell through amino acid, and becomes a part of plant organism through modifying, classifying, transporting and storing processes, etc. The nitrogen metabolism is associated with carbonic metabolism through key enzyme regulations and the conversion of products, which consists of basic life process. Among these amino acids in plant cell, glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn), etc., play a key role, which regulates their conversion each other and their contents in the plant cell through regulating formation and activity of those key enzymes. Environmental factors also affect the conversion and recycle of the key amino acids through regulating gene expression of the key enzymes and their activities. Nitrate and light intensity positively regulate the gene transcription of NR, but ammonium ions and Glu, Gln do the negative way. Water deficit is a very serious constraint on N2 fixation rate and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) grain yield, in which, ureide accumulation and degradation under water deficit appear to be the key issues of feedback mechanism on nitrogen fixation. Water stress decreases NR activity, but increases proteinase activity, and thus, they regulate plant nitrogen metabolism, although there are some different effects among species and cultivars. Water stress also decreases plant tissue protein content, ratio of protein and amino acid, and reduces the absorption of amino

  7. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jianhua; Zheng, Mingzheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO 2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO 2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO 2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO 2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO 2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO 2 emissions

  8. jurisprudence precedent on the instruments of environmental regulation of the electrical colombian sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcila R, Jaime Leon; Velasquez A, Hector I

    2009-01-01

    What the authors of the Law of the Environment have named the green Constitution or the ecological Constitution of 1991, necessarily it has consequences in the legal practice of the instruments of environmental management in all the levels and sectors of the economy, especially if the previous thing is analyzed in the frame of the Social State of Law in the Constitution of 1991, under this perspective, it is possible to understand the emptiness and inconsistencies of the environmental management in the electrical Colombian sector (SEC), from the critical analysis of the instruments of environmental regulation established in the in the Law in addition it is possible to check these instruments in his role of tools for the environmental management, to identify a constitutional and legal conceptualization adapted for the development of the same ones and to determine the necessary adjustments to realize in his environmental role of management tools in the SEC. The attainment of the previous aims carries an own methodology of the social qualitative research in his juridical political levels. The content of this article realizes the first advances in order to study from a juriprudential and not merely legal optics, since up to the moment the topic has been approached.

  9. Benefits and disadvantages of self-regulation of environmental noise from military training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, George A.

    2002-05-01

    In a 1981 Executive decision, the Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) told the Environmental Protection Agency to end funding of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC). This decision, coupled with a specific exemption for military equipment contained in the Noise Control Act of 1972, ensured that the military departments would be self-regulating in regard to noise. This self-regulation for noise stands in contrast to the external regulation of other pollutants, such as air and water emissions. Two possible disadvantages of self-regulation are (1) reduced funding for noise management compared with funding for externally regulated pollutants, and (2) lack of an independent and external set of standards for determining acceptable limits on community noise exposure. Three possible benefits are (1) avoiding the costs of mitigating trivial violations of external standards, (2) maintaining a long-standing policy of preventing noise problems through land use planning, and (3) enabling negotiated solutions between installations and their neighboring communities. The paper ends with an examination of a negotiated solution for a community subjected to noise from the detonation of obsolete ammunition.

  10. Study on influence over approaching a market in the international trade by enhancing the international environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Park, Joon Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The focal point of connecting trade and environment is what kind of influence over a national competitiveness of a national economy can be brought by enhancing environmental regulations. Traditionally it was accepted that the enhancement of environmental policy had a negative impact on competitiveness. However, recent study results show that the enhancement of environmental policy can strengthen industrial competitiveness for a long term. This study analyzes the significance of enhancing the international environmental regulation from a developing country's standpoint in association with this. 27 refs., 8 tabs.

  11. Study on influence over approaching a market in the international trade by enhancing the international environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Park, Joon Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The focal point of connecting trade and environment is what kind of influence over a national competitiveness of a national economy can be brought by enhancing environmental regulations. Traditionally it was accepted that the enhancement of environmental policy had a negative impact on competitiveness. However, recent study results show that the enhancement of environmental policy can strengthen industrial competitiveness for a long term. This study analyzes the significance of enhancing the international environmental regulation from a developing country's standpoint in association with this. 27 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  13. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit Theileria sp. and Babesia sp. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to H. qinghaiensis nymphs. The estimated LC50 for ticks immersed in solutions of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) conidia mL(-1) respectively, and the nymphal mortality ranged from 52 to 100 %. Thus, these results suggest a potential approach for the biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis.

  15. Fungal Keratitis Due to Beauveria bassiana in a Contact Lenses Wearer and Review of Published Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Oya, Ana; Medialdea Hurtado, María Eloisa; Rojo Martín, María Dolores; Aguilera Pérez, Antonia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Miranda Casas, Consuelo; Rubio Prats, Marina; Medialdea Marcos, Santiago; Navarro Marí, José María

    2016-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is a severe ocular infection that primarily affects subjects engaged in outdoor activities. Risk factors include allergic conjunctivitis, previous eye surgery, previous treatment with wide-spectrum antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids and using contact lenses. Corneal infection is usually secondary to trauma involving organic material, which is often the only predisposing factor. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and microbiological investigation (microscopy, cultures and molecular techniques) is crucial to selecting the appropriate antifungal therapy and prevent progression. We report the case of a patient with keratitis due to Beauveria bassiana, an opportunistic and entomopathogenic filamentous fungus that is used as a biological insecticide and which is a rare cause of corneal infection. We review previous cases reports of B. bassiana keratitis published and its main features to compare with our case, a female occasional agriculture worker who had not suffered any trauma involving organic material. The patient received topical and oral antifungal therapy and debridement surgery, with a satisfactory outcome.

  16. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  17. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED PESTICIDES ON THE GROWTH OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI HIRSUTELLA NODULOSA AND BEAUVERIA BASSIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three pesticides used in corn protection: Targa Super 05 (chizalofop-P-ethyl, Roundup 360SL (glyphosate and Karate Zeon 050CS (lambda-cyhalothrin, on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi Hirsutella nodulosa Petch and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Fungi isolates were cultured on Sabouraud’s medium with addition of pesticides at three different concentrations. H. nodulosa was more susceptible to pesticides than B. bassiana. The most inhibitory effect on tested entomopathogenic fungi showed chizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide. Lambda-cyhalothrin at the recommended field dose showed minor toxic effect on entomopathogenic fungi, which suggests the possibility of compatible use of this insecticide with biopesticides based on the tested species.

  18. Cloning of Beauveria bassiana chitinase gene Bbchit1 and its application to improve fungal strain virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weiguo; Leng, Bo; Xiao, Yuehua; Jin, Kai; Ma, Jincheng; Fan, Yanhua; Feng, Jing; Yang, Xingyong; Zhang, Yongjun; Pei, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi can produce a series of chitinases, some of which act synergistically with proteases to degrade insect cuticle. However, chitinase involvement in insect fungus pathogenesis has not been fully characterized. In this paper, an endochitinase, Bbchit1, was purified to homogeneity from liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana grown in a medium containing colloidal chitin. Bbchit1 had a molecular mass of about 33 kDa and pI of 5.4. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence, the chitinase gene, Bbchit1, and its upstream regulatory sequence were cloned. Bbchit1 was intronless, and there was a single copy in B. bassiana. Its regulatory sequence contained putative CreA/Crel carbon catabolic repressor binding domains, which was consistent with glucose suppression of Bbchit1. At the amino acid level, Bbchit1 showed significant similarity to a Streptomyces avermitilis putative endochitinase, a Streptomyces coelicolor putative chitinase, and Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase Chit36Y. However, Bbchit1 had very low levels of identity to other chitinase genes previously isolated from entomopathogenic fungi, indicating that Bbchit1 was a novel chitinase gene from an insect-pathogenic fungus. A gpd-Bbchit1 construct, in which Bbchit1 was driven by the Aspergiullus nidulans constitutive promoter, was transformed into the genome of B. bassiana, and three transformants that overproduced Bbchit1 were obtained. Insect bioassays revealed that overproduction of Bbchit1 enhanced the virulence of B. bassiana for aphids, as indicated by significantly lower 50% lethal concentrations and 50% lethal times of the transformants compared to the values for the wild-type strain.

  19. Laboratory evolution of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against Anopheles stephensi larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Veys-Behbahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana fungus bioassay against the larval stages of Anopheles stephensi in Iran. Methods: The fungal suspension by the concentrations of 1伊1 09, 5伊1 08, 1 08, 5伊1 07 and 1伊 107 conidia per milliliter have been prepared in different volumes (2, 4 and 6 mL and each concentration were added to containers containing 25 Anopheles larva instars 1 and 2. The mortality of the dead larvae with abnormal symptoms was recorded as a result of the fungal infection after 24, 48 and 72 h. Results: Comparison between the mean mortality rate of Anopheles stephensi larva at different concentrations of B. bassiana strain Iran 429C at 2, 4 and 6 mL showed that there was no significant relation of the mean mortality rate of larvae at concentrations of 1伊109 and 5伊108, and after 48 h resulted in 100% mortality rate of the larvae populations. In addition, there is no significant differences in the amounts of lethal times (LT (LT50 and LT90 as LT90 values calculated at a concentration of 5伊108 and in volumes 2, 4 and 6 mL were 1.46, 1.36 and 1.08 d, respectively. Conclusions: B. bassiana strain Iran 429C in 2 mL of 5伊108 concentration or the concentration of a 1伊109 mL per 100 mL of water is recommended as the optimal concentration for the control of Anopheles larvae. The development of suitable formulations of entomopathogenic fungi may be a promising prospect in the mosquito control programs.

  20. Fitness consequences of larval exposure to Beauveria bassiana on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Chantal B F; Bukhari, Tullu; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have shown to be effective in biological control of both larval and adult stages of malaria mosquitoes. However, a small fraction of mosquitoes is still able to emerge after treatment with fungus during the larval stage. It remains unclear whether fitness of these adults is affected by the treatment during the larval stage and whether they are still susceptible for another treatment during the adult stage. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on fitness of surviving Anopheles stephensi females. Furthermore, we tested whether larval exposed females were still susceptible to re-exposure to the fungus during the adult stage. Sex ratio, survival and reproductive success were compared between non-exposed and larval exposed A. stephensi. Comparisons were also made between survival of non-exposed and larval exposed females that were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage. Larval treatment did not affect sex ratio of emerging mosquitoes. Larval exposed females that were infected died significantly faster and laid equal numbers of eggs from which equal numbers of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females that were uninfected had equal survival, but laid a significantly larger number of eggs from which a significantly higher number of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females which were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage had equal survival as females exposed only during the adult stage. Our results suggest that individual consequences for fitness of larval exposed females depended on whether a fungal infection was acquired during the larval stage. Larval exposed females remained susceptible to re-exposure with B. bassiana during the adult stage, indicating that larval and adult control of malaria mosquitoes with EF are compatible. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Bombyx mori cecropin A has a high antifungal activity to entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dingding; Geng, Tao; Hou, Chengxiang; Huang, Yuxia; Qin, Guangxing; Guo, Xijie

    2016-05-25

    A cDNA encoding cecropin A (CecA) was cloned from the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori, using RT-PCR. It encodes a protein of 63 amino acids, containing a 22 amino acid signal peptide and a 37 amino acid mat peptide of functional domain. The CecA secondary structure contains two typical amphiphilic α-helices. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that CecA was expressed in all the tissues tested, including cuticle, fat body, hemocytes, Malpighian tubule, midgut and silk gland in the silkworm larvae with the highest expression in the fat body and hemocytes. The gene expression of B. mori CecA was rapidly induced by Beauveria bassiana challenge and reached maximum levels at 36h after inoculation in third instar larvae. In the fifth instar larvae infected with B. bassiana, the relative expression level of CecA was upregulated in fat body and hemocytes, but not in cuticle, Malpighian tubule, midgut and silk gland. The cDNA segment of the CecA was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-30a(+) to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. Western blot results revealed that his-tagged fusion protein was successfully expressed and purified. Then the mat peptide of CecA was chemically synthesized with C-terminus amidation for in vivo antifungal assay and purity achieved 93.7%. Mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE showed its molecular weight to be 4046.95Da. Antifungal assays indicated that the B. mori CecA had a high antifungal activity to entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana both in vitro and in vivo in the silkworm larvae. This is the first report that the CecA is effective to inhibit B. bassiana inside the body of silkworm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cuticle-degrading proteases and toxins as virulence markers of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, Annarita; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Strangi, Agostino; Francardi, Valeria; Zanfini, Assunta; Dreassi, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is one of the most known entomopathogenic fungal species and its entomopathogenic mechanism involves several bioactive metabolites, mainly cuticle-degrading enzymes and toxic molecules, which are predicted to play a key role as virulence factors. In this study six Beauveria bassiana strains (B 13/I03, B 13/I11, B 13/I49, B 13/I57, B 13/I63, and B 13/I64) were assayed against Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enzymatic activity of total proteases and specifically Pr 1 and Pr 2, as well as the production of toxic compounds were investigated in each fungal strain. Toxins were detected both in vitro-in medium filtrates and mycelia-and in vivo-in Tenebrio molitor larvae infected by the fungal strains tested. B 13/I11 and B 13/I63 strains showed the most significant entomopathogenic activity against Tenebrio molitor larvae (cumulative mortality rate 100 and 97%, respectively; average survival time 5.85 and 6.74 days, respectively). A widely variable and fungal strain-dependent enzymatic activity of total proteases, Pr 1 and Pr 2 was found. Beauvericin, beauvericin A and bassianolide resulted the most prevalent toxins detected in the substrates analyzed. It has been found that an increase of beauvericin content in vivo resulted significantly correlated to a decrease of Tenebrio molitor larvae average survival time in entomopathogenic bioassay (inverse correlation). The involvement of beauvericin in B. bassiana entomopathogenic process is confirmed; in vitro analysis of cuticle degrading proteases activity and toxins production in relation to the methods adopted resulted insufficient for a rapid screening to determine the virulence of B. bassiana strains against Tenebrio molitor larvae. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Protein deficiency lowers resistance of Mormon crickets to the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B; Jaronski, S T

    Little is known about the effects of dietary macronutrients on the capacity of insects to ward off a fungal pathogen. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mormon crickets fed restricted protein diets have lower enzymatic assays of generalized immunity, slower rates of encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from infection by Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen. Beginning in the last nymphal instar, Mormon crickets were fed a high, intermediate, or low protein diet with correspondingly low, intermediate, or high carbohydrate proportions. After they eclosed to adult, we drew hemolymph, topically applied B. bassiana, maintained them on diet treatments, and measured mortality for 21 days. Mormon crickets fed high protein diets had higher prophenoloxidase titers, greater encapsulation response, and higher survivorship to Beauveria fungal infection than those on low protein diets. We replicated the study adding very high and very low protein diets to the treatments. A high protein diet increased phenoloxidase titers, and those fed the very high protein diet had more circulating prophenoloxidase. Mormon crickets fed the very low protein diet were the most susceptible to B. bassiana infection, but the more concentrated phenoloxidase and prophenoloxidase associated with the highest protein diets did not confer the greatest protection from the fungal pathogen as in the first replicate. We conclude that protein-restricted diets caused Mormon crickets to have lower phenoloxidase titers, slower encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from B. bassiana infection than those fed high protein diets. These results support the nutrition-based dichotomy of migrating Mormon crickets, protein-deficient ones are more susceptible to pathogenic fungi whereas carbohydrate-deficient ones are more vulnerable to bacterial challenge. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  5. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  6. Natural variation in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Debets, Alfons J M; van Kan, Jan A L; Schoustra, Sijmen E; Takken, Willem; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2014-12-06

    Insecticide resistance is greatly hampering current efforts to control malaria and therefore alternative methods are needed. Entomopathogenic fungi have been proposed as an alternative with a special focus on the cosmopolitan species Beauveria bassiana. However, few studies have analysed the effects of natural variation within fungal isolates on mosquito survival, and the implications and possible exploitation for malaria control. Laboratory bioassays were performed on adult female mosquitoes (Anopheles coluzzii) with spores from 29 isolates of B. bassiana, originating from different parts of the world. In addition, phenotypic characteristics of the fungal isolates such as sporulation, spore size and growth rate were studied to explore their relationship with virulence. All tested isolates of B. bassiana killed An. coluzzii mosquitoes, and the rate at which this happened differed significantly among the isolates. The risk of mosquitoes dying was around ten times higher when they were exposed to the most virulent as compared to the least virulent isolate. There was significant variation among isolates in spore size, growth rate and sporulation, but none of these morphological characteristics were correlated, and thus predictive, for the ability of the fungal isolate to kill malaria mosquitoes. This study shows that there is a wide natural variation in virulence of isolates of B. bassiana, and that selecting an appropriate fungal isolate is highly relevant in killing and thus controlling malaria mosquitoes, particularly if used as part of an integrated vector management strategy. Also, the wide variation observed in virulence offers the opportunity to better understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive this variation and thus to address the potential development of resistance against entomopathogenic fungi.

  7. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  8. Experimental evolution to increase the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against malaria mosquitoes: Effects on mycelial growth and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A.; Kan, van Jan A.L.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Zwaan, Bas J.; Schoustra, Sijmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are currently considered as a potential control agent for malaria mosquitoes. The success of such strategies depends among others on the efficacy of the fungus to kill its hosts. As B. bassiana can use various resources for growth and reproduction,

  9. Data from: Experimental evolution to increase the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against malaria mosquitoes: effects on mycelial growth and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero Jimenez, C.A.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Schoustra, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are currently considered as a potential control agent for malaria mosquitoes. The success of such strategies depends among others on the efficacy of the fungus to kill its hosts. As B. bassiana can use various resources for growth and reproduction,

  10. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used

  11. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Clas [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage.

  12. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Clas

    2004-01-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage

  13. Beauvericin synthetase contains a calmodulin binding motif in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2018-03-19

    Beauvericin is a mycotoxin which has insecticidal, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-cancer activities. Beauvericin biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by the beauvericin synthetase (BEAS) in Beauveria bassiana. Ca 2+ plays crucial roles in multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. These Ca 2+ signals are partially decoded by Ca 2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). In this report, we describe that B. bassiana BEAS (BbBEAS) can interact with CaM in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. A synthetic BbBEAS peptide, corresponding to the putative CaM-binding motif, formed a stable complex with CaM in the presence of Ca 2+ . In addition, in vitro CaM-binding assay revealed that the His-tagged BbBEAS (amino acids 2421-2538) binds to CaM in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Therefore, this work suggests that BbBEAS is a novel CaM-binding protein in B. bassiana.

  14. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J.; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10 9 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  15. Effect of surfactants and temperature on germination and vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzy A. Mwamburi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three non-ionic surfactants: Tween20, Tween80 and Breakthru® were screened for their effects on spore germination and mycelial growth rates and for their influence on three isolates of Beauveria bassianaspore germination at various temperatures. Tween20 and Tween80 were compatible with all the B. bassiana isolates in the germination studies, but inhibited germination at higher surfactant concentrations, irrespective of the conidial concentrations. Breakthru® had an inhibitory effect on germination even at the lowest concentration of 0.1% on all the B. bassiana isolates. The effects of the surfactants on spore germination did not correspond with their effects on colony growth. Conidial viability within the same formulation declined significantly with increases in temperature, irrespective of the surfactant. The optimal temperature for conidial germination of B. bassiana isolates was approximately 25 °C with an upper limit at 30 °C. Isolate 7320 was identified as the least affected by the different surfactants. This isolate was able to germinate rapidly in a broad temperature range of 25–30 °C after 24 h, this characteristic being an essential factor in controlling house fly populations in poultry houses.

  16. Development of a method for detection and quantification of B. brongniartii and B. bassiana in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, L.; Malusà, E.; Tkaczuk, C.; Tartanus, M.; Łabanowska, B. H.; Pinzari, F.

    2016-03-01

    A culture independent method based on qPCR was developed for the detection and quantification of two fungal inoculants in soil. The aim was to adapt a genotyping approach based on SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) marker to a discriminating tracing of two different species of bioinoculants in soil, after their in-field release. Two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii, were traced and quantified in soil samples obtained from field trials. These two fungal species were used as biological agents in Poland to control Melolontha melolontha (European cockchafer), whose larvae live in soil menacing horticultural crops. Specificity of SSR markers was verified using controls consisting of: i) soil samples containing fungal spores of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in known dilutions; ii) the DNA of the fungal microorganisms; iii) soil samples singly inoculated with each fungus species. An initial evaluation of the protocol was performed with analyses of soil DNA and mycelial DNA. Further, the simultaneous detection and quantification of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in soil was achieved in field samples after application of the bio-inoculants. The protocol can be considered as a relatively low cost solution for the detection, identification and traceability of fungal bio-inoculants in soil.

  17. Beauveria bassiana strains for biological control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Dias, Alex Batista; Delalibera, Italo; de Jesus, Sandra Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Antonio Souza; Silva, Sebastião de Oliveira e; Caldas, Ranulfo Correa; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) in plantain farms (cv. Terra) of the "Recôncavo" and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416) were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4 g/trap) and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  18. Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. in plantain farms (cv. Terra of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416 were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  19. [Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrich, Michele; Alves, Luis F A; Haas, Jucelaine; Da Silva, Everton R L; Daros, Alaxsandra; Pietrowski, Vanda; Neves, Pedro M O J

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 x 10(9) conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used.

  20. The impact of environmental regulations on United States crude oil supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Biglarbigi, K.

    1991-01-01

    A number of legislative and regulatory initiatives being considered to protect the environment could affect the economics of oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) in the Unites States. This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive assessment of the potential cumulative energy and economic impacts of environmental regulatory initiatives on United States crude oil supplies. The results of the analysis clearly will determine the level of impact, but the results show that significant impacts are felt over a wide range of regulations, over a wide range of crude oil prices, and at two levels of development for extraction technologies. The regulations evaluated all have an impact on all resource categories analyzed in the study

  1. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Sundström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  2. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Chang Sun; Son, Ki Yon; Cho, Young Ho; Yang, Ji Won; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Suk

    2000-03-01

    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed

  3. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun; Son, Ki Yon; Cho, Young Ho; Yang, Ji Won; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Suk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed.

  4. Epigenetic Regulation of Centromere Chromatin Stability by Dietary and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saavedra, Diego; Strakovsky, Rita S; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-11-01

    The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation. In the current review, we will discuss the events that lead to micronucleus formation and centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin instability, as well transcripts emanating from these regions, which were previously thought to be inactive. Studies were selected in PubMed if they reported the effects of nutritional status (macro- and micronutrients) or environmental toxicant exposure on micronucleus frequency or any other chromosomal abnormality in humans, animals, or cell models. Mounting evidence from epidemiologic, environmental, and nutritional studies provides a novel perspective on the origination of aneuploidic events. Although substantial evidence exists describing the role that nutritional status and environmental toxicants have on the generation of micronuclei and other nuclear aberrations, limited information is available to describe the importance of macro- and micronutrients on centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin stability. Moving forward, studies that specifically address the direct link between nutritional status, excess, or deficiency and the epigenetic regulation of the centromere will provide much needed insight into the nutritional and environmental regulation of this chromosomal region and the initiation of aneuploidy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh

    2013-06-01

    Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.

  7. Studies on the Virome of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Reveal Novel dsRNA Elements and Mild Hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2017-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a wide host range and is used as a biocontrol agent against arthropod pests. Mycoviruses have been described in phytopathogenic fungi while in entomopathogenic fungi their presence has been reported only rarely. Here we show that 21.3% of a collection of B. bassiana isolates sourced from worldwide locations, harbor dsRNA elements. Molecular characterization of these elements revealed the prevalence of mycoviruses belonging to the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae families, the smallest reported virus to date, belonging to the family Narnaviridae, and viruses unassigned to a family or genus. Of particular importance is the discovery of members of a newly proposed family Polymycoviridae in B. bassiana. Polymycoviruses, previously designated as tetramycoviruses, consist of four non-conventionally encapsidated capped dsRNAs. The presence of additional non-homologous genomic segments in B. bassiana polymycoviruses and other fungi illustrates the unprecedented dynamic nature of the viral genome. Finally, a comparison of virus-free and virus-infected isogenic lines derived from an exemplar B. bassiana isolate revealed a mild hypervirulent effect of mycoviruses on the growth of their host isolate and on its pathogenicity against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, highlighting for the first time the potential of mycoviruses as enhancers of biocontrol agents.

  8. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): Field mortality and fungal persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai V; Porcel, Mario; Rämert, Birgitta

    2016-12-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered comprised the applied B. bassiana strain GHA. Larvae pupating in soil cages in the orchard for 49 d displayed 17% mycosis. The high efficacy under laboratory conditions was not seen in the field. B. bassiana application resulted in densities above the upper natural background level during the growing season, but reversion to background levels occurred within a year. It remains to be investigated whether this has a detrimental effect on nontarget organisms. Additional work is needed to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and field efficacy in orchards. © 2015 The Authors. Insect Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  10. Natural gas and the generation of electricity in relation to environmental protection regulations in EC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosenbauer, T.

    1994-01-01

    A brief account is given of regulations governing the use of gas in power plants, of emission limits for some substances such as SO 2 , NO x and dust, and of regulations concerning existing and newly built facilities, specifying the highest permissible emissions of environmental pollutants. (J.B.)

  11. Control of Hyalomma lusitanicum (Acari: Ixodidade) Ticks Infesting Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) Using the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hyocreales: Clavicipitaceae) in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Cutuli, M T; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely used to control arthropods not just in agricultural settings but also in Veterinary Medicine and Public Health. These products have been employed to control tick populations and tick-borne diseases. The effectiveness of these control measures not only depends on the fungi, but also on the tick species and environmental conditions. In Mesomediterranean areas, tick species are adapted to extreme climatic conditions and it is therefore especially important to develop suitable tick control strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new method of tick control which entails the application of a commercial strain of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, Vuillemin) on wild rabbit burrows under field conditions. Aqueous solutions of the product were applied using a mist blower sprayer into 1,717 burrows. Two trials were performed, one in spring and the other in summer. The parasitic index (PI) was calculated for 10 rabbits per treatment per time point on day +30, +60, and +90 posttreatment and efficiency was calculated by comparing the PI for ticks in treated and untreated rabbits. A total of 20,234 ixodid ticks were collected. Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 was the most abundant tick feeding on rabbits. Treatment significantly reduced the PI in spring (by 78.63% and 63.28% on day +30 and +60, respectively; P < 0.05), but appeared to be less effective in summer, with a marginally significant tick reduction of 35.72% on day +30 (P = 0.05). Results suggest that the efficacy of applications inside burrows could be temperature-dependent and that such applications could be an economic alternative to rabbit tick control during at least two months using a diluted solution of B. bassiana conidia. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Suscetibilidade de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae ao fungo Beauveria bassiana Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cassol de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliares de erva-mate (2,2 cm² foram previamente infestados com 20 fêmeas adultas. Alíquotas de 1 mL de cada suspensão de conídios dos diferentes isolados de B. bassiana, ajustadas na concentração de 1,0x10(8 conídios mL-1 foram pulverizadas, separadamente, sobre um conjunto de 5 discos. Os discos foliares foram mantidos flutuando em água destilada, em caixas plásticas (3 cm de diâmetro, sob condições controladas. Diariamente, os ácaros mortos foram transferidos para câmara úmida, para confirmação de mortalidade causada pelo fungo. A mortalidade total variou entre 77 e 98% (6 dias após a aplicação, não permitindo diferenciar os isolados quanto à virulência (P>0,05. Já a mortalidade confirmada variou entre 19 e 75%, permitindo diferenciá-los (PThe Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis crop is an important economical activity in Southern Brazil. With the increase of tea consumption in the 80s, the number of monoculture crops also increased, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophagous insect and mite populations, such as the red mite Oligonychus yothersi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the red mite O. yothersi to the several strains of the Beauveria bassiana fungus. The experiments were carried out in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. Leaf disks of Paraguay tea (2.2 cm² were previously infested with 20 adult females. Five disks were inoculated with 1 mL of each conidial suspension of B

  13. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  14. Vulnerability of US thermoelectric power generation to climate change when incorporating state-level environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad; Li, Hongyi; Forman, Barton; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-07-10

    This study explores the interactions between climate and thermoelectric generation in the U.S. by coupling an Earth System Model with a thermoelectric power generation model. We validated model simulations of power production for selected power plants (~44% of existing thermoelectric capacity) against reported values. In addition, we projected future usable capacity for existing power plants under two different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that climate change alone may reduce average thermoelectric generating capacity by 2%-3% by the 2060s. Reductions up to 12% are expected if environmental requirements are enforced without waivers for thermal variation. This study concludes that the impact of climate change on the U.S. thermoelectric power system is less than previous estimates due to an inclusion of a spatially-disaggregated representation of environmental regulations and provisional variances that temporarily relieve power plants from permit requirements. This work highlights the significance of accounting for legal constructs in which the operation of power plants are managed, and underscores the effects of provisional variances in addition to environmental requirements.

  15. Environmental Regulation of Offshore (E&P Waste Management in Nigeria: How Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwuli Irene Ofuani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of technology has led to the rapid development of the offshore oil and gas industry and a corresponding increase in the amount of wastes generated from the industry. These wastes must be properly managed so as to curtail their potential to negatively affect human health and the environment. As a result, environmental regulation of offshore oil and gas operations is becoming more stringent worldwide. The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN were issued to ensure that oil and gas industry operators do not degrade the environment in the course of their operations in Nigeria. Nonetheless, more attention has been focused on the economic aspects of offshore oil and gas industry rather than environmental aspects such as waste management. This article examines the legal aspects of offshore oil and gas waste management in Nigeria. It assesses the effectiveness of the mechanisms for the management of offshore E&P wastes in Nigeria as provided under EGASPIN in relation to other jurisdictions.

  16. Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-03-01

    Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  18. Selection of optimum conditions of medium acidity and aeration for submerget cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dregval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of medium pH and aeration rate on growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Вeauveria bassiana, which are main constituents of the complex microbial insecticide. It was established optimal medium pH for B. thuringiensis – 6.0 and for В. bassiana – 6.0–7.0. The maximum productivity of the studied microorganisms was observed in the same range of aeration – 7– 14 mmol O2/l/h. The selected conditions of cultivation are necessary for the production of complex biological insecticide based on the association of B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana.

  19. Cellular Immune Reactions of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, to the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaee, Arash; Bandani, Ali Reza; Talaei-Hassanlouei, Reza; Malagoli, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phagocytic activity of E. integriceps hemocytes and hampered nodule formation. A reduction of phenoloxidase activity was also observed. The data suggest that B. bassiana produce secondary metabolites that disable several immune mechanisms allowing the fungus to overcome and then kill its host. This characteristic makes B. bassiana a promising model for biological control of insect pests such as E. integriceps. PMID:22233481

  20. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA) of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921). Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto) group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions) were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2%) are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled. PMID:21521527

  1. Pengendalian hama penggerek ubi jalar Cylas formicarius (Fabricus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae menggunakan cendawan entomopatogen Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marida Santi Yudha Ika Bayu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cylas formicarius (Fabricus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae is one of the major pest on sweetpotato which can cause yield lost up to 100%. The objective of this study was to obtain the effective and efficiency control technique of sweetpotato weevils. The research was conducted on June–October 2014 at Muneng Research Station, Probolinggo, East Java, using randomized block design, five treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of immersion of sweetpotato cuttings in the suspension of conidia Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. for 30 minutes before planting; application of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS; immersion of sweetpotato cuttings in the suspension of conidia B. bassiana for 30 minutes before planting combined with application of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 WAS; application of chemical insecticide every week; and control. Analysis of variance showed that the application of various control technique significantly lowered the population of larvae and imago of C. formicarius and the level of tuber damage. The population level found on all treatments ranged from 1–4 eggs/plant, 1–19 larvae/plant, 0–0.2 pupae/plant and 0–4 imago/plant. The weight of tuber was 571–700 g/plant with the level of damage 6–53%. Low level of damage was found in the aplication of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 WAS which were 6%. Application of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 WAS can suppress the population of C. formicarius on tuber and reduce the level of damage up to 48%.

  2. On regulation of environmental responsibility in the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. - Parallel regulation within the framework of Euratom and the Lisbon-treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhag, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    In Sweden, the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in various laws and regulations. This means that there is an overlap between laws providing a sometimes vague and weak legal situation. Although attempts have been made to coordinate environmental and nuclear law these attempts have not succeeded. Recently, several Swedish reports have again described the fact that we have a parallel system of legal rules for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and the consequences of this. Foremost attention has been drawn to the fact that the licensing of a repository must be made both under the Nuclear Safety Act and the Environmental Code. The regulation referred to above is Swedish, and both the parallel regulation of nuclear safety-, radiation protection- and environmental- responsibility, and the relationship between such legislation, has its own Swedish history. However, Swedish legislation in all these areas is also under the influence of international regulations. This article describes the parallel regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection issues on a European level. It shows that the division and logic found in the relationship between the Swedish laws is only partially reflected at European level. First treated is the relationship between the EC-treaty and Euratom. The article then turns to examples of regulatory responsibility for waste management and communication of information relating to license applications (environmental impact assessments) for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel within the framework of Euratom and the EC-treaty. Finally, it discusses the implications of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing procedure

  3. On regulation of environmental responsibility in the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. - Parallel regulation within the framework of Euratom and the Lisbon-treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhag, Thomas (Dept. of Law, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)), e-mail: thomas.erhag@law.gu.se

    2010-09-15

    In Sweden, the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in various laws and regulations. This means that there is an overlap between laws providing a sometimes vague and weak legal situation. Although attempts have been made to coordinate environmental and nuclear law these attempts have not succeeded. Recently, several Swedish reports have again described the fact that we have a parallel system of legal rules for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and the consequences of this. Foremost attention has been drawn to the fact that the licensing of a repository must be made both under the Nuclear Safety Act and the Environmental Code. The regulation referred to above is Swedish, and both the parallel regulation of nuclear safety-, radiation protection- and environmental- responsibility, and the relationship between such legislation, has its own Swedish history. However, Swedish legislation in all these areas is also under the influence of international regulations. This article describes the parallel regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection issues on a European level. It shows that the division and logic found in the relationship between the Swedish laws is only partially reflected at European level. First treated is the relationship between the EC-treaty and Euratom. The article then turns to examples of regulatory responsibility for waste management and communication of information relating to license applications (environmental impact assessments) for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel within the framework of Euratom and the EC-treaty. Finally, it discusses the implications of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing procedure

  4. Detection and Quantification of the Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophyte Beauveria bassiana in Plants by Nested and Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Landa, Blanca B; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The described protocol allows detecting as low as 10 fg the entomopathogenic fungal endophyte Beauveria bassiana in host plants by using a two-step nested PCR with the ITS1F/ITS4 and BB.fw and BB.rv primer pairs. On the other hand, a qPCR protocol using BB.fw and BB.rv primers is also available allowing the quantification of up to 26 fg of B. bassiana DNA per 20 ng of leaf DNA.

  5. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  6. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  7. Regulation of developmental and environmental signaling by interaction between microtubules and membranes in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cell division and expansion require the ordered arrangement of microtubules, which are subject to spatial and temporal modifications by developmental and environmental factors. Understanding how signals translate to changes in cortical microtubule organization is of fundamental importance. A defining feature of the cortical microtubule array is its association with the plasma membrane; modules of the plasma membrane are thought to play important roles in the mediation of microtubule organization. In this review, we highlight advances in research on the regulation of cortical microtubule organization by membrane-associated and membrane-tethered proteins and lipids in response to phytohormones and stress. The transmembrane kinase receptor Rho-like guanosine triphosphatase, phospholipase D, phosphatidic acid, and phosphoinositides are discussed with a focus on their roles in microtubule organization.

  8. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  9. Environmental oxygen tension regulates the energy metabolism and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristal, Catherine E; Christensen, David R; Chinnery, Fay E; Petruzzelli, Raffaella; Parry, Kate L; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Houghton, Franchesca D

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is intrinsic to cell viability but surprisingly has been little studied in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The current study aims to investigate the effect of environmental O2 tension on carbohydrate utilisation of hESCs. Highly pluripotent hESCs cultured at 5% O2 consumed significantly more glucose, less pyruvate and produced more lactate compared to those maintained at 20% O2. Moreover, hESCs cultured at atmospheric O2 levels expressed significantly less OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG than those maintained at 5% O2. To determine whether this difference in metabolism was a reflection of the pluripotent state, hESCs were cultured at 5% O2 in the absence of FGF2 for 16 hours leading to a significant reduction in the expression of SOX2. In addition, these cells consumed less glucose and produced significantly less lactate compared to those cultured in the presence of FGF2. hESCs maintained at 5% O2 were found to consume significantly less O2 than those cultured in the absence of FGF2, or at 20% O2. GLUT1 expression correlated with glucose consumption and using siRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation was found to be directly regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α at 5% O2. In conclusion, highly pluripotent cells associated with hypoxic culture consume low levels of O2, high levels of glucose and produce large amounts of lactate, while at atmospheric conditions glucose consumption and lactate production are reduced and there is an increase in oxidative metabolism. These data suggest that environmental O2 regulates energy metabolism and is intrinsic to the self-renewal of hESCs.

  10. The interaction of new environmental regulations and the financing of waste processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will first explore new EPA regulations and how they are driving demand for environmental facilities. Special attention will be paid to the legal interaction of technology and federal and state policymaking. Attention also will be paid to the barriers to capital formation caused by federal regulation and the legal inadequacy of many infrastructure systems at the state and local level. Next, the paper will consider the implication of various financing techniques in light of these regulatory developments. Particular attention will be paid to existing legal and structural difficulties to the use of each of these three approaches, including tax incentives at the federal level, inability to use pollution control financing mechanisms in states, and the general decline of the availability of industrial revenue bond mechanisms. Finally, the paper will explore alternate credit support techniques that might be used to fill gaps between the regulatory pressures and the possible finance structures. It will examine possible uses of letters of credit, guarantees, forms of equity investment. Other, more difficult credit support devices such as insurance will be given brief consideration. Finally, there will be a brief overview of the liability implication for the various participants (debt inequity) in the financing of these facilities

  11. On the developmental and environmental regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium spp. berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.

  12. Reaction of simple sterile sugar beet hybrids to regulated environmental factors for sugar yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar yield, an important indicator, is resulting from interaction of two components: the yield and sugar content, both they are controlled by polygenes, and influenced significantly by environment. A.V. Kilchevskyi and L.V. Hotyliova pointed to the fact that in breeding, contrary to evolution, stabilizing forms are dominated by driving ones, which determine the growth response to regulated factors and decreased resistance to non-regulated environmental factors [1]. A relevant breeding trend is to create the genotypes adequate with certain technologies, so to say «low input variety high input variety» i.e. varieties with low and high energy contribution to technology. From this perspective, selection of stable in their manifestation lines against the analyzing backgrounds has become an important element of the breeding process [2]. Home scientists, such as A.L. Mazmulov and M.S. Hrytsyk have contributed greatly to the development and application of the agro-backgrounds [3, 4].

  13. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  14. Environmental emergency response plans (EERPs): A single plan approach to satisfy multiple regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzyka, L.

    1995-01-01

    Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs

  15. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  16. New Approach of Beauveria bassiana to Control the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Trapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, M J; Ajlan, A M; Al-Ahmad, M H

    2015-04-01

    This work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)). This fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. Bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. The result showed that the LC50 of B. bassiana (Broadband) was 2.19×10(7) and 2.76×10(6) spores/ml at 9 and 23 d of treatment, respectively. The LT50 was 13.95 and 4.15 d for concentration of 1×10(7) and 1×10(8) spores/ml, respectively, whereas 1×10(9) spores/ml caused 100% mortality after 24 h. Additionally, a red palm weevil pheromone trap was designed to attract the adults to be contaminated with spores of Broadband, which was applied to the sackcloth fabric that coated the internal surfaces of the bucket trap. The mating behavior was studied to determine direct and indirect infection of the spores from male to female and vice versa. The results showed a high efficacy of Broadband suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml; 40 ml of suspension at this concentration treated to cloth in a trap caused death of contaminated adults with B. bassiana spores directly and indirectly. The 100% mortality was obtained even after 13 d of traps treatment with 40 ml of the suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nitrogen sources affect productivity, desiccation tolerance and storage stability of Beauveria bassiana blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, G M; Kobori, N N; Jackson, M A; Dunlap, C A; Delalibera, Í

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen is a critical element in industrial fermentation media. This study investigated the influence of various nitrogen sources on blastospore production, desiccation tolerance and storage stability using two strains of the cosmopolitan insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Complex organic sources of nitrogen such as soy flour, autolysed yeast and cottonseed flour induced great numbers of blastospores after 2-3 days of fermentation, which also survived drying and remained viable (32-56% survival) after 9 months storage at 4°C, although variations were found between strains. Nitrogen availability in the form of free amino acids directly influenced blastospore production and resistance to desiccation. Increasing glucose and nitrogen concentrations up to 120 and 30 g l -1 , respectively, did not improve blastospore production but enhanced desiccation tolerance. Cell viability after drying and upon fast-rehydration was increased when ≥25 g acid-hydrolysed casein per litre was supplemented in the liquid culture medium. These findings indicate that low-cost complex nitrogen compounds are suitable to enhance yeast-like growth by B. bassiana with good desiccation tolerance and therefore support its further scale-up production as a mycoinsecticide. Nitrogen is the most expensive nutrient in liquid media composition, but this study underscores the feasibility of using low-cost nitrogen compounds composed mainly of agro-industrial by-products for rapid production of desiccation-tolerant B. bassiana blastospores by liquid culture fermentation. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×109 TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×1010 TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200–600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×1010 TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×1010 SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 1012 TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS. PMID:24949278

  20. Insectistatic and insecticide activity of Beauveria bassiana in Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. Marín-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Bradysia impatiens causa pérdidas significativas en viveros e invernaderos de México. Objetivo: El efecto insecticida e insectistático de Beauveria bassiana se evaluó sobre B. impatiens. Materiales y métodos: El efecto insecticida e insectistático de conidios (10 7 conidios·mL -1 , enzimas (10 000 ppm, metabolitos (10 000 ppm y extracto crudo de B. bassiana se evaluó a los 8 y 20 días. Los datos de mortalidad corregida de larvas y pupas de B. impatiens y emergencia relativa de adultos, transformados con la función arcoseno, se sometieron a un análisis de varianza y comparación de medias de Tukey ( P < 0.05. Resultados y discusión: En el día 8, los conidios tuvieron la mayor actividad insecticida con 31.1 % de mortalidad corregida, mientras que la actividad de las enzimas fue nula. A los 20 días, los tratamientos de metabolitos y conidios tuvieron el mayor efecto en la mortalidad, 47.5 y 42.1 %, respectivamente. Dichos tratamientos tuvieron la mayor actividad insectistática. La emergencia de adultos a los 20 días fue menor con los conidios (6 %, mientras que con las enzimas fue de 100 %. Los metabolitos provocaron que 65 % de los adultos mostraran malformaciones. Conclusión: Los metabolitos y conidios de B. bassiana podrían emplearse para el control de larvas y pupas de B. impatiens.

  1. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana conidia to abiotic factors after successive in vitro subcultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro successive subcultures of Beauveria bassiana isolates in different nutritional conditions on conidia heat and UV radiation tolerance and on sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide. The fungus was initially inoculated in Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae adults and after its development, the conidia were cultivated in PDA (potato dextrose agar and MPE (medium to produce Beauveria spp. conidia originating the first subculture 1st (A conidia, which were successively multiplied in their media until the 20th cultivation. Conidia taken from the 20th subculture were again inoculated in the insect and after sporulation they were once more multiplied in the media, producing the 1st (B conidia. For the tests, 1st (A, 10th, 20th and 1st (B conidia from the CG 152 and Unioeste 40 isolates were used. Successive subcultures and the medium nutritional conditions interfered on the fungus physiology, and the isolates showed different behaviors. The subcultures on PDA showed higher thermotolerance to Unioeste 40 in all subcultures and to CG 152 just after inoculation in the host. B. bassiana was susceptible to UV radiation, and this characteristic was influenced by the subcultures in different media. Both isolates were more tolerant to UV radiation when subcultivated on MPE, while just for the 40 Unioeste this tolerance increased after host inoculation. The B. bassiana sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was affected after successive subcultures in both medium. Conidia originated in MPE were more resistant to fungicide and the host inoculation increased this tolerance. These results show that it is possible to enhance the fungi efficiency to control pests, through the selection of a virulent isolate, and handling their nutritional conditions during cultivation and host inoculation.

  2. Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae) to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Renato Cassol de; Alves, Luis Francisco Angeli; Neves, Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro

    2002-01-01

    A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliare...

  3. Development of an attract-and-infect system to control Rhynchophorus ferrugineus with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembilio, Óscar; Moya, Pilar; Vacas, Sandra; Ortega-García, Lola; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Jaques, Josep A; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2018-02-09

    A new Beauveria bassiana-based attract and infect device (AID) to control Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was developed. The virulence and persistence of the fungal formulation used in the AID were evaluated in the laboratory. Semi-field and field trials were carried out to validate the results and establish the potential of this device as a control tool. In laboratory conditions, a 50% lethal time (LT 50 ) of 4.33 days was obtained when adults (7-10 days old) were exposed to the inoculation tunnel (IT) containing 1 × 10 10 conidia g -1 in an oil-based fungal formulation. This formulation maintained conidium viability at 50% for up to 2 months. Moreover, when adults were exposed to 2.5-month field-aged ITs, mortality still reached 50% 40 days after exposure. In addition, no differences were observed between ITs aged in early spring and those aged in summer, suggesting that the fungal formulation is not strongly affected by environmental factors in Mediterranean basin conditions. Semi-field assays showed that the device allowed an easy transit of weevils through the IT, which were effectively attracted and infected. Using the AIDs in 4-ha plot field trials, a reduction of >50% in the percentage of infested sentinel palms was obtained. Based on the results obtained in terms of the efficacy and persistence of this new AID in the field and its potential in reducing R. ferrugineus populations and palm infestation, this device could become a key tool for the management of R. ferrugineus. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  5. The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Total Factor Energy Efficiency: A Cross-Region Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulations are the key measure by which governments achieve sustainable environmental and economic development. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect impacts of environmental regulations on total factor energy efficiency of regions in China. Since regions have different levels of economic development and resource endowment, we used the slacks-based measure (SBM-undesirable model to calculate total factor energy efficiency considering regional technology heterogeneity and examined the regional impacts of environmental regulation on this efficiency using the Tobit regression model. A positive direct impact was generated in the eastern region of China by the forced mechanism, which forced enterprises to reduce fossil fuel energy demand and increase clean energy consumption; whereas a negative direct impact was generated in the middle and western regions owing to the green paradox, which is the observation that expected stringent environmental regulation prompts energy owners to accelerate resource extraction. Moreover, indirect impacts through technological progress and foreign direct investment were taken into account in the model, and the results show that the indirect impacts vary across regions. A logical response to these findings would be to develop different policies for different regions.

  6. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  7. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2017-06-05

    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Many ways to be small: different environmental regulators of size generate distinct scaling relationships in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Shingleton, Alexander W.; Estep, Chad M.; Driscoll, Michael V.; Dworkin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Static allometries, the scaling relationship between body and trait size, describe the shape of animals in a population or species, and are generated in response to variation in genetic or environmental regulators of size. In principle, allometries may vary with the different size regulators that generate them, which can be problematic since allometric differences are also used to infer patterns of selection on morphology. We test this hypothesis by examining the patterns of scaling in Drosop...

  9. Preliminary analysis of environmental regulations related to remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2695

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Saylor, R.E.

    1986-11-01

    Past research and development activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have resulted in the presence of several areas where low-level radioactive and/or hazardous waste have been disposed of or that have been contaminated through accidental spills or planned releases of radionuclides. Although these areas have been monitored and controlled to ensure that on-site and off-site releases of contaminants are within applicable Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines, ORNL established the Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade (ERFU) Program to address formally the immediate and long-range needs of meeting all applicable federal and state regulations regarding waste disposal. The environmental laws, regulations, and DOE Orders governing the cleanup activities are numerous and complex. Hence, a synthesis of the principal regulations related to the ERFU Program is presented to facilitate efficient planning for characterization and cleanup of contaminated sites. Because of regulatory decisions made after this report was finalized, several statements presented herein may no longer apply to the ERFU Program. Nevertheless, the report is issued as originally written so that ORNL's early planning efforts to comply with environmental laws and legislation are formally documented. Several general principles to consider when developing a plan for environmental compliance - which would be of use to others who must comply with legislation related to the cleanup of sites contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous chemicals - are also discussed

  10. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  11. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 A bout the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies , which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  12. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  13. [Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and neem oil to control the Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, José M; Marques, Edmilson J; de Oliveira, José V

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest.

  14. Bioesai bioinsektisida Beauveria bassiana dari Sumatera Selatan terhadap kutu putih pepaya, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In fresh swamp areas of South Sumatra, papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae could cause severe damage to young papaya trees and decreased the fruit quality. The objective of this research was to bioassay test of the bioinsecticide Beauveria bassiana againts nymphs of P. marginatus. B. bassiana was conducted on rice medium. The bioinsecticide was formulated using dried compost, compost gram, paddy ash, paddy bran, woody powder, paddy bran mixed with woody powder, compost enriched with Trichoderma virens. Controls used were sterile water (control 1 and isolate of B. bassiana (control 2. Results showed that conidial viability of B. bassiana on control 2 was the highest (46.33%. The viability of control 2 was not significantly different from the formulations with carrier of the paddy bran, the paddy bran mixed with woody powder, and the compost enriched with T. virens. The highest nymph mortality (82.86% was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens and was significantly different from other treatments. The lowest visibly (73.48% occured on formulation of paddy ash, and was significantly different from other treatments. Mortality on control 1 on average was 29.52%, whereas control 2 averaged of 75.71%. The shortest median lethal time (LT50 (3.55 days was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens but the longest one (3.73 days occured on the formulation of paddy ash. Overall, the most effective bioinsecticide was the formulation of compost enriched with T. virens.

  15. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana infection in the hemolymph serum proteins of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-11-01

    Beauveria bassiana plays a prominent role in biocontrol of houseflies, Musca domestica (L.). Thus, a deeper insight into immune response of M. domestica during B. bassiana infection was warranted to assist the production of more efficient mycoinsecticides. The present study investigates changes in protein profile of M. domestica hemolymph serum post B. bassiana infection using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by identification of selected proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The non-infected or control group of flies showed an expression of 54 proteins, while M. domestica infected with B. bassiana expressed a total of 68 hemolymph serum proteins. Thirty three proteins were expressed in both groups of houseflies, whereas 35 proteins were exclusively expressed in infected flies and 21 proteins were exclusively expressed in control flies. Among the 33 proteins which were expressed in both groups of houseflies, 17 proteins showed downregulation, while16 proteins were upregulated in the infected flies compared to the non-infected ones. The results from this study are expected to facilitate better understanding of insect's immune response mechanism.

  16. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto R ). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  17. The efficacy of Beauveria bassiana, jasmonic acid and chlorantraniliprole on larval populations of Helicoverpa armigera in chickpea crop ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Aneela; Wakil, Waqas; Khan, Zaeema; Shaaban, Muhammad; Prager, Sean Michael

    2017-02-01

    A robust integrated pest management (IPM) programme is needed to reduce the use of insecticides in controlling Helicoverpa armigera. Therefore, a 2 year field study was conducted to evaluate the use of alternative control measures (biochemical use) for H. armigera relative to exclusively using chemical insecticides. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, jasmonic acid and the insecticide chlorantraniliprole were each applied twice during the chickpea growing season. All three applied materials (either alone or combined) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the larval population of H. armigera and pod infestation. Effects increased with time, and the maximum difference was observed 7 days after the second application in each year. The lowest numbers of larvae per plant and pod infestation were in the B. bassiana 3.21 × 10 6 + chlorantraniliprole treatment in both 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 year. The reduction in the larval population and pod infestation increased chickpea yield and the highest yield in both seasons, and the maximum yield was obtained in the B. bassiana 3.21 × 10 6 + chlorantraniliprole treatment. The populations of natural enemies were highest in the jasmonic acid treatment. The results suggest that B. bassiana, jasmonic acid and chlorantraniliprole may be useful components for the H. armigera IPM strategy. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    , but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each...

  19. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  1. Evolutionarily informative strain-typing for Beauveria bassiana: multilocus haplotype stability and a genetic context for the mycoinsecticide GHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (ARSEF3620, ATCC74250), the active component of mycoinsecticide formulations BotaniGard® and Mycotrol® (Certis, Columbia, MD), is a leading fungal biocontrol agent used against pest insects. Due to its pathogenicity and virulence toward diverse insect taxa, GHA is often...

  2. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  3. Label-Free Differential Proteomics and Quantification of Exoenzymes from Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dionisio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes. As sole carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate sources we used 1% shrimp chitin and either 0.5% w/v of dead intact American cockroach (Periplaneta americana or their isolated cuticles. This is the first report of a differential proteomics of B. bassiana exoenzymes performed by label-free nano-LC MS/MS. Total proteolytic enzyme activity was mainly due to Pr1A or Pr1B depending on the isolate and the diet regime. The most differentially secreted enzymes were: the cuticle-degrading subtilisin Pr1A, GH13 alpha-glycosidase, glucan endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase, subtilisin-like proteinase Spm1, lipase 1, beta-1,3 exoglucanase, and endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase. Among the B. bassiana isolates analyzed, Bb 678 and Bb BG were the most active in Pr1A secretion.

  4. Label-Free Differential Proteomics and Quantification of Exoenzymes from Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Kryger, Per; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-10-14

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes. As sole carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate sources we used 1% shrimp chitin and either 0.5% w / v of dead intact American cockroach ( Periplaneta americana ) or their isolated cuticles. This is the first report of a differential proteomics of B. bassiana exoenzymes performed by label-free nano-LC MS/MS. Total proteolytic enzyme activity was mainly due to Pr1A or Pr1B depending on the isolate and the diet regime. The most differentially secreted enzymes were: the cuticle-degrading subtilisin Pr1A, GH13 alpha-glycosidase, glucan endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase, subtilisin-like proteinase Spm1, lipase 1, beta-1,3 exoglucanase, and endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase. Among the B. bassiana isolates analyzed, Bb 678 and Bb BG were the most active in Pr1A secretion.

  5. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E.

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC 50 ), mean lethal time (LT 50 ), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC 50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10 7 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT 50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  6. Manual: environmental impact statement and intervention regulation; Leitfaden Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und Eingriffsregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, K

    1993-12-31

    In order to be able to fulfil also legally the important tasks of environmental protection and natural preservation in the last ten years numerous legal provisions have been issued. Many of these laws require that the environmental impact of projects and constructional measures is taken into account to a higher degree. Two important instruments in this connection are the impact statement and the intervention regulation of natural preservation. Their importance and consequences for the planning and realization of projects are until now not sufficiently know. This manual is to fill this gap. This booklet shall help builder-owners and investors to realize their building projects in a way which is compatible with the environment. For architects and planners information is given in this manual about the requirements to be fulfilled in the individual planning and licensing procedures. The booklet is structured in a way that builder-owners, consultants and authorities find quickly the information needed. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Um die wichtigen Aufgaben des Umwelt- und Naturschutzgesetzes auch rechtlich zu bewaeltigen, sind in den letzten Jahren eine Vielzahl von Rechtsvorschriften erlassen worden. Zahlreiche dieser Gesetze erfordern, dass kuenftig Umwelt- und Naturschutzbelange bei Planungen und Baumassnahmen staerker beruecksichtigt werden. Zwei wesentliche Instrumente dafuer sind die Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung (UVP) und die naturschutzrechtliche Eingriffsregelung. Ihre Bedeutung und die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen fuer die Planung und Ausfuehrung von Vorhaben sind bislang allerdings noch nicht hinreichend bekannt. Diese Luecke soll der vorliegende Leitfaden schliessen helfen. Bauherren und Investoren sollen mit dieser Broschuere informiert werden, wie sie ihr geplantes Bauvorhaben umweltvertraeglich realisieren koennen. Architekten und Planer koennen durch diesen Leitfaden erfahren, welche Leistungen in den einzelnen Planungs- und Genehmigungsverfahren zu

  7. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  8. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  9. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Vici

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting application of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA was produced in Komagataella pastoris in Buffered Methanol Medium (BMM induced with 1% methanol at 30 °C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in Komagataella pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction.

  10. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Ana C; da Cruz, Andrezza F; Facchini, Fernanda D A; de Carvalho, Caio C; Pereira, Marita G; Fonseca-Maldonado, Raquel; Ward, Richard J; Pessela, Benevides C; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Torres, Fernando A G; Jorge, João A; Polizeli, Maria L T M

    2015-01-01

    Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting applications of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol) transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA) was produced in Komagataella pastoris in buffered methanol medium (BMM) induced with 1% methanol at 30°C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in K. pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction.

  11. Effect of temperature and humidity on pathogenicity of native Beauveria bassiana isolate against Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-12-01

    Beauveria bassiana HQ917687 virulence to housefly larvae and adult was assessed at different relative humidity, RH (50, 75, 90, and 100 %) and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 °C) conditions at the fungal dose of 10(8) conidia/ml. Depending on the temperature and RH regime tested, difference in mortality rates of housefly adult and larvae were detected. During assay on adult housefly, 100 % mortality was achieved at RH, 90 and 100 % while the temperature of 30 °C showed maximum mortality at all the tested humidity conditions. Lethal time, LT50 was 2.9 days at 100 % RH. Larval mortality at different humidity conditions varied between 30 and 74 %, with maximum mortality at 100 % RH and 30 °C. Optimum temperature for B. bassiana virulence to housefly larvae was also found to be 30 °C. The interaction between temperature and RH revealed significant effect of RH at moderate temperature range (20-35 °C), while such an interaction was not observed at extreme temperatures. The results obtained in this study have useful implications in understanding the pathogen behavior under actual field conditions. This in turn may help devising suitable entomopathogen release schedules for maximum fungal infection.

  12. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  13. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Melinda; Gómez-Jiménez, María I.; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.; Kramer, Matthew; Parsa, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stem cuttings using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of cassava roots by both entomopathogens, though neither was found in the leaves or stems of the treated cassava plants. Both fungal entomopathogens were detected more often in the proximal end of the root than in the distal end. Colonization levels of B. bassiana were higher when plants were sampled at 7–9 days post-inoculation (84%) compared to 47–49 days post-inoculation (40%). In contrast, the colonization levels of M. anisopliae remained constant from 7–9 days post-inoculation (80%) to 47–49 days post-inoculation (80%), which suggests M. anisopliae is better able to persist in the soil, or as an endophyte in cassava roots over time. Differences in colonization success and plant growth were found among the fungal entomopathogen treatments. PMID:27103778

  14. Toxicological and biochemical response of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana after exposure to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Lucas; Juárez, M Patricia; Lavarías, Sabrina; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2014-05-01

    The chemical control of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans is endangered by the emergence of pyrethroid resistance. An effective alternative control tool is the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. The effect of deltamethrin on fungal growth, gene expression and enzyme activity in relation to detoxification, antioxidant response and oxidative stress levels was studied to evaluate fungal tolerance to deltamethrin. The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) was 50 µg deltamethrin/cm(2). Cytochrome P450 genes were differentially expressed; cyp52X1 and cyp617N1 transcripts were > 2-fold induced, followed by cyp655C1 (1.8-fold). Minor effects were observed on genes encoding for other P450s, epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes showed induction levels ≤ 2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase genes were also induced ∼ 2-3-fold and < 2-fold, respectively. The activities of enzymes participating in the antioxidant defense system and phase II detoxification were also evaluated; SOD, CAT and GST activity showed significant differences with deltamethrin concentration. Lipid peroxidation levels and free proline content were also altered. Beauveria bassiana GHA can be used combined with deltamethrin without significant metabolic detrimental effects. This combination will help optimizing the benefits and increasing the efficacy of vector control tools. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Impact of Environmental Regulation and Technical Progress on Industrial Carbon Productivity: An Approach Based on Proxy Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the main influencing factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity by incorporating environmental regulation and technical progress into an econometric model. The paper focuses on data from 35 of China’s industrial sectors and covers the period from 2006 to 2014, in order to examine the impact of environmental regulation and technical progress on carbon productivity. Methods applied include panel fixed effect model, panel random effect model and two stage least squares with instrumental variables (IV-2SLS. The effect of environmental regulation and technical progress has industrial heterogeneity. The paper subdivides industrial sectors into capital and technology intensive, resource intensive and labor intensive sectors according to factor intensiveness. The estimation results of the subgroups have uncovered that for capital and technology intensive and resource intensive sectors, environmental regulation has a more significant impact than technical progress; while for labor intensive sectors, innovation more significantly influences carbon productivity. In addition, foreign direct investment (FDI and industrialization level facilitate improving carbon productivity for the full sample. By contrast, industrial structure inhibits the overall industrial carbon productivity. The industry-specific results indicate that for capital and technology intensive sectors, optimizing of the industrial structure can improve carbon productivity; for resource intensive sectors, FDI and energy consumption structure should be emphasized more; for labor intensive sectors, industrialization levels help enhance carbon productivity. Finally the industrial sector-specific policy suggestions are proposed.

  16. Lethality of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 on Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) and its possible impact on beneficial arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassays were conducted to examine the pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strain NI8 against Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) and its impact on natural enemies including Apis mellifera L., Crysoperla rufrilabris Burmeister, Orius insid...

  17. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  18. Greenhouse gas emission trading schemes: a new tool for the environmental regulator's kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    As the European Union greenhouse gas emission trading scheme (ETS) is emerging, it seems interesting to look back on previous experiments and to bring together a few elements of reflection about the pertinence of ETS as a new policy tool to regulate industrial pollution. So far, several regulatory tools have been used to decrease pollution. This article focuses on two of them, command-and-control (CAC) and ETS. There is no simple answer to which one is more efficient. It depends strongly on the context. Given a few elements outlined in this paper, the choice of an ETS to abate industrial emissions of greenhouse gases in the European Union (EU) can be considered pertinent. But, ultimately, what makes a scheme environmentally efficient is not the tool in itself (ETS or CAC) but the ambition of the target. Hence the design of the National Allocation Plans setting the emission caps are of paramount importance. They will make the EU ETS either a useless mess or an effective climate change mitigation policy tool

  19. Recent developments in environmental regulations and their impact on the U.S. refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmassebi, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Public concern over the environment has heightened considerably since the hot, dry summer of 1988. Responding to these concerns, the administration and Congress have initiated a number of measures to address such issues as acid rain, ozone depletion, smog, and global climate change. Most of these measures are aimed at the oil industry or energy-producing companies. They cone on the heels of other costly environmental legislation, to phase out lead in gasoline and reduce gasoline volatility. Additional measures aimed at different segments of the oil industry (production, refining, and retailing) are expected. In analyzing the merits of these policies, one must address the following issues: the feasibility of reaching an optimum point for these regulatory measures, considering the potential costs and benefits; the ramifications of such measures on the U.S. oil industry, particularly on the U.S. refining industry; the costs to the final consumer and the economy; and the effects of the implementation of such regulations by other countries and our trading partners. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concerns raised above, particularly as they relate to the U.S. refining industry

  20. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  1. Life cycle environmental evaluation of kettles: Recommendations for the development of eco-design regulations in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Between 117 and 200 million kettles are used in the European Union (EU) every year. However, the full environmental impacts of kettles remain largely unknown. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of conventional plastic and metallic kettles in comparison with eco-kettles. The results show that the use stage contributes 80% to the impacts. For this reason, the eco-kettle has over 30% lower environmental impacts due to a greater water efficiency and related lower energy consumption. These results have been extrapolated to the EU level to consider the implications for proposed eco-design regulations. For these purposes, the effects on the impacts of durability of kettles and improvements in their energy and water efficiency have been assessed as they have been identified as two key parameters in the proposed regulations. The results suggest that increasing the current average durability from 4.4 to seven years would reduce the impacts by less than 5%. Thus, improving durability is not a key issue for improving the environmental performance of kettles and does not justify the need for an eco-design regulation based exclusively on it. However, improvements in water and energy efficiency through eco-design can bring relevant environmental savings. Boiling the exact amount of water needed would reduce the impacts by around a third and using water temperature control by further 2%-5%. The study has also considered the effects of reducing significantly the number of kettles in use after the UK (large user of kettles) leaves the EU and reducing the excess water typically boiled by the consumer. Even under these circumstances, the environmental savings justify the development of a specific EU eco-design regulation for kettles. However, consumer engagement will be key to the implementation and achievement of the expected environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Distinctive Pattern of Beauveria bassiana-biotransformed Ginsenoside Products Triggers Mitochondria/FasL-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Sang Il; Rahman, Md Khalilur; Won, Jong Soon; Cho, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Implications of sequence and timing of exposure for synergy between the pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyling, Nicolai V; Arthur, Samuel; Pedersen, Kathrine E; Dhakal, Suraj; Cedergreen, Nina; Fredensborg, Brian L

    2018-03-30

    Combining low doses of chemical insecticides with entomopathogens constitutes a sustainable pest control method, but the significance of the timing and sequence of exposures needs clarification. We studied lethal effects of combinations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (KVL03-122) and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin on the beetle Tenebrio molitor under varying timing and sequence of exposure. Synergy over time was evaluated in relation to the model of independent action (IA). We expected that increased progression of disease caused by B. bassiana would make beetles more susceptible to the insecticide, leading to enhanced synergy. Synergistic effects between B. bassiana and alpha-cypermethrin were observed when B. bassiana was applied first, but only when the interval between applications was >48 h. With 72 h between exposures, mortality had increased to 100% after 8 days, in contrast to the 60% mortality expected. No synergy was observed when the insecticide was applied prior to fungal exposure within 24 h. The sequence and timing of exposure do matter to achieve synergistic mortality by combining B. bassiana and alpha-cypermethrin, and the IA model proved to be a strong tool with which to evaluate the interactions of the two stressors over time. Pest control strategies could include B. bassiana followed by low-dose exposures to alpha-cypermethrin after 2-3 days. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of Strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against Spodoptera litura on the Basis of Their Virulence, Germination Rate, Conidia Production, Radial Growth and Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlamul, Wanida; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-06-01

    Ten strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated to find the most effective strain for optimization studies. The first criterion tested for strain selection was the mortality (> 50%) of Spodoptera litura larvae after inoculation of the fungus for 4 days. Results on several bioassays revealed that B. bassiana BNBCRC showed the most virulence on mortality S. litura larvae (80% mortality). B. bassiana BNBCRC also showed the highest germination rate (72.22%). However, its conidia yield (7.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL) was lower than those of B. bassiana B 14841 (8.3 × 10(8) conidia/mL) and M. anisopliae M6 (8.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL). The highest accumulative radial growth was obtained from the strain B14841 (37.10 mm/day) while the strain BNBCRC showed moderate radial growth (24.40 mm/day). M. anisopliae M6 possessed the highest protease activity (145.00 mU/mL) while M. anisopliae M8 possessed the highest chitinase activity (20.00 mU/mL) during 96~144 hr cultivation. Amongst these criteria, selection based on virulence and germination rate lead to the selection of B. bassiana BNBCRC. B. bassiana B14841 would be selected if based on growth rate while M. anisopliae M6 and M8 possessed the highest enzyme activities.

  5. Prey Preference of Predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seiedy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The predator Amblyseius swirskii and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana are important biocontrol agents of Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Determination of the host preference of predators in the fields when receiving signals related to either untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated pest is important. Materials and Methods In this research, the prey preference of adult female (2 days old of A. swirskii was determined on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae in various treatments base on Manly Index. These different treatments consisted of two time intervals; 24 and 48 h post-inoculation of greenhouse whiteflies with 1×105 conidia /ml of B. bassiana with 13 replicates. 24-h starved predators were added to the leaf discs singly then the number of consumed untreated and B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in each Petri dish was assessed after 24 h. Results and Discussion The results revealed that mean number of consumed B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in two time intervals; 24 and 48 h. after inoculation were 4/15±0/19 and 2.23±0/12, respectively. This investigation showed a significant preference of A. swirskii towards untreated T. vaporariorum in 24 (P< 0.0034 and 48 h. (P

  6. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naime, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  7. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naime, Andre, E-mail: andre.naime.ibama@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  8. Differential regulation of c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes by environmental signals modulates biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Xian eRen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP is essential for Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, which is important for flea-borne blockage-dependent plague transmission. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, HmsT and HmsD and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, HmsP are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Here, we systematically analyzed the effect of various environmental signals on regulation of the biofilm phenotype, the c-di-GMP levels, and expression of HmsT, HmsD and HmsP in Y. pestis. Biofilm formation was higher in the presence of nonlethal high concentration of CaCl2, MgCl2, CuSO4, sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfonate, or dithiothreitol, and was lower in the presence of FeCl2 or NaCl. In addition, we found that HmsD plays a major role in biofilm formation in acidic or redox environments. These environmental signals differentially regulated expression of HmsT, HmsP and HmsD, resulting in changes in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Our results suggest that bacteria can sense various environmental signals, and differentially regulates their DGCs and PDEs to coordinately regulate and adapt metabolism of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation to changing environments.

  9. Developmental and environmental regulation of Aquaporin gene expression across Populus species: divergence or redundancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Merret, Rémy; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Moretti, Sébastien; Bizet, François; Guilliot, Agnès; Hummel, Irène

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants). The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of functional redundancy

  10. Developmental and environmental regulation of Aquaporin gene expression across Populus species: divergence or redundancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic proteins family and are known for their ability to facilitate water movement. While in Populus trichocarpa, AQP proteins form a large family encompassing fifty-five genes, most of the experimental work focused on a few genes or subfamilies. The current work was undertaken to develop a comprehensive picture of the whole AQP gene family in Populus species by delineating gene expression domain and distinguishing responsiveness to developmental and environmental cues. Since duplication events amplified the poplar AQP family, we addressed the question of expression redundancy between gene duplicates. On these purposes, we carried a meta-analysis of all publicly available Affymetrix experiments. Our in-silico strategy controlled for previously identified biases in cross-species transcriptomics, a necessary step for any comparative transcriptomics based on multispecies design chips. Three poplar AQPs were not supported by any expression data, even in a large collection of situations (abiotic and biotic constraints, temporal oscillations and mutants. The expression of 11 AQPs was never or poorly regulated whatever the wideness of their expression domain and their expression level. Our work highlighted that PtTIP1;4 was the most responsive gene of the AQP family. A high functional divergence between gene duplicates was detected across species and in response to tested cues, except for the root-expressed PtTIP2;3/PtTIP2;4 pair exhibiting 80% convergent responses. Our meta-analysis assessed key features of aquaporin expression which had remained hidden in single experiments, such as expression wideness, response specificity and genotype and environment interactions. By consolidating expression profiles using independent experimental series, we showed that the large expansion of AQP family in poplar was accompanied with a strong divergence of gene expression, even if some cases of

  11. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B; Swanson, Sarah J; Sussman, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H + -ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plant expressing H + -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H + secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Environmental and Genetic Factors Regulating Localization of the Plant Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Xuan; Bushey, Daniel B.; Swanson, Sarah J.

    2018-01-01

    A P-type H+-ATPase is the primary transporter that converts ATP to electrochemical energy at the plasma membrane of higher plants. Its product, the proton-motive force, is composed of an electrical potential and a pH gradient. Many studies have demonstrated that this proton-motive force not only drives the secondary transporters required for nutrient uptake, but also plays a direct role in regulating cell expansion. Here, we have generated a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant expressing H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2) that is translationally fused with a fluorescent protein and examined its cellular localization by live-cell microscopy. Using a 3D imaging approach with seedlings grown for various times under a variety of light intensities, we demonstrate that AHA2 localization at the plasma membrane of root cells requires light. In dim light conditions, AHA2 is found in intracellular compartments, in addition to the plasma membrane. This localization profile was age-dependent and specific to cell types found in the transition zone located between the meristem and elongation zones. The accumulation of AHA2 in intracellular compartments is consistent with reduced H+ secretion near the transition zone and the suppression of root growth. By examining AHA2 localization in a knockout mutant of a receptor protein kinase, FERONIA, we found that the intracellular accumulation of AHA2 in the transition zone is dependent on a functional FERONIA-dependent inhibitory response in root elongation. Overall, this study provides a molecular underpinning for understanding the genetic, environmental, and developmental factors influencing root growth via localization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. PMID:29042459

  13. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  14. Effects of selected herbicides and fungicides on growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celar, Franci A; Kos, Katarina

    2016-11-01

    The in vitro fungicidal effects of six commonly used fungicides, namely fluazinam, propineb, copper(II) hydroxide, metiram, chlorothalonil and mancozeb, and herbicides, namely isoxaflutole, fluazifop-P-butyl, flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb, on mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 74040) were investigated. Mycelial growth rates and sporulation at 15 and 25 °C were evaluated on PDA plates containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 0% of the recommended application rate of each pesticide. The tested pesticides were classified in four scoring categories based on reduction in mycelial growth and sporulation. All pesticides, herbicides and fungicides tested had fungistatic effects of varying intensity, depending on their rate in the medium, on B. bassiana. The most inhibitory herbicides were flurochloridone and prosulfocarb, and fluazinam and copper(II) hydroxide were most inhibitory among the fungicides, while the least inhibitory were isoxaflutole and chlorothalonil. Sporulation and conidial germination of B. bassiana were significantly inhibited by all tested pesticides compared with the control treatment. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, prosulfocarb and copper(II) hydroxide inhibited sporulation entirely at 100% rate (99-100% inhibition), and the lowest inhibition was shown by fluazifop-P-butyl (22%) and metiram (33%). At 100% dosage, all herbicides in the test showed a high inhibitory effect on conidial germination. Conidial germination inhibition ranged from 82% with isoxaflutole to 100% with fluorochloridone, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb. At 200% dosage, inhibition rates even increased (96-100%). All 12 pesticides tested had a fungistatic effect on B. bassiana of varying intensity, depending on the pesticide and its concentration. B. bassiana is highly affected by some herbicides and fungicides even at very low rates. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron

  15. Financial and environmental behavior of the regulated firm: A case study of the US nuclear power industry, 1974-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study of the US commercial nuclear power industry from 1974-1984 covers the operations of 87 power plants. It seeks to help explain the actions of a regulated firm faced with environmental constraints from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and financial constraints from State regulatory bodies. Theoretical and applied conceptions of the regulated monopoly are reviewed in a historical and integrated format using both the neoclassical and institutional positions. For the neoclassical approach, the author seeks empirical support for the Averch-Johnson hypothesis by including profit-maximizing and environmental constraints in his econometric model. For the institutionalist approach, he tries to look into the institutional reasons for the behavior exhibited by the firms. A date base which consists of financial, radioactive emissions, and technical operations information has been compiled in order to allow testing of various hypotheses drawn from theoretical and applied sources. The results of the analysis support five very clear conclusions which are presented

  16. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...7205 Email lmzhao@ufl.edu Abstract: The cDNA of a NADH dehydrogenase-ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8 subunit (NDUFS8) gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus...information useful for developing dsRNA pesticide for mosquito control. Keywords: Aedes taeniorhynchus, AetNDUFS8, mRNA expression, development

  17. Environmental management in the Mexican tourism sector. Effects of regulation on hotel performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Elva Esther; Zizumbo, Lilia; Viesca, Felipe Carlos; Serrano, Rocío del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the role of public institutions in environmental management, and the application of the National Environmental Audit Programme in the Mexican tourism sector. The research recognizes the role of the hoteliers in the development of tourist zones, and in the alteration of the natural environment. This is an exploratory study of the general perception of management of 28 hotels in the Cancún area regarding the environmental management of their businesses, the factors which l...

  18. Seleção de isolados de Beauveria bassiana patogênicos ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro Selection of isolates of Beauveria bassiana pathogenic to cotton boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se selecionar isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vüillemin provenientes de diferentes hospedeiros e regiões geográficas, patogênicos ao Anthonomus grandis, o bicudo-do-algodoeiro. Foram analisados 12 isolados em condições de laboratório. Os isolados obtidos originalmente de A. grandis foram pouco virulentos a essa praga. A mortalidade do bicudo teve início no segundo dia após a inoculação das suspensões fúngicas, variando de 15% a 83%, com TL50 entre 5,30 a 11,06 dias. Os isolados apresentaram variabilidade quanto à germinação dos conídios em meio de cultura artificial, e esta não se correlacionou com a patogenicidade. O isolado CG138 de B. bassiana destacou-se como um dos mais virulentos ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro.The objective of this work was to screen pathogenic isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vüillemin from different hosts and geographic regions, pathogenic to the cotton boll weevil. Twelve isolates were evaluated. Isolates originally obtained from boll weevil showed low pathogenicity against this host. Insect mortality began on the second day after inoculation by fungal suspension, ranging from 15% to 83%, with a TL50 of 5.30 to 11.06 days. Variability among isolates concerning conidial germination in artificial culture medium was verified, and TG50 did not correlate with pathogenicity. One of the most virulent isolates of B. bassiana against cotton boll weevil is CG138.

  19. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (Pbassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  20. Public Participation Planning of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Regulations: Analysis of Inconsistency for Some Cases in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrayani, Aniek; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The failure in community involvement during the environmental documents planning may result in the failure of the planned project implementation. This study aims to determine the gap between practices and regulations that apply to the process of community involvement in the environmental documents planning, and find out inconsistency of implementation on each stakeholder in the planning of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the environmental permit. The method used was qualitative through interview and literature study which is analyzed using triangulation model and presented in the form of concept map. The results of the study indicate that 1) the determination of community representatives based on the criteria of the impacted communities is not clearly described, 3) suggestions, opinions, and responses to the environmental impact management are not well implemented by the project proponent, 3) implementation of the environmental management of other licensed activities affecting the behavior (4) stakeholders (project proponent, EIA consultants, and EIA appraisal committee) do not play their role as mandated in applicable legislation.

  1. Public Participation Planning of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Regulations: Analysis of Inconsistency for Some Cases in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindrayani Aniek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure in community involvement during the environmental documents planning may result in the failure of the planned project implementation. This study aims to determine the gap between practices and regulations that apply to the process of community involvement in the environmental documents planning, and find out inconsistency of implementation on each stakeholder in the planning of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and the environmental permit. The method used was qualitative through interview and literature study which is analyzed using triangulation model and presented in the form of concept map. The results of the study indicate that 1 the determination of community representatives based on the criteria of the impacted communities is not clearly described, 3 suggestions, opinions, and responses to the environmental impact management are not well implemented by the project proponent, 3 implementation of the environmental management of other licensed activities affecting the behavior (4 stakeholders (project proponent, EIA consultants, and EIA appraisal committee do not play their role as mandated in applicable legislation.

  2. Effects of sub-culturing on genetic and physiological parameters in different Beauveria bassiana isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazian Kary, Naser; Alizadeh, Zhila

    2017-05-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B. bassiana during the forced in vitro evolution by continual subculture on artificial media and then we evaluated these changes on the virulence of the isolates. Through agarose gel electrophoresis of the small extrachromosomal DNAs molecules, we found that mutations accumulate quickly and obvious changes take place in extrachromosomal DNAs of some isolates, although this did not always occur. This plasticity in response to culturing pressure suggests that buffering capacity of fungal genome against mutations is isolate dependent. Following the forced evolution by sub-culturing, five discriminable electrophoretic karyotype of extrachromosomal DNAs was observed among isolates. The results showed that some isolates are prone to deep mutations, but during enforced sub-culturing some others have efficiently conserved genome. These differences are influensive in screening appropriate isolates for mass production as a keystone in biocontrol program. To determine the effects of these changes on isolate traits, virulence, germination rate and spore-bound Pr1 activity were assessed parallel to sub-culturing. The results clearly revealed that parallel to sub-culturing and in correlation with karyotypic changes, isolates significantly suffered from virulence, germination rate and spore-bound Pr1 activity deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scorpion neurotoxin AaIT-expressing Beauveria bassiana enhances the virulence against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sheng-Qun; Cai, Qun-Di; Deng, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Qiang; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2017-12-01

    To improve the insecticidal efficacy of this entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana, the fungus was genetically modified to express an insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin AaIT. The virulence of the recombinant B. bassiana strain (Bb-AaIT) against Aedes albopictus adults (which occurs via penetration through the cuticle during spore germination or by conidia ingestion), and the larvae (by conidia ingestion) was measured with bioassays. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of Bb-AaIT against A. albopictus larvae was 313.3-fold lower on day 4 and 11.3-fold lower on day 10 than that of the wild type (WT). Through conidia feeding or body contact, Bb-AaIT killed 50% of adult female mosquitoes at 3.9- or 1.9-fold reduced concentrations on day 4 and at 2.1- or 2.4-fold reduced concentrations on day 10. Compared with the results for the WT, the median lethal time (LT 50 ) of Bb-AaIT was reduced by 28.6% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 and 34.3% at 1 × 10 6 conidia ml -1 in the larvae bioassay by conidia ingestion, while it decreased 32.3% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 by conidia ingestion and 24.2% at 1 × 10 8 conidia ml -1 by penetrating through the cuticle in the adult bioassay. All the differences were significant. Our findings indicated that Bb-AaIT had higher virulence and faster action than the WT in killing the larval and adult mosquitoes, and therefore, it is valuable for development as a commercial mosquito pesticide.

  4. CEP genes regulate root and shoot development in response to environmental cues and are specific to seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Christina; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The manifestation of repetitive developmental programmes during plant growth can be adjusted in response to various environmental cues. During root development, this means being able to precisely control root growth and lateral root development. Small signalling peptides have been found to play roles in many aspects of root development. One member of the CEP (C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE) gene family has been shown to arrest root growth. Here we report that CEP genes are widespread among seed plants but are not present in land plants that lack true branching roots or root vasculature. We have identified 10 additional CEP genes in Arabidopsis. Expression analysis revealed that CEP genes are regulated by environmental cues such as nitrogen limitation, increased salt levels, increased osmotic strength, and increased CO2 levels in both roots and shoots. Analysis of synthetic CEP variants showed that both peptide sequence and modifications of key amino acids affect CEP biological activity. Analysis of several CEP over-expression lines revealed distinct roles for CEP genes in root and shoot development. A cep3 knockout mutant showed increased root and shoot growth under a range of abiotic stress, nutrient, and light conditions. We demonstrate that CEPs are negative regulators of root development, slowing primary root growth and reducing lateral root formation. We propose that CEPs are negative regulators that mediate environmental influences on plant development.

  5. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  6. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  7. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor. PMID:26154519

  8. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae); Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: luciane_modenez@ibest.com.br; Avila, Crebio Jose [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: crebio@cpao.embrapa.br

    2006-12-15

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  9. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  10. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  11. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  12. Regulatory analysis for amendments to regulations for the environmental review for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This regulatory analysis provides the supporting information for a proposed rule that will amend the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's environmental review requirements for applications for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses. The objective of the proposed rulemaking is to improve regulatory efficiency by providing for the generic evaluation of certain environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal. After considering various options, the staff identified and analyzed two major alternatives. With Alternative A, the existing regulations would not be amended. This option requires that environmental reviews be performed under the existing regulations. Alternative B is to assess, on a generic basis, the environmental impacts of renewing the operating license of individual nuclear power plants, and define the issues that will need to be further analyzed on a case-by-case basis. In addition, Alternative B removes from NRC's review certain economics-related issues. The findings of this assessment are to be codified in 10 CFR 51. The staff has selected Alternative B as the preferred alternative

  13. A constitutively expressed antifungal peptide protects Tenebrio molitor during a natural infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrou, Sevasti; Paris, Véronique; Jensen, Annette B; Rolff, Jens; Meyling, Nicolai V; Zanchi, Caroline

    2018-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been well studied in the context of bacterial infections. Antifungal peptides have received comparatively less attention. Fungal pathogens of insects and their hosts represent a unique opportunity to study host-pathogen interactions due to the million of years of co-evolution they share. In this study, we investigated role of a constitutively expressed thaumatin-like peptide with antifungal activity expressed by the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, named Tenecin 3, during a natural infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We monitored the effect of the expression of Tenecin 3 on the survival of infected hosts as well as on the progression of the fungal infection inside the host. Finally, we tested the activity of Tenecin 3 against B. bassiana. These findings could help improving biocontrol strategies and help understanding the evolution of antifungal peptides as a defense mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  15. Pathogencity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gabarty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM allowed observing Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on Agrotis ipsilon larvae. SEM of A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appearing. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliae as declared by SEM showed a dense network together and cause the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is allowed tool to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  16. New cost-effective bioconversion process of palm kernel cake into bioinsecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Jaqueline; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Dos Santos Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Tinôco, Ricardo Salles; Quintela, Eliane Dias; Dos Reis Castilho, Leda; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to add value to palm oil by-products as substrates to efficiently produce conidia of Beauveria bassiana and Isaria javanica (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) for biological control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), through a solid-state fermentation process using palm kernel cake and palm fiber as nutrient source and solid matrix, respectively. The optimum culture conditions yielded high concentrations of viable conidia after air-drying, when the fungi were grown on palm kernel cake (B. bassiana 7.65 × 10 9 and I. javanica 2.91 × 10 9  conidia g -1 dry substrate) after 6 days under optimal growth conditions set to 60% substrate moisture and 32 °C. Both fungal strains exhibited high efficacy against third-instar whitefly nymphs, inducing mortality up to 62.9 and 56.6% by B. bassiana and I. javanica, respectively, assessed after 9 days post-application in a screenhouse. Furthermore, we noted that insect mortality was strongly correlated with high atmospheric moisture, while B. bassiana appeared to require shorter accumulative hours under high moisture to kill whitefly nymphs compared to I. javanica. Our results underpin a feasible and cost-effective mass production method for aerial conidia, using palm kernel as the main substrate in order to produce efficacious fungal bioinsecticides against an invasive whitefly species in Brazil. Finally, our fermentation process may offer a sustainable and cost-effective means to produce eco-friendly mycoinsecticides, using an abundant agro-industrial by-product from Brazil that will ultimately assist in the integrated management of agricultural insect pests.

  17. Could Sterile Males be Used to Vector a Microbiological Control Agent? The Case of Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus and Beauveria Bassiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, E. [Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Unidad Asociadade Entomologia Agricola UJI-IVIA, Centro de Proteccion Vegetal y Biotecnologia, Montcada (Spain); Santiago-Alvarez, C. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Ciencias y Recursos Agricolas y Forestales, Cordoba (Spain); Jacas, J. A. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Unitat Associada d' Entomologia Agricola UJI-IVIA, Departament de Ciencies Agraries i del Medi Natural, Campus del Riu Sec, Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    Full text: Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most threatening pest of palms worldwide. The potential of gamma-irradiated males to spread a pathogenic strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) to control this pest was studied. First, the effects of gamma irradiation (15 and 25 Gy) on the mating success and performance of adult males irradiated at age one day were studied in the laboratory. Although male longevity decreased after irradiation (118.6 vs. 244.7 days for irradiated and control males, respectively) and their testes suffered from the treatment, fecundity of mated females did not depend on the irradiation status of the male (86.8{+-}5.5 eggs in 15 days). However, egg hatching was significantly lower in couples with irradiated males (31.4% vs. 86.5% for irradiated and control couples, respectively), and this value decreased after a second mating (6.1% vs. 85.9%). Therefore, irradiation did not affect male sexual competiveness but sperm quality. Second, a semi-field assay was carried out to evaluate infestation in young Phoenix canariensis caused by different combinations of couples with irradiated and/or B. bassiana-challenged males. The number of immature stages found in infested palms was significantly higher when females mated with untreated males and lower when mated with irradiated males (either B. bassiana-infected or not). Some females from the fungus-challenged treatments showed post-mortem hyphal growth, and this horizontal transmission proves that irradiated males could act as a vector for B. bassiana and should be considered as a new method to improve the biological control of R. ferrugineus. (author)

  18. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment in Resource-Based Areas of China-An Empirical Research Based on the Mediating Effect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenbin; Wang, Hui; Ying, Huihui

    2017-12-19

    While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale of employment directly, but it will also have indirect effects by stimulating upgrades in the industrial structure and in technological innovation. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on employment, using a mediating model based on the data from five typical resource-based provinces in China from 2000 to 2015. The estimation is performed based on the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. The results show that the implementation of environmental regulation in resource-based areas has both a direct effect and a mediating effect on employment. These findings provide policy implications for these resource-based areas to promote the coordinating development between the environment and employment.

  19. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar; Avila, Crebio Jose

    2006-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  20. Alkane-grown Beauveria bassiana produce mycelial pellets displaying peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress, and cell surface alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Paixão, Flávia R S; Ponce, Juan C; Santana, Marianela; Prieto, Eduardo D; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2018-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is able to grow on insect cuticle hydrocarbons, inducing alkane assimilation pathways and concomitantly increasing virulence against insect hosts. In this study, we describe some physiological and molecular processes implicated in growth, nutritional stress response, and cellular alterations found in alkane-grown fungi. The fungal cytology was investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy while the surface topography was examined using atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the expression pattern of several genes associated with oxidative stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and hydrophobicity were analysed by qPCR. We found a novel type of growth in alkane-cultured B. bassiana similar to mycelial pellets described in other alkane-free fungi, which were able to produce viable conidia and to be pathogenic against larvae of the beetles Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. Mycelial pellets were formed by hyphae cumulates with high peroxidase activity, exhibiting peroxisome proliferation and an apparent surface thickening. Alkane-grown conidia appeared to be more hydrophobic and cell surfaces displayed different topography than glucose-grown cells. We also found a significant induction in several genes encoding for peroxins, catalases, superoxide dismutases, and hydrophobins. These results show that both morphological and metabolic changes are triggered in mycelial pellets derived from alkane-grown B. bassiana. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PENAMBAHAN BEBERAPA JENIS BAHAN NUTRISI PADA MEDIA PERBANYAKAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN VIRULENSI BEAUVERIA BASSIANA TERHADAP HAMA WALANG SANGIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Siluh Putu Nuryanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to increase the virulence of Beauvaria bassiana to the rice bug, L.  acuta, by adding four different substances (materials to the rice media to grow the fungus. The research was conducted from April to August 2011 at Polinela Laboratory, Bandar Lampung.  To do this a set of experimental unit consisting of five treatments and five replications were arranged in completely randomized design. The  four treatments were media made up of rice (rice based media each given or added with four different materials such as rice skin powder, corn sugar, grasshopper powder and chitosan powder. The result showed that B. bassiana grown on rice media added with grasshopper powder or rice skin powder were able of causing mortality to the L. acuta as high as 78% and 71%, respectively, meaning that both mortalities were much higher than that of other replication. The virulence values of Beauveria bassiana  grown on those both powder were also higher than that of three others.

  2. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  3. Keefektivan Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. isolat Indigenous pagaralam sumatera selatan pada media beras terhadap larva Plutella xylostella Linn. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pudjiastuti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana isolate cultured in half-ripe rice media against third-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella. The research used 10 isolates consisted of 4 isolates that were originnally collected from Pagaralam i.e. PD1 (isolated from P. xylostella cadaver, PD2, PD8, PD9B (from Crysodeixis chalcites cadaver, and 6 isolates from other areas as comparison, i.e. CCW3 (from Crysodeixis chalcites cadaver, BBL (from Hypothenemus hampei cadaver, CH (from Conomorpha cramerella cadaver, CPJW (from H. hampei cadavi, WC (from Nilaparvata lugens cadaver, and WSJT (from Leptocorixa acuta cadaver. The parameters that were measured were mortality of larvae, time of death and behaviour of larvae after application. Result of the test showed that B. bassiana isolated from L. acuta (WSJT isolate caused the highest mortality i.e. 73.34 %, with the highest spore density 5.6x107 spore ml-1 (in half-rice media and 3.0x107 spore ml-1 (GYA media. The lowest LT50 was 19.27 hours, and was obtained from the application of PD9B. After application of B. bassiana, the behaviour of larvae was slightly change from a healthy one to less in consuming of food and then die.

  4. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  5. Off-road compression-ignition engine emission regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 : guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This guide explained the requirements for Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Emission Regulations established under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The regulations are enforced by Environment Canada, which authorizes and monitors the use of the national emissions mark. The regulations prescribe standards for off-road engines that operate as reciprocating, internal combustion engines, other than those that operate under characteristics similar to the Otto combustion cycle and that use a spark plug or other sparking device. The regulations apply to engines that are typically diesel-fuelled and found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines such as tractors, excavators and log skidders. Four different types of persons are potentially affected by the regulations: Canadian engine manufacturers; distributors of Canadian engines or machines containing Canadian engines; importers of engines or machines for the purpose of sale; and persons not in companies importing engines or machines. Details of emission standards were presented, as well as issues concerning evidence of conformity, importing engines, and special engine cases. Compliance and enforcement details were reviewed, as well as applicable standards and provisions for emission control systems and defeat devices; exhaust emissions; crankcase and smoke emissions; and adjustable parameters. Details of import declarations were reviewed, as well as issues concerning defects and maintenance instructions. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  6. The Role of Environmental Civil Liability in Regulation of Marine Oil Pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Denissova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Awareness of domestic and international environmental issues has long been high in Norway. As far as marine oil pollution is concerned, Norway is exposed to coastal water pollution arising from such strategically important sectors as the petroleum industry and oil transportation. This paper is an attempt to make a positive economic analysis of environmental civil liability for marine oil pollution in these two sectors. In the theoretical part of this paper (section 2) the standard model o...

  7. Integrated cropping systems : an answer to environmental regulations imposed on nursery stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Challa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Government regulations in the Netherlands are increasingly constraining and sometimes even banning conventional cultivation practices in nursery stock cropping systems. As a consequence, growers face problems concerning the use of manure, fertilisers and irrigation. In this study we analysed the

  8. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  9. The effects of rate of return and environmental regulations on the productivity performance in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durongkaveroj, P.

    1991-01-01

    Productivity growth in the US electric power industry has been declining since the late 1960's. Rate of return regulation and environmental regulations are hypothesized to adversely affect the productivity performance. Employing a Divisa index of the total factor productivity (TEP) an electric utility's performance is measured based on a profit maximization framework subject to both regulatory constraints. The empirical analysis attempts to analyze the effects of these regulations on the productivity growth employing data from privately-owned, fossil-fueled electric utilities. Results show a consistent decline in productivity growth over time averaging at 2% annually during 1977 and 1982, as well as the existence of regional differences in TFP growth among utilities. It shows positive and significant relationships between TFP growth and the rate of return, regulatory lag, the use of future test year, and deferred tax credit in the rate-making process. In the environmental case, results show that a stringent emission standard, using scrubbers for sulfur reduction and the utilization of aging power plants all contribute to the decline in productivity growth

  10. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Population Management of Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), in Felled Trees and Factors Limiting Pathogen Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Mann, Andrew J; Malesky, Danielle; Jankowski, Egan; Bradley, Clifford

    2018-03-24

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3-4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only. In the field, conidial suspension was applied to the surface of felled and pheromone-baited Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees using a backpack sprayer. Mortality of colonizing parent beetles (F0), reproduction (abundance of F1 offspring in logs), and emergence of F1 beetles from logs was compared between treated and nontreated logs. Application of spore suspension increased mortality of F0 adults by 36% on average. Total F1 reproduction was reduced by 17% and emergence from logs was reduced by 13% in treated logs, but considerable variability in reproduction and emergence was observed. Viable spores were re-isolated from treated logs up to 90 d after application, indicating that spores are capable of long-term persistence on the tree bole microhabitat. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that temperatures below 15°C and exposure to spruce monoterpenes likely limit performance of B. bassiana under field conditions, but exposure to low-intensity light or interactions with spruce beetle symbiotic fungi were not strongly inhibitory. It is concluded that matching environmental tolerances of biocontrol fungi to field conditions can likely improve their usefulness for control of spruce beetle in windthrown trees.

  11. Does environmental regulation affect energy efficiency in China's thermal power generation? Empirical evidence from a slacks-based DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Gong-Bing; Song, Wen; Zhou, P.; Liang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained much popularity in performance measurement of power industry. This paper presents a slack-based measure approach to investigating the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and the environmental regulation of China's thermal power generation. We first calculate the total-factor energy efficiency without considering environmental constraints. An environmental performance indicator is proposed through decomposing the total-factor energy efficiency. The proposed approach is then employed to examine whether environmental regulation affects the energy efficiency of China's thermal power generation. We find that the environmental efficiency plays a significant role in affecting energy performance of China's thermal generation sector. Decreasing the discharge of major pollutants can improve both energy performance and environmental efficiency. Besides, we also have three main findings: (1) The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency were relatively low. (2) The energy and environmental efficiency scores show great variations among provinces. (3) Both energy efficiency and environmental efficiency are of obvious geographical characteristics. According to our findings, we suggest some policy implications. - Highlights: • We assess the energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency of China's thermal power generation simultaneously. • The energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency were relatively low during 2007–2009. • The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency show obvious geographic characters. • The environmental performance of a DMU plays a decisive role in the energy performance

  12. Environmental impact evaluation: law no. 16.466 of 1994 01 14 and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    No.16.466 law of January 9, 1994, known as the Law on Prevention and Environmental Impact Assessment EIA or just law is probably the law marked the beginning of a new generation of environmental standards in Uruguay, together with other like Hazardous Waste Act (Act 17 220 1999), the law of Natural Protected Areas System (Law 17 234 2000) and especially the General Law Protection Environment (Law no. 17 283 of November 28, 2000), but which also reaches to the Constitution of the Republic, with the inclusion of environment in the new wording of Article 47 of the 1996 reform.

  13. Instruments for the regulation of the electric power projects: An integrated vision of the socio-environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regini Nutti, Miriam; Milazzo, Maria Luiza; Rodriguez Garcia, Eduardo; Menezes, Carlos Frederico; Pompeu Serran, Flavia; Sebastiao Costa, Luiz; Neves Mundim, Rogerio

    1999-01-01

    The process of institutional change in the Brazilian electric sector accelerated the revision or elaboration of relating normative documents to the elaboration of studies and generation projects and electric power transmission. These documents were produced in a cooperative way by initiative of the organ federal regulator, under the coordination of ELETROBRAS and with the collaboration of technical teams of about ten Brazilian companies of energy. The aspects socio-environmental was absorbed in the normative documents, starting from an integrated vision of content and of the activities proposed with the energy studies and of engineering, allowing to diminish the relating uncertainties to the implementation of the projects and to assist to the national and sector environmental politics

  14. CARABID BEATLES AS INDICATORS REFLECTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIVER REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kędzior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate factors responsible for sustaining riverine communities in stream sections with various bank regulation systems. The research were conducted on Porebianka stream in the Polish Western Carpathians, where 10 different types of river regulations were chosen for the analysis (strong incision without alluvial deposits, redeposition with sand and gravel banks, concrete revetment walls along the banks, channel with banks lined with rip-rap and reference unmanaged cross- section. We conclude that the carabid beetles assemblages of the studied river sections respond mainly to hydraulic parameters of the stream. Elimination of frequent natural bank inundation (due to the regulations of the banks is the main factor responsible for the impoverishment and extinction of riverine communities.

  15. Environmental impact assessment modern dressed? To the amendment of the EIA act and other acts and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    On 22 December 2016, the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) presented the ''Draft Act for the Modernization of the Act on the Environmental Impact Assessment'' within the framework of the association consultation, as well as the ''Draft first Ordinance Amending the Ordinance on the Approval Procedure - 9. BImSchV''. The EIA Modernization Act as well as the Atomic Act Procedure Regulation and the Federal Mining Act should be revised by terms of an omnibus act. The association consultation was held on 18 January 2017.

  16. Tackling the Relevance of Packaging in Life Cycle Assessment of Virgin Olive Oil and the Environmental Consequences of Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Alejandra; Puig, Rita; Martí, Elena; Bala, Alba; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2018-04-12

    Production and consumption of olive oil is very important in Europe, being this product a basic element in the Mediterranean diet since long ago. The project objective is two-fold: a study of the contribution of virgin olive oils (VOOs) usual packaging to the whole life cycle of the product and a study of the environmental consequences of the Spanish Government regulation on VOO packaging. A life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 has been performed using the CML methodology for the impact assessment. The results show that the packaging influence varies from 2 to 300%, depending on the impact category and type of packaging (glass, tin or polyethylene terephtalate). Glass, which is related to higher quality perception by consumers, was found to be the most influencing material (due to its weight); however, this impact may be fairly reduced by applying ecodesign strategies (such as weight reduction and recycled-glass percentage increase). A new Spanish regulation on the mandatory use of non-refillable oilers in HORECA establishments (hotels, restaurants and caterings) aims to provide more quality assurance and better information to consumers; however, it was also found to mean a 74% increase in greenhouse gases emissions. This regulation was deeply discussed at European level and its application was withdraw due to consumers rejection, except for Spain. The findings of the present case study show that LCA and ecodesign should be important tools to be promoted and applied in policy making to reduce non-desirable consequences of regulation.

  17. 75 FR 4810 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... (ERP), under section 309 of the Clean Air Act and Section 102(2)(c) of the National Environmental... of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. Draft EISs EIS No. 20080460, ERP No. D-FHW... MSAT impacts. Rating EC2. [[Page 4811

  18. Energy and environmental quality of buildings and open space. Public administration regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Residential sector is responsible of a third of total energy consumption in Italy and 30-40% of CO 2 emission. An energy efficient buildings reduce cost and save energy and emission. The energy recovery is possible also with bioclimatic architecture that represents a contribution at the economic and environmental balance [it

  19. Microscopic investigation to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. treatment on different life stages of Musca domestica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic investigation was done to determine the effect of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on different life stages of Musca domestica . Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fungal infected larvae showed sluggish movement, rigor, and failure of body to balance in water. Treated larvae also revealed varied level of cuticle shrinkage and extreme dehydration. Surface of B. bassiana infected pupae showed varied stage of mycelial growth, while the cadaver of adult fly was observed to have extensive fungal growth covering their entire body surface. The application of C. citratus oils on M. domestica larvae resulted in skin shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation, while the treated pupae showed high incidence of incomplete emergence and malformation in emerged adult flies. The current study establishes effect of C. citratus essential oil and B. bassiana infection on different life stages of M. domestica .

  20. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  1. Responding to environmental regulations through collaborative arrangements: Social aspects of manure partnerships in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    In livestock-intensive regions of Europe, on-farm application of manure and other fertilisers is being increasingly regulated to protect aquatic environments. This study examined collaborative arrangements between intensive livestock farms in Denmark with surplus manure and farms requiring crop n...

  2. 78 FR 32686 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... special regulations. (5) Management scale for the harvest of migratory birds. We define management scale... comments in revising the document. The SEIS analyzes a range of management alternatives for addressing the... Representative, Division of Migratory Bird Management, (503) 231-6162; or Brad Bortner, Chief, Division of...

  3. Environmental light and suprachiasmatic nucleus interact in the regulation of body temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, F.A.J.L.; Pirovano, C.; Someren, E.J.W. van; Buijs, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is crucial for circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, equivocal findings have been reported on its role in the circadian regulation of body temperature. The goal of the present studies was to investigate

  4. Essential oils and Beauveria bassiana against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae): Towards new natural acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immediato, Davide; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Iatta, Roberta; Camarda, Antonio; de Luna, Rafaela Lira Nogueira; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2016-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) and entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana (Bb) strains have the potential to be used as alternative insecticides and acaricides for controlling ectoparasites as Dermanyssus gallinae. These compounds have some limitations in their use: the acaricidal effect of EOs is rapid, but short-lived, whilst that of Bb is delayed, but long-lived. To evaluate the effect of both compounds combined against D. gallinae, the non-toxic dose of Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils were firstly calculated for "native" strains of Bb. Subsequently, the effects of the combination of selected EOs with Bb against nymph and adult poultry red mites (PRMs) was assessed. EO concentrations ranging from 0.0015 to 8% v/v (i.e., nine double dilutions) were used to evaluate their effect on germination, sporulation and vegetative growth rates of native strains of Bb. A total of 1440 mites (720 nymphs and 720 adults) were divided into three-treated group (TGs) and one control group (CG). In TGs, mites were exposed to Bb in combination with the selected EO (TG1), EO alone (TG2) or Bb (TG3) alone. In the CG, mites were exposed to 0.1% tween 80 plus EO solvent (CG). E. globulus and E. citriodora were toxic for Bb in concentrations higher than 0.2% and 0.003% respectively, whilst E. caryophyllata and T. vulgaris were toxic at all concentrations tested against Bb. Based on the results of the toxicity assays against Bb, E. globulus was chosen to be tested as acaricide resulting non-toxic for Bb at concentration lower than 0.4%. Increased mortality of D. gallinae adults was recorded in TG1 than those in other TGs from 4days post-infection (T+4DPI). A 100% mortality of D. gallinae was recorded in adults at T+9DPI and at T+10DPI in nymphs in TG1 and later than T+11DPI in the other TGs. Used in combination with E. globulus, Bb displayed an earlier acaricidal effect towards both haematophagous D. gallinae stages

  5. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  6. Medicago truncatula SOC1 Genes Are Up-regulated by Environmental Cues That Promote Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fudge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Like Arabidopsis thaliana, the flowering of the legume Medicago truncatula is promoted by long day (LD photoperiod and vernalization. However, there are differences in the molecular mechanisms involved, with orthologs of two key Arabidopsis thaliana regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and CONSTANS (CO, being absent or not having a role in flowering time function in Medicago. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (AtSOC1, plays a key role in integrating the photoperiodic and vernalization pathways. In this study, we set out to investigate whether the Medicago SOC1 genes play a role in regulating flowering time. Three Medicago SOC1 genes were identified and characterized (MtSOC1a–MtSOC1c. All three MtSOC1 genes, when heterologously expressed, were able to promote earlier flowering of the late-flowering Arabidopsis soc1-2 mutant. The three MtSOC1 genes have different patterns of expression. However, consistent with a potential role in flowering time regulation, all three MtSOC1 genes are expressed in the shoot apex and are up-regulated in the shoot apex of plants in response to LD photoperiods and vernalization. The up-regulation of MtSOC1 genes was reduced in Medicago fta1-1 mutants, indicating that they are downstream of MtFTa1. Insertion mutant alleles of Medicago soc1b do not flower late, suggestive of functional redundancy among Medicago SOC1 genes in promoting flowering.

  7. Environmental policy and regulation for oil exploration and shipping activities in the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futsaeter, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Barents Ses has one of the highest levels of biological production of all the world's oceans, and holds some of the largest fish stocks and concentrations of seabirds. Environmental conditions in the area make it particularly vulnerable to damage from human activities. The Norwegian Pollution Control Authority gives priority to preventive measures that can lower the probability of accidents and particular emphasis will be given to conditions attached to production licenses and controls on activities in areas that have not yet been opened for petroleum activities. Within the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (the Rovaniemi-process), Norway has proposed that efforts should be made to improve the protection of Arctic marine areas, and further that a working group including representatives of all the Arctic countries should assess various legal instruments and possible measures, and make recommendations for action. (author)

  8. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Grinsven, H.J.M.; ten Berge, H.F.M.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third....... Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N) to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since...... reports which can amount to more than 50 kgNha-1 yr-1. Differences between procedures in member states to assess nitrogen balances and water quality and a lack of cross-boundary policy evaluations are handicaps when benchmarking the effectiveness of the NiD. This provides a challenge for the European...

  9. Efecto de Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii y la aplicación de gasoil en el control de moscas caseras en galpones avícolas

    OpenAIRE

    L. J. Cova; J. V. Scorza; D. E. García; L. M. Cañizales; C. C. Guedez; M. L. Avendaño; M. G. Medina

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar en condiciones de campo la patogenicidad de Beauveria bassiana y Beauveria brongniartii (cepa: LF- 08 y LF-05, respectivamente) en comparación con la práctica común de usar gasoil alrededor de los galpones de cría de pollos, como control temporal de Musca domestica. Esporas de B. bassiana y B. brongniartii nebulizadas en el interior de galpones de cría con siete pollos/m2, a dosis de 9 x 107 conidias/ml en ...

  10. Implications of research on endocrine disruption for the environmental risk assessment, regulation and monitoring of chemicals in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Johnson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    We assess the implications which research on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has for the regulation of synthetic substances and for the protection of the environment, particularly under the forthcoming European Union (EU) REACH legislation. EDCs present regulatory problems inter alia because they can act additively at concentrations which are individually harmless, and they may have non-classical dose (concentration)-response relationships at low exposure levels. Furthermore, current in vivo testing routines were not specifically designed to assess the endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals, whilst in silico and in vitro methods have only limited applicability and availability for this purpose. We need to ensure that the assessment approaches specified in the draft REACH legislation and Technical Guidance are able to evaluate EDCs efficiently. However, it must also be recognised that environmental monitoring procedures in Europe will need to be improved to detect EDCs that have evaded identification, and where appropriate, control, under REACH. - The challenges associated with the environmental risk assessment and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals are discussed

  11. Identifying Critical Habitat for Australian Freshwater Turtles in a Large Regulated Floodplain: Implications for Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocock, J. F.; Bino, G.; Wassens, S.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, R. F.; Kingsford, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    Freshwater turtles face many threats, including habitat loss and river regulation reducing occupancy and contributing to population decline. Limited knowledge of hydrological conditions required to maintain viable turtle populations in large floodplain wetlands hinders effective adaptive management of environmental water in regulated rivers. We surveyed three turtle species over 4 years across the Lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain, a large wetland complex with a long history of water resource development. Using site and floodplain metrics and generalized linear models, within a Bayesian Model Averaging framework, we quantified the main drivers affecting turtle abundance. We also used a hierarchical modeling approach, requiring large sample sizes, quantifying possible environmental effects while accounting for detection probabilities of the eastern long-necked turtle ( Chelodina longicollis). The three species varied in their responses to hydrological conditions and connectivity to the main river channel. Broad-shelled turtles ( Chelodina expansa) and Macquarie River turtles ( Emydura macquarii macquarii) had restricted distributions, centered on frequently inundated wetlands close to the river, whereas the eastern long-necked turtles were more widely distributed, indicating an ability to exploit variable habitats. We conclude that turtle communities would benefit from long-term management strategies that maintain a spatiotemporal mosaic of hydrological conditions. More specifically, we identified characteristics of refuge habitats and stress the importance of maintaining their integrity during dry periods. Neighboring habitats can be targeted during increased water availability years to enhance feeding and dispersal opportunities for freshwater turtles.

  12. Environmental regulation of lateral root emergence in Medicago truncatula requires the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Federico; Diet, Anouck; Verdenaud, Marion; Gruber, Véronique; Frugier, Florian; Chan, Raquel; Crespi, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The adaptation of root architecture to environmental constraints is a major agricultural trait, notably in legumes, the third main crop worldwide. This root developmental plasticity depends on the formation of lateral roots (LRs) emerging from primary roots. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1 is expressed in primary and lateral root meristems and induced by salt stress. Constitutive expression of HB1 in M. truncatula roots alters their architecture, whereas hb1 TILLING mutants showed increased lateral root emergence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, promoter mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays revealed that HB1 directly recognizes a CAATAATTG cis-element present in the promoter of a LOB-like (for Lateral Organ Boundaries) gene, LBD1, transcriptionally regulated by auxin. Expression of these genes in response to abscisic acid and auxin and their behavior in hb1 mutants revealed an HB1-mediated repression of LBD1 acting during LR emergence. M. truncatula HB1 regulates an adaptive developmental response to minimize the root surface exposed to adverse environmental stresses.

  13. Categorizing Mistaken False Positives in Regulation of Human and Environmental Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Krayer von Krauss, Martin Paul; Tickner, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the concerns often voiced by critics of the precautionary principle is that a widespread regulatory application of the principle will lead to a large number of false positives (i.e., over-regulation of minor risks and regulation of nonexisting risks). The present article proposes a general......," including: real risks, "The jury is still out," nonregulated proclaimed risks, "Too narrow a definition of risk," and risk-risk tradeoffs. These categories are defined and examples are presented in order to illustrate their key characteristics. On the basis of our analysis, we were able to identify only...... four cases that could be defined as regulatory false positives in the light of today's knowledge and recognized uncertainty: the Southern Corn Leaf Blight, the Swine Flu, Saccharin, and Food Irradiation in relation to consumer health. We conclude that concerns about false positives do not represent...

  14. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  15. Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Astghik R. Sukiasyan

    2016-01-01

    Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones o...

  16. Impact of environmental regulations on control of copper ion concentration in the DIII-D cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gootgeld, A.M.

    1993-10-01

    Tokamaks and industrial users are faced with the task of maintaining closed-loop, low conductivity, low impurity, cooling water systems. Operating these systems concentrates the impurities in the water requiring subsequent disposal. Environmental regulations are making this increasingly difficult. This paper will discuss the solution to the problem of removing and disposing of copper ions in the DIII-D low conductivity water system. Since the commissioning of the Doublet facility, the quality of the water in the 3000 gpm system that cools the DIII-D vacuum vessel coils, power supplies and auxiliary heating components has been controlled with mixed-bed ion exchangers. Low ion levels, particularly copper, are required to operate this equipment. In early 1992, the company that leases and regenerates DIII-D ion exchangers said they no longer can accept these resin beds for regeneration due to the level of copper ion on the resin. This change in policy, a change that has been adopted throughout their industry, was necessary to assure that the Metropolitan Sewerage System of the City of San Diego stays in compliance with State of California regulations and EPA-mandated national pretreatment standards and regulations. A cost effective solution was implemented which utilizes a reverse osmosis filtration system with the ion exchangers for make-up water. Levels of copper ion disposed to the sewer are in compliance with government standards. These measures have thus far proved effective in maintaining low conductivity and overall good quality cooling water. Specifically, this paper discusses DIII-D deionized cooling water quality requirements and an affective means to meet these requirements in order to be in compliance with government regulations for copper ion disposal. The problems discussed, the alternatives considered and the approach taken would be readily applicable to any deionized cooling water system containing copper where EPA standards and regulations are mandated

  17. Interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    As the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is estimated to increase to 79.3 million units per year by 2020 (e.g., 40 million units were generated in 2010), there is strong motivation to effectively manage this fast-growing waste flow. Intensive work on management of ELVs is necessary in order to more successfully tackle this important environmental challenge. This paper proposes an interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations. The proposed model can incorporate various uncertainty information in the modeling process. The complex relationships between different ELV management sub-systems are successfully addressed. Particularly, the formulated model can help identify optimal patterns of procurement from multiple sources of ELV supply, production and inventory planning in multiple vehicle recycling factories, and allocation of sorted material flows to multiple final destinations under rigorous environmental regulations. A case study is conducted in order to demonstrate the potentials and applicability of the proposed model. Various constraint-violation probability levels are examined in detail. Influences of parameter uncertainty on model solutions are thoroughly investigated. Useful solutions for the management of ELVs are obtained under different probabilities of violating system constraints. The formulated model is able to tackle a hard, uncertainty existing ELV management problem. The presented model has advantages in providing bases for determining long-term ELV management plans with desired compromises between economic efficiency of vehicle recycling system and system-reliability considerations. The results are helpful for supporting generation and improvement of ELV management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO{sub 2} taxation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G [The Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} abatement. A `grandfather` permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO{sub 2} tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO{sub 2} taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO{sub 2} tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO{sub 2} market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs.

  19. Management Innovation for Environmental Sustainability in Seaports: Managerial Accounting Instruments and Training for Competitive Green Ports beyond the Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Di Vaio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, environmental sustainability has been receiving increasing attention by scholars and operators. All the seaport stakeholders, including port authorities (PAs, policy-makers, port users, any port stakeholders, and local communities, must invest substantial resources to achieve high competitiveness with respect of the environment. Drawing from the extant regulations system and conducting a deep review of the main contributions on the phenomenon, this conceptual study suggests managerial accounting instruments and training, which are still under-researched, as effective measures for enforcing and encouraging green port development. This three-step study consists of a systematic review of the regulatory frameworks and literature on the phenomenon, and an outline of the gap of the legislative framework and research, from a management innovation perspective, where effective managerial practices for environmental sustainability are not successfully suggested and implemented within seaports. On the one hand, the Balanced Scorecard and Tableau de Bord are identified and proposed as managerial accounting instruments for assessing, monitoring, measuring, controlling, and reporting the organizational processes of port players, mainly PAs, for developing competitive green ports. On the other hand, training has been suggested to educate and guide the human resources at all organizational levels within seaports, for supporting and developing awareness and behavioral attitudes in the direction of environmental sustainability.

  20. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO 2 abatement. A 'grandfather' permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO 2 tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO 2 taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO 2 tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO 2 market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs

  1. Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of 2-pyridone alkaloids and alloxazines from Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, W J; Lopes, A A; Cavalcanti, B C; Pessoa, C; Nanayakkara, N P D; Bastos, J K

    2017-08-01

    Two novel compounds bearing heterocyclic nitrogen, 2-pyridone alkaloid (1) and alloxazine derivative (2), along with the known pretenellin B (3), pyridovericin (4) and lumichrome (5) were isolated from a culture of the entomopathogenic fungal strain Beauveria bassiana. The chemical structures of 2-pyridone alkaloid and alloxazine derivative were established on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The isolated compounds were evaluated in a panel of five cancer cell lines and pyridovericin exhibited cytotoxicity (IC 50 , μM) against cancer cell lines: HL-60 (25.9 ± 0.3), HCT8 (34.6 ± 3.6), MDA-MB435 (34.8 ± 3.8) and SF295 (31.1 ± 0.6). Considering that other pyridone compounds display good cytotoxic activity, it would be suggested to obtain new semi synthetic derivatives of pyridovericin, for the development of new cytotoxic chemical entities.

  3. Delivering Beauveria bassiana with electrostatic powder for the control of stored-product beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Rumbos, Christos I; Sakka, Maria; Potin, Olivier; Storm, Clare; Dillon, Aoife B

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of a Beauveria bassiana-based formulation (Bb38) with Entostat, an electrostatically charged powder, was investigated as a surface treatment against Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Sitophilus granarius adults. In lab bioassays, the efficacy of Bb38 against the aforementioned species was examined on concrete, plywood, steel and ceramic, whereas its residual efficacy against the same species was assessed on concrete and steel in the presence or absence of illumination. Finally, the efficacy of Bb38 against O. surinamensis and S. granarius adults was assessed in a commercial grain storage facility under realistic field conditions. In the lab trials, O. surinamensis and C. ferrugineus were much more susceptible to Bb38 than S. granarius on all types of surfaces. Moreover, Bb38 was, at least for O. surinamensis and C. ferrugineus, as effective as the chemical standard (deltamethrin) for at least 2 months after the application, regardless of the presence or absence of illumination. Finally, in the field trial Bb38 provided a satisfactory level of control against O. surinamensis. Bb38 is an effective surface treatment, but its efficacy varies according to the target species, the type of surface and the time post-application. This is the first published report that examines the efficacy of Bb38 as a surface treatment for wider uses in empty warehouses and related storage facilities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. CONTROLE ASSOCIADO DE Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE COM Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana E IMIDACLOPRID ASSOCIATED CONTROL OF Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE WITH Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana AND IMIDACLOPRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar em condições de campo a eficiência do controle associado de colônias de Cornitermes cumulans utilizando imidacloprid juntamente com fungos entomopatogênicos (Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana. Foram realizados experimentos de campo para determinar quais as concentrações mínimas de conídios e de imidacloprid que quando aplicadas em associação controlaram os ninhos de cupins, mas quando aplicadas em separado não foram eficientes. Isto ocorreu quando 500 mg de conídios do patógeno (M. anisopliae ou B. bassiana foram misturados a 1,9 mg do produto comercial Gaucho 70 PM (imidacloprid e 6 gramas do inerte calcene. Foi possível diminuir a concentração de conídios em até 4 vezes e a do inseticida imidacloprid em até 157 vezes em relação às concentrações usualmente recomendadas. Estas concentrações possibilitaram elevados níveis de controle dos ninhos grandes (>80%, com uma diminuição considerável no custo do controle. Além disso, é importante considerar os benefícios ecológicos advindos deste controle associado pela diminuição na quantidade de inseticida a ser utilizada. Deste modo, esta estratégia deve ser explorada como uma alternativa importante na eliminação das colônias grandes de C. cumulans.The objective of this study was to investigate, under field conditions, the control efficiency against nests of Cornitermes cumulans using imidacoprid associated with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Field experiments were conducted to determine the minimal conidia and imidacloprid concentration jointly applied, necessary to control termite nest, but when applied separately was not efficient. This occurred when 500 mg of conidia of the pathogen (M. anisopliae or B. bassiana were mixed with 1.9 mg of imidacloprid (Gaucho 70 PM and 6 g of the inert calcene. It was possible to reduce the conidial concentration 4 times and the

  5. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can ...... financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, we demonstrate how green taxation can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry....

  6. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid......-base equivalents marginally, suggesting that mobilisable CaCO3 stores were depleted during the first exposure to hypercapnia and that they were not refilled. The CaCO3 stores may normally be mobilised during the slowly developing internal hypercapnia that occurs during metamorphosis....

  7. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  8. [Concepts for the regulation of mixtures of toxic pollutants in environmental hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csicsaky, M J

    1998-06-01

    In view of the increasing accumulation of large-scale livestock production facilities in the western parts of Lower Saxony the question rises how ecology and economy can be conciliated and how the protection of human health can be assured. Based on existing legislation this is hard to achieve because of the weak legal position of the administration when trying to prohibit the further expansion of livestock production as opposed to the strong legal position of owners and investors. Presently there is no agreement within the scientific community on safe limits for airborne pathogens and it is quite obvious that thresholds for peak concentrations do not solve the problem of background level exposures. Apart from the unsatisfactory current practise to licence farm animal units in the outskirts of existing villages only, in future the introduction of the EC Environmental Management and Auditing Scheme (EMAS) in animal production may improve the situation. This management system is intended to permanently reduce the environmental impact of a production site and implements the ALARA-PRINCIPLE (as low as reasonably achievable) which is known from protection measures against radiation. As the implementation of the EMAS so far works only on a voluntary basis, an incentive is needed. If dealers and consumers give preference to products from producers having adopted the EMAS, this would be a very efficient incentive. Before this could be put into practise, however, the EMAS criteria originally designed for industrial production sites will have to be adapted to the special conditions of animal production.

  9. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in Northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Grinsven, H.; ten Berge, H.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the Northwest of the European Union (Ireland, UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting......D remains an important piece of legislation for protecting drinking water quality in regions with many private or small public production facilities and controlling aquatic eutrophication from agricultural sources....... of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N) to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995...... for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of The Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater...

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE Chrysomya albiceps A Beauveria bassiana EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHRYSOMYA ALBICEPS TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann é um importante vetor de doenças de animais e humanos, e também causador de miíases secundárias. Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, sobre ovos, larvas e adultos em condições de laboratório climatizado sob a temperatura de 28 ± 1 °C. Foram feitas suspensões de conídios (104, 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios.mL-1, para análise dos parâmetros biológicos. No bioensaio com ovos, o percentual de eclosão variou de 84,81% a 97,22%. No bioensaio com larvas, o período de pré-pupa variou de 1 a 1,04 e de pupa, de 5,00 a 5,09 dias; o percentual de emergência de adultos a partir de larvas tratadas variou de 30,88% a 80,82%. No bioensaio com adultos, a longevidade para machos e fêmeas foi de 4,51 a 6,77 e 10,19 a 14,67 dias, respectivamente; a mortalidade acumulada no 7° dia variou de 47,50 % a 81,20% para machos e de 23,70 % a 55,00% dias para fêmeas; o período de postura variou de 10 a 17,75 dias e o percentual de larvas eclodidas a partir de fêmeas infectadas variou de 71,39% a 91,25%.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fungo entomopatogênico, parâmetros biológicos, patogenicidade.

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann is an important vector of animal and diseases as well as causer of secondary myiasis. In order to minimize the effect of the problems caused by C. albiceps, the pathogenicity of the Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, over eggs, larvae and adults in acclimatized laboratorial conditions under the temperature of 28 ± 1 °C was evaluated. Suspensions of conidia (104, 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia.mL-1

  11. Removal of industrial dyes and heavy metals by Beauveria bassiana: FTIR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations with Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2017-10-01

    Presence of industrial dyes and heavy metal as a contaminant in environment poses a great risk to human health. In order to develop a potential technology for remediation of dyes (Reactive remazol red, Yellow 3RS, Indanthrene blue and Vat novatic grey) and heavy metal [Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI) and Pb(II)] contamination, present study was performed with entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (MTCC no. 4580). High dye removal (88-97%) was observed during the growth of B. bassiana while removal percentage for heavy metals ranged from 58 to 75%. Further, detailed investigations were performed with Pb(II) in terms of growth kinetics, effect of process parameters and mechanism of removal. Growth rate decreased from 0.118 h -1 (control) to 0.031 h -1 , showing 28% reduction in biomass at 30 mg L -1 Pb(II) with 58.4% metal removal. Maximum Pb(II) removal was observed at 30 °C, neutral pH and 30 mg L -1 initial metal concentration. FTIR analysis indicated the changes induced by Pb(II) in functional groups on biomass surface. Further, microscopic analysis (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) was performed to understand the changes in cell surface morphology of the fungal cell. SEM micrograph showed a clear deformation of fungal hyphae, whereas AFM studies proved the increase in surface roughness (RSM) in comparison to control cell. Homogenous bioaccumulation of Pb(II) inside the fungal cell was clearly depicted by TEM-high-angle annular dark field coupled with EDX. Present study provides an insight into the mechanism of Pb(II) bioremediation and strengthens the significance of using entomopathogenic fungus such as B. bassiana for metal and dye removal.

  12. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  13. Gene expression of thyrotropin- and corticotrophin-releasing hormones is regulated by environmental salinity in the euryhaline teleost Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Martos-Sitcha, J A; Barragán-Méndez, C; Martínez-Rodríguez, G; Mancera, J M; Arjona, F J

    2018-04-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axes (HPT and HPI, respectively) are regulated in response to environmental stimuli such as salinity changes. However, the molecular players participating in this physiological process in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a species of high value for aquaculture, are still not identified and/or fully characterized in terms of gene expression regulation. In this sense, this study identifies and isolates the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) mRNA sequence from S. aurata, encoding prepro-Trh, the putative factor initiating the HPT cascade. In addition, the regulation of trh expression and of key brain genes in the HPI axis, i.e., corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone-binding protein (crhbp), was studied when the osmoregulatory status of S. aurata was challenged by exposure to different salinities. The deduced amino acid structure of trh showed 65-81% identity with its teleostean orthologs. Analysis of the tissue distribution of gene expression showed that trh mRNA is, though ubiquitously expressed, mainly found in brain. Subsequently, regulation of gene expression of trh, crh, and crhbp was characterized in fish acclimated to 5-, 15-, 40-, and 55-ppt salinities. In this regard, the brain gene expression pattern of trh mRNA was similar to that found for the crh gene, showing an upregulation of gene expression in seabream acclimated to the highest salinity tested. Conversely, crhbp did not change in any of the groups tested. Our results suggest that Trh and Crh play an important role in the acclimation of S. aurata to hypersaline environments.

  14. Managing water, fish and power : trends in environmental regulation of hydropower projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursey, D.; McL