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Sample records for bassiana regulates environmental

  1. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway.

  2. Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

    1986-01-01

    Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia plus soil treated with mefluidide did not differ significantly from mortality resulting from untreated conidia. Triton CS-7 was the only one of eight spray adjuvants that significantly inhibited germination of B. bassiana conidia. PMID:16347095

  3. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefa Chrzanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  4. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. PMID:27647240

  5. 40 CFR 180.1205 - Beauveria bassiana ATCC #74040; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL... the insecticide Beauveria bassiana (ATCC #74040) in or on all food commodities when applied or used...

  6. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  7. Regulative roles of glutathione reductase and four glutaredoxins in glutathione redox, antioxidant activity, and iron homeostasis of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long-Bin; Tang, Li; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Multiple glutaredoxins (Grx) and glutathione reductase (Glr) are vital for the thiol-disulfide redox system in budding yeast but generally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we characterized the Beauveria bassiana redox system comprising dithiol Grx1, monothiol Grx2-4, Grx-like Grx5, and Glr orthologue. Each grx or glr deletion was compensated by increased transcripts of some other grx genes in normal cultures. Particularly, grx3 compensated the absence of grx1, grx2, grx5, or glr under oxidative stress while its absence was compensated only by undeletable grx4 under normal conditions but by most of other undeleted grx and glr genes in response to menadione. Consequently, the redox state was disturbed in Δglr more than in Δgrx3 but not in Δgrx1/2/5. Superoxide dismutases were more active in normal Δgrx1-3 cultures but less in Δgrx5 or Δglr response to menadione. Total catalase activity increased differentially in all the mutant cultures stressed with or without H2O2 while total peroxidase activity decreased more in the normal or H2O2-stressed culture of Δglr than of Δgrx3. Among the mutants, Δgrx3 showed slightly increased sensitivity to menadione or H2O2; Δglr exhibited greater sensitivity to thiol-oxidizing diamide than thiol-reducing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as well as increased sensitivity to the two oxidants. Intriguingly, all the mutants grew slower in a Fe(3+)-inclusive medium perhaps due to elevated transcripts of two Fe(3+) transporter genes. More or fewer phenotypes linked with biocontrol potential were altered in four deletion mutants excluding Δgrx5. All the changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Overall, Grx3 played more critical role than other Grx homologues in the Glr-dependent redox system of the fungal entomopathogen. PMID:26969041

  8. EPA's Environmental Laws and Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web page provides access to search and read the environmental laws and regulations related to EPA's mission. Regulatory guidance documents and rulemaking...

  9. Metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using an LC-MS-based metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ruili; Jin, Song; Chen, Yihui; Fan, Meizhen; Huang, Bo; Li, Zengzhi; Hu, Fenglin

    2016-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is commonly used as a biological agent for pest control. Environmental and biological factors expose the fungus to oxidative stress; as a result, B. bassiana has adopted a number of anti-oxidant mechanisms. In this study, we investigated metabolites of B. bassiana that are formed in response to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed differences between the control and the H2O2-treated groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed 18 up-regulated metabolites and 25 down-regulated metabolites in the H2O2-treated fungus. Pathway analysis indicated that B. bassiana may be able to alleviate oxidative stress by enhancing lipid catabolism and glycometabolism, thus decreasing membrane polarity and preventing polar H2O2 or ROS from permeating into fungal cells and protecting cells against oxidative injury. Meanwhile, most of the unsaturated fatty acids that are derived from glycerophospholipids hydrolysis can convert into oxylipins through autoxidation, which can prevent the reactive oxygen of H2O2 from attacking important macromolecules of the fungus. Results showed also that H2O2 treatment can enhance mycotoxins production which implies that oxidative stress may be able to increase the virulence of the fungus. In comparison to the control group, citric acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were down-regulated, which suggested that metabolic flux was occurring to the TCA cycle and enhancing carbohydrate metabolism. The findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of how the molecular mechanisms of fungus respond to environmental and biological stress factors as well as how the manipulation of such metabolisms may lead to selection of more effective fungal strains for pest control. PMID:27116916

  10. The next restructuring: Environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From oil, to natural gas, and now electricity, the regulation of energy markets has been successively restructured to allow greater scope to market forces. The likely next domain for restructuring, environmental regulation, may seem far-fetched now, but it is no more so than the restructuring of electric utility regulation would have seemed to be twenty years ago. The grand experiment with emissions trading under the US acid rain program has set a propitious example by showing that markets in environmental goods can be constructed and that the explicit recognition of property rights in the use of the environment is compatible with effective and non-intrusive environmental regulation

  11. International Competitiveness and Environmental Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Babool, Md. Ashfaqul Islam; Michael R. Reed

    2005-01-01

    This study follows the standard factor endowment approach to explain the effects of environmental regulations on net exports in different product-based industries. It constructs an econometric model which includes factor endowments and environmental regulations to examine how strict environmental policy impact export competitiveness. Cross-sectional and time series (panel) data for 6 countries and 17 years were used in this model. In this study, capital services increase net exports in labor-...

  12. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  13. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  14. Environmentally Regulated Facilities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A unique record for each facility site with an environmental interest by DNR (such as permits). This brings together core environmental information in one place for...

  15. Beauveria bassiana: endophytic colonization and plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownley, Bonnie H; Griffin, Mary R; Klingeman, William E; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Moulton, J Kevin; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-07-01

    Seed application of Beauveria bassiana 11-98 resulted in endophytic colonization of tomato and cotton seedlings and protection against plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium myriotylum. Both pathogens cause damping off of seedlings and root rot of older plants. The degree of disease control achieved depended upon the population density of B. bassiana conidia on seed. Using standard plating techniques onto selective medium, endophytic 11-98 was recovered from surface-sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of tomato, cotton, and snap bean seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. As the rate of conidia applied to seed increased, the proportion of plant tissues from which B. bassiana 11-98 was recovered increased. For rapid detection of B. bassiana 11-98 in cotton tissues, we developed new ITS primers that produce a PCR product for B. bassiana 11-98, but not for cotton. In cotton samples containing DNA from B. bassiana11-98, the fungus was detected at DNA ratios of 1:1000; B. bassiana 11-98 was detected also in seedlings grown from seed treated with B. bassiana 11-98. Using SEM, hyphae of B. bassiana11-98 were observed penetrating epithelial cells of cotton and ramifying through palisade parenchyma and mesophyll leaf tissues. B. bassiana11-98 induced systemic resistance in cotton against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (bacterial blight). In parasitism assays, hyphae of B. bassiana 11-98 were observed coiling around hyphae of Pythium myriotylum. PMID:18442830

  16. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. (Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  17. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them

  18. Violation of environmental regulations in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Fredrik; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests the explanatory power of traditional enforcement instruments, environmental attitudes and abundance of social capital for violation of environmental regulations in Sweden. A count data model is used on a panel data set obtained from a survey to inspectors at the local and regional jurisdictions in Sweden. Regressions analyses are carried out for all firms but also for different firm categories depending on environmental impacts. The results indicate that traditional enforceme...

  19. The impact of Environmental regulation on corporate environmental investment of Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper environmental regulation intensity is built. Panel regression model and Grouping regression are used to verify impact of environmental regulation on corporate environmental investment of computer industry. Panel regression results show there is a negative correlation between environmental regulation intensity and environmental investment of computer industry. Grouping regression results show that environmental regulation has a “Threshold Effect” on environmental investment...

  20. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  1. Environmental Regulation and Innovation in Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Umali, Celia L.

    1998-01-01

    The Porter hypothesis has advanced the idea that stricter environmental regulation will generate benefits to firms through increased innovation, improved product design and will generally enhance the competitive standing of the firm or industry in adding value to its products. While environmental economists have been critical in receiving the Porter's proposal as being based on too optimistic expectations of the size of the benefits the business community has welcome them. By using selected c...

  2. Beauveria bassiana: quercetinase production and genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eula Maria de M. B Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana genetic diversity and ability to synthesize quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (quercetinase were analyzed. B. bassiana isolates, obtained from Brazilian soil samples, produced quercetinase after induction using 0.5 g/L quercetin. B. bassiana ATCC 7159 (29.6 nmol/mL/min and isolate IP 11 (27.5 nmol/ml/min showed the best performances and IP 3a (9.5 nmol/mL/min presented the lowest level of quercetinase activity in the culture supernatant. A high level of polymorphism was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. The use of internal-transcribed-spacer ribosomal region restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP did not reveal characteristic markers to differentiate isolates. However, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequence analysis provided more information on polymorphism among the isolates, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity into three large groups. Correlation was tested according to the Person's correlation. Data of our studies showed, that lower associations among groups, level of quercetinase production, or geographical origin could be observed. This study presents the production of a novel biocatalyst by B. bassiana and suggests the possible industrial application of this fungal species in large-scale biotechnological manufacture of quercetinase.

  3. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  4. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  5. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  6. SEPAAnnounces Projects in Serious Violation of Environmental Protection Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On January 10th, 2007 the Deputy Director of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) circulated a list of 82 projects in serious violation of environmental protection evaluation and related environmental protection regulations.

  7. Environmental regulation of tourism: impact on business innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca.......Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca....

  8. The mosquito melanization response is implicated in defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yassine

    Full Text Available Mosquito immunity studies have focused mainly on characterizing immune effector mechanisms elicited against parasites, bacteria and more recently, viruses. However, those elicited against entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood, despite the ubiquitous nature of these microorganisms and their unique invasion route that bypasses the midgut epithelium, an important immune tissue and physical barrier. Here, we used the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae as a model to investigate the role of melanization, a potent immune effector mechanism of arthropods, in mosquito defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, using in vivo functional genetic analysis and confocal microscopy. The temporal monitoring of fungal growth in mosquitoes injected with B. bassiana conidia showed that melanin eventually formed on all stages, including conidia, germ tubes and hyphae, except the single cell hyphal bodies. Nevertheless, melanin rarely aborted the growth of any of these stages and the mycelium continued growing despite being melanized. Silencing TEP1 and CLIPA8, key positive regulators of Plasmodium and bacterial melanization in A. gambiae, abolished completely melanin formation on hyphae but not on germinating conidia or germ tubes. The detection of a layer of hemocytes surrounding germinating conidia but not hyphae suggested that melanization of early fungal stages is cell-mediated while that of late stages is a humoral response dependent on TEP1 and CLIPA8. Microscopic analysis revealed specific association of TEP1 with surfaces of hyphae and the requirement of both, TEP1 and CLIPA8, for recruiting phenoloxidase to these surfaces. Finally, fungal proliferation was more rapid in TEP1 and CLIPA8 knockdown mosquitoes which exhibited increased sensitivity to natural B. bassiana infections than controls. In sum, the mosquito melanization response retards significantly B. bassiana growth and dissemination, a finding that may be exploited to

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  10. Genetic Engineering of Beauveria bassiana and environmental safety analysis of engineering strains%球孢白僵菌工程菌株构建及其环境安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丁丁; 李增智

    2013-01-01

    以球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)Bb202作为出发菌株,同时引入外源毒力基因,即北非蝎(Androctonus australis)昆虫特异性神经毒素多肽基因AaIT(GI:69545),构建高毒力的工程菌株Bb202T-7,并用SPSS软件统计分析,结果显示,Bb202T-7对松墨天牛(Monochamus alternatus)的杀虫效率提高了11.11%.研究目的是为生物防治提供性能良好的出发菌株,为高效杀虫剂的研制提供基础资源,克服真菌杀虫剂击倒昆虫所需时间长,对环境条件要求高等缺点,加速真菌杀虫剂的产业化步伐.同时对基因工程重组菌株的安全性问题进行分析,并提出解决方案.

  11. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However...... of environmental regulations on maritime transport. Therefore, the review concludes in suggestions for further studies on the use of marine scrubber systems as an illustrative case study example....

  12. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  14. Environmental Regulation and Choice of Innovation in Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of an environmental regulation on the innovation choice of firms in an oligopoly. Most existing studies on environmental regulations and innovations examine the optimal behavior of firms when one innovation project is feasible. In our model, firms are allowed to choose from multiple types of innovation projects. Our main contributions are that we derive the conditions under which environmentally friendly and cost reducing innovations are selected in Bertrand...

  15. Environmental Sustainability and Regulation: To-Down Versus Bottom-Up Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam, Yohannes

    2001-01-01

    Environmental regulation can be broadly divided into those that follow the top-down and bottom-up approaches. The two approaches have similar objective with respect to environmental protection and sustainability. However, the success with which each approach achieves goals of environmental protection and sustainability may vary. Moreover, the costs and benefits of each approach differ. The present study will explore the implication of environmental regulation to sustainability, costs associat...

  16. Compliance to Environmental Regulations: The Indian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Keren Priyadarshini; Omprakash K. Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical exposition of the trade-environment linkage (in the form of Environment Kuznets Curve) has been extensive. While one set of studies show that with the increase in per capita income environmental degradation would decline, the other set of studies has shown that no such trend exists for developing countries. Though environmental laws are in place, firms display a very low level of compliance in developing countries. This article brings out the low level of compliance to environment...

  17. Environmental regulation and trade pattern: a case of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As a growing number of countries, including both developed and developing countries, have in recent years taken environmental regulation at different levels, a question of great concern has been raised: can the regulation alter the existing trade volume and trade pattern, and ultimately drive pollution-intensive industries to countries with low-level regulations or even those without regulations at all? Starting from the three different propositions concerning the relationship between environmental regulation and trade pattern, this paper applies cointegration analysis and error correction model to empirically testing the relationship between environmental regulation and trade in China during the period of 1985-2005. Our empirical results indicate that in the short run the collection of pollution discharge fees bears a positive impact on the export share of clean products of total exports. Thus, higher pollution discharge fees raise the ratio of clean products exports to total exports. This further indicates that more stringent environmental regulation promotes the exports of clean products. In the long run pollution discharge fees are positively correlated with the export share of clean products but negatively associated with their import share. Such correlations imply that environmental regulation tends to facilitate the international specialization in line with comparative advantages.

  18. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)

  19. Environmental Regulation and Innovation: A Panel Data Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adam B. Jaffe; Karen Palmer

    1996-01-01

    In a 1991 essay in Scientific American, Michael Porter suggested that environmental regulation may have a positive effect on the performance of domestic firms relative to their foreign competitors, by stimulating domestic innovation. We examine the stylized facts regarding environmental expenditures and innovation in a panel of manufacturing industries. We find that lagged environmental compliance expenditures have significant positive effect on R&D expenditures when we control for unobserved...

  20. Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataria, Mitesh [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7013, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

  1. [Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-zhen; Cao, Dong; Yu, Fang; Wang, Jin-nan; Qi, Ji; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Tian-zhu; Luo, Yong-ming

    2013-05-01

    As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system. PMID:23914513

  2. Study on effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Man Ok; Lim, Hyun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    For Korea, the claim that the enhancement of environmental regulation is worsening the international competitiveness of the business is dominant. However, it is too early to reestablish a relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness with the above new aspect. In fact, the economic development, which is brought a quantitative growth, and the maintenance of environmental quality, which is brought a qualitative growth, are very important on decision making in economic and social policy. In this study, it represents the results of existing positive studies on the relationship between the enhancement of environmental regulation, trade and productivity. Moreover, the objective of this study is on applying it based on the data of Korea. 86 refs., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Environmental regulation of a power investment in an international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the optimal environmental regulation of three Norwegian power projects: energy conservation, a natural gas fired CCGT and a new hydro project. All projects reduce emissions elsewhere in the Nordic region, and the environmental costs of these emissions are not, in general, fully reflected in market prices. We develop a theory of second best optimal regulation for this case. The optimal regulation is found to deviate substantially from a purely domestic regulation. For instance, we find it optimal to grant a substantial credit to energy conservation. The credit is sensitive to the value of reduced CO2 emissions and whether the current Norwegian end user tax should be interpreted as an environmental or a fiscal tax

  4. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  5. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  6. Legal regulation of enterprises' environmental impact: a survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Mingan; Tong Liechun; Wang Lei

    2008-01-01

    The enterprise coordinates social resources, which changes the dialogue between human and the environ-ment into that between enterprise and environment. The profit-making character of enterprise leads to the abandon-ment of environmental ethics. Enterprise, which has the capability to solve environmental problems, however, lacks-the motive to do it. It has controlling power over society and should assume the responsibility of environmental protection. For its lack of environmental conscience, the external institutional arrangements should be made for enterprise. The strategy for environmental cost should be designed in connection with the interest orientation of en-terprise. And various tegal measures in constitutional law, social law, civil law, administrative law and criminal law should be utilized to regulate enterprise's behaviors regarding environmental protection.

  7. Environmental-Regulation Pricing Strategies for Green Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yenming; Sheu, Jiuh-Biing

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a proper design of environmental-regulation pricing strategies is able to promote Extended Product Responsibility for green supply chain firms in a competitive market. A differential game model comprising Vidale-Wolfe equation has been established in light of sales competition and recycling dynamics as well as regulation related profit function. Analytic solutions of Markovian Nash equilibriums are provided with the necessary condition derived from Hamilton-Jacobi...

  8. Does regulation perform better than self-regulation? An analysis of Spanish environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    César Camisón-Zornoza; Montserrat Boronat-Navarro

    2010-01-01

    The question of why corporations are subject to different regulatory approaches remains open. In this paper we analyze this problem using Ashbein and Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. We study how management’s perception of public environmental policies influences how the corporation acts and the ways in which this environmental approach contributes to environmental performance. This research differentiates among five policy approaches, some of which are focused on mandatory regulation and ...

  9. Violation of environmental regulations in Sweden: Economic motives, environmental attitudes, and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Fredrik; Gren, Ing-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests the explanatory power of traditional enforcement instruments, environmental attitudes and abundance of social capital for violation of environmental regulations in Sweden. A count data model is used on a panel data set obtained from a survey to inspectors at the local and regional jurisdictions in Sweden. Regressions analyses are carried out for all firms but also for different firm categories depending on environmental impacts. The results indicate that traditional enforceme...

  10. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We obser

  11. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  12. The relationship between resource and environmental regulation and industrial competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    The reason why materials on earth are divided into "resources" and "waste" is fundamentally dependent on the level of industrial technology and the scale of industrial demand. The only viable option for humans to end their resource and environmental predicament is to resolutely and efficiently push forward industrialization. At present, China’s industrial development is still at a stage of severe resource and environmental deterioration. The fact that industrial production activity is becoming cleaner does not mean that industrial production has reached the satisfactory level of resource conservation and environmental protection. On the contrary, as China is still at the intermediate stage of industrialization, it is imperative to go ahead with massive resource consumption amid heavy industrial development. China’s industrial production has led to severe resource waste and environmental pollution. Therefore, strengthening resource and environmental regulation and enhancing regulatory effectiveness are still a very important, though tough, issue for China to address in its industrialization process at the present time. The fundamental objectives of government regulation of resources and the environment are: i) to realize the viable objective of resource conservation and environmental protection; and ii) to maintain an effective order of fair competition. An effective and feasible way toward resource and environmental regulation is to realize the resource conservation and environmental protection policy objectives and help improve the long-term industrial and corporate competitiveness, with a special emphasis on boosting the international competitiveness of China’s industry under the rule of fair competition. Moderate and reasonable regulatory intensity requires imposing effective constraints on corporate behavior without going beyond the maximum level of affordability dictated by the current level of industrial and corporate competitiveness, with a special

  13. Strategic choices in the environmental debate: Environmental regulation and self-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    Den aktuelle miljødebat, der føres i litteraturen, kan give direkte anledning til den uheldige opfattelse, at det overvejende er et spørgsmål om miljøregulering eller indirekte regulering baseret på markedskræfterne. Dette er i modstrid med den kendsgerning, at der findes mange kombinationer i pr...

  14. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  15. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi.

  16. Entomopathogenic fungus \\kur{Beauveria bassiana }- biological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    PAVLÍČEK, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This literature compilation focuses on current knowledge in the biological characteristics of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, with emphasis on the influence of abiotic factors on the development and its effectiveness in selected species of harmful insects. Knowledge of abiotic factors is important for a successful outcome to protect plants against harmful agents this entomopathogen. There are also set out the specifics, benefits and examples of using the aforementioned entomopa...

  17. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  18. Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

  19. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdigoudarzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. 

  20. Bestrijding van de slawortelboorder Hepialus lupulinus met de insectenpathogene schimmel Beauveria bassiana : praktijkproeven pioenroos 2004 - 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Uit het onderzoek kan geconcludeerd worden dat Beauveria bassiana een goede bestrijder is van de slawortelboorder Hepialus lupulinus L. Door de schimmel aangetaste rupsen zijn makkelijk aan te treffen in en buiten het behandelde perceel. Doordat in deze proeven Beauveria bassiana ook werd aangetroff

  1. Public, private and nonprofit regulation for environmental quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Bottega; Jenny De Freitas

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the welfare implications of different institutions certifying environmental quality supplied by a monopoly. The monopolist can voluntarily certify the quality of the product through an eco-label provided either by an NGO or a for-proft private certifier (PC). The NGO and the PC may use advertisement to promote the label. We compare the NGO and PC regimes with the regime where the regulator imposes a minimum quality standard. The presence of a private certifier in the market...

  2. Bone Cell Autophagy Is Regulated by Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zahm, Adam M.; Bohensky, Jolene; Adams, Christopher S.; Shapiro, Irving M.; Srinivas, Vickram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to ascertain whether bone cells undergo autophagy and to determine if this process is regulated by environmental factors. We showed that osteocytes in both murine and human cortical bone display a punctuate distribution of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, indicative of autophagy. In addition, we noted a basal level of autophagy in preosteocyte-like murine long bone-derived osteocytic (MLO)-A5 cells. Autophagy was upregulated following nutrient d...

  3. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  4. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution. PMID:27164892

  5. Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes...... in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.......Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes...... for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice...

  6. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa; Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa; Débora Brand; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40%) with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; ...

  8. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  9. Production of conidia of Beauveria bassiana in solid-state culture: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, M; Rodriguez-Gomez, D; Loera, O

    2015-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus widely commercialized in the world. Recent progress and achievements on conidia production have focused on a yield goal of 10(9) to 10(10) conidia per gram of dry substrate. Due to cost-competitive perspectives, these yields should be associated with better production rates or productivities. This study presents a review of relevant studies of B. bassiana conidia production on solid-state cultures and the parameters that should be taken into account to maintain constant quality in the product to be commercialized. Conditions for maximizing production and infectivity of B. bassiana conidia are also analysed. PMID:24494702

  10. Study on environmental results improvement plan through flexible industrial environmental regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo; Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Young Soon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    As the economic environment has been changed to the direction of decentralization and diversification, there shows various changes in the area and method of market intervention by the government. In the environmental sector, it has been discussed to extend its use of economic incentive coming out of an existing direct regulation policy. Recently the importance on the new forms of government role such as voluntary agreements and information opening have been emphasized. Although the existing direct regulation policy has an advantage of visible and direct effect, it blocked the chance to explore technological and economical alternatives toward environmental problems by business sector. Therefore it is recognized that there is a fundamental limit on inducing the efficient pollution resisting activities from the business sector. Therefore this study analyzed and recommended theoretical characteristics on mechanism that a voluntary approach can bring appropriate results on policy objectives. 98 refs. 7 figs., 47 tabs.

  11. Environmental regulation & environmental innovation: The case of waste water treatment, waste and energy-efficiency in the Dutch paper and board industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chappin, M.M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Aim presentation Part 1: discuss relation environmental innovation and environmental regulation Part 2: role of an industry association in the development and implementation of environmental policy measures

  12. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of app

  13. Natural variation in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero Jimenez, C.A.; Debets, A.J.M.; Kan, van J.A.; Schoustra, S.E.; Takken, W.; Zwaan, B.J.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is greatly hampering current efforts to control malaria and therefore alternative methods are needed. Entomopathogenic fungi have been proposed as an alternative with a special focus on the cosmopolitan species Beauveria bassiana. However, few studies have analysed

  14. Isolation and Assessment of Stability of Six Formulations of Entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, Lizzy A

    2016-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is the most widely studied and exploited entomopathogen. The development of a suitable formulation for B. bassiana is a critical component in aiding the entomopathogen germinate and infect the host. In addition to being economical to produce, having high residual activity, it is also important that the formulation is easy to handle, stable during storage, and convenient to mix and apply and be consistently effective in controlling the target pest.In this chapter we describe preparation of experimental formulations of conidia of B. bassiana. The formulations are prepared with barley, rice, wheat bran, clay, kaolin, and peat. The protocol for assessing the stability of the formulations of B. bassiana is also described. PMID:27565494

  15. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  16. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  17. 75 FR 39577 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... environmental impact statement for the issuance of annual regulations permitting the hunting of migratory birds... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual... supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) for the issuance of annual regulations permitting...

  18. Environmental and intracellular regulation of Francisella tularensis ripA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taft-Benz Sharon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, facultative intracellular pathogen and the etiologic agent of the zoonotic disease Tularemia. RipA is a cytoplasmic membrane protein that is conserved among Francisella species and is required for intracellular growth. F. tularensis ripA deletion mutants escape the phagosome of infected cells, but unlike wild type organisms fail to replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. Results Further analysis of ripA with respect to environmental effects on the growth of mutant strains and expression levels revealed that RipA is required for optimal growth at pH 7.5 but not pH 6.5. Using a combination of RT-PCR, ripA-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions, and a RipA-tetracysteine tag fusion protein we found that both ripA transcription and RipA protein levels were elevated in organisms grown at pH 7.5 as compared to organisms grown at pH 5.5. A number of genes, including iglA, that are required for intracellular growth are regulated by the transcriptional regulators MglA and SspA, and are induced upon infection of host cells. We quantified ripA and iglA expression at different stages of intracellular growth and found that the expression of each increased between 1 and 6 hours post infection. Given the similar intracellular expression patterns of ripA and iglA and that MglA and SspA are positive regulators of iglA we tested the impact of mglA and sspA deletions on ripA and iglA expression. In the deletion mutant strains iglA expression was reduced dramatically as expected, however ripA expression was increased over 2-fold. Conclusion Expression of ripA is required for growth at neutral pH, is pH sensitive, and is responsive to the intracellular environment. The intracellular expression pattern of ripA coincided with iglA, which is positively regulated by MglA and SspA. However, in contrast to their positive impact on iglA expression, MglA and SspA negatively impacted ripA expression in

  19. Inventory and Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Regulations in the Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nolet, Jean; Sauve, Claude; Geoffroy, Amelie; Sanchez, Richard

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the impact and effectiveness of environmental regulations, specifically impact on the competitiveness of primary agriculture. The objective of this report is to discuss different methodologies and assessment criteria for the evaluation of the impacts of environmental regulations in the agricultural sector; to identify the relevant environmental regulations administered at the federal, provincial and local levels; and an analytical framework to evaluate the fut...

  20. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  1. Discovery and demonstration of the teleomorph of Beauve-ria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. , an important entomogenous fun-gus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A Cordyceps specimen was collected in Anhui, China, a strain of Beauveria bassiana, an important entomopathogenic fungus for biological pest control, was isolated and their relationship was demonstrated by microcycle conidiation. The teleomorph is an undescribed species and is named Cordyceps bassiana.

  2. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  4. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA as an insecticide on tomatoes for strain ATCC-74040 and on tomatoes, cucumbers and ornamentals for strain GHA. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  5. Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with Neoseiulus barkeri for Control of Frankliniella occidentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-yong; GAO Yu-lin; XU Xue-nong; Mark S Goettel; LEI Zhong-ren

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungusBeauveriabassiana (Balsamo) Vuilemin and predatory miteNeoseiulusbarkeri Hughes are effective biological control agents ofFranklinielaoccidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), one of the most important pests of ornamentals and vegetables world-wide. Combined application of both may enhance control efifciency. The functional response forN.barkeri on the ifrst instar larvae of western lfower thrips which were infected byB.bassiana for 12 and 24 h in the laboratory ((25±1)°C, (70±5)% RH, L:D=16 h:8 h) was determined. The virulence ofB.bassiana against the second instar and pupae of the thrips attacked byN.barkeri were also tested. The results showed that N.barkeri exhibited a Holing type II functional response on treated thrips. After having been treated with the fungus for 12 h and then offered to the predator, thrips were more vulnerable to be kiled byN.barkeri. The second instar larvae and pupae of the thrips which had been attacked by predatory mites were markedly more susceptible toB.bassiana infection than normal thrips; the cumulative corrected mortality ofB.bassiana of the second instar and pupae which were attacked byN.barkeri were 57 and 94%, respectively, compared to 35 and 80% in controls on the day 8. These ifndings highlight the potential use ofB.bassiana in combination withN.barkeri to controlF. occidentalis.

  6. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. PMID:25110340

  7. The impact of regulation-driven environmental innovation on innovation success and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rennings, Klaus; Rammer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The impact of environmental innovations on firm performance is ambiguous. On the one hand, regulatory-driven environmental innovation may impose additional costs to firms and lower their profits. On the other hand, eco-innovators could profit from lower uncertainty in innovation due to regulatory standards and demand-generating effects of regulation. In this paper we analyse (a) whether regulation-driven environmental innovation generate similar innovation success compared to other types of p...

  8. 78 FR 32686 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of Annual Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) for the issuance of annual regulations permitting the hunting of migratory birds. We published a draft environmental impact statement in July 2010. We... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Issuance of...

  9. Drivers and drawbacks: regulation and environmental risk management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aalders, Marius

    2002-01-01

    In the literature on environmental risk management in firms, it is often proposed that environmental performance and innovation are driven primarily by external forces, such as regulatory or market pressures. But gradually, organisational forces in business itself are also suggested as drivers for the improvement of environmental performance (Andrews et al, 2001). Many companies have adopted systems approaches in their corporate strategy. Organisational strategies include quality, health and ...

  10. The Porter Hypothesis at 20: Can Environmental Regulation Enhance Innovation and Competitiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Cohen, Mark A.; Elgie, Stewart; Lanoie, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Harvard Business School economist and strategy professor Michael Porter stood conventional wisdom about the impact of environmental regulation on business on its head by declaring that well designed regulation could actually enhance competitiveness. The traditional view of environmental regulation held by virtually all economists until that time was that requiring firms to reduce an externality like pollution necessarily restricted their options and thus by definition reduc...

  11. The Porter Hypothesis at 20: Can Environmental Regulation Enhance Innovation and Competitiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Cohen, Mark A.; Elgie, Stewart; Lanoie, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Harvard Business School economist and strategy professor Michael Porter stood conventional wisdom about the impact of environmental regulation on business on its head by declaring that well-designed regulation could actually enhance competitiveness. The traditional view of environmental regulation held by virtually all economists until that time was that requiring firms to reduce an externality like pollution necessarily restricted their options and thus by definition reduce...

  12. The Porter Hypothesis at 20: can Environmental Regulation Enhance Innovation and Competitiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Cohen, Mark A.; Elgie, Stewart; Lanoie, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Harvard Business School economist and strategy professor Michael Porter stood conventional wisdom about the impact of environmental regulation on business on its head by declaring that well designed regulation could actually enhance competitiveness. The traditional view of environmental regulation held by virtually all economists until that time was that requiring firms to reduce an externality like pollution necessarily restricted their options and thus by definition reduce...

  13. The Porter Hypothesis at 20: Can Environmental Regulation Enhance Innovation and Competitiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Cohen, Mark; Elgie, Stewart; Lanoie, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Harvard Business School economist and strategy professor Michael Porter stood conventional wisdom about the impact of environmental regulation on business on its head by declaring that well designed regulation could actually enhance competitiveness. The traditional view of environmental regulation held by virtually all economists until that time was that requiring firms to reduce an externality like pollution necessarily restricted their options and thus by definition reduce...

  14. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  15. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40% with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; initial pH 6.0; inoculum concentration 10(7 spores.g-1.dw and initial moisture 75%. In the column type reactor using forced aeration under the optimized conditions, the maximum production (1.07x10(10spores.g-1.dw was obtained at the 10th day of fermentation. The respirometric analyses of the fermentation showed a strong correlation between fungal growth and spore production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir Beauveria bassiana por fermentação no estado sólido em resíduos agro-industriais e otimizar as condições de cultivo. Batata-refugo, polpa de café e bagaço de cana de açúcar foram testados. A mistura de batata-refugo e de bagaço de cana de açúcar (60:40%, com granulometria de 2 a 0,8 mm foi escolhida como melhor substrato/suporte. Em frascos de Erlenmeyer a produção de esporos foi maior com as seguintes condições: pH 6,0; temperatura de incubação de 26º C; taxa de inóculo de 10(7 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca; e umidade inicial de 75%. Em bioreator do tipo coluna com aeração forçada, as condições otimizadas possibilitaram uma produção máxima de esporos no 10º dia de fermentação, obtendo-se 1,07x10(10 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca. A análise respirométrica desta fermentação permitiu correlacionar o desenvolvimento do fungo com a produção de esporos.

  16. Polymorphism of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitina, G V; Tokarev, Y S; Movila, A A; Yli-Mattila, T

    2011-03-01

    Polymorphism of 10 Beauveria bassiana strains, isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Moldova, was evaluated using traditional (morphological and cultural properties) and molecular (RAPD patterns and ITS sequences) methods. The isolates differed greatly in morphological and cultural features, such as color, consistence, and growth rate. Four RAPD-PCR markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of the strains. Phylogenetic neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD patterns divided strains into 3 major clades. The ITS sequences of 8 strains were identical to those of known B. bassiana strains. Two subsets (1 and 2) different by one nucleotide change were found in the ITS1 region. One strain of subset 1 was different from known B. bassiana strains by possessing 2 point mutations in the ITS region. RAPD-based clustering correlated to ITS sequence and colony morphology-based grouping of the strains.

  17. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario;

    2016-01-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo......) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae...... and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered...

  18. PATOGENITAS CENDAWAN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DAN CULEX PIPIENS QUINQUEFASCIATUS DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrul Munif

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Beauveria bassiana fungus to kill mosquito larvae was challenged with Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in a study conducted at the entomology laboratory of the Health Ecology Research Centre. Cx. p. quinquefeasciatus was more sensitive compared to Ae. aegypti to the B. bassiana strain from Sukamandi (West Java, which is probably due to the mosquitoes behaviour and conidiospore larvacidal effect. Conidia dust application, with a dosage of 2.2 mglliter, to water surface, within 48 hours was able to kill almost all the Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. However a dosage of 4 mglliter was required to kill all the Ae.aegypti. And a dosage of 1.3 mg conidiospore I liter is able to kill 50% Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. It seems that B. bassiana has greater capability to eradicate Cx. p. quinquefasciatus compared to Ae. aegypti

  19. Effect of Storage Temperature on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Viability on Several Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukamto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the entomopatogenous fungus types commonly observed and showed potency as myco-insectiside is Beauveria bassiana(Bals. Vuill.In order to support effectiveness and patogenous activity of B. bassiana, it is necessary to add a carrying agent that protects its spores from ultra violet ray. This study aims to investigate the effect of storage temperature on viability of B. Bassianaspores on the carrier material. The observation was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design by three factors. The first factor was carrier (C, that consists of C1 = rice flour, C2 = maize flour and C3 = tapioca flour. The second factor was dosage (D, that consists of D1 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 1 g carrier; D2 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 5 g carrier and D3 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 10 g carrier. The third factor was temperature of the storage (T,that consists of T1 = 5oC; T2 = 23oC and T3 = 29oC. Viability of B. Bassiana spores was examined by observing development of 100 blastopores randomly and determined under light microscope with 400 times magnification. Observation was conducted in two replicates after the spores of B. bassiana were kept in the storage for 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The result showed that by adding 1 g tapioca flour and temperature of storage of 5oC was potentiall in keeping viability of B. bassianaspores at least for 2 months. It was due to that tapioca flour gave better effect than rice and maize flours in keeping the storage and appropriate low temperature. Viability of B. bassianaspores decreased with increasing carrier dosage, temperature and duration of the storage. Whereas, storage at 5oC was found to be a better condition in keeping viability of dry pure B. bassianaspores longer than conditions of 23o and 29oC. Key word:Beauveria bassiana, temperature, viability,carrier.

  20. Virulencia de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre picudo del nopal Metarnasius spinolae

    OpenAIRE

    Orduño Cruz, Nuvia

    2012-01-01

    El picudo del nopal (Metamasius spinolae), es uno de los principales factores limitantes de la producción comercial de nopal en Tlalnepantla Morelos. El control de plagas se basa en insecticidas y el uso de nuevas alternativas como los hongos entomopatógenos ha sido poco estudiada. Con el objeto de seleccionar aislamientos de las especies B. bassiana y M. anisopliae para el control del picudo del nopal se evaluaron seis aislamientos de B. bassiana y dos de M. anisopliae en...

  1. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×109 TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×1010 T...

  2. Environmental Exposures and Gene Regulation in Disease Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Thea M. Edwards; Myers, John Peterson

    2007-01-01

    Objective Health or disease is shaped for all individuals by interactions between their genes and environment. Exactly how the environment changes gene expression and how this can lead to disease are being explored in a fruitful new approach to environmental health research, representative studies of which are reviewed here. Data sources We searched Web of Science and references of relevant publications to understand the diversity of gene regulatory mechanisms affected by environmental exposu...

  3. Environmental regulation and development : a cross-country empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mody, Ashoka; Roy, Subhendu; Wheeler, David; Dasgupta, Susmita

    1995-01-01

    The authors develop comparative indices of environmental policy and performance for 31 countries using a quantified analysis of reports prepared for the United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development. In cross-country regressions, they find a very strong, continuous association between their indicators and national income per capita, particularly when adjusted for purchasing power parity. Their results suggest a characteristic progression in development. Poor agrarian economies fo...

  4. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  5. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  6. Environmental Assessment for Regulations for the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three alternatives were considered in regards to the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Special Regulations and implementing the Kenai Comprehensive Conservation Plan....

  7. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients' environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino acids (EAAs) are key parameters in food quality assessment. We re-evaluated here the environmental footprint (expressed both as land use for production and as Green House Gas Emission (GHGE), of some animal and vegetal foods, titrated to provide EAAs amounts in respect to human requirements. Production of high-quality animal proteins, in amounts sufficient to match the Recommended Daily Allowances of all the EAAs, would require a land use and a GHGE approximately equal, greater o smaller (by only ±1-fold), than that necessary to produce vegetal proteins, except for soybeans, that exhibited the smallest footprint. This new analysis downsizes the common concept of a large advantage, in respect to environmental footprint, of crops vs. animal foods production, when human requirements of EAAs are used for reference. PMID:27221394

  8. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  9. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  10. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH PATHOGENICITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AGAINST Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Tamai; Sérgio Batista Alves; Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  11. Environmental Regulation and Innovation Dynamics in the Oil Tanker Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played...... a significant role in changing the industry's innovation paradigm. It has also been transformed over time....

  12. Environmental Regulation and Economic Growth under Education Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Makdissi; Quentin Wodon

    2002-01-01

    Using an extension of Lucas¡¯ model of endogenous growth with education externality, we show that an environmental tax may increase growth. This is because the tax makes physical capital accumulation less attractive, thereby correcting for the underinvestment by agents in human capital.

  13. Effects of Environmental Regulation on Economic Activity and Pollution in Commercial Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sneeringer, Stacy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research on environmental regulation’s effects on economic activity has largely focused on manufacturing, ignoring one of the major polluters in the U.S. – commercial agriculture. As livestock production has become increasingly mobile, regulation has become an important criterion in firm location. This article extends the literature on environmental regulation’s economic effects to commercial agriculture by exploiting a series of regulations adopted in North Carolina in the 1990s. During this...

  14. Informal environmental regulation of industrial air pollution: Does neighborhood inequality matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Klara Zwickl; Mathias Moser

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes if neighborhood income inequality has an effect on informal regulation of environmental quality, using census tract-level data on industrial air pollution exposure from EPA´s Risk Screening Environmental Indicators and income and demographic variables from the American Community Survey and EPA´s Smart Location Database. Estimating a spatial lag model and controlling for formal regulation at the states level, we find evidence that overall neighborhood inequality - as measur...

  15. Regulation and decision-making in environmental radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-funded project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental impact), which completed in 2003, has developed an assessment framework for evaluating the environmental impact of ionising radiation on biota in natural ecosystems. The FASSET framework comprises: source characterisation and initial hazard analysis; ecosystem description and selection of reference organisms (ca 30, with defined geometry and life history); exposure analysis, including conversion of input data to external and internal radionuclide concentrations, and subsequent conversion to dose rates; effects analysis, supported by an effects database; and, guidance for interpretation. The framework provides practical and scientific support to the international development of recommendations for radiological protection of the environment through the International Commission on Radiological Protection (cf. ICRP Publication 91). However, on the basis of experiences from FASSET and other recent developments, it can be concluded that there are challenges remaining before environmental radiological protection can be seen as a natural component of general environmental protection. The major future challenge is the development of an integrated approach where decision-making can be guided by sound scientific judgements. This requires, inter alia, filling in gaps in basic knowledge of relevance to assessment and protection, through targeted experimental, theoretical (including expert judgements) and real case studies; development of risk characterisation methodologies, based on both theoretical and experimental studies; development of screening standards, where appropriate; development of user-friendly assessment tools; and stakeholder involvement, including development of supporting communication strategies. A new EC-funded project, ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and management), has recently started. The project has four operational work packages, being devoted to

  16. Environmental Protection Agency update on mixed waste regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1989-11-01

    This paper is divided into discussion of the following four basic areas: (1) dual regulation; (2) the state role; (3) an overview of current agency activities; and (4) current issues. The first area, dual regulation of mixed waste, requires the cooperation between regulatory agencies, whether federal or state, for managing the chemical and radioactive aspects of mixed waste. Dual or joint regulation of mixed waste is now a well established fact. The second area is state involvement. Dual regulation involves not only the EPA, DOE, and NRC, but also state authorities. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is implemented for the most part by the individual states. Congress intended that the states be the primary implementers of RCRA and created provisions in the Act to authorize state programs. The third area discussed in this paper is concerned with EPA`s progress on current issues. EPA has progressed on several promises to create strong centralized guidance. Fourth and finally, there are many issues outstanding and some may have direct specific significant impact on DOE facility operations. Perhaps the biggest outstanding issue is how the land disposal restrictions will affect the treatment, storage, and disposal of mixed waste at DOE facilities.

  17. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  18. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence o...

  19. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  20. Efficacy of Molasses and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuill on the Control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to study the compatibility between the molasses and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuill on the control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824. The study was conducted on the Site Pitiá in a banana plantation of approximately 250 m2, located in the municipality of Areia, state of Paraiba, Brazil. The results showed that the constancy of C. sorditus was significantly higher in traps consisting of molasses+fungi (P <0.01. And significantly lower in traps without yeast and molasses. The frequency of C. sorditus was classified as accidental in traps with only B. bassiana (23.44% and in traps without the addition of B. bassiana and molasses (10.71%, and being accessory in traps consisting of molasses (28.43% and in traps with molasses+fungi (37.27%. Therefore the food bait molasses along with the fungi B. bassiana, may be used in an integrated control of C. sorditus in banana plantations.

  1. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  2. Sustainable profit. Insight in to the environmental benefit of the Green Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green investments are investments for environmental projects (e.g. energy conservation, wind energy farms, biological agriculture, sustainable building). An overview is given of the environmental impacts and benefits of green investments within the framework of the Dutch regulation for such investments

  3. Decree 435/994 Environmental Impacts : establish a standard joint complex named Evaluation Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulation of Evaluation of environmental Impact in the chapter I art.2 item 14 it establishes that It will require the previous Environmental Authorization the activities that refer to the construction of production factories and transformation of Nuclear Energy r, without damage of that settled down for the articulate 215 of the law 16.226 of October 29 1991

  4. Deciphering transcriptional regulations coordinating the response to environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, Vicente; Aravena, Andrés; Guziolowski, Carito; Eveillard, Damien; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene co-expression evidenced as a response to environmental changes has shown that transcriptional activity is coordinated, which pinpoints the role of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs). Nevertheless, the prediction of TRNs based on the affinity of transcription factors (TFs) with binding sites (BSs) generally produces an over-estimation of the observable TF/BS relations within the network and therefore many of the predicted relations are spurious. Results We present Lomba...

  5. Herbivores, resources and risks : alternating regulation along primary environmental gradients in savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Olff, Han; Sinclair, A. R. E.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores are regulated by predation under certain environmental conditions, whereas under others they are limited by forage abundance and nutritional quality. Whether top-down or bottom-up regulation prevails depends both on abiotic constraints on forage availability and body size, because size si

  6. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  7. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. /
    Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mita; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Jo I Wu; Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Dalva Tomoe Miyagui; Geni Varéa-Pereira; Danieli Cristina Sassá; Evelyn Kamogawa

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and the conidia grow...

  8. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) isolates as potential agents for control of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Wa Zhang; Yu-Jun Liu; Jian Yao; Bin Wang; Bo Huang; Zeng-Zhi Li; Mei-Zhen Fan; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, as a destructive invasive pest, has become one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, have shown great potential for the management of some bark beetle species. In this study, 12 isolates of B. bassiana from bark beetle were examined for biological characteristics and virulence, to assess their potential as biocontrol agents for RTB. There were significant differences (at P = 0.05) in colony growth rate, conidial yield, conidial germination, tolerance to UV light and extracellular proteases activity among the tested B. bassiana isolates. Isolates, including Bbl801, Bbl906, Bb789 and Bb773, exhibited the best characteristics, because they have faster hyphal growth rate, higher spore production and faster spore germination, higher UV tolerance and protease (Prl) production. The results of a pathogenicity test of B. bassiana on RTB larvae showed that most isolates of B. bassiana have demonstrated high efficacy and the highest virulent isolate was Bbl801, which killed 100% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.60 days at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/mL. Therefore, isolate Bb 1801 has a great potential for sustainable control of RTB in the forest. The correlation between biological characteristics and virulence of the fungal isolates is discussed and the possibility of combination of entomopathogenic fungi with semiochemicals, as one of the promising strategy for RTB control, is considered.

  9. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  10. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  11. Progress in the Regulation of Radiation Environmental Safety in the Utilization of Mineral Resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the background to the progress made in the regulation of radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources other than uranium (thorium) ores in China is first introduced. The regulatory experience of radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources in international organizations and industrial countries (e.g. International Commission on Radiological Protection, IAEA, European Union and United States of America) is surveyed and analysed. Finally, the scope and requirements of regulation on the radiation environmental safety in the utilization of mineral resources in China are stated. (author)

  12. Eco-Efficiency Assessments as a Tool for Revealing the Environmental Improvement Potential of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public regulations can result in improved environmental performance of products. In this paper eco-efficiency is used to assess the most likely outcome of potential new regulations. The paper presents a case study of furniture production in Norway where different scenarios for improving the environmental performance of the products are presented. Four regulatory options for imposing environmental improvements are assessed; (1 an introduction of a tax on emissions, (2 an increase of the tax on landfills, (3 an introduction of a tax on raw material consumption, and (4 introduction of take-back legislation.

  13. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  14. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond t

  15. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf

  16. Win-win opportunities & environmental regulation: Testing of porter hypothesis for Indian manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Murthy; Surender Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of environmental regulation relating to water pollution by the Indian industry on the productive efficiency of firms. The panel data of 92 water- polluting firms for the three years 1996-97, 1997-98, and 1998-99 are used to test the Porter hypothesis of having win-win opportunities for the firms subjected to the regulation. The main empirical result is that the technical efficiency of firms increases with the intensity of environmental regulation and the water co...

  17. Radiation Protection and Regulation for Environmental Radiotracer Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioactive tracers in the environment is subject to national regulation as well as International Standards and Guidelines. These address aspects of radiation protection during transport, deployment and in the environment following deployment and are relevant not only to radiation workers and members of the public, but also to non-human biota in the receiving environment. This paper outlines the regulatory framework and safety aspects relating to radiotracing and provides examples of radiation doses modeling for humans and non-human biota. (author)

  18. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  19. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  20. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  1. Can local environmental regulation of companies deal with a broader environmental view?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper; Smink, Carla

    Environmental concern of companies has gradually expanded from a focus on local environmental problems to a broader inclusion of inputs as well as lifecycle perspectives. At the same time, the regulatory approach has changed from a “pure” command-and-control regime, towards a governance regime...... to include more facilitating and catalytic aspects as well as promoting cleaner technology and pollution prevention have been tried out. However today, most municipalities still rely on traditional command-and-control mechanisms as well as targeting at the traditional local environmental concerns. However...... the reason years renewed focus on Climate and Energy seems to provide perspectives to reintroduces this more facilitating role and focus on broader environmental aspects....

  2. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  3. Coal-fired electricity, environmental regulation, and domestic coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade it appears that utilities will have to effectively separate their power generation business from other regulated functions. Tighter restrictions of sulfur emissions will take effect in 2000 but, as of 1996 only 30 percent of US coal-fired electrical generating capacity had flue-gas scrubbers. New emission standards would likely accelerate the shift to low sulfur coal as the competitive pressures of power markets will restrict capital for investment. If power plants do not retrofit with scrubbers, then based on 1995 coal transactions data for Northern Appalachia, Central Appalachia, and the Illinois Basin, there is the equivalent of 216 million tons of annual shipments from these areas that will have to be replaced by low sulfur coal or be covered by emission permits. In the aggregate only 23 percent of the coal shipped in 1995 from these areas was shipped to power plants equipped with flue-gas scrubber systems. The purpose of this paper is to show the extent of the geographical shift in future coal production that could occur as the regulations are enforced. The paper initially discusses the deregulation of the electrical utility industry and the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Current composition and historical changes of markets for the four major coal-producing regions--Northern Appalachian, Central Appalachian, Illinois Basin, and Power River Basin--are examined. Data on sulfur content of the coal received at power plants from each of the four major coal-producing regions are presented and used to infer the quality of coal likely to be produced in the immediate future. For each market, volumes of coal used by power plants having flue-gas scrubbers are estimated. Based on these estimates and available low sulfur supplies in each market, the volumes of produced coal are calculated that will not meet the new Clean Air Act standards and will likely not be used in scrubber equipped power

  4. Innovation-oriented environmental regulations: direct versus indirect regulations; an empirical analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    It is often suggested that innovation is one of the most desirable environmental policy aims, in that it promises to solve the conflict between environmental regulation and economic growth. Contrary to what is frequently advocated -- that in order to foster innovation through regulation, most of the attention should be put on the regulation-setting process, I argue that a cooperative stance in the implementation of regulations also has a crucial impact, especially in small and medium-sized en...

  5. Survey of environmental regulations applying to geothermal exploration, development, and use.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeland, G.V.

    1984-03-01

    Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations that apply to geothermal energy development are summarized. Most attention is given to those regulations which deal with air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes and impact assessments. Analyses are made of the regulations with respect to resource definition, pollutants currently not controlled, duplicity and overlap in permit and impact assessment requirements, the lack of uniformity of regulations between states, and the probable future approaches to the regulatory problems. This project updates a similar document (EPA/600/7-78-014) dated February 1978.

  6. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  7. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  8. Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Shimizu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP, PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C- and nitrogen (N-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI of phosphotransferase system (PTS, thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient limitations and environmental stresses. As for oxidative stress, the TCA cycle both generates and scavenges the reactive oxygen species (ROSs, where NADPH produced at ICDH and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathways play an important role in coping with oxidative stress. Solvent resistant mechanism was also considered for the stresses caused by biofuels and biochemicals production in the cell.

  9. Implications for the Venezuelan oil industry of new environmental regulations in consumer countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted in major oil consumer countries, inducing a reshaping of oil business strategies and operations in oil exporting countries. The priority areas include air and water pollution control, waste management, conservation of natural resources and oil spill control among others. This paper summarizes the more significant of those regulations in the U.S.A. and Europe, their aims, as well as the implications for Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) in terms of investment in new product specifications and pollution prevention programmes. A review of the Venezuelan environmental regulations has also been done recently, and the necessary investment to comply with the new national standards in existing installations are estimated in US$500 million for the period 1992-1996. Investment in local environmental protection, associated with the new installations in Venezuela for manufacturing cleaner products during the same period, are included in the costs of these installations presented in this document. (author)

  10. Regulating the environmental impacts of factory farming in South Africa: legal perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Ruché

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of factory farming on the environment in South Africa. It also determined whether the current existing environmental legislation in the country adequately regulates the growing industry. The various impacts that factory farms may have on the environment are discussed in detail and they include water pollution, air pollution and desertification. The applicable laws are discussed in detail and also applied to the environmental impact...

  11. The Fit Between the UK Environmental Information Regulations and the Freedom of Information Act

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Pelton; Mark Thorley

    2008-01-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is one of seven UK Research Councils. It delivers independent research, survey, training and knowledge transfer in the environmental sciences. All the UK Research Councils are public bodies falling under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and the Environmental Information Regulations 2004. This open access legislation came into force on January 1, 2005 and since then the authors have built up substantial experience in managing NERC’s data and i...

  12. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai Marco Antonio; Alves Sérgio Batista; Neves Pedro Janeiro

    1999-01-01

    O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das m...

  13. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED PESTICIDES ON THE GROWTH OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI HIRSUTELLA NODULOSA AND BEAUVERIA BASSIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three pesticides used in corn protection: Targa Super 05 (chizalofop-P-ethyl, Roundup 360SL (glyphosate and Karate Zeon 050CS (lambda-cyhalothrin, on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi Hirsutella nodulosa Petch and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Fungi isolates were cultured on Sabouraud’s medium with addition of pesticides at three different concentrations. H. nodulosa was more susceptible to pesticides than B. bassiana. The most inhibitory effect on tested entomopathogenic fungi showed chizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide. Lambda-cyhalothrin at the recommended field dose showed minor toxic effect on entomopathogenic fungi, which suggests the possibility of compatible use of this insecticide with biopesticides based on the tested species.

  15. The future of environmental protection: A U.S. regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. has the largest number of nuclear installations of any country in the world. This puts us at an extreme end of the spectrum. As a result, I have touched on many issues relative to environmental protection. Therefore in summary, let me list these issues: Before moving ahead, look at what has been done thus far. Executive policy and a national regulatory infrastructure. - Environmental Impact Statements. - Environmental Justice. Standards determined by law or courts. Consultation with other national agencies and countries. Improving the timetable for issuing regulations and supporting guidance. Improved communications and training of staff. Transparency and flexibility throughout the regulatory process. Differences in regulatory approaches are OK, as long as the end result is to achieve sound national environmental and public health and safety policy. I believe that this series of conferences represents an excellent opportunity to come to resolution about the future of environmental regulations and policies. Having this information will assist us in harmonizing any proposed recommendation(s) for radiological protection of the environment involving commodities containing radioactive materials or unrestricted release of slightly radioactive materials by using the existing environmental radiation protection framework as a starting point. Doing so in an open, encompassing manner will, in my opinion, go a long way towards resolving some of the current controversies about radiation protection standards in the U.S., as well as around the world, with the desirable end result of increasing public confidence in our environmental radiation protection programs. (author)

  16. Coal conversion control technology. Volume I. Environmental regulations; liquid effluents. Final report, April 1977-November 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Smith, M.R.; Moore, D.O.; Webber, D.K.

    1979-10-01

    This volume is the product of an information-gathering effort relating to coal conversion process streams. Available and developing control technology has been evaluated in view of the requirements of present and proposed federal, state, regional, and international environmental standards. The study indicates that it appears possible to evolve technology to reduce each component of each process stream to an environmentally acceptable level. It also indicates that such an approach would be costly and difficult to execute. Because all coal conversion processes are net users of water, liquid effluents need be treated only for recycling within the process, thus achieving essentially zero discharge. With available technology, gaseous emissions can be controlled to meet present environmental standards, particulates can be controlled or eliminated, and disposal of solid wastes can be managed to avoid deleterious environmental effects. This volume (I) focuses on environmental regulations for gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes, and the control technology for liquid effluents.

  17. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  18. Optimization of Solid-State Fermentation for Improved Conidia Production of Beauveria bassiana as a Mycoinsecticide

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Jeong Jun; Kim, Keun

    2010-01-01

    The production of conidia of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation was studied for the development of a biocontrol agent against aphid Myzus persicae. The optimal conditions for conidia production on polished white rice were 40% moisture content, 25℃ culture temperature, 2-day-old seeding culture grown in 3% corn meal, 2% rice bran, 2% corn steep powder medium, initial conidia concentration of 107 conidia/g in the wet rice, 10% inoculum size, and use of a polyethylen...

  19. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  20. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  1. Protection of Metal Artifacts with the Formation of Metal-Oxalates Complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L(-1), and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archeological and modern metal artifacts. The production of copper oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archeological and modern). The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. On silver, a co-precipitation of copper and silver oxalates occurred. As this greenish patina would not be acceptable on silver objects, silver reduction was explored as a tarnishing remediation. First experiments showed the transformation of silver nitrate into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown extracellular mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artifacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals. PMID:22291684

  2. Efficacy of Molasses and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill on the Control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira; José Bruno Malaquias; Luiz Leonardo Ferreira; Thiago de Souza Ribeiro; Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to study the compatibility between the molasses and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill on the control of Cosmopolites sorditus Germar, 1824. The study was conducted on the Site Pitiá in a banana plantation of approximately 250 m2, located in the municipality of Areia, state of Paraiba, Brazil. The results showed that the constancy of C. sorditus was significantly higher in traps consisting of molasses+fungi (P

  3. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end-of-life management. PMID:27060658

  4. Uranium Mining in Paraguay: An opportunity to improve the environmental regulations in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In many respects uranium mining is much the same as any other mining activity. In Paraguay under the Environmental Law, as well as many other South American countries, projects must have environmental permits prior to commencing, and must comply with all environmental, safety and occupational health conditions applicable. Increasingly, these activities are regulated by international standards, with external audits. The capacity for enforcement varies from the experience and tradition in mining production. Mining in Paraguay is a very recent activity; and as well as the Environmental Authority was recently created in 2000; therefore the environmental legislation for mining is not developed. Once the mining activity is approved, open pits or shafts and drives are dug, waste rock and overburden is placed in engineered dumps. Tailings from the ore processing must be placed in engineered dams or underground. Finally the whole site must be rehabilitated at the end of the project. Meanwhile air and water pollution must be avoided. The nuclear Renaissance in the world is a result of the high prices of oil and governments commitments on reducing the Greenhouse Effect Emissions under the Kyoto protocol: many governments expressed their willingness to increment their uranium predictions as well as the nuclear energy generation. Representatives of the Paraguayan Government after a meeting of the National council of Defense had stated that the issue of uranium exploration and has a strategic significance, and it has requested the preparation of environmental regulations to regulate this activity. The sector development strategy has also been discussed within the National Council of Defense. In this regard upon request of the National Environmental Authority and with support from USAID cooperation a process of preparing regulations for uranium mining has initiated by considering the cases of remediation and liabilities left by uranium mining in Australia - Nabarlek

  5. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 106 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis. PMID:25242941

  6. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaquero Rios José Lino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835 Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872. Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 x 10(6 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.

  7. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 10(6) spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.

  8. Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. in plantain farms (cv. Terra of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416 were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  9. Effect of surfactants and temperature on germination and vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzy A. Mwamburi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three non-ionic surfactants: Tween20, Tween80 and Breakthru® were screened for their effects on spore germination and mycelial growth rates and for their influence on three isolates of Beauveria bassianaspore germination at various temperatures. Tween20 and Tween80 were compatible with all the B. bassiana isolates in the germination studies, but inhibited germination at higher surfactant concentrations, irrespective of the conidial concentrations. Breakthru® had an inhibitory effect on germination even at the lowest concentration of 0.1% on all the B. bassiana isolates. The effects of the surfactants on spore germination did not correspond with their effects on colony growth. Conidial viability within the same formulation declined significantly with increases in temperature, irrespective of the surfactant. The optimal temperature for conidial germination of B. bassiana isolates was approximately 25 °C with an upper limit at 30 °C. Isolate 7320 was identified as the least affected by the different surfactants. This isolate was able to germinate rapidly in a broad temperature range of 25–30 °C after 24 h, this characteristic being an essential factor in controlling house fly populations in poultry houses.

  10. Development of a method for detection and quantification of B. brongniartii and B. bassiana in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, L; Malusà, E; Tkaczuk, C; Tartanus, M; Łabanowska, B H; Pinzari, F

    2016-01-01

    A culture independent method based on qPCR was developed for the detection and quantification of two fungal inoculants in soil. The aim was to adapt a genotyping approach based on SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) marker to a discriminating tracing of two different species of bioinoculants in soil, after their in-field release. Two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii, were traced and quantified in soil samples obtained from field trials. These two fungal species were used as biological agents in Poland to control Melolontha melolontha (European cockchafer), whose larvae live in soil menacing horticultural crops. Specificity of SSR markers was verified using controls consisting of: i) soil samples containing fungal spores of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in known dilutions; ii) the DNA of the fungal microorganisms; iii) soil samples singly inoculated with each fungus species. An initial evaluation of the protocol was performed with analyses of soil DNA and mycelial DNA. Further, the simultaneous detection and quantification of B. bassiana and B. brongniartii in soil was achieved in field samples after application of the bio-inoculants. The protocol can be considered as a relatively low cost solution for the detection, identification and traceability of fungal bio-inoculants in soil. PMID:26975931

  11. When do firms benefit from environmental regulations? A simple microeconomic approach to the Porter controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonato, Dario; Schmutzler, Armin

    2000-01-01

    Michael Porter and others have recently argued that suitable environmental regulations are likely to induce cost-reducing innovations. We analyze under which conditions such arguments might be consistent with microeconomic analysis, and under which additional conditions the firms' benefits might exceed the costs. It turns out that this requires fairly specific conditions.

  12. When do Finns Benefit from Environmental Regulations? A Simple Microeconomic Approach to the Porter Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Bonato; Armin Schmutzler

    2000-01-01

    Michael Porter and others have recently argued that suitable environmental regulations are likely to induce cost-reducing innovations. We analyze under which conditions such arguments might be consistent with microeconomic analysis, and under which additional conditions the firms' benefits might exceed the costs. It turns out that this requires fairly specific conditions.

  13. A Model of Competition with Environmental Taxes and Regulation Under Conditions of Oligopoly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jiang-wen; LUO Yun-feng; ZHAO Yong; YUE Chao-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The Cournot static game with complete information is reviewed. A model of competition with environmental taxes under conditions of oligopoly is built based on the Cournot game, and some helpful conclusions are drawn from the model. A game model with regulation of government is also established.Finally the optimization problem of market structure is discussed.

  14. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... (DLA) published a Notice of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION:...

  15. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... of Availability (NOA) in the Federal Register (76 FR 28757) announcing the revised Defense Logistics... Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense....

  16. Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.%Relationship between Biological Characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and Pathogenicity to Bombyx mori L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyu LUO; Yecheng DENG; Yongmei LIAO; Ruiyu LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to investigate the relationship between biological characteristics of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill and pathogenicity to Bombyx rnori L, with the aim to provide scientific basis for the control of white muscardine in Bombyx mori L. [Method] The strains isolated and purified from the 6 Beauveria bassiana biocontrol agents from all over the country and the 3 white muscardine silkworms collected from Guangxi provincial silkworm rearing areas were identified by the morphological observation and molecular biology technology. The pathogenicity of B. bassaina to silkworms was determined, and the biological characteristics such as growth diameter, sporulation and the extracellular protease activity of the different B. bassiana strains were compared. [Result] The isolated 9 strains were all B. bassaina (Bals.) Vuillemin, and all strains had high pathogenicity to silkworm, but with different pathogenicities. The growth diameter, sporulation and extracellular protease activity of different B. bassiana strains were also different, and showed correlation with the patheogenicity to silkworms. [Conclusion] B. bassiana spores production amount and exocellular protease activity had significant positive correlation with their pathogenicity to silkworm.

  17. Energy-economy relationship and environmental regulation in the presence of unrecorded economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis including five manuscripts and a brief international comparison analysis proposes a multi-field study on the economic and environmental effects of energy consumption. It first investigates the causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in Turkey and then offers a new methodology for the estimation of unrecorded economy based on environmental data. The thesis develops also asymmetric information models, where the regulator does not know the true emission level of each firm that it wishes to regulate, so as to examine to what extend different enforcement mechanisms affect incentives for the firms to reduce polluting emissions and to invest in clean energy technologies. In order to provide a complete insight on the effects of both fiscal and environmental enforcement policies, some similar analysis are conducted taking into account the existence of unrecorded economy. The results in this thesis essentially show that: first, energy conservation policies can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without any adverse effect on the recorded economic activities; second, different audit mechanisms should be used depending on the environmental objective of the enforcement agency; third, in some cases, environmental regulations may increase the size of unrecorded economy; fourth, economic policies to combat unrecorded economy may not serve as a complement to energy conservation policies. (author)

  18. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used se

  19. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with 210Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  20. Environmental Regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — KR305b 1994 coverage, used to support water quality programs, references water quality use designations and support levels. The KR305b 1994 coverage is available...

  1. Regulation of free corticosterone and CBG capacity under different environmental conditions in altricial nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Breuner, Creagh W; Jenni, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of circulating glucocorticoids is regulated in response to environmental and endogenous conditions. Total circulating corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, consists of a fraction which is bound to corticosterone-binding globulins (CBG) and a free fraction. There is increasing evidence that the environment modulates free corticosterone levels through varying the concentration of CBG, but experimental evidence is lacking. To test the hypothesis that the regulation of chronic stress in response to endogenous and environmental conditions involves variation in both corticosterone release and CBG capacity, we performed an experiment with barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings in two different years with pronounced differences in environmental conditions and in nestlings experimentally fed ad libitum. In half of the individuals we implanted a corticosterone-releasing pellet to artificially increase corticosterone levels and in the other half we implanted a placebo pellet. We then repeatedly collected blood samples to measure the change in total and free corticosterone levels as well as CBG capacity. The increase in circulating total corticosterone after artificial corticosterone administration varied with environmental conditions and with the food regime of the nestlings. The highest total corticosterone levels were found in nestlings growing up in poor environmental conditions and the lowest in ad libitum fed nestlings. CBG was highest in the year with poor environmental conditions, so that, contrary to total corticosterone, free corticosterone levels were low under poor environmental conditions. When nestlings were fed ad libitum total corticosterone, CBG and free corticosterone did not increase when administering corticosterone. These results suggest that depending on the individual history an animal experienced during development the HPA-axis is regulated differently. PMID:19467233

  2. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  3. Dynamic regulation of partner abundance mediates response of reef coral symbioses to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunning, R; Vaughan, N; Gillette, P; Capo, T R; Matté, J L; Baker, A C

    2015-05-01

    Regulating partner abunclance may allow symmotic organisms to mediate interaction outcomes, facilitating adaptive responses to environmental change. To explore the capacity for-adaptive regulation in an ecologically important endosymbiosis, we studied the population dynamics of symbiotic algae in reef-building corals under different abiotic contexts. We found high natural variability in symbiont abundance in corals across reefs, but this variability converged to different symbiont-specific abundances when colonies were maintained under constant conditions. When conditions changed seasonally, symbiont abundance readjusted to new equilibria. We explain these patterns using an a priori model of symbiotic costs and benefits to the coral host, which shows that the observed changes in symbiont abundance are consistent with the maximization of interaction benefit under different environmental conditions. These results indicate that, while regulating symbiont abundance helps hosts sustain maximum benefit in a dynamic environment, spatiotemporal variation in abiotic factors creates a broad range of symbiont abundances (and interaction outcomes) among corals that may account for observed natural variability in performance (e.g., growth rate) and stress tolerance (e.g., bleaching susceptibility). This cost or benefit framework provides a new perspective on the dynamic regulation of reef coral symbioses and illustrates that the dependence of interaction outcomes on biotic and abiotic contexts may be important in understanding how diverse mutualisms respond to environmental change. PMID:26236853

  4. Environmental regulation and competition in the U.S. electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evolution of the electric utility industry, with reference to its dynamics with environmental regulation, is described, explicitly including suppliers to the industry, the consumers of the products of the industry, and the industries that produce substitutes for the products. The structure of the industry has changed dramatically over the years 1970-1990, and is likely to continue to evolve throughout the 1990s. This evolution has resulted from changes in the milieu within which the industry operates, for example changes in fuel and capital markets, as well as federal, state and local regulations governing its activities. The environmental regulations of the 1970s have had a significant impact on the structure, behavior and performance of the industry and changes in the structure have had a feedback effect on the types of environmental regulations likely to be successful within the industry in reducing emissions of SO2, NOx and CO2. This and numerous other studies using the framework designed by Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School have demonstrated that this expanded view of competition frequently provides a much better explanation for changes in industry structure and corporate strategy than conventional analyses. 10 refs., 3 figs

  5. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  6. Small RNAs: essential regulators of gene expression and defenses against environmental stresses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lin V; Chekanova, Julia A

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic genomes produce thousands of diverse small RNAs (smRNAs), which play vital roles in regulating gene expression in all conditions, including in survival of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. SmRNA pathways intersect with most of the pathways regulating different steps in the life of a messenger RNA (mRNA), starting from transcription and ending at mRNA decay. SmRNAs function in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments; the regulation of mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the nucleus are the main and best-known modes of smRNA action. However, recent evidence from animal systems indicates that smRNAs and RNA interference (RNAi) also participate in the regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, one of the most crucial steps in the fast, efficient global reprogramming of gene expression required for survival under stress. Emerging evidence from bioinformatics studies indicates that a specific class of plant smRNAs, induced by various abiotic stresses, the sutr-siRNAs, has the potential to target regulatory regions within introns and thus may act in the regulation of splicing in response to stresses. This review summarizes the major types of plant smRNAs in the context of their mechanisms of action and also provides examples of their involvement in regulation of gene expression in response to environmental cues and developmental stresses. In addition, we describe current advances in our understanding of how smRNAs function in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:356-381. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1340 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Selection of optimum conditions of medium acidity and aeration for submerget cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dregval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of medium pH and aeration rate on growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Вeauveria bassiana, which are main constituents of the complex microbial insecticide. It was established optimal medium pH for B. thuringiensis – 6.0 and for В. bassiana – 6.0–7.0. The maximum productivity of the studied microorganisms was observed in the same range of aeration – 7– 14 mmol O2/l/h. The selected conditions of cultivation are necessary for the production of complex biological insecticide based on the association of B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana.

  8. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  9. The community regulation for environmental management and audit: an opportunity for firms. Some Enea promotion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EMAS (Environmental Management and Audit Scheme), introduced by the 1836/93 Community regulation, is one of the tools activated by the European Union in the field of firm-environment interactions, to overcome the old Command and Control logic by means of the new Moral Suasion one. EMAS has a voluntary character: it intends to replace conflicting relations between control authority and firm with relations centred on a dialogue and action agreed upon by the parties, on the basis of impartial and reliable information. The report illustrates the procedure for applying this regulation, EMAS advantages for firms, its implementation in Italy and the most important pilot actions carried out by ENEA

  10. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE UNITED STATES: DO ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Deepananda P.B.; Weersink, Alfons; Carpentier, Chantal Line

    2003-01-01

    The US hog and dairy sectors are increasingly shifting production toward western states away from more traditional production regions in the east. In contrast, production levels in the fed-cattle sector have increased over the last three decades only in the three main producing states. One possible reason for the shifts in production areas is that a state may introduce or keep less stringent environmental regulations relative to neighboring states as a means to cope with inter-jurisdictional ...

  11. Are Foreign Investors Attracted to Weak Environmental Regulations? Evaluating the Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Judith M. Dean; Lovely, Mary E.; Wang, Hua

    2009-01-01

    At the center of the pollution haven debate is the claim that foreign investors from industrial countries are attracted to weak environment regulations in developing countries. Some recent location choice studies have found evidence of this attraction, but only for inward FDI in industrial countries. The few studies of inward FDI in developing countries have been hampered by weak measures of environmental stringency and by insufficient data to estimate variation in firm response by pollution ...

  12. Effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Nuñez-Gaona; Gerardo Saucedo-Castañeda; Raquel Alatorre-Rosas; Octavio Loera

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran (WB).The highest growth rate of B. bassiana 885.2 on WB media was obtained at a w=1.0, with no detected growth at a w < 0.97. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) using WB (66% moisture; a w=1.0) achieved a maximal yield of 1.18x10 10 conidia per gram of dry substrate (gds). This yield decreased one order of magnitude with higher moisture cont...

  13. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  14. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  15. Inducible gene expression and environmentally regulated genes in lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J

    1996-10-01

    Relatively recently, a number of genes and operons have been identified in lactic acid bacteria that are inducible and respond to environmental factors. Some of these genes/operons had been isolated and analysed because of their importance in the fermentation industry and, consequently, their transcription was studied and found to be regulatable. Examples are the lactose operon, the operon for nisin production, and genes in the proteolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis, as well as xylose metabolism in Lactobacillus pentosus. Some other operons were specifically targetted with the aim to compare their mode of regulation with known regulatory mechanisms in other well-studied bacteria. These studies, dealing with the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and of the branched chain amino acids in L. lactis, have given new insights in gene regulation and in the occurrence of auxotrophy in these bacteria. Also, nucleotide sequence analyses of a number of lactococcal bacteriophages was recently initiated to, among other things, specifically learn more about regulation of the phage life cycle. Yet another approach in the analysis of regulated genes is the 'random' selection of genetic elements that respond to environmental stimuli and the first of such sequences from lactic acid bacteria have been identified and characterized. The potential of these regulatory elements in fundamental research and practical (industrial) applications will be discussed.

  16. Preparation, characterization, and insecticidal activity evaluation of three different formulations of Beauveria bassiana against Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    Three formulations; bait, encapsulation, and emulsion of Beauveria bassiana were prepared and evaluated for their insecticidal activity in simulated field settings. Tea waste-based bait formulation of B. bassiana showed 100% mortality (within 72 h) in lab assay against adult houseflies. In field assay using traps, 65% relative entrapment and 100 % mortality (within 60 h) of entrapped flies was observed. Although the bait formulation was low cost and easy to prepare and transport, its storage ability was limited. Hence, more advanced formulations in form of encapsulation and emulsion was attempted. Encapsulated B. bassiana conidia (using skimmed milk powder, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-90 and glucose as additives) showed 100% conidial germination and retained 78% conidial viability, even after storage for 12 months at 30 °C. Encapsulated product showed 54.8% (freshly prepared) and 30.6 % (after 12-months storage) mortality of housefly larvae in a simulated field condition. Emulsion formulation was prepared by using Tween 20 as surfactant with seven vegetable oils: soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, olive, castor, til, and linseed. Emulsion with linseed oil showing maximum conidial germination (94%) was evaluated for shelf life and pathogenecity against housefly larvae. Shelf life analysis of emulsion revealed 28% conidial germination and 19.9% housefly larval mortality after 12 months of storage as opposed to 94% conidial germination and 51.7% of larval mortality with fresh product. Significant increase in shelf × targeted application of formulation is expected to increase its mass applicability for housefly control. Also, the variability among products presents diverse opportunities for commercialization.

  17. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana conidia to abiotic factors after successive in vitro subcultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro successive subcultures of Beauveria bassiana isolates in different nutritional conditions on conidia heat and UV radiation tolerance and on sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide. The fungus was initially inoculated in Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae adults and after its development, the conidia were cultivated in PDA (potato dextrose agar and MPE (medium to produce Beauveria spp. conidia originating the first subculture 1st (A conidia, which were successively multiplied in their media until the 20th cultivation. Conidia taken from the 20th subculture were again inoculated in the insect and after sporulation they were once more multiplied in the media, producing the 1st (B conidia. For the tests, 1st (A, 10th, 20th and 1st (B conidia from the CG 152 and Unioeste 40 isolates were used. Successive subcultures and the medium nutritional conditions interfered on the fungus physiology, and the isolates showed different behaviors. The subcultures on PDA showed higher thermotolerance to Unioeste 40 in all subcultures and to CG 152 just after inoculation in the host. B. bassiana was susceptible to UV radiation, and this characteristic was influenced by the subcultures in different media. Both isolates were more tolerant to UV radiation when subcultivated on MPE, while just for the 40 Unioeste this tolerance increased after host inoculation. The B. bassiana sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was affected after successive subcultures in both medium. Conidia originated in MPE were more resistant to fungicide and the host inoculation increased this tolerance. These results show that it is possible to enhance the fungi efficiency to control pests, through the selection of a virulent isolate, and handling their nutritional conditions during cultivation and host inoculation.

  18. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×10(9) TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×10(10) TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200-600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×10(10) TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×10(10) SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 10(12) TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS. PMID:24949278

  19. The effects of environmental regulation and technical progress on CO2 Kuznets curve: An evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on environmental Kuznets curve theory, a panel data model which takes environmental regulation and technical progress as its moderating factors was developed to analyse the institutional and technical factors that affect the path of low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that there was a CO2 emission Kuznets curve seen in China. Environmental regulation had a significant moderating effect on the curve, and the inflection of CO2 emissions could come substantially earlier under stricter environmental regulation. Meanwhile, the impact of technical progress on the low-carbon economic development path had a longer hysteresis effect but restrained CO2 emission during its increasing stage and accelerated its downward trend during the decreasing stage which was conducive to emission reduction. Strict environmental regulation could force the high-carbon emitting industries to transfer from the eastern regions to the central or the western regions of China, which would make the CO2 Kuznets curve higher in its increasing stage and lower in its decreasing stage than that under looser regulation. Furthermore, energy efficiency, energy structure, and industrial structure exerted a significant direct impact on CO2 emissions; we should consider the above factors as essential in the quest for low-carbon economic development. - Highlights: • Estimate moderating effect of environmental regulation and technical progress on EKC. • There was a CO2 emission Kuznets curve in effect in China. • Environmental regulation presents significant moderating effect on EKC. • Technical progress moderates the relationship between income and CO2 emissions

  20. rRNA sequence comparison of Beauveria bassiana, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, and Tolypocladium extinguens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirainy, M S; Dutertre, M; Brygoo, Y; Riba, G

    1991-01-01

    Five strains of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, one strain of Tolypocladium extinguens, and nine strains of Beauveria bassiana were analyzed using a rapid rRNA sequencing technique. The sequences of two highly variable domains (D1 and D2) located at the 5' end of the 28S-like rRNA molecule were determined. The phylogenetic tree computed from the absolute number of nucleotide differences shows the separation between the genus Beauveria and the genus Tolypocladium and points out that T. cylindrosporum and T. extinguens probably do not belong to the same genus.

  1. Cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chit2 gene from Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jin-zhu; YANG Xiao-xue; WANG Yun; YANG Qian

    2009-01-01

    To study recycled trashes from shrimps and crabs in the sea through chitinase secreted by microor-ganisms, the chitinase gene chit2 was cloned and sequenced from Beauveria bassiana by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and was ligated into the yeast expression vector pYES2. The expression vector plasmid was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae H158. Gene expression took place upon induction with 2% galac-tose. The measurement of enzyme activity shows that the expression production can be expressed in active forms and secreted to the medium. The enzyme activity approaches the peak of 0. 63 U/mL when the culture time is 36 h.

  2. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  3. Reliability in the U.S. electricity industry under new environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of new environmental regulations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and mercury in the U.S. electricity industry has triggered concerns about system reliability. Results from a national electricity market simulation model suggest that these regulations lead to little change in generation capacity and are unlikely to create the shock to the system that some anticipate. Large costs of investments in pollution controls are partially offset by a lower cost burden for tradable emissions allowances. The combined effects result in a 1 percent increase in national average retail electricity prices. In 2020 producers pay approximately 30 percent and consumers pay approximately 70 percent of the total costs of the regulations, which equal between $6.6 and $7.1 billion in 2020 (real 2009$). The regulation leads to substantial reductions in emissions of mercury and sulfur dioxide from the electricity sector. - Highlights: • We analyze the impacts of two new US EPA regulations on the electricity sector. • Air emissions, including mercury and sulfur dioxide, fall substantially. • Generation and capacity, key reliability indicators, do not decrease substantially. • Costs from pollution control investments are moderated by lower allowance costs. • There are small increases in electricity prices and decreases in producer profits

  4. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  5. Workshop on environmental assessment. [Regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs.

  6. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (NeemsetoR). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  7. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  8. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based ap

  9. A technique for the prevention of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana M130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Beam-Soo; Nam, Young-Ho; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. Among them is Beauveria bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. The objective of this study was to use B. bassiana M130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. M130 isolated from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly. Phylogenetic classification of M130 was determined according to its morphological features and 18S rRNA sequence analysis. M130 was identified as B. bassiana M130 and showed chitinase (342.28 units/ml) and protease (461.70 units/ml) activities, which were involved in the invasion of the host through the outer cuticle layer, thus killing them. The insecticidal activity was 55.2% in petri-dish test, 84.6% in pot test, and 45.3% in field test. The results of this study indicate that B. bassiana has potential as a biological agent for the control of greenhouse whitefly to replace chemical pesticides.

  10. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    , but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each...

  11. Selection of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. for the control of the mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Rodrigo Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae, is considered to be one of the key pests in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crants, leading to considerable field losses. In this study, ten Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and ten Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. isolates were evaluated with regard to their potential as biological control agents against adult M. tanajoa females. The total mortality percentage of M. tanajoa caused by B. bassiana ranged from 13.0 to 97.0%, with confirmed mortality rates extending from 9.0 to 91.0% and LT50 varying from 4.2 to 17.0 days. The M. anisopliae isolates showed total mortality percentages ranging from 12.0 to 45.0% with confirmed mortality rates extending from 8.0 to 45.0%, and LT50 varying from 8.6 to 19.8 days. Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 3.93 × 10(6 conidia mL-1 and 7.44 × 10(8 conidia mL-1 were determined for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively. B. bassiana isolate 645 was the most efficient, being an alternative for use in biological control programs against the cassava green mite.

  12. Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression: Ecological aspects of animal development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scott F Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    The environment can play a significant role in the production of phenotypes. However, the developmental mechanisms by which the environmental agents effect normal development are just becoming known. At least three paths have been found through which the environment can modify gene activity. The first is the neuroendocrine route. Here, the nervous system monitors the environment and transfers signals to the endocrine system. The endocrine hormones can then alter gene expression. The second route involves environmental factors that change the methylation pattern of genes, thereby altering their transcriptional capabilities. The third route involves the direct induction of gene expression in the host by microbial symbionts. The normal regulation of phenotype production by the environment should be considered a normal component of development and developmental biology.

  13. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Clas [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage.

  14. Fungal Keratitis Due to Beauveria bassiana in a Contact Lenses Wearer and Review of Published Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Oya, Ana; Medialdea Hurtado, María Eloisa; Rojo Martín, María Dolores; Aguilera Pérez, Antonia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Miranda Casas, Consuelo; Rubio Prats, Marina; Medialdea Marcos, Santiago; Navarro Marí, José María

    2016-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is a severe ocular infection that primarily affects subjects engaged in outdoor activities. Risk factors include allergic conjunctivitis, previous eye surgery, previous treatment with wide-spectrum antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids and using contact lenses. Corneal infection is usually secondary to trauma involving organic material, which is often the only predisposing factor. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and microbiological investigation (microscopy, cultures and molecular techniques) is crucial to selecting the appropriate antifungal therapy and prevent progression. We report the case of a patient with keratitis due to Beauveria bassiana, an opportunistic and entomopathogenic filamentous fungus that is used as a biological insecticide and which is a rare cause of corneal infection. We review previous cases reports of B. bassiana keratitis published and its main features to compare with our case, a female occasional agriculture worker who had not suffered any trauma involving organic material. The patient received topical and oral antifungal therapy and debridement surgery, with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:27300341

  15. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaomeng; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  16. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  17. Effect of temperature and humidity on pathogenicity of native Beauveria bassiana isolate against Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-12-01

    Beauveria bassiana HQ917687 virulence to housefly larvae and adult was assessed at different relative humidity, RH (50, 75, 90, and 100 %) and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 °C) conditions at the fungal dose of 10(8) conidia/ml. Depending on the temperature and RH regime tested, difference in mortality rates of housefly adult and larvae were detected. During assay on adult housefly, 100 % mortality was achieved at RH, 90 and 100 % while the temperature of 30 °C showed maximum mortality at all the tested humidity conditions. Lethal time, LT50 was 2.9 days at 100 % RH. Larval mortality at different humidity conditions varied between 30 and 74 %, with maximum mortality at 100 % RH and 30 °C. Optimum temperature for B. bassiana virulence to housefly larvae was also found to be 30 °C. The interaction between temperature and RH revealed significant effect of RH at moderate temperature range (20-35 °C), while such an interaction was not observed at extreme temperatures. The results obtained in this study have useful implications in understanding the pathogen behavior under actual field conditions. This in turn may help devising suitable entomopathogen release schedules for maximum fungal infection.

  18. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Vici

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting application of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA was produced in Komagataella pastoris in Buffered Methanol Medium (BMM induced with 1% methanol at 30 °C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in Komagataella pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction.

  19. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamai Marco Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das mortalidades acumuladas (total, corrigida e confirmada à medida que a suspensão de conídios se tornou mais concentrada. Nas seis concentrações testadas, os valores de mortalidade corrigida ao sexto dia, foram inferiores a 50%, sendo observada apenas na concentração de 1x109 conídios/ml, mortalidade total superior a 50%.

  20. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  1. Evolutionary diversification of the lizard genus Bassiana (Scincidae across Southern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Dubey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively recent (Plio-Pleistocene climatic variations had strong impacts on the fauna and flora of temperate-zone North America and Europe; genetic analyses suggest that many lineages were restricted to unglaciated refuges during this time, and have expanded their ranges since then. Temperate-zone Australia experienced less severe glaciation, suggesting that patterns of genetic structure among species may reflect older (aridity-driven divergence events rather than Plio-Pleistocene (thermally-mediated divergences. The lizard genus Bassiana (Squamata, Scincidae contains three species that occur across a wide area of southern Australia (including Tasmania, rendering them ideally-suited to studies on the impact of past climatic fluctuations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses using two partial mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4 of 97 samples of Bassiana spp. Our results reveal a pattern of diversification beginning in the Middle Miocene, with intraspecific diversification arising from 5.7 to 1.7 million years ago in the Upper Miocene-Lower Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to the temperate-zone Northern Hemisphere biota, patterns of evolutionary diversification within southern Australian taxa appear to reflect geologically ancient events, mostly relating to east-west discontinuities imposed by aridity rather than (as is the case in Europe and North America relatively recent recolonisation of northern regions from unglaciated refugia to the south.

  2. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Ana C.; da Cruz, Andrezza F.; Facchini, Fernanda D. A.; de Carvalho, Caio C.; Pereira, Marita G.; Fonseca-Maldonado, Raquel; Ward, Richard J.; Pessela, Benevides C.; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Torres, Fernando A. G.; Jorge, João A.; Polizeli, Maria L. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting applications of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol) transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA) was produced in Komagataella pastoris in buffered methanol medium (BMM) induced with 1% methanol at 30°C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in K. pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction. PMID:26500628

  3. Are environmental regulations keeping up with innovation? A case study of the nanotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Anne; Fairbrother, Jennifer R

    2009-07-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials entered the marketplace of consumer goods in the mid-1990s. With the exception of pending reporting requirements in Canada, no new regulatory requirements have been imposed on the manufacture or use of nanomaterials or their commercial products, although in the past three years governments, industry, and nongovernmental organizations have questioned the need for new regulatory approaches. The debate hinges on whether current scientific information is sufficient for making risk-based decisions, if nanomaterial effects differ from macroscale products, and how much knowledge about potential risk governments should require before products are brought to market. The debate over when and how to regulate manufactured nanomaterials opens the door for a renewed discussion on regulatory environmental policy and suggests that the public may be demanding increased precaution and assurances from government. How government, in concert with industry and the open market, responds will set the bar for future regulations of emerging technologies. PMID:19423165

  4. Corruption in the commons: why bribery hampers enforcement of environmental regulations in South African fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Sundström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored on the micro-level why corruption hampers environmental regulations. The relationship between corruption and regulatory compliance is here investigated through confidential in-depth interviews with South African small-scale fishermen. Respondents describe how the expected behavior of inspectors and other resource users to ask for or accept bribes are vital in their compliance decisions. The interviews also shed some light on the puzzling role of trust and trustworthiness of public officials. While resource users often knows inspectors personally – and uphold discretion necessary for bribery to continue – they depict them as dishonest and describe how corrupt acts decrease their trustworthiness. The findings from the South African case illustrate the importance of curbing both grand and petty corruption to increase the effectiveness of regulations in natural resource management.

  5. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun; Son, Ki Yon; Cho, Young Ho; Yang, Ji Won; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Suk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed.

  6. A study on environmental regulation and public inquiry system of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public hearing system for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities are investigated and analyzed. As a result, Korean public hearing system are developed. Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Administrative Procedure Act of Korea are reviewed and appropriate acts, regulations, procedures and mandates of foreign countries including U.S.A are reviewed and analyzed. On the basis of these results the role of device to collect public opinion is identified for nuclear facility of Korea and the elementary principle of the system and recommendations are developed

  7. Species traits and environmental characteristics together regulate ant-associated biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kaitlin U; Crist, Thomas O

    2016-09-01

    Host-associated organisms (e.g., parasites, commensals, and mutualists) may rely on their hosts for only a portion of their life cycle. The life-history traits and physiology of hosts are well-known determinants of the biodiversity of their associated organisms. The environmental context may strongly influence this interaction, but the relative roles of host traits and the environment are poorly known for host-associated communities. We studied the roles of host traits and environmental characteristics affecting ant-associated mites in semi-natural constructed grasslands in agricultural landscapes of the Midwest USA. Mites are frequently found in ant nests and also riding on ants in a commensal dispersal relationship known as phoresy. During nonphoretic stages of their development, ant-associated mites rely on soil or nest resources, which may vary depending on host traits and the environmental context of the colony. We hypothesized that mite diversity is determined by availability of suitable host ant species, soil detrital resources and texture, and habitat disturbance. Results showed that that large-bodied and widely distributed ant species within grasslands support the most diverse mite assemblages. Mite richness and abundance were predicted by overall ant richness and grassland area, but host traits and environmental predictors varied among ant hosts: mites associated with Aphaenogaster rudis depended on litter depth, while Myrmica americana associates were predicted by host frequency and grassland age. Multivariate ordinations of mite community composition constructed with host ant species as predictors demonstrated host specialization at both the ant species and genus levels, while ordinations with environmental variables showed that ant richness, soil texture, and grassland age also contributed to mite community structure. Our results demonstrate that large-bodied, locally abundant, and cosmopolitan ant species are especially important regulators of

  8. Environmental noise from stationary facilities: discussion of Alberta and California legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Todd [Todd Busch Consulting (Canada)], email: toddbusch@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In every country, legislation regarding environmental pollution from industrial stationary facilities exist, but can differ from one place to another. This paper aims firstly, to explain the different legislations applicable in Alberta and California, with an emphasis on environmental management of noise and secondly, to compare and examine differences in applicable laws. Canadian regulations are set by the Canadian Environment Assessment Act (CEAA); in California, they are set by the California Environment Quality Act (CEQA). Differences between legislations include discrepancies in the definitions of certain administrative or commercial entities, relative to stationary facility construction, operation or upgrades. The CEQA makes clear reference to reducing noise pollution to healthy levels, while the CEAA refers to {sup r}easonable enjoyment of life or property{sup ,} which is subject to interpretation. Based on this work, one can compare the differing legislation on noise assessment for different projects. Canadian legislation is intended to extend regulations to the national level, without reference to concerns of market feasibility and economics, unlike in California.

  9. Regulation of three isoforms of SOD gene by environmental stresses in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying-Cai; Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Shang, Feng; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a family of enzymes with multiple isoforms that possess antioxidative abilities in response to environmental stresses. Panonychus citri is one of the most important pest mites and has a global distribution. In this study, three distinct isoforms of SOD were cloned from P. citri and identified as cytoplasmic Cu-ZnSOD (PcSOD1), extracellular Cu-ZnSOD (PcSOD2), and mitochondrial MnSOD (PcSOD3). mRNA expression level analysis showed that all three isoforms were up-regulated significantly after exposure to the acaricide abamectin and to UV-B ultraviolet irradiation. In particular, PcSOD3 was up-regulated under almost all environmental stresses tested. The fold change of PcSOD3 expression was significantly higher than those of the two Cu-ZnSOD isoforms. Taken together, the results indicate that abamectin and UV-B can induce transcripts of all three SOD isoforms in P. citri. Furthermore, PcSOD3 seems to play a more important role in P. citri tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26063404

  10. A Distinctive Pattern of Beauveria bassiana-biotransformed Ginsenoside Products Triggers Mitochondria/FasL-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Sang Il; Rahman, Md Khalilur; Won, Jong Soon; Cho, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. PMID:26609787

  11. Environmental Regulation of Offshore (E&P Waste Management in Nigeria: How Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwuli Irene Ofuani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of technology has led to the rapid development of the offshore oil and gas industry and a corresponding increase in the amount of wastes generated from the industry. These wastes must be properly managed so as to curtail their potential to negatively affect human health and the environment. As a result, environmental regulation of offshore oil and gas operations is becoming more stringent worldwide. The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN were issued to ensure that oil and gas industry operators do not degrade the environment in the course of their operations in Nigeria. Nonetheless, more attention has been focused on the economic aspects of offshore oil and gas industry rather than environmental aspects such as waste management. This article examines the legal aspects of offshore oil and gas waste management in Nigeria. It assesses the effectiveness of the mechanisms for the management of offshore E&P wastes in Nigeria as provided under EGASPIN in relation to other jurisdictions.

  12. Differential environmental regulation of neurogenesis along the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Arnaud; Rainer, Quentin; Minier, Frederic; Surget, Alexandre; Belzung, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The hippocampus is involved in both cognitive and emotional processing; these different functions are topographically distributed along its septo-temporal axis, the dorsal (septal) hippocampus being preferentially involved in cognitive processes such as learning and memory while the ventral (temporal) hippocampus participates in emotional regulation and anxiety-related behaviors. Newborn hippocampal neurons become functionally integrated into hippocampal networks and are likely to contribute to hippocampal functions, but whether their regulation and function are homogenous throughout this axis is not clear. Here we investigate changes in cell proliferation and neurogenesis along the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus induced by the Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress model of depression (UCMS), chronic fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment. Mice were either subjected to UCMS, standard housing or enriched environment. Stress-exposed mice were treated daily with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. Effects of UCMS regimen, fluoxetine treatment and enrichment were assessed by physical measures and behavioral testing. Quantitative changes in cell proliferation and neurogenesis were assessed by immunohistochemistry using BrdU labeling. Results indicate that UCMS decreased cell proliferation and neurogenesis preferentially in the ventral hippocampus, an effect that was reversed by fluoxetine treatment. Environmental enrichment on the other hand increased cell proliferation in both divisions but promoted neurogenesis only in the dorsal hippocampus. These results indicate that environmental factors can differentially regulate neurogenesis in a region-specific manner. This may possibly underlie heterogeneous function of newborn neurons along the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus and have functional significance as to their implication in stress related disorders and memory processes. PMID:22561281

  13. Nanotechnology research and regulation: A plan to ensure human and environmental safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anitha

    The influence of nanotechnology spans numerous fields and is increasing rapidly due to the financial and research contributions to the field. The impact of nanotechnologybased products on human health and the environment is far from being understood. Research output related to environmental, health, and safety issues is too slow and far behind developments to address the vast number of types of nanoparticles and new uses being discovered. This thesis summarizes nanotechnology related regulations, applications, and current research related to environmental and human toxicity in order to put into perspective the gaping holes existing in the safe production, use, and disposal of nanotechnology. There were a number of conclusions that were determined following the literature survey of this thesis. There is currently a lack of international cooperation between regulatory agencies and research institutions who are involved with nanotechnology. The only entities that have made regulatory progress include the United States, European Union, and Australia. The toxicological impacts of nanotechnology are not fully understood due to the dearth of research, as well as the absence of testing and measuring infrastructure. Chapter 6 of this thesis proposes an effective and specific research strategy to expedite the creation of enforceable regulations in order to protect the environment, workers, and general public based on the conclusions described in the paragraph above. The strategy outlines the need for the development of an interagency committee, precationary limits, nanomaterial tracer system, nanomaterial data gathering, priority list, funds for toxicity research, and open database to information and materials. The aspects of the outline strategy will ensure the successful and efficient regulation of nanotechnology.

  14. ЕFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the general (GА, nM pyruvic acid/ml∙second and specific (SA, nM pyruvic acid /mg second transferase enzyme activity of protein metabolism (Аlanine aminotransferase ALT, EC 2.6.1.2, and Аspartate aminotransferase, AST, EC 2.6.1.1 in Salix alba L. leaves, that planted on the banks of Mokra Sura River (anthropogenic polluted, increased level of salinity and Shpakova River (relatively clean, control which are parts of Dnipro River Basin of Steppe Dnipro Region. We used the plant growth regulator “Kornevin” in order to accelerate rooting and reducing of exogenous pressures on the plant. We registered the Aminotransferase nonspecific reaction towards anthropogenic pressure, which was associated with the formation of non-specific mechanisms of adaptation to support the homeostasis. We revealed the significant differences between experiment and control in index of protein synthesis and metabolism depending on the conditions of growth and development. Protective and leveling effects of growth regulator have been proved. The advisability of using the "Kornevin" as an adaptogene and a protector in variable environmental conditions have been indicated. Salix alba L., increased level of salinity, growth regulators, alaninaminotransferase, aspartataminotransferase, adaptogene, anthropogenic factors

  15. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  16. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies, which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  17. Inferences on the biochemical and environmental regulation of universal stress proteins from Schistosomiasis parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreas N Mbah,1,2 Ousman Mahmud,1 Omotayo R Awofolu,2 Raphael D Isokpehi11Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: Human schistosomiasis is a freshwater snail-transmitted disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the Schistosoma genus. Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum are the three major species infecting humans. These parasites undergo a complex developmental life cycle, in which they encounter a plethora of environmental signals. The presence of genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP domain in the genomes of Schistosoma spp. suggests these flatworms are equipped to respond to unfavorable conditions. Though data on gene expression is available for USP genes, their biochemical and environmental regulation are incompletely understood. The identification of additional regulatory molecules for Schistosoma. USPs, which may be present in the human, snail, or water environments, could also be useful for schistosomiasis interventions.Methods: We developed a protocol that includes a visual analytics stage to facilitate integration, visualization, and decision making, from the results of sequence analyses and data collection on a set of 13 USPs from S. mansoni and S. japonicum.Results: Multiple sequence alignment identified conserved sites that could be key residues regulating the function of USPs of the Schistosoma spp. Based on the consistency and completeness of sequence annotation, we prioritized for further research the gene for a 184-amino-acid-long USP that is present in the genomes of the three human-infecting Schistosoma spp. Calcium, zinc, and magnesium ions were predicted to interact with the protein product of the gene.Conclusion: Given that the initial effects of

  18. Environmental cues from CNS, PNS, and ENS cells regulate CNS progenitor differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännvall, Karin; Corell, Mikael; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    Cellular origin and environmental cues regulate stem cell fate determination. Neuroepithelial stem cells form the central nervous system (CNS), whereas neural crest stem cells generate the peripheral (PNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). CNS neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) fate determination...... was investigated in combination with dissociated cultures or conditioned media from CNS, PNS, or ENS. Cells or media from ENS or PNS cultures efficiently promoted NSPC differentiation into neurons, glia, and smooth muscle cells with a similar morphology as the feeder culture. Together with CNS cells or its...... conditioned medium, NSPC differentiation was partly inhibited and cells remained immature. Here, we demonstrate that secreted factors from the environment can influence CNS progenitor cells to choose a PNS-like cell fate....

  19. Optimization of Solid-State Fermentation for Improved Conidia Production of Beauveria bassiana as a Mycoinsecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Kim, Jeong Jun; Kim, Keun

    2010-06-01

    The production of conidia of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation was studied for the development of a biocontrol agent against aphid Myzus persicae. The optimal conditions for conidia production on polished white rice were 40% moisture content, 25℃ culture temperature, 2-day-old seeding culture grown in 3% corn meal, 2% rice bran, 2% corn steep powder medium, initial conidia concentration of 10(7) conidia/g in the wet rice, 10% inoculum size, and use of a polyethylene bag as a container. The polyethylene bag containing inoculated rice was hand-shaken every 12 hr during fermentation. Using optimal conditions, the maximum conidia production obtained was 4.05 g conidia/100 g dry rice after 14 days of cultivation, a rate 2.83 times higher than conidia yield of pre-optimization. PMID:23956642

  20. Transmission of Beauveria bassiana from male to female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Villanueva Filiberto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to chemical insecticides plus high morbidity rates have lead to rising interest in fungi as candidates for biocontrol agents of mosquito vectors. In most studies fungal infections have been induced by exposure of mosquitoes to various surfaces treated with conidia. In the present study eight Mexican strains of Beauveria bassiana were assessed against Aedes aegypti by direct exposure of females to 6 × 108 conidia ml -1 on a filter paper, afterwards, the transmission of the least and most virulent isolates was evaluated by mating behavior from virgin, fungus-contaminated male to females, to examine this ethological pattern as a new approach to deliver conidia against the dengue vector. Methods In an exposure chamber with a filter paper impregnated with 6 × 108 conidia ml -1 of the least and most virulent strains of B. bassiana, 6-8 day old males of A. aegypti were exposed for 48 hours, and then transferred individually (each one was a replicate to another chamber and confined with twenty healthy females of the same age. Clean males were used in controls. Survival, infection by true mating (insemination or by mating attempts (no insemination and fecundity were daily registered until the death of last female. Data analysis was conducted with proc glm for unbalanced experiments and means were separated with the Ryan test with SAS. Results All strains were highly virulent with LT50 ranging from 2.70 (± 0.29 to 5.33 (± 0.53 days. However the most (Bb-CBG2 and least virulent (Bb-CBG4 isolates were also transmitted by mating behavior; both killed 78-90% of females in 15 days after being confined with males that had previously been exposed for 48 hours to fungi. Of these mortality rates, 23 and 38% respectively, were infections acquired by copulations where insemination occurred. The LT50 for sexually-infected females were 7.92 (± 0.46 and 8.82 (± 0.45 days for both strains, while the one in control was 13.92 (± 0

  1. Environmental auditing: Performance of the EMAS regulation; Oeko-Audit: Die Umsetzung der EG-Verordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baensch-Baltruschat, B. [UPW - Buero fuer Umweltorientiertes Planen und Wirtschaften, Bonn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The EMAS EC directive, in which economy and industry became strongly interested, was transformed into German law by passing the `Umwelt-Audit-Gesetz` on December 7th, 1995. In parallel to the EC directive, which is up to now exclusively applicable to companies in the industrial sector, the International Standard Organisation (ISO) has developed its own standards (ISO 14000 ff) regulating the implementation of environmental management systems and the performance of environmental audits. Because of their wide scope, the ISO 14000 ff standards are especially interesting for service companies. With regard to important aspects, however, the requirements of the ISO 14000 ff standards are not as strict as the corresponding requirements of the EMAS EC directive. Therefore, additional requirements completing the ISO 14000 ff standards have to be worked out concerning an integration into the system regulated by the EC directive. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch das Umwelt-Audit-Gesetz vom 7. Dez. 1995 wurde die EG-Oeko-Audit-Verordnung (EMAS-Verordnung), die in Wirtschaft und Industrie auf breites Interesse gestossen ist, in deutsches Recht umgesetzt. Parallel zur EG-Verordnung, die bisher ausschliesslich auf gewerbliche Unternehmen anwendbar ist, entwickelte die International Standard Organisation eine eigene Normenreihe (ISO 14000 ff) fuer den Aufbau von Umweltmanagementsystemen und die Durchfuehrung von Umweltaudits, die aufgrund ihres weiten Anwendungsbereiches insbesondere fuer Dienstleistungsunternehmen interessant ist. Die Normenreihe bleibt jedoch in ihren Anforderungen in wichtigen Punkten hinter den entsprechenden Vorgaben der EG-Verordnung zurueck, so dass im Hinblick auf eine Integration in das durch die EMAS-Verordnung geregelte System entsprechende Zusatzanforderungen definiert werden muessen. (orig.)

  2. Environmental oxygen tension regulates the energy metabolism and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Forristal

    Full Text Available Energy metabolism is intrinsic to cell viability but surprisingly has been little studied in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. The current study aims to investigate the effect of environmental O2 tension on carbohydrate utilisation of hESCs. Highly pluripotent hESCs cultured at 5% O2 consumed significantly more glucose, less pyruvate and produced more lactate compared to those maintained at 20% O2. Moreover, hESCs cultured at atmospheric O2 levels expressed significantly less OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG than those maintained at 5% O2. To determine whether this difference in metabolism was a reflection of the pluripotent state, hESCs were cultured at 5% O2 in the absence of FGF2 for 16 hours leading to a significant reduction in the expression of SOX2. In addition, these cells consumed less glucose and produced significantly less lactate compared to those cultured in the presence of FGF2. hESCs maintained at 5% O2 were found to consume significantly less O2 than those cultured in the absence of FGF2, or at 20% O2. GLUT1 expression correlated with glucose consumption and using siRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation was found to be directly regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-2α at 5% O2. In conclusion, highly pluripotent cells associated with hypoxic culture consume low levels of O2, high levels of glucose and produce large amounts of lactate, while at atmospheric conditions glucose consumption and lactate production are reduced and there is an increase in oxidative metabolism. These data suggest that environmental O2 regulates energy metabolism and is intrinsic to the self-renewal of hESCs.

  3. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides. PMID:27198727

  4. Differential display of skin mRNAs regulated under varying environmental conditions in a mudskipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Yasunaga, H; Yokota, S; Ando, M

    2002-07-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the terrestrial adaptation, as well as adaptation to different salinities, of the euryhaline and amphibious mudskipper ( Periophthalmus modestus), we have looked for the skin mRNAs that change during varying environmental conditions. Using differential mRNA display polymerase chain reaction, we compared skin mRNAs in mudskipper transferred from isotonic 30% seawater to fresh water or to seawater for 1 day and 7 days, as well as those kept out of water for 1 day. At the end of these periods, poly(A(+))RNA was prepared from the Cl(-)-secreting pectoral skins and also from the outer opercular skins where ion transport is negligible, and analyzed by differential display. We identified four cDNA products expressed differently under various environments as homologues of known genes. A further 34 cDNAs were expressed differentially, but they have no significant homology to identified sequences in GenBank. Northern blots demonstrate that mRNA levels of the actin-binding protein and the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase increased in the pectoral skins during seawater acclimation. The mRNA of the 90 kDa heat shock protein was down-regulated in water-deprived and freshwater fish, whose plasma cortisol levels were high. The aldolase mRNA was induced in both skins after desiccation. These four genes may be involved in the environmental adaptations. PMID:12122461

  5. Environmental Regulations on Waste Electrical Equipment Industry: The Production Chain to the Final Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Tunes Mazon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the electronics industry requires its transition to sustainable production patterns, as defined by the European directives WEEE, RoHS, and the National Policy on Solid Waste. In 2010, the group began a national project whose purpose is to support sustainability with a focus on the triple bottom line Brazilian electronics industry. The implementation of these proposals began with the implementation of a pilot project with nine companies of electromedical equipment, chosen because they are technology intensive, and require exporters suit environmental regulations. This paper aims to present the main results obtained in the studies with these nine companies in the period Apr/2011 Mar/2012 regarding the suitability of its products, processes, management systems and supply chains. The study was divided into three stages: an assessment to identify general aspects of each organization, a thorough assessment to understand the characteristics of each organization ahead of the general characteristics of the group analyzed and a detailed diagnosis, performed individually during visits in companies. The main findings were that the waste management and reverse logistics associated are still incipient, the products still have dangerous substances and supply chain is still very poorly prepared for the challenges. The level of employment of employees and costs associated with the adequacy of its products and processes, constitute the two biggest problems for companies fit the relevant environmental legislation.

  6. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention. PMID:26706811

  7. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  8. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae); Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: luciane_modenez@ibest.com.br; Avila, Crebio Jose [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: crebio@cpao.embrapa.br

    2006-12-15

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  9. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  10. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  11. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  12. Effect of biofertilizers and neem oil on the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana (Bals.) vuill. and metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) sorok.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose Edson; Neves Pedro M. O. J.; Zequi João A. C.; Martins Luís H.; Peralta Cristiane H.; Moino Jr. Alcides

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas Multibi...

  13. Use of Beauveria bassiana to Control Northern Fowl Mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) on Roosters in an Agricultural Research Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Rassette, Matthew SW; Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Wahl, Tina; Berres, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on poultry in research facilities can be challenging. The mite has a rapid reproductive cycle (egg to adult in 5 to 7 d), and chemical treatments can be toxic to birds, personnel, and the environment. In addition, antimite treatment may interfere with experimental research designs. The current study evaluated the efficacy of topical application of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the treatment of a natural...

  14. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Myriam M. R.; Karina D. Amaral; Vanessa E. Seide; Souza, Bressane M. R.; Della Lucia, Terezinha M. C.; Maria Catarina M. Kasuya; Danival J. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana an...

  15. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  16. Environmental law. Important laws and regulations for environmental protection. 19. new rev. ed.; Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, P.C. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    The book under consideration offers a current overview over the important laws and regulations to the protection of the environment in the Federal Republic of Germany. The among other things following laws are listed: law relating to environmental impact assessment, environmental information, EC-environment audit, environmental fault, federal nature protection law, water resource management act, waste water charging law, act on recycling and waste management, act on electronic household equipment, federal immission control act, aircraft noise act, greenhouse gas emissions trading act, draft allocation act, atomic energy law, energy conservation act, renewables act, act on combined heat and power generation, power tax law, chemical substances law, act on plant protection, act on genetic engineering, environmental liability law.

  17. Multi-layered environmental regulation on the homeostasis of stem cells: The saga of hair growth and alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are fascinating because of their potential in regenerative medicine. Stem cell homeostasis has been thought to be mainly regulated by signals from their adjacent micro-environment named the “stem cell niche”. However, recent studies reveal that there can be multiple layers of environmental controls. Here we review these environmental controls using the paradigm of hair stem cells, because to observe and analyze the growth of hair is easier due to their characteristic cyclic regener...

  18. Preliminary analysis of environmental regulations related to remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2695

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past research and development activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have resulted in the presence of several areas where low-level radioactive and/or hazardous waste have been disposed of or that have been contaminated through accidental spills or planned releases of radionuclides. Although these areas have been monitored and controlled to ensure that on-site and off-site releases of contaminants are within applicable Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines, ORNL established the Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade (ERFU) Program to address formally the immediate and long-range needs of meeting all applicable federal and state regulations regarding waste disposal. The environmental laws, regulations, and DOE Orders governing the cleanup activities are numerous and complex. Hence, a synthesis of the principal regulations related to the ERFU Program is presented to facilitate efficient planning for characterization and cleanup of contaminated sites. Because of regulatory decisions made after this report was finalized, several statements presented herein may no longer apply to the ERFU Program. Nevertheless, the report is issued as originally written so that ORNL's early planning efforts to comply with environmental laws and legislation are formally documented. Several general principles to consider when developing a plan for environmental compliance - which would be of use to others who must comply with legislation related to the cleanup of sites contaminated with radionuclides and hazardous chemicals - are also discussed

  19. Firms’ Private Action Towards Environmental Quality: Where Does Regulation Stand for Non-Adopters of Environment Management Practices?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe-Mudalige, U.K; Udugama, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of regulatory framework and legal system on the private action towards environmental quality among food processing firms in Sri Lanka. An Environment Regulation Responsiveness Index, reflecting compliance to solid waste management practices, was used as the measure of firms perception on environment regulation. The results highlight that compliance by the majority of firms was relatively low, especially among the small scale firms, suggesting that the decision ...

  20. The Agro-Food Industry, Public Health and Environmental Protection: Investigating the Porter Hypothesis in Food Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ponssard, Jean-Pierre; SINCLAIR DESGAGNÉ Bernard; Soler, Louis-Georges; GIRAUD HERAUD Eric

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable food concerns have pushed public authorities to act by means of regulations, standards and other devices, and businesses to innovate in their products and production processes. We argue that the Porter Hypothesis – which asserts that properly designed and implemented environmental regulation might be good for society as well as the targeted firms – might well be verified in this context. After reviewing and illustrating the working principles and main criticisms of this hypothesis...

  1. Regulation of Saska River with aim for environmental protection at N°.4 flotation tailing dam construction in the Sasa Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Panov, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    In the paper will be presented the regulation of the Saska river flow by construction of diversion tunnel on the N°.4 Flotation tailing dam and its location in the surrounding rocks. Considering the negative experiences in the regulation of the river flow with gallery tunnel which was made beneath the former flotation tailing dams, management team of the Sasa mine decided to secure technical solution in terms of environmental protection.

  2. 75 FR 4810 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... environmental concern about air quality impacts. EPA recommended additional mitigation for PM10 impacts..., Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT. Summary: EPA expressed environmental concern about channel...: EPA expressed environmental concern about impacts to water quality, aquatic habitat,...

  3. Regulation of drug metabolism in man by environmental chemicals and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conney, A.H. (Hoffmann-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ); Pantuck, E.J.; Hsiao, K.C.; Kuntzman, R.; Alvares, A.P.; Kappas, A.

    1977-04-01

    Studies in animals have shown that many environmental pollutants induce the synthesis or inhibit the activity of microsomal mixed-function oxygenases that metabolize drugs, carcinogens and normal body constituents such as steroid hormones. These effects on microsomal enzyme activity alter the duration and intensity of action of foreign and endogenous chemicals in animals, and such effects on metabolism may influence the carcinogenicity of some pollutants in man. Studies on the effects of environmental chemicals on drug metabolism in man are sparse. Exposure of humans to DDT or lindane in a pesticide factory results in an enhanced rate of metabolism of antipyrine and phenylbutazone and an increased urinary excretion of 6-..beta..-hydroxycortisol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in cigarette smoke, in charcoal-broiled meats, and in polluted city air are potent inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes in animals. In humans, cigarette smoking stimulates the activity of placental enzymes that metabolize several drugs and carcinogens. In addition, cigarette smokers metabolize phenacetin, theophylline, and other drugs more rapidly in vivo than nonsmokers. Dietary factors are important in the regulation of drug metabolism in animals and man. Feeding rats brussels sprouts or cabbage stimulates the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of drugs in animals. This effect is caused, at least in part, by certain indoles normally present in these vegetables. The feeding of a charcoal-broiled beef diet to rats stimulates the metabolism of phenacetin in vitro, and a similar diet stimulates the in vivo metabolism of phenacetin in man. It is likely that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the major inducers in charcoal-broiled beef.

  4. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  5. Preferential regulation of miRNA targets by environmental chemicals in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xudong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs represent a class of small (typically 22 nucleotides in length non-coding RNAs that can degrade their target mRNAs or block their translation. Recent disease research showed the exposure to some environmental chemicals (ECs can regulate the expression patterns of miRNAs, which raises the intriguing question of how miRNAs and their targets cope with the exposure to ECs throughout the genome. Results In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the properties of genes regulated by ECs (EC-genes and found miRNA targets were significantly enriched among the EC-genes. Compared with the non-miRNA-targets, miRNA targets were roughly twice as likely to be EC-genes. By investigating the collection methods and other properties of the EC-genes, we demonstrated that the enrichment of miRNA targets was not attributed to either the potential collection bias of EC-genes, the presence of paralogs, longer 3'UTRs or more conserved 3'UTRs. Finally, we identified 1,842 significant concurrent interactions between 407 miRNAs and 497 ECs. This association network of miRNAs-ECs was highly modular and could be separated into 14 interconnected modules. In each module, miRNAs and ECs were closely connected, providing a good method to design accurate miRNA markers for ECs in toxicology research. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that miRNAs and their targets played important roles in cellular responses to ECs. Association analyses of miRNAs and ECs will help to broaden the understanding of the pathogenesis of such chemical components.

  6. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  7. Adulticidal and larvicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), in laboratory and simulated field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2011-06-01

    The susceptibility of the adult and larval stage of housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), to two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., was evaluated under laboratory and simulated field bioassays. Bioassays on adult houseflies were carried out at different conidial concentrations ranging from 10(3) to 10(9) conidia/ml in petri plate and minichamber assays. Absolute mortality was observed within 4-5 days at all the concentrations tested. M. anisopliae was found to be more effective with LC(50) of 6.75 × 10(7) conidia/ml compared with 1.21 × 10(8) conidia/ml of B. bassiana in petri plate bioassay. Similar trend was observed in minichamber bioassay. Larvicidal activity evaluated through petri plate bioassay also indicated that M. anisopliae was more effective larvicide with LC(50) of 4.1 × 10(8) conidia/ml as against 3.31 × 10(9) conidia/ml of B. bassiana. Larvicidal activity was further evaluated in simulated field condition of decaying waste matrix using dry conidial formulations (10(8) conidia/g) of both the fungi. Larval mortality obtained in this assay was 43% (B. bassiana) and 63% (M. anisopliae). Remarkably better performance of M. anisopliae as an adulticidal and larvicidal agent over B. bassiana in laboratory bioassays as well as simulated field conditions suggests that it may have good potential to become part of an integrated housefly control program.

  8. 10株白僵菌菌株形态学与分子鉴定%Morphological and Molecular Identification of 10 Beauveria bassiana Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝生; 谷希树; 田涛; 霍建飞; 孙淑琴

    2012-01-01

    对10株白僵菌属菌株的菌落形态、产孢结构和分生孢子形状、大小作了观察与测量,形态学鉴定为球孢白僵菌.同时对此10株球孢白僵菌核糖体DNA - ITS进行了测序分析,与NCBI数据库中的球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)多个菌株的同源性达99.10% ~99.64%.依此,10株白僵菌菌株分子鉴定结果为球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana).%In this study, the colony morphology, spore structure and spore shape and size of 10 Beauveria strains were observed and measured, and they were initially identified as Beauveria bassiana. At the same time, their ribosomal DNA - ITS were sequenced and compared with that of Beauveria bassiana in NCBI database. The results showed the homology was 99.10% -99.64%. Eventually these 10 strains were identified as Beauveria bassiana.

  9. 75 FR 8935 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... the Condor 1 and Condor 2 MOA, ME and NH. Summary: EPA expressed environmental concerns about noise... for Incidental Take Permit, Siskiyou County, CA. Summary: EPA expressed environmental concern about... environmental concern about radiation, emergency access, wetlands, floodplains, environmental justice, and...

  10. 10 CFR 51.10 - Purpose and scope of subpart; application of regulations of Council on Environmental Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) voluntarily, subject to certain conditions. This subpart does not apply to export licensing matters within the... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS... with the NRC's domestic licensing and related regulatory authority under the Atomic Energy Act of...

  11. Environmental enrichment during adolescence regulates gene expression in the striatum of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiriet, Nathalie; Amar, Lahouari; Toussay, Xavier; Lardeux, Virginie; Ladenheim, Bruce; Becker, Kevin G; Cadet, Jean Lud; Solinas, Marcello; Jaber, Mohamed

    2008-07-30

    We have previously shown that environmental enrichment decreases the activating and rewarding effects of the psychostimulant cocaine and increases resistance to the neurotoxic effect of the Parkinson-inducing drug MPTP. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the striatal expression of the neurotrophin BDNF, an increase in the striatal levels of delta-Fos B and by a decrease in striatal levels of the dopamine transporter, the main molecular target for cocaine and MPTP. Here, we used cDNA arrays to investigate the effects of rearing mice in enriched environments from weaning to adulthood on the profile of expression of genes in the striatum focusing on genes involved in intracellular signalling and functioning. We found that mice reared in an enriched environment show several alterations in the levels of mRNA coding for proteins involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, signal transduction, transcription and translation, cell structure and metabolism. Several of these findings were further confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and, in the case of protein kinase C lambda, also by western blot. These findings are the first description of alterations in striatal gene expression by an enriched environment. The striatal gene expression regulation by environment that we report here may play a role in the resistance to the effects of drugs of abuse and dopaminergic neurotoxins previously reported. PMID:18585688

  12. Harmonising conflicts between science, regulation, perception and environmental impact: the case of soil conditioners from bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Matthew J; Herbert, Ben M J; Ricketts, Lois; Dodd, Ian; Ostle, Nick; Semple, Kirk T

    2015-02-01

    As the global population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, humanity needs to balance an ever increasing demand for food, energy and natural resources, with sustainable management of ecosystems and the vital services that they provide. The intensification of agriculture, including the use of fertilisers from finite sources, has resulted in extensive soil degradation, which has increased food production costs and CO2 emissions, threatening food security. The Bioenergy sector has significant potential to contribute to the formation of a circular economy. This paper presents the scientific, regulatory and socioeconomic barriers to the use of the nutrient waste streams from biomass thermal conversion (ash) and anaerobic digestion (digestate) as sustainable soil amendments for use in place of traditional fertilisers. It is argued that whilst the ability of combined ash and digestate to remedy many threats to ecosystems and provide a market to incentivise the renewable bio-energy schemes is promising, a step-change is required to alter perceptions of 'waste', from an expensive problem, to a product with environmental and economic value. This can only be achieved by well-informed interactions between scientists, regulators and end users, to improve the spread and speed of innovation with this sector. PMID:25461414

  13. An Investigation of Taiwan's Education Regulations and Policies for Pursuing Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid industrialization and economic development in the past decades, heavy environmental loads caused some serious environmental scenarios in Taiwan, an island country with a dense population and only limited natural resources. As a result, environmental education in Taiwan has been a leading tool to promote sustainable development since…

  14. Differential Regulation of c-di-GMP Metabolic Enzymes by Environmental Signals Modulates Biofilm Formation in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gai-Xian; Fan, Sai; Guo, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Shiyun; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is essential for Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, which is important for flea-borne blockage-dependent plague transmission. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), HmsT and HmsD and one phosphodiesterase (PDE), HmsP are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Here, we systematically analyzed the effect of various environmental signals on regulation of the biofilm phenotype, the c-di-GMP levels, and expression of HmsT, HmsD, and HmsP in Y. pestis. Biofilm formation was higher in the presence of non-lethal high concentration of CaCl2, MgCl2, CuSO4, sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or dithiothreitol, and was lower in the presence of FeCl2 or NaCl. In addition, we found that HmsD plays a major role in biofilm formation in acidic or redox environments. These environmental signals differentially regulated expression of HmsT, HmsP and HmsD, resulting in changes in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Our results suggest that bacteria can sense various environmental signals, and differentially regulate activity of DGCs and PDEs to coordinately regulate and adapt metabolism of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation to changing environments.

  15. Differential regulation of c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes by environmental signals modulates biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Xian eRen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP is essential for Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, which is important for flea-borne blockage-dependent plague transmission. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, HmsT and HmsD and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, HmsP are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Here, we systematically analyzed the effect of various environmental signals on regulation of the biofilm phenotype, the c-di-GMP levels, and expression of HmsT, HmsD and HmsP in Y. pestis. Biofilm formation was higher in the presence of nonlethal high concentration of CaCl2, MgCl2, CuSO4, sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfonate, or dithiothreitol, and was lower in the presence of FeCl2 or NaCl. In addition, we found that HmsD plays a major role in biofilm formation in acidic or redox environments. These environmental signals differentially regulated expression of HmsT, HmsP and HmsD, resulting in changes in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Our results suggest that bacteria can sense various environmental signals, and differentially regulates their DGCs and PDEs to coordinately regulate and adapt metabolism of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation to changing environments.

  16. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates for the control of Blissus antillus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae Seleção de isolados Beauveria Bassiana e Metarhizium Anisopliae para o controle de Blissus Antillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ian Samuels

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinch bugs of the genus Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae are serious pests of maize, wheat, sorghum and various grasses. This study is the first to screen isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against 4th instar and adult Blissus antillus aiming to develop a biological control program for this important pasture pest. Ten fungal isolates were initially screened and three isolates were chosen for further investigation. To determine virulence, insects were inoculated by immersion in concentrations of 5 ´ 10(8 conidia mL-1. Mortality was evaluated for 10 days. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 was the most virulent isolate to both nymphs and adults, causing 53 and 78% infection, respectively, and values for LT50 of 7.8 and 5.0 days, respectively. Germination studies were carried out to confirm viability and determine speed of germination as a pathogenicity factor. The production of conidia on the cadavers of insects infected with the three selected isolates was determined. The production of conidia on rice media was also evaluated. B. bassiana CG 24 produced the highest number of conidia on insects cadavers (14.9 ´ 10(7 conidia per insect and also on rice media (10.6 ´ 10(9 conidia per g.Percevejos do gênero Blissus (Hemiptera: Lygeidae são pragas importantes das plantações de milho, trigo e sorgo e de vários tipos de gramíneos forrageiros. Esse estudo é o primeiro a amostrar isolados de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae contra aos 4(0 instares e adultos de Blissus antillus com a finalidade de desenvolver um programa de controle biológico dessa importante praga de pastagens. Dez isolados foram inicialmente testados e três foram escolhidos para maiores investigações. Para determinar a virulência, os insetos foram inoculados por imersão em suspensões de conídios a uma concentração de 5 ´ 10(8 conídios mL-1. Mortalidade foi avaliada por 10 dias. B. bassiana ARSEF 792 foi o isolado mais virulento para as ninfas e os

  17. Social license and environmental protection: When compliance with regulations is not enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Social License to run a business became a real need to the industries that can cause significant environmental impacts. Experience shows that independently of the size of a particular mining operation several projects have been stopped or delayed due to strong opposition of local communities and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) Traditionally, corporations see compliance with the legal requirements as a synonym of observance of social obligations. However, it has been recognized that without the so called 'Social License' businesses can be seriously affected, even if the operation holds the necessary legal licenses (environmental, nuclear, etc). Despite corporations and regulators seem to fully accept the need of a social license, there is a need to establish mechanisms that can allow for the full and effective implementation of Social License. In Brazil, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), a state owned company, is in charge of the production centre of Caetite located in the state of Bahia. This is the only production centre in operation in the country. The ore grade is about 0.29% and is mined by open pit operations. The plant started operations in 2000 and the extraction process is Heap-Leach. The region presents a semi-arid climate and because of that the local community heavily depends on the supply of groundwater, also of key importance for the operations of the milling plant. Safety assessments demonstrated that groundwater is the potentially most affected medium regarding the mining and milling operations. However, in the area of influence of the plant the potential of groundwater contamination is very restricted as a consequence of the existing geological features of the rocks. The high uranium concentrations observed in one of the neighbor communities - Juazeiro - located in an uraniferous province are linked to geochemical process of uranium dissolution from the rocks and cannot be attributed to the mining and milling operations

  18. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Edwin T; Matthews, Ty G; Howson, Travis J; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K; Strachan, Scott R; Robson, Belinda J

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow

  19. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin T Chester

    Full Text Available In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010 to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1 remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and

  20. Constraints upon the response of fish and crayfish to environmental flow releases in a regulated headwater stream network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Edwin T; Matthews, Ty G; Howson, Travis J; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Mackie, Jonathon K; Strachan, Scott R; Robson, Belinda J

    2014-01-01

    In dry climate zones, headwater streams are often regulated for water extraction causing intermittency in perennial streams and prolonged drying in intermittent streams. Regulation thereby reduces aquatic habitat downstream of weirs that also form barriers to migration by stream fauna. Environmental flow releases may restore streamflow in rivers, but are rarely applied to headwaters. We sampled fish and crayfish in four regulated headwater streams before and after the release of summer-autumn environmental flows, and in four nearby unregulated streams, to determine whether their abundances increased in response to flow releases. Historical data of fish and crayfish occurrence spanning a 30 year period was compared with contemporary data (electrofishing surveys, Victoria Range, Australia; summer 2008 to summer 2010) to assess the longer-term effects of regulation and drought. Although fish were recorded in regulated streams before 1996, they were not recorded in the present study upstream or downstream of weirs despite recent flow releases. Crayfish (Geocharax sp. nov. 1) remained in the regulated streams throughout the study, but did not become more abundant in response to flow releases. In contrast, native fish (Gadopsis marmoratus, Galaxias oliros, Galaxias maculatus) and crayfish remained present in unregulated streams, despite prolonged drought conditions during 2006-2010, and the assemblages of each of these streams remained essentially unchanged over the 30 year period. Flow release volumes may have been too small or have operated for an insufficient time to allow fish to recolonise regulated streams. Barriers to dispersal may also be preventing recolonisation. Indefinite continuation of annual flow releases, that prevent the unnatural cessation of flow caused by weirs, may eventually facilitate upstream movement of fish and crayfish in regulated channels; but other human-made dispersal barriers downstream need to be identified and ameliorated, to allow

  1. Nutritional optimization of a native Beauveria bassiana isolate (HQ917687) pathogenic to housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree

    2013-10-01

    A new Beauveria bassiana isolate, showing high activity against Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults (mortality-100.0 %), larvae (mortality-72.3 %) and pupae (Infection in emerged flies-96.7 %) was used. The isolate was subjected to a combinational approach towards selection of process parameters for its growth optimization. Initial screening of several carbon and nitrogen sources revealed glucose and NaNO3 as the most suitable source for optimal biomass and spore production. Further, optimization through Placket-Burman and a 2(5) full factorial central composite design revealed highly significant effect of glucose and pH. The optimum composition for maximum biomass yield was (g/l): glucose 28; NaNO3 2.43; KH2PO4 1.32; MgSO4 0.60; and pH 7.00. Glucose concentration showed almost linear relationship with biomass yield, indicating its significant contribution in medium composition for fungal growth. Highly significant interactions were observed between glucose and pH, followed by glucose and NaNO3 concentration.

  2. Improving Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Stored Grain Beetles with a Synergistic Co-Formulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Clare; Scoates, Freya; Nunn, Adam; Potin, Olivier; Dillon, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    The potential of a dry powder co-formulant, kaolin, to improve the control of storage beetles by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, isolate IMI389521, was investigated. The response of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults to the fungus when applied to wheat at 1 × 10(10) conidia per kg with and without kaolin at 1.74 g per kg wheat was assessed. Addition of kaolin increased control from 46% to 88% at day 7 and from 81% to 99% at day 14 post-treatment. Following this the dose response of O. surinamensis and Tribolium confusum to both kaolin and the fungus was investigated. Synergistic effects were evident against O. surinamensis at ≥0.96 g of kaolin per kg of wheat when combined with the fungus at all concentrations tested. For T. confusum, adult mortality did not exceed 55%, however, the larvae were extremely susceptible with almost complete suppression of adult emergence at the lowest fungal rate tested even without the addition of kaolin. Finally, the dose response of Sitophilus granarius to the fungus at 15 and 25 °C, with and without kaolin at 1 g per kg of wheat, was examined. Improvements in efficacy were achieved by including kaolin at every fungal rate tested and by increasing the temperature. Kaolin by itself was not effective, only when combined with the fungus was an effect observed, indicating that kaolin was having a synergistic effect on the fungus. PMID:27571107

  3. The production and uses of Beauveria bassiana as a microbial insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2016-11-01

    Among invertebrate fungal pathogens, Beauveria bassiana has assumed a key role in management of numerous arthropod agricultural, veterinary and forestry pests. Beauveria is typically deployed in one or more inundative applications of large numbers of aerial conidia in dry or liquid formulations, in a chemical paradigm. Mass production is mainly practiced by solid-state fermentation to yield hydrophobic aerial conidia, which remain the principal active ingredient of mycoinsecticides. More robust and cost-effective fermentation and formulation downstream platforms are imperative for its overall commercialization by industry. Hence, where economics allow, submerged liquid fermentation provides alternative method to produce effective and stable propagules that can be easily formulated as dry stable preparations. Formulation also continues to be a bottleneck in the development of stable and effective commercial Beauveria-mycoinsecticides in many countries, although good commercial formulations do exist. Future research on improving fermentation and formulation technologies coupled with the selection of multi-stress tolerant and virulent strains is needed to catalyze the widespread acceptance and usefulness of this fungus as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide. The role of Beauveria as one tool among many in integrated pest management, rather than a stand-alone management approach, needs to be better developed across the range of crop systems. Here, we provide an overview of mass-production and formulation strategies, updated list of registered commercial products, major biocontrol programs and ecological aspects affecting the use of Beauveria as a mycoinsecticide. PMID:27628337

  4. Environmental Regulation of the Nuclear Industry in England and Wales in an era of Restructuring and Accelerated Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 a large part of the UK Nuclear Industry was restructured with a new national body, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), being responsible for all the assets and liabilities of the nationally owned reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The former owners are now operating and in many cases decommissioning the facilities under contract to the NDA. As the body responsible for enforcing most environmental legislation in England and Wales, the Environment Agency has reviewed its regulatory approach to the Industry. This is to ensure that our responsibility to protect and enhance the environment is met whilst considering appropriately other key drivers impacting on all sectors of environmental regulation. Factors influencing this review include: - Greater public interest and concern over nuclear issues; - Greater transparency of strategies, plans and decisions in the nuclear industry; - The need to ensure that sustainable protection of the environment remains a constant feature of environmental regulation; - The need for a proportionate approach to regulation in the non-prescriptive UK legislative system; - Being effective and efficient in a period when all types of regulation are under Government and public scrutiny; - The aim of the NDA to achieve safe, secure, cost-effective, accelerated and environmentally responsible decommissioning and clean up in part by competing the management of the facilities. This has involved - Constructive liaison with the NDA both before and after its commencement to ensure we are both aware of each other's concerns; - Taking a strong influencing role at strategic and operational levels; - Putting in position arrangements for our involvement in the competitive process; - Liaison at an early stage with the industry's plans for future work; - Establishing greater clarity in our strategy and plans, notably with re-examination of the requirements of our authorisations and permits; - Establishing a new assessment resource (the

  5. The options of local authorities for addressing climate change and energy efficiency through environmental regulation of companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Environmental regulation of companies is sometimes in the literature characterised as a successive broadening of focus and policy instruments: from applying command-and-control mechanism to get companies to clean and/or dilute local pollutants through end-of-pipe solutions; towards applying various...... means to influence and facilitate companies to act proactively in preventing pollution through cleaner production, waste prevention and resource efficiency. This understanding is contested in this article. The article documents instead a gap in respect to the local authorities actual execution...... of the direct regulation of companies in Denmark. The practise of the local competent authorities is found to primarily still target local environmental concerns by command-and-control means. The objective of the article is to analyse this discrepancy between the overall representation of regulatory trends...

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Regulations on the Food Processing Industry in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Ha Thanh

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of Decree 67, a key piece of the country's 'polluter-pays' environmental legislation. Industrial waste-water pollution is one of the most significant environmental problems affecting Vietnam. Although the country has implemented a range of anti-pollution legislation, the problem has not been resolved and companies continue to pollute on a large scale. This makes it important to understand why current environmental legislation is not working and what must ...

  7. Laboratory bioassay of Beauveria bassiana against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and potted bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2015-03-01

    Use of the mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA), marketed as BotaniGard(®) ES, was evaluated as a plant protection strategy against the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, which is considered one of the most economically important and cosmopolitan pests of many crops. Tetranychus urticae were treated with four concentrations of conidia (1 × 10(5), 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), or 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml), and virulence was assessed on mites held at four relative humidity levels (35, 55, 75, and 95 ± 2 % RH) at 25 ± 1 °C. At 1 × 10(8) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 9.7 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly lower than values for other RH levels. At 1 × 10(7) spores/ml, the LT50 value was 43.8 h at 95 % RH, which was significantly different from values at 55 and 35 % RH. The efficacy of B. bassiana product was also verified on mites infesting potted bean plants with a concentration of 1 × 10(8) spores/ml. In double spray treatment where applications were made 2 × on days 5 and 10 after mite infestation, the nymphal and adult population of T. urticae were reduced to zero on days 20 and 15, respectively. With a single spray on day 5, the nymphal population was also greatly reduced, but increased rapidly after day 20. Single and double sprays with B. bassiana reduced leaf damage as measured by image analysis by 33 and 94 % compared to no treatment, respectively. These results suggest that 1 × 10(8) spores/ml was the most effective dose and that two applications, at a 5-day interval, provided control of T. urticae in our laboratory assay. PMID:25500970

  8. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco. PMID:24122125

  9. An analysis of the determinants of the self-regulated learning abilities of students from an environmentally-deprived community / Marivate Joseph Mathebula

    OpenAIRE

    Mathebula, Marivate Joseph

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the determinants of self-regulated learning abilities Of students from an environmentally-deprived community, and to determine the relationship between self-regulated learning and academic achievement of the abovementioned students in English and maths. To achieve this aim, a literature research was undertaken to analyse the influence of Personal, environmental and behavioural variables on self-regulated learning and academic achievement in ...

  10. Environmental and electricity market regulation of smart grid application for communities and SME’s within Northwestern European regions

    OpenAIRE

    May, Kristof; Van Dievel, Philippe; De Vos, Kristof; Belmans, Ronnie; Moretti, Michele; Witters, Nele

    2016-01-01

    In light of the European Union objectives concerning energy-efficiency and sustainability, several Member States are advocating for, and even subsidizing the integration of renewable generation, distributed generation and smart grid technologies. This paper aims to evaluate the existing environmental and electricity market regulation applied in the five regions across Europe involved within the GREAT project, i.e. Flanders, England, The Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland. This analysis focusses p...

  11. Multi-layered environmental regulation on the homeostasis of stem cells: the saga of hair growth and alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells are fascinating because of their potential in regenerative medicine. Stem cell homeostasis has been thought to be mainly regulated by signals from their adjacent micro-environment named the "stem cell niche". However, recent studies reveal that there can be multiple layers of environmental controls. Here we review these environmental controls using the paradigm of hair stem cells, because to observe and analyze the growth of hair is easier due to their characteristic cyclic regeneration pattern. The length of hair fibers is regulated by the duration of the growth period. In the hair follicles, hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge interact with signals from the dermal papilla. Outside of the follicle, activation of hair stem cells has been shown to be modulated by molecules released from the intra-dermal adipose tissue as well as body hormone status, immune function, neural activities, and aging. The general physiological status of an individual is further influenced by circadian rhythms and changing seasons. The interactive networks of these environmental factors provide new understanding on how stem cell homeostasis is regulated, inspiring new insights for regenerative medicine. Therapies do not necessarily have to be achieved by using stem cells themselves which may constitute a higher risk but by modulating stem cell activity through targeting one or multiple layers of their micro- and macro-environments.

  12. Multi-layered environmental regulation on the homeostasis of stem cells: the saga of hair growth and alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2012-04-01

    Stem cells are fascinating because of their potential in regenerative medicine. Stem cell homeostasis has been thought to be mainly regulated by signals from their adjacent micro-environment named the "stem cell niche". However, recent studies reveal that there can be multiple layers of environmental controls. Here we review these environmental controls using the paradigm of hair stem cells, because to observe and analyze the growth of hair is easier due to their characteristic cyclic regeneration pattern. The length of hair fibers is regulated by the duration of the growth period. In the hair follicles, hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge interact with signals from the dermal papilla. Outside of the follicle, activation of hair stem cells has been shown to be modulated by molecules released from the intra-dermal adipose tissue as well as body hormone status, immune function, neural activities, and aging. The general physiological status of an individual is further influenced by circadian rhythms and changing seasons. The interactive networks of these environmental factors provide new understanding on how stem cell homeostasis is regulated, inspiring new insights for regenerative medicine. Therapies do not necessarily have to be achieved by using stem cells themselves which may constitute a higher risk but by modulating stem cell activity through targeting one or multiple layers of their micro- and macro-environments. PMID:22391240

  13. An approach to assess the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation: an example in three European rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jalon Diego, Garcia; de Jalon Silvestre, Garcia; Tanago Marta, Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a growing concern about water environmental costs. 'Polluter should pay' has been a phrase repeated in numerous policy-making processes. Water abstraction for Irrigation, Hydropower or water supply for Domestic or Industrial porpoises alters natural flow regimes impacting severely fluvial Ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to develop an evaluation of the marginal environmental costs for flow regulation. This approach is based on the idea 'who regulates flows should pay' and the amount to be paid should be proportional on the intensity, duration and frequency of the resulting regulated flows. The methodology proposed includes three separated steps: (i) estimating the natural flow regime of a river segment through studying the hydrologic conditions before the river is affected by a determined anthropogenic impact, (ii) assessing the hydrologic alteration of the river segment according to the estimated natural flow regime, and (iii) calculating marginal environmental costs of water supply. The three different case studies where the methodology was applied were the Esla River (Spain), the Upper River Tyne (England) and the Marna River (Norway).

  14. Roll-Out Neoliberalism and Hybrid Practices of Regulation in Australian Agri-Environmental Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Stewart; Higgins, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    In the last 15 years, agri-environmental programmes in Australia have been underpinned by a neoliberal regime of governing which seeks to foster participation and "bottom-up" change at the regional level at the same time as encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurial and improve their productivity and environmental performance without government…

  15. Keeping science in environmental regulations: the role of the animal scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W J

    2003-04-01

    Environmental issues continue to be one of the biggest challenges faced by livestock producers. Whereas issues of the past have focused on manure nutrient impacts on water quality with some regulatory activity addressing odors, emerging issues are more diverse. To address emerging air quality issues, such as ammonia emissions, antibiotic transfer, human health impacts of emissions from animal agriculture, and estrogens in the environment, scientists with expertise in physiology, genetics, animal management, and nutrition will need to be enlisted. The objectives of this review are to highlight some of the prominent environmental regulatory activity that has occurred nationally in the past few years, to outline some of the emerging environmental issues, and to move members of the animal science profession toward thinking about what they can contribute toward addressing these issues. Animal scientists are uniquely qualified to engage in environmental research, education, and policymaking because of our comprehensive understanding of the complexity of whole-farm management and the interactions between animal management and manure management. Animal science departments have the opportunity to train students to be leaders in addressing environmental issues related to animal production, provided departments incorporate environmental education into curricula. Animal scientists can contribute greatly to the many areas of research that address emerging and current environmental issues, helping to ensure that policy is science-based and mitigation strategies are feasible.

  16. Comparative efficacy of emulsifiable-oil, wettable-powder, and unformulated-powder preparations of Beauveria bassiana against the melon aphid Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphicidal efficacy of two commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA conidia, an emulsifiable-paraffinic oil dispersion (OD) and a clay-based wettable powder (WP), were compared to unformulated conidia in laboratory tests with adult melon aphids (Aphis gossypii). For the initial 24 hou...

  17. A case of Beauveria bassiana keratitis confirmed by internal transcribed spacer and LSU rDNA D1–D2 sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ligozzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of fungal keratitis due to Beauveria bassiana in a farmer with Fuchs' dystrophy, treated with amphotericin B. Surgery with penetrating keratoplasty was necessary to resolve the lesions. Susceptibility testing and molecular sequencing permitted the identification and treatment of this rare aetiological agent of invasive fungal disease.

  18. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS SPECIES BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. AND METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE (METSCH. USED AS MYCOINSECTICIDE EFFECTIVE IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF IPS TYPOGRAPHUS (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mudrončeková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural world is overloaded with chemical substances. Undesirable effects and the resistance of vermin opens a new way for biological control of pathogenic species of animals. Ips typographus (L. is overgrowth across Central Europe. Its natural habitat are forest communities, where chemical spraying is forbidden or restricted. The natural bioregulators of this cosmopolitan pest are entomopathogenic fungi of Hypocreales species. In this study, we focused on two types of entomopathogenic fungi – Beauveria bassiana (BALS. and Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH.. They are suitable for biological control because they are attacking a wide range of pathogenic insects in agro-systems. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil samples and dead infected insects. The samples collected from different sites of the High Tatras. In our experiments, we followed infectivity and mortality of selected isolates of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (BALS. and Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH.. The gDNA of isolates was used for identification and we put them to the analysis of specific DNA segments by amplified PCR method. Results of experiments show the high pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi strains. Beauveria bassiana (BALS. caused 99% mortality and Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. reached 97%. Infectivity followed by Beauveria bassiana (BALS. reached 92% and Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. 90%. For the purpose of limiting the numbers of populations of harmful pest is essential the ability of entomopathogenic fungi to infect, kill the host, and remain in a natural environment without disturbing the biota.

  19. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorscens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were found contaminating a biopesticide used in a previous study against Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee hives. In the aforementioned study the biopesticide, a formulation of the arthropod pathogen Beauveria bassiana, failed to have any impact on t...

  20. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee colonies in southern France were treated with conidia from 2 strains of Beauveria bassiana – one commercial (GHA) and the other isolated from Varroa mites in the region (Bb05002). Objectives were to evaluate treatment effect on colony weight, adult bee mass, capped brood, and on Varroa fall onto...

  1. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Natali de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control in integrated pest management (IPM programs of coffee plantations is an important factor for the reduction of pest population densities. The use of selective pesticides can be associated with entomopathogens, increasing the efficiency of the control and reducing the use of required insecticides. The in vitro fungitoxic effect of insecticide formulations of Thiamethoxam, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Triazophos, Chlorpyrifos, Fenpropathrin and Endosulfan and Beauveria bassiana (CG 425 strain was evaluated at three concentrations (FR = average field recommendation; 0.5 ´ FR and 2 ´ FR. Effects of these products on conidia germination, vegetative growth and sporulation were compared. Only five insecticides, at the FR concentration, promoted conidia viability higher than 60%. Viability should be considered the most important factor to be evaluated since it is the first step of the infection process. The insecticide formulations of Alpha-Cypermethrin, Thiamethoxam and Cyfluthrin caused the lower inhibition level on conidia germination at the two lower concentrations, with no difference in relation to the control. With respect to vegetative growth analysis, Thiamethoxam at the two lower concentrations was not found to cause radial growth inhibition. Thiamethoxam caused the smallest inhibition level with regard to conidia production. The use of Alpha-Cypermethrin and Thiamethoxam formulations in coffee IPM programs for a B. bassiana inoculum conservation strategy are recommended, since these products were compatible with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (CG 425, an important natural control agent of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.Em programas de Manejo integrado de pragas (MIP deve-se considerar o controle microbiano como um importante fator de redução da densidade populacional de pragas. A utilização de produtos seletivos quando associados a patógenos, pode aumentar a eficiência de

  2. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  3. Evaluation of soyscreen in an oil-based formulation for UV protection of Beauveria bassiana conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Compton, David L; Laszlo, Joseph A; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

    2009-10-01

    Soyscreen oil was studied as a formulation ingredient to protect Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia from UV degradation. Feruloylated soy glycerides, referred to as Soyscreen oil, are biobased UV-absorbing molecules made by combining molecules of soybean oil with ferulic acid. Conidia stored in Soyscreen oil for 28 wk at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C retained viability as well as conidia stored in sunflower oil, demonstrating that Soyscreen did not adversely affect viability with prolonged storage. For samples applied to glass and exposed to simulated sunlight (xenon light), conidia in sunflower oil with or without sunscreens (Soyscreen or oxyl methoxycinnimate) had similar conidia viability after exposure. These oil formulations retained conidia viability better than conidia applied as an aqueous treatment. However, the 10% Soyscreen oil formulation applied to field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants, did not improve residual insecticidal activity compared with aqueous applications of unformulated conidia or two commercial formulations when assayed against Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) larvae. Our results suggest that the oil applications lose UV protection because the oil was absorbed by the leaf. This conclusion was supported in subsequent laboratory exposures of conidia in oil-based formulations with UV screens applied to cabbage leaves or balsa wood, which lost protection as measured by decreased viability of conidia when exposed to simulated sunlight. As a result, additional formulation techniques such as encapsulation to prevent separation of the protective oil from the conidia may be required to extend protection when oil formulations are applied in the field.

  4. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  5. Circadian Clocks in the Cnidaria: Environmental Entrainment, Molecular Regulation, and Organismal Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M.; Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular network that translates predictable environmental signals, such as light levels, into organismal responses, including behavior and physiology. Regular oscillations of the molecular components of the clock enable individuals to anticipate regularly fluctuating environmental conditions. Cnidarians play important roles in benthic and pelagic marine environments and also occupy a key evolutionary position as the likely sister group to the bilaterians. Together, ...

  6. The Role of Environmental Civil Liability in Regulation of Marine Oil Pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Awareness of domestic and international environmental issues has long been high in Norway. As far as marine oil pollution is concerned, Norway is exposed to coastal water pollution arising from such strategically important sectors as the petroleum industry and oil transportation. This paper is an attempt to make a positive economic analysis of environmental civil liability for marine oil pollution in these two sectors. In the theoretical part of this paper (section 2) the standard model o...

  7. Effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Nuñez-Gaona

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the effect of moisture content and inoculum on the growth and conidia production by Beauveria bassiana on wheat bran (WB.The highest growth rate of B. bassiana 885.2 on WB media was obtained at a w=1.0, with no detected growth at a w < 0.97. Solid-state fermentation (SSF using WB (66% moisture; a w=1.0 achieved a maximal yield of 1.18x10 10 conidia per gram of dry substrate (gds. This yield decreased one order of magnitude with higher moisture contents or the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB as a texturiser. In SSF using WB (66% humidity,the time to obtain a yield of 1x10(10 conidia/gds, referred to as t10, could be predicted using a model considering common inoculum levels and maximal yields. For instance, t10 was 285 h with an inoculum of 1x10(6 conidia/gds; however, t10 was reduced to 232 h and 148 for inocula of 7x10(6 and 5x10(7 conidia/gds, respectively. The estimation of t10 values allowed both comparison between the cultures and prediction of harvesting times in production processes. Values for hydrophobicity were within 90 and 92%, whereas viability averages were around 70% for all the cultures

  8. Insecticidal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and Beauveria bassiana TS11 on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra KHOOSHE-BAST

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum is a major pest of horticultural and ornamental plants and is usually controlled with insecticides or biological control agents. In the current study, we examined the effects of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and Beauveria bassiana TS11 on T. vaporariorum adults. ZnO NPs were synthesized by precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated that ZnO NPs were non-compacted uniformly. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed an intense absorption peak at a range of 434-555 cm-1 related to Zn-O bond. In bioassays, adults were exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (3, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg l-1 and fungi (104, 105, 106, 107, 108 spores ml-1. LC50 values for ZnO NPs and fungi were 7.35 mg l-1and 3.28×105 spores ml-1, respectively. Mortality rates obtained with ZnO NPs and fungi at the highest concentration were 91.6 % and 88.8 %, respectively. The results indicate a positive effect of ZnO NPs and B. bassiana TS11on adults. The current study was conducted under laboratory conditions, therefore, more studies are needed in field.

  9. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Qiang; Lin, Miaofeng; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Jingwen; Chen, Dasong; Li, Zhigang; Dai, Jianqing; Han, Shichou

    2016-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest) had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:27341441

  10. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings.

  11. Evaluación de Beauveria bassiana para el combate de insectos plaga en maíz almacenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Molina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana, para controlar los insectos plaga Prostephanus truncatus y Stophilus zeamais, en mazorcas de maíz almacenado. Se evaluó también la patogenicidad del hongo sobre Teritriosoma nigrescens, depredador natural de P. truncatus. Se mezclaron conidios secos del hongo con kaolinita y se aplicaron a trojas de maíz de 450 mazorcas acomodadas en capas de 50. Se montaron dos ensayos, en el primero se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo al momento de almacenar el maíz, y en el segundo se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo realizadas después de almacenar el maíz. La mortalidad de P. truncatus fue cuatro veces mayor en el ensayo donde se aplicó el hongo en forma preventiva. La mortalidad de S. zeamais fue el doble en el tratamiento donde se aplicó el hongo al momento de inocular con P. truncatus. Los niveles de mortalidad por B. bassiana fueron mayores en P. truncatus que en S. zeamais, pero S. zeamais, pero este último mostró un 20% más de infección que el primero

  12. Off-road compression-ignition engine emission regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 : guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide explained the requirements for Off-Road Compression Ignition Engine Emission Regulations established under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The regulations are enforced by Environment Canada, which authorizes and monitors the use of the national emissions mark. The regulations prescribe standards for off-road engines that operate as reciprocating, internal combustion engines, other than those that operate under characteristics similar to the Otto combustion cycle and that use a spark plug or other sparking device. The regulations apply to engines that are typically diesel-fuelled and found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines such as tractors, excavators and log skidders. Four different types of persons are potentially affected by the regulations: Canadian engine manufacturers; distributors of Canadian engines or machines containing Canadian engines; importers of engines or machines for the purpose of sale; and persons not in companies importing engines or machines. Details of emission standards were presented, as well as issues concerning evidence of conformity, importing engines, and special engine cases. Compliance and enforcement details were reviewed, as well as applicable standards and provisions for emission control systems and defeat devices; exhaust emissions; crankcase and smoke emissions; and adjustable parameters. Details of import declarations were reviewed, as well as issues concerning defects and maintenance instructions. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Environmental Regulations of Land-use and Public Compensation: Principles with Swiss and Australian Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Irmi; Clement A. Tisdell; Harrison, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses regulation of rural land-use and compensation, both of which appear to have become more common but also more disputed. The implications of contemporary theories in relation to this matter are examined. Coverage includes the applicability of new welfare economics, the relevance of the neoclassical theory of politics, and the implications of contemporary theories of social conflict resolution and communication. Examining case studies of Swiss and Australian regulation of th...

  14. Endophytic Ability of Different Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin in Stem and Leaf Tissues of Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, S; Ramanujam, B; Poornesha, B

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the ability of six promising indigenous isolates of Beauveria bassiana (NBAII-Bb-5a, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 45) as an endophyte in maize stem and leaf tissues. Maize seedlings (var. Nithyashree) were inoculated with conidial suspensions and were examined for endophytic establishment in leaf and stems at different intervals during 15-90 days after treatment. All six isolates showed colonization in stem and leaf tissues with varying abilities of colonization and persistence. The mean percent colonization ranged from 7.41 to 20.37 % in older stem tissues and 3.70 to 21.29 % in young stem tissues and in leaf, it ranged from 6.46 to 27.78 % in older leaf tissues and 11.11 to 26.85 % in young leaf tissues. Among six isolates tested, Bb-23 isolate recorded the maximum mean colonization in older stem (20.37 %), older leaf (27.78 %) and in young stem (21.29 %). Bb-5a isolate showed maximum mean colonization in young leaf tissues (26.85 %). Persistence of inoculated fungal isolates decreased with increase in age of the plant. No physical symptoms of damage were observed in any of the B. bassiana treated plants. No colonization of B. bassiana was observed in the untreated control maize plants. The results obtained in plating and PCR techniques were similar with regard to the confirmation of endophytic establishment of B. bassiana. This study indicated the possibility of using B. bassiana as an endophyte in maize for management of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. PMID:27570303

  15. Does environmental regulation affect energy efficiency in China's thermal power generation? Empirical evidence from a slacks-based DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained much popularity in performance measurement of power industry. This paper presents a slack-based measure approach to investigating the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and the environmental regulation of China's thermal power generation. We first calculate the total-factor energy efficiency without considering environmental constraints. An environmental performance indicator is proposed through decomposing the total-factor energy efficiency. The proposed approach is then employed to examine whether environmental regulation affects the energy efficiency of China's thermal power generation. We find that the environmental efficiency plays a significant role in affecting energy performance of China's thermal generation sector. Decreasing the discharge of major pollutants can improve both energy performance and environmental efficiency. Besides, we also have three main findings: (1) The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency were relatively low. (2) The energy and environmental efficiency scores show great variations among provinces. (3) Both energy efficiency and environmental efficiency are of obvious geographical characteristics. According to our findings, we suggest some policy implications. - Highlights: • We assess the energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency of China's thermal power generation simultaneously. • The energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency were relatively low during 2007–2009. • The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency show obvious geographic characters. • The environmental performance of a DMU plays a decisive role in the energy performance

  16. 不同宿主的白僵菌菌株分离及特性研究%A study on Beauveria bassiana strains isolated in different hosts and their biological characteristics//

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查玉平; 陈京元; 蔡三山; 赵东容

    2011-01-01

    9 strains of Beaiweria bassiana isolated in different hosts and their biological characteristics were studied. The results showed that there were 8 strains of B. bassiana ( Bals. ) Vuillemin, and a strain of B. brongniartii (Sacc. ) Petch. Based on B. bassiana colony characteristics, vegetative growth and sporulation, the 2nd and 3rd strains were fit for the production.%以9株白僵菌菌株为材料,对其进行分离鉴定并探讨菌株的生物学特性.结果表明:有1株为布氏白僵菌(Beauveria brongniartii),8株为球孢白僵菌(B.bassiana).结合白僵菌菌落特征、营养生长情况和产孢量来看,2号和3号菌株比较适合应用于生产.

  17. Using environmental bonds to regulate the risks of GM crops: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Siân; Gerard, David

    2003-01-01

    We examine the characteristics and limitations of the existing system of tort liability for addressing potential environmental damages from GM crops and consider whether environmental bonding could be used to address these risks. We find that in the case of GM crops, a bonding mechanism would complement some of the strengths of tort liability. Specifically, the bonding mechanism provides some protection against bankruptcy, and also shifts the burden of risk toward life science companies that develop the technology. These factors could encourage additional early research by life science firms. However, a bonding mechanism adds to the regulatory apparatus, and would likely increase administrative costs, over tort liability, for public and private parties. Nevertheless, an attractive possibility is that the cumulative outcomes of bonding, e.g., shifting the risk burden, providing a measure of bankruptcy protection, and introducing an additional regulatory component, would mitigate some of the political and social objections to the environmental release of GM crops.

  18. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  19. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  20. CARABID BEATLES AS INDICATORS REFLECTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIVER REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kędzior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate factors responsible for sustaining riverine communities in stream sections with various bank regulation systems. The research were conducted on Porebianka stream in the Polish Western Carpathians, where 10 different types of river regulations were chosen for the analysis (strong incision without alluvial deposits, redeposition with sand and gravel banks, concrete revetment walls along the banks, channel with banks lined with rip-rap and reference unmanaged cross- section. We conclude that the carabid beetles assemblages of the studied river sections respond mainly to hydraulic parameters of the stream. Elimination of frequent natural bank inundation (due to the regulations of the banks is the main factor responsible for the impoverishment and extinction of riverine communities.

  1. MSK1 Regulates Environmental Enrichment-Induced Hippocampal Plasticity and Cognitive Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelina, Kate; Hansen, Katelin F.; Choi, Yun-Sik; DeVries, A. Courtney; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Obrietan, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has marked beneficial effects on cognitive capacity. Given the possibility that this form of neuronal plasticity could function via the actuation of the same cellular signaling pathways that underlie learning/memory formation, we examined whether the MAPK cascade effector, mitogen/stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1),…

  2. Inducible gene expression and environmentally regulated genes in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Relatively recently, a number of genes and operons have been identified in lactic acid bacteria that are inducible and respond to environmental factors. Some of these genes/operons had been isolated and analysed because of their importance in the fermentation industry and, consequently, their transc

  3. 67 FR 58036 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-13

    ... Control Pool and the Conservation Pools, Neosho River, Marion and Council Grove Lakes, Coffey and Lyon... the ratings assigned to draft environmental impact statements (EISs) was published in FR dated April 12, 2002 (67 FR 17992). Draft EISs ERP No. D-AFS-H65012-MO Rating EC2, Rams Horn Project...

  4. 75 FR 11882 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Safely and Reliably Improve Personal and Freight Mobility, Reduce Traffic Congestion, US 50/63 (Rex... published in FR dated July 17, 2009 (74 FR 34754). Notice In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air... environmental concerns about wetland, road salt, and economic development impacts. EPA offered to...

  5. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid...

  6. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Environmental economists have in general paid little or no attention to the political context within which green taxation would be introduced. In order to understand the real-life politics of green taxation, it is necessary to establish which political constraints determine the actual design of g...

  7. The hidden function of photosynthesis: a sensing system for environmental conditions that regulates plant acclimation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Yang, Chunhong

    2012-06-01

    Plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy by photosynthesis. Since they are sessile, they have to deal with a wide range of conditions in their immediate environment. Many abiotic and biotic parameters exhibit considerable fluctuations which can have detrimental effects especially on the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. During evolution, plants, therefore, evolved a number of acclimation processes which help them to adapt photosynthesis to such environmental changes. This includes protective mechanisms such as excess energy dissipation and processes supporting energy redistribution, e.g. state transitions or photosystem stoichiometry adjustment. Intriguingly, all these responses are triggered by photosynthesis itself via the interplay of its light reaction and the Calvin-Benson cycle with the residing environmental condition. Thus, besides its primary function in harnessing and converting light energy, photosynthesis acts as a sensing system for environmental changes that controls molecular acclimation responses which adapt the photosynthetic function to the environmental change. Important signalling parameters directly or indirectly affected by the environment are the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and the redox states of components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and/or electron end acceptors coupled to it. Recent advances demonstrate that these signals control post-translational modifications of the photosynthetic protein complexes and also affect plastid and nuclear gene expression machineries as well as metabolic pathways providing a regulatory framework for an integrated response of the plant to the environment at all cellular levels.

  8. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in Northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Grinsven, H.; ten Berge, H.; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the Northwest of the European Union (Ireland, UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting...

  9. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Grinsven, H.J.M.; ten Berge, H.F.M.; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the thi...

  10. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... included in the petition. In a notice published in the Federal Register on June 27, 2005 (70 FR 36917-36919..., 2009 (74 FR 67206-67207, Docket No. ER-FRL-8986-6). Public Meetings We are advising the public that we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination...

  11. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... INFORMATION: On January 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (APHIS-2007-0044, 75 FR 1585-1586) a... Agency in the Federal Register on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 6026-6027; Docket No. ER-FRL-8987- 9... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination...

  12. Energy and environmental quality of buildings and open space. Public administration regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residential sector is responsible of a third of total energy consumption in Italy and 30-40% of CO2 emission. An energy efficient buildings reduce cost and save energy and emission. The energy recovery is possible also with bioclimatic architecture that represents a contribution at the economic and environmental balance

  13. 75 FR 14593 - Environmental Impact Statements and Regulations; Availability of EPA Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ..., Implementation. Summary: EPA does not object to the proposed action. Rating LO. EIS No. 20100005, ERP No. DS-FHW... comments prepared pursuant to the Environmental Review Process (ERP), under section 309 of the Clean Air... published in FR dated July 17, 2009 (74 FR 34754). Notice In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean...

  14. Environmental Regulations and Livestock Production Levels: What is the Direction of Causality?

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Deepananda P.B.; Weersink, Alfons; Thrikawala, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental to the assertion that environmental regulatory standards are strategically set by decentralized authorities and consequently firms respond to spatial differences in regulatory standards is the underline causal relationship. Establishing the cause-effect association between regulatory standard setting and industry response is essential to justify the existence of the pollution haven and the potential for a race to the bottom. In this paper using 25 years data of the livestock produ...

  15. Environmental enrichment during adolescence regulates gene expression in the striatum of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thiriet, Nathalie; Amar, Lahouari; Toussay, Xavier; Lardeux, Virginie; Ladenheim, Bruce; Becker, Kevin G.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Solinas, Marcello; Jaber, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that environmental enrichment decreases the activating and rewarding effects of the psych psychostimulant cocaine and increases resistance to the neurotoxic effect of the Parkinson-inducing drug MPTP. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the striatal expression of the neurotrophin BDNF, an increase in the striatal levels of delta- Fos B and by a decrease in striatal levels of the dopamine transporter, the main molecular target for cocaine and MPTP. Here, w...

  16. Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

  17. Environmental regulation of land use and public compensation: principles, and Swiss and Australian examples

    OpenAIRE

    Irmi Seidl; Clement A. Tisdell; Steve Harrison

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the regulation of rural land use and compensation for property-rights restrictions, both of which appear to have become more commonplace in recent years but also more contested. The implications of contemporary theories in relation to this matter are examined, including: the applicability of new welfare economics; the relevance of the neoclassical theory of politics; and the implications of contemporary theories of social conflict resolution and communication. Examination ...

  18. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana ao psilídeo Diaphorina citri e compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários Beauveria bassiana pathogenicity to Diaphorina citri and compatibility of the fungus with phytosanitary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana a ninfas de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e verificar a compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários e sua persistência em plantas de citros. Ninfas de D. citri foram pulverizadas com B. bassiana, nas concentrações 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 e 1x10(9 conídios mL-1, para determinação da concentração letal. Para avaliação da compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários, extrato de nim e cinco inseticidas de quatro grupos químicos diferentes foram incorporados individualmente ao meio de cultura BDA em que o fungo foi cultivado. Avaliaram-se o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a viabilidade do entomopatógeno. Plantas de citros, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram tratadas primeiramente com os produtos fitossanitários e depois com o entomopatógeno. Avaliaram-se os tempos de exposição de 24 horas e de 7 e 14 dias. O fungo foi patogênico às ninfas de D. citri; a CL50 foi de 0,4x10(7 e a CL90 de 6,7x10(7 conidios mL-1, no décimo dia de avaliação. Em laboratório, os produtos fitosssanitários reduzem o crescimento do fungo. Em casa de vegetação, os produtos não afetam a sobrevivência do fungo nas plantas de citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs, and to check the compatibility of the fungus with phytosanitary products, and its persistence in citrus plants. Nymphs of D. citri were sprayed with B. bassiana in the concentrations 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 and 1x10(9 conidia mL-1 for lethal concentration determination. In order to evaluate the compatibility of the phytosanitary products with the fungus, neem extract and five insecticides of four different chemical groups were individually added to PDA culture medium, in which the fungus was cultivated. Vegetative growth, sporulation and viability

  19. Definition,Classification and Evolution of Environmental Regulations%环境规制的界定、分类与演进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉民; 朱方明; 贺立龙

    2009-01-01

    受Chipko运动启发,本文对环境规制的内涵做了重新界定.基于这一界定,将环境规制分为显性环境规制和隐性环境规制,其中,显性环境规制又分为命令控制型环境规制、以市场为基础的激励性环境规制和自愿性环境规制;分析了不同类型环境规制的内涵与特征等,着重提出了隐性环境规制这一全新范畴,并对其涵义、生成与作用模式进行了初步的研究;从规制主体、规制对象、规制成本和效率等方面探讨了不同环境规制闻的联系与区别;研究了环境规制的演变过程.本文的意义在于,对政府而言,对隐性环境规制的探索,可能扩大了政府环保策略的选择与运用空间;对企业来说,则打开了长期为人们所忽略的一个"环境规制黑箱",丰富了人们对企业环境决策变量的认识,为改善和优化企业的环境决策提供了理论基础.%Inspired by the Chipko Movement, this article redefines the meaning of environmental regulations; based on this, environmental regulations are divided into dominant and recessive environmental regulations, in which dominant environmental regulations are also divided into command control environmental regulations, market-based incentive environmental regulations and voluntary environmental regulations. The article analyzes the content and the features of different types of environmental regulations, puts forward a new concept-recessive environmental regulations, and makes a preliminary study of its meaning, formation and function-patterns. It also studies the relations and distraction of different environmental regulations from the regulatory main body, regulatory object, regulatory costs and efficiency, etc., and studies the evolution of environmental regulations. The significance of this article lies in that, to government, exploring the recessive environmental regulations may expand the space of government choosing and applying environmental strategies; to

  20. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new

  1. Interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    As the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is estimated to increase to 79.3 million units per year by 2020 (e.g., 40 million units were generated in 2010), there is strong motivation to effectively manage this fast-growing waste flow. Intensive work on management of ELVs is necessary in order to more successfully tackle this important environmental challenge. This paper proposes an interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations. The proposed model can incorporate various uncertainty information in the modeling process. The complex relationships between different ELV management sub-systems are successfully addressed. Particularly, the formulated model can help identify optimal patterns of procurement from multiple sources of ELV supply, production and inventory planning in multiple vehicle recycling factories, and allocation of sorted material flows to multiple final destinations under rigorous environmental regulations. A case study is conducted in order to demonstrate the potentials and applicability of the proposed model. Various constraint-violation probability levels are examined in detail. Influences of parameter uncertainty on model solutions are thoroughly investigated. Useful solutions for the management of ELVs are obtained under different probabilities of violating system constraints. The formulated model is able to tackle a hard, uncertainty existing ELV management problem. The presented model has advantages in providing bases for determining long-term ELV management plans with desired compromises between economic efficiency of vehicle recycling system and system-reliability considerations. The results are helpful for supporting generation and improvement of ELV management plans. PMID:27039124

  2. Interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    As the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) is estimated to increase to 79.3 million units per year by 2020 (e.g., 40 million units were generated in 2010), there is strong motivation to effectively manage this fast-growing waste flow. Intensive work on management of ELVs is necessary in order to more successfully tackle this important environmental challenge. This paper proposes an interval-parameter chance-constraint programming model for end-of-life vehicles management under rigorous environmental regulations. The proposed model can incorporate various uncertainty information in the modeling process. The complex relationships between different ELV management sub-systems are successfully addressed. Particularly, the formulated model can help identify optimal patterns of procurement from multiple sources of ELV supply, production and inventory planning in multiple vehicle recycling factories, and allocation of sorted material flows to multiple final destinations under rigorous environmental regulations. A case study is conducted in order to demonstrate the potentials and applicability of the proposed model. Various constraint-violation probability levels are examined in detail. Influences of parameter uncertainty on model solutions are thoroughly investigated. Useful solutions for the management of ELVs are obtained under different probabilities of violating system constraints. The formulated model is able to tackle a hard, uncertainty existing ELV management problem. The presented model has advantages in providing bases for determining long-term ELV management plans with desired compromises between economic efficiency of vehicle recycling system and system-reliability considerations. The results are helpful for supporting generation and improvement of ELV management plans.

  3. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO{sub 2} taxation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G. [The Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} abatement. A `grandfather` permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO{sub 2} tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO{sub 2} taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO{sub 2} tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO{sub 2} market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs.

  4. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO2 abatement. A 'grandfather' permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO2 tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO2 taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO2 tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO2 market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs

  5. Environmental oxygen tension regulates the energy metabolism and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Forristal, Catherine E; David R. Christensen; Chinnery, Fay E.; Raffaella Petruzzelli; Parry, Kate L.; Tilman Sanchez-Elsner; Franchesca D. Houghton

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is intrinsic to cell viability but surprisingly has been little studied in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The current study aims to investigate the effect of environmental O2 tension on carbohydrate utilisation of hESCs. Highly pluripotent hESCs cultured at 5% O2 consumed significantly more glucose, less pyruvate and produced more lactate compared to those maintained at 20% O2. Moreover, hESCs cultured at atmospheric O2 levels expressed significantly less OCT4, SOX2 and...

  6. Regulatory gaps, conflicts, and overlaps in the regulation of environmental releases from nuclear facilities. Task Assignment 6. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulation of the nuclear fuel cycle is a highly balkanized process, divided primarily among the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The nuclear fuel cycle for a typical light-water reactor consists of five discrete stages: (1) material mining and milling; (2) fuel conversion, enrichment, and fabrication; (3) power production; (4) spent fuel reprocessing; and (5) radioactive waste disposal. The major federal acts regulating facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle include: (1) the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), as amended; (2) the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; (3) the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980; (4) the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and (5) the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974. Because two or more federal agencies play a role in almost every stage of the cycle, there is considerable potential for regulatory overlaps and conflicts in the regulation of routine (federally permitted) releases from nuclear facilities. Surprisingly, there are also gaps in the regulatory process. These gaps, overlaps, and conflicts are discussed

  7. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  8. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  9. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam M. R. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus ochraceus, were tested against worker ants in the laboratory. The two species were highly virulent, achieving 50 percent worker mortality within 4-5 days. It is the first time A. ochraceus, a commonly found fungal species, is reported to infect Atta species at a high prevalence. Possible uses for the fungus within biological control are discussed.

  10. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai infesting papaya seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.

  11. Use of Beauveria bassiana to control northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) on roosters in an agricultural research facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassette, Matthew S W; Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Wahl, Tina; Berres, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Treatment of Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on poultry in research facilities can be challenging. The mite has a rapid reproductive cycle (egg to adult in 5 to 7 d), and chemical treatments can be toxic to birds, personnel, and the environment. In addition, antimite treatment may interfere with experimental research designs. The current study evaluated the efficacy of topical application of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the treatment of a naturally occurring infestation of Northern fowl mites in pen-housed roosters (n = 14; age, 18 mo). Two groups of 7 roosters each were used in 2 experiments: Beauveria (30 mL, 2.9 × 10(10) spores per bird) compared with water (30 mL, control), and Beauveria compared with the common topical organophosphate agent tetrachlorvinphos-dichlorvos (30 mL). We also assessed a higher dose of Beauveria (300 mL, 2.9 × 10(11) spores per bird) in the 7 birds that were not exposed to tetrachlorvinphos-dichlorvos. Beauveria reduced mite levels relative to the control group but did not outperform tetrachlorvinphos-dichlorvos when used at an equal volume and frequency. Increasing the volume and frequency of Beauveria application improved outcomes such that visual inspection failed to detect any mites. The results presented here suggest that, when applied in sufficient doses, Beauveria effectively reduces mites on poultry and can be an important part of an integrated pest management program. Additional research is needed to document the most effective dose, frequency, and location of B. bassiana application to control Northern fowl mites in poultry. PMID:22330786

  12. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  13. Differential contributions of five ABC transporters to mutidrug resistance, antioxidion and virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) confers agrochemical compatibility to fungal cells-based mycoinsecticdes but mechanisms involved in MDR remain poorly understood for entomopathogenic fungi, which have been widely applied as biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. Here we characterized the functions of five ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which were classified to the subfamilies ABC-B (Mdr1), ABC-C (Mrp1) and ABC-G (Pdr1, Pdr2 and Pdr5) and selected from 54 full-size ABC proteins of Beauveria bassiana based on their main domain architecture, membrane topology and transcriptional responses to three antifungal inducers. Disruption of each transporter gene resulted in significant reduction in resistance to four to six of eight fungicides or antifungal drugs tested due to their differences in structure and function. Compared with wild-type and complemented (control) strains, disruption mutants of all the five transporter genes became significantly less tolerant to the oxidants menadione and H₂O₂ based on 22-41% and 10-31% reductions of their effective concentrations required for the suppression of 50% colony growth at 25°C. Under a standardized spray, the killing actions of ΔPdr5 and ΔMrp1 mutants against Spodoptera litura second-instar larvae were delayed by 59% and 33% respectively. However, no significant virulence change was observed in three other delta mutants. Taken together, the examined five ABC transporters contribute differentially to not only the fungal MDR but antioxidant capability, a phenotype rarely associated with ABC efflux pumps in previous reports; at least some of them are required for the full virulence of B. bassiana, thereby affecting the fungal biocontrol potential. Our results indicate that ABC pump-dependent MDR mechanisms exist in entomopathogenic fungi as do in yeasts and human and plant pathogenic fungi.

  14. Differential contributions of five ABC transporters to mutidrug resistance, antioxidion and virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Song

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR confers agrochemical compatibility to fungal cells-based mycoinsecticdes but mechanisms involved in MDR remain poorly understood for entomopathogenic fungi, which have been widely applied as biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. Here we characterized the functions of five ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, which were classified to the subfamilies ABC-B (Mdr1, ABC-C (Mrp1 and ABC-G (Pdr1, Pdr2 and Pdr5 and selected from 54 full-size ABC proteins of Beauveria bassiana based on their main domain architecture, membrane topology and transcriptional responses to three antifungal inducers. Disruption of each transporter gene resulted in significant reduction in resistance to four to six of eight fungicides or antifungal drugs tested due to their differences in structure and function. Compared with wild-type and complemented (control strains, disruption mutants of all the five transporter genes became significantly less tolerant to the oxidants menadione and H₂O₂ based on 22-41% and 10-31% reductions of their effective concentrations required for the suppression of 50% colony growth at 25°C. Under a standardized spray, the killing actions of ΔPdr5 and ΔMrp1 mutants against Spodoptera litura second-instar larvae were delayed by 59% and 33% respectively. However, no significant virulence change was observed in three other delta mutants. Taken together, the examined five ABC transporters contribute differentially to not only the fungal MDR but antioxidant capability, a phenotype rarely associated with ABC efflux pumps in previous reports; at least some of them are required for the full virulence of B. bassiana, thereby affecting the fungal biocontrol potential. Our results indicate that ABC pump-dependent MDR mechanisms exist in entomopathogenic fungi as do in yeasts and human and plant pathogenic fungi.

  15. Characterization of T-DNA insertion mutants with decreased virulence in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sihyeon; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Yu, Jeong Seon; Lee, Mi Rong; Yang, Yi-Ting; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a major agricultural pest that reduces crop quality and value. Chemical pesticides have contributed to pest management, but resistance to these chemicals has significantly limited their use. Alternative strategies with different modes of action, such as entomopathogenic fungi, are therefore of great interest. Herein, we explored how entomopathogenic fungi can potentially be used to control the bean bug and focused on identifying virulence-related genes. Beauveria bassiana (JEF isolates) were assayed against bean bugs under laboratory conditions. One isolate, JEF-007, showed >80 % virulence by both spray and contact exposure methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) of JEF-007 generated 249 random transformants, two of which (B1-06 and C1-49) showed significantly reduced virulence against Tenebrio molitor and R. pedestris immatures. Both species were used for rapid screening of virulence-reduced mutants. The two transformants had different morphologies, conidial production, and thermotolerance than the wild type. To determine the localization of the randomly inserted T-DNA, thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR was conducted and analysis of the two clones found multiple T-DNA insertions (two in B1-06 and three in C1-49). Genes encoding complex I intermediate-associated protein 30 (CIA30) and the autophagy protein (Atg22) were possibly disrupted by the T-DNA insertion and might be involved in the virulence. This work provides a strong platform for future functional genetic studies of bean bug-pathogenic B. bassiana. The genes putatively involved in fungal virulence should be experimentally validated by knockdown in future studies. PMID:27470140

  16. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic...... pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23-64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. RESULTS: Moderate to high...... contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated...

  17. Modelling the interactions between regional farming structure, nitrogen losses and environmental regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happe, Kathrin; Hutchings, Nick; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the structure of agriculture are known to affect emissions of environmental pollutants from agriculture. Such changes are often driven by structural changes in agricultural production, so structural changes are likely to have indirect effects on emissions. In a pilot study, we consider...... how linking two complementary simulation models might be used to explore these effects. The agent-based AgriPoliS model was used to simulate the structural dynamics of agricultural production. The results from AgriPoliS were passed via a number of intermediate models to the Farm-N model, which...... by one livestock unit. Substantial changes in the structure of agricultural production were shown for both scenarios. The effect on the regional nitrogen surpluses was predicted to differ between scenarios and the contribution of the different farm types to change with time. Predicted ammonia emission...

  18. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute......How should green taxation be designed? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be...... financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, we demonstrate how green taxation can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry....

  19. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα(-/-) mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα(-/-) mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα(-/-)-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα(-/-) mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  20. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα−/− mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα−/− mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα−/−-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα−/− mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  1. Categorizing Mistaken False Positives in Regulation of Human and Environmental Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Krayer von Krauss, Martin Paul; Tickner, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    definition of a regulatory false positive, and seeks to identify case studies that can be considered authentic regulatory false positives. Through a comprehensive review of the science policy literature for proclaimed false positives and interviews with authorities on regulation and the precautionary...... principle we identified 88 cases. Following a detailed analysis of these cases, we found that few of the cases mentioned in the literature can be considered to be authentic false positives. As a result, we have developed a number of different categories for these cases of "mistaken false positives...... four cases that could be defined as regulatory false positives in the light of today's knowledge and recognized uncertainty: the Southern Corn Leaf Blight, the Swine Flu, Saccharin, and Food Irradiation in relation to consumer health. We conclude that concerns about false positives do not represent...

  2. Conidia production by Beauveria bassiana (for the biocontrol of a diamondback moth) during solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S W; Lee, S H; Yoon, C S; Kim, S W

    2005-01-01

    Conidia of Beauveria bassiana CS-1, which have the potential for the control of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a packed-bed bioreactor with rice straw and wheat bran. As the packing density and the bed height were increased, the production of conidia decreased. In a packed-bed bioreactor under no aeration and no addition of polypropylene (PP) foam (control), the total average of conidia was 4.9 x 10(8) g-1. The production of conidia was affected more by the addition of PP foam as an inert support than forced aeration and was approx. 23 times higher than that of the control. The total average of conidia produced by B. bassiana was 1.1-1.2 x 10(10) g-1 .

  3. Conidia production by Beauveria bassiana (for the biocontrol of a diamondback moth) during solid-state fermentation in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S W; Lee, S H; Yoon, C S; Kim, S W

    2005-01-01

    Conidia of Beauveria bassiana CS-1, which have the potential for the control of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a packed-bed bioreactor with rice straw and wheat bran. As the packing density and the bed height were increased, the production of conidia decreased. In a packed-bed bioreactor under no aeration and no addition of polypropylene (PP) foam (control), the total average of conidia was 4.9 x 10(8) g-1. The production of conidia was affected more by the addition of PP foam as an inert support than forced aeration and was approx. 23 times higher than that of the control. The total average of conidia produced by B. bassiana was 1.1-1.2 x 10(10) g-1 . PMID:15703878

  4. Study of increasing spore content of Beauveria bassiana%提高白僵菌孢子含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 陈荣; 孙惠杰

    2001-01-01

    Adding some protein of Antheraea pernyi pupae as the replacement of powder of bean cake and meize flour into Beauveria bassiana raw material and culturing solid in three degrees in iron plate can significantly increase the spores content of Beauveria bassiana,reduce the cost and raise the effect.%在生产白僵菌的原料中,加入一定量的柞蚕蛹蛋白代替豆饼粉或玉米粉,采用铁盘三级固体培养,可显著提高白僵菌的含孢量、缩短生产周期、降低成本、提高对害虫的杀伤速率和效果。

  5. 温度对球孢白僵菌生物学特性的影响%Effects of Temperature on the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁楠

    2013-01-01

      研究了不同温度对球孢白僵菌生长的影响,结果表明在22~26益温度范围内球孢白僵菌落个数随温度的升高而逐渐增多,在26益时达到最大。随后随着温度的升高菌落个数逐渐降低。%This paper researched the influence of different temperatures,The results showed that the Beauveria bassiana colony di-ameter increased with temperature increasing at range of 22~26℃.At 26℃ the colony diameter were the biggest.then the Beauve-ria bassiana colony diameter decreased with temperature decreased.

  6. Experiment of Beauveria bassiana Against Dung Beetles in Sugarcane%白僵菌防治甘蔗金龟子试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶; 张会华; 杨晓丽; 何文志; 罗志明

    2012-01-01

    Experiment of Beauveria bassiana was conducted to control Dung beetles in sugarcane. The results indicated that con- trol effect could be 75% to 85% while applying Beauveria bassiana mixed up with 3.6% of Bisultap granular, which is obviously or significant greatly superior to this agent alone or other pesticides use.%试验结果表明,白僵菌与3.6%广谱型杀虫双颗粒剂混合施用,能有效控制金龟子幼虫对蔗根的危害,相对防效迭75%~85%,显著或极显著优于单独使用白僵菌或农药处理。

  7. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  8. 应用白僵菌防治玉米螟的研究进展%Research Progress of Prevention and Controlling Corn Borer by Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晴; 佘花娣; 佟文悦

    2013-01-01

    The damage characteristics of corn borer, biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of Beauveria bassiana were introduced briefly.The present situation, problems and corresponding measures of prevention and controlling corn borer using Beauveria bassiana were summarized, and the new direction was discussed so as to promote the corn safety production and improve the control efficiency of corn borer.%简要介绍了玉米螟的为害特点以及白僵菌的生物学特性、致病机理,对利用白僵菌防治玉米螟的现状、存在问题及相应措施进行了阐述,并对防治玉米螟的新方向进行了展望,以促进玉米安全生产和提高玉米螟的防治效率。

  9. Evaluation of the pathogenicity of multiple isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) for the assessment of a solid formulation under simulated field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ricaño, Jorge; Güerri Agulló, Berenice; Serna Sarriás, María José; Rubio Llorca, Germán; Asensio Berbegal, Leticia; Barranco, Pablo; López Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2013-01-01

    A solid state formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin has been developed for biological control of the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790). Two kinds of bioassays (dry conidia and dipping) using 10 isolates from several coleopterans in Mediterranean environments, identified 2 RPW derived isolates (193 and 203) as most pathogenic to RPW larvae and adults (zero survival within first 4–5 d for dry conidia, and 14 and 23 d for dipping bioassays). Isolate...

  10. 森得保与白僵菌防治刚竹毒蛾对比试验%Effects of Sendebao and Beauveria Bassiana on Controlling Pantana phyllostachysae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹祖仁; 陈锡桓; 张龙华; 张登强; 叶春珍

    2009-01-01

    采用森得保和白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)两种生物农药在林间对刚竹毒蛾(Pantana phyllostachysae Chao)3~4龄幼虫进行防治对比试验,结果表明,防治效果分别为94.6%和59.4%,前者极显著高于后者.

  11. An attempt to use the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in forest protection against the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki Wojciech; Kosibowicz Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus ...

  12. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  13. Environmental protection of uranium mines and mills in India: regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining and milling involves mining of the uranium ore from underground or open cast mine and chemically processing of the mined out ore to recover the uranium values. The storage of excavated waste rock, the disposal of radium containing mine water to water bodies, the venting out of radon containing mine exhaust to the open atmosphere constitute the environmental radiological hazards from a uranium mine. After chemical processing of the ore in a mill, the bulk of the radioactivity originally present in the ore along with the added chemicals finds its way in the mill tailings. Therefore, it warrants adequate safety measures for protection of the environment from the adverse effects of chemicals and radioactivity. These safety aspects of the uranium mines and mills and the impact on the environment are reviewed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), the national regulatory body of India. This paper discusses the regulatory framework, regulatory issues associated with uranium mines and mills and the safety stipulations laid down during the consenting process of the new projects so that the environment around uranium mine and mill is adequately protected. (author)

  14. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugbjerg, C.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2001-07-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  15. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments

  16. The environmental regulation of maturation in goldfish, Carassius auratus: effects of various LED light spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-02-01

    While there have been a number of studies on the effects of photoperiod and duration of light and dark exposure, much less information is available on the importance of light intensity. This study investigated the effects of exposure of goldfish, Carassius auratus exposed to white fluorescent bulbs, and red (peak at 630nm), and green (530nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at approximately 0.9W/m(2) (12-h light:12-h dark) for four months on a number of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of native GnRH molecules (gonadotropin-releasing hormones; salmon GnRH, sGnRH; and chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II), gonadotropin hormones (GTHα; follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH-β; luteinizing hormone, LH-β2), kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) mRNA levels. Furthermore, we measured LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in plasma and we performed gonad histological observations. GnRHs, Kiss1, GPR54 and GTH mRNA and plasma LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in the in vivo and in vitro groups exposed to green LEDs were significantly higher than the other groups. Histological analysis revealed the presence of oocytes in the yolk stage in fish exposed to green light. These results suggest that green wavelengths regulate the HPG axis and enhance sexual maturation in goldfish. PMID:24239668

  17. The regulation of the SARK promoter activity by hormones and environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Carla A; Cohen, Yuval; Liu, Li; Peleg, Zvi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The Senescence Associated Receptor Protein Kinase (P(SARK)) promoter, fused to isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene has been shown to promote drought tolerance in crops. We dissected P(SARK) in order to understand the various elements associated with its activation and suppression. The activity of P(SARK) was higher in mature and early senescing leaves, and abiotic stress induced its activity in mature leaves. Bioinformatics analysis suggests the interactions of multiple cis-acting elements in the control of P(SARK) activity. In vitro gel shift assays and yeast one hybrid system revealed interactions of P(SARK) with transcription factors related to abscisic acid and cytokinin response. Deletion analysis of P(SARK), fused to GUS-reporter gene was used to identify specific regions regulating transcription under senescence or during drought stress. Effects of exogenous hormonal treatments were characterized in entire plants and in leaf disk assays, and regions responsive to various hormones were defined. Our results indicate a complex interaction of plant hormones and additional factors modulating P(SARK) activity under stress resulting in a transient induction of expression.

  18. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON PATHOGENICITY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALSAMO VUILLEMIN TO THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER, OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HBN. (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cagán

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of ultraviolet (UV light on the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn., and radial growth of fungus was studied in laboratory conditions. The suspensions of B. bassiana isolate SK99 were exposed to UV light. Four different doses of UV light were used in the experiment. The distance between exposed suspensions and UV light source was 0.3 m. Exposure duration was 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes (as A, B, C and D variants. Control variant SK99 and obtained variants SK99A, SK99B, SK99C and SK99D were cultivated 21 days on Sabourard-dextrose agar. The larvae of O. nubilalis were infected with dry powder consisted of mycelia and spores from fungus cultures. During 10 days, the mortality of infected larvae was evaluated. It was ascertained that UV light exposition significantly influenced the mortality effect of B. bassiana isolates to O. nubilalis larvae. Variant SK99C showed the highest level of infectivity. Radial growth of UV variants was slower with rising time of exposure. The best ability to grow possessed non-irradiated isolate SK99 and the worse variant SK99D. The difference between these two variants was significant.

  20. Quantitative Measurement of Histone Tail Acetylation Reveals Stage-Specific Regulation and Response to Environmental Changes during Drosophila Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Ryan A; Singh, Tanu; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Biester, Alison; O'Keefe, Abigail; Lee, Sandy; Andrews, Andrew J; O'Reilly, Alana M

    2016-03-22

    Histone modification plays a major role in regulating gene transcription and ensuring the healthy development of an organism. Numerous studies have suggested that histones are dynamically modified during developmental events to control gene expression levels in a temporal and spatial manner. However, the study of histone acetylation dynamics using currently available techniques is hindered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring acetylation of the numerous potential sites of modification present in histones. Here, we present a methodology that allows us to combine mass spectrometry-based histone analysis with Drosophila developmental genetics. Using this system, we characterized histone acetylation patterns during multiple developmental stages of the fly. Additionally, we utilized this analysis to characterize how treatments with pharmacological agents or environmental changes such as γ-irradiation altered histone acetylation patterns. Strikingly, γ-irradiation dramatically increased the level of acetylation at H3K18, a site linked to DNA repair via nonhomologous end joining. In mutant fly strains deficient in DNA repair proteins, however, this increase in the level of H3K18 acetylation was lost. These results demonstrate the efficacy of our combined mass spectrometry system with a Drosophila model system and provide interesting insight into the changes in histone acetylation during development, as well as the effects of both pharmacological and environmental agents on global histone acetylation.

  1. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Concentrations of antibiotics predicted to select for resistant bacteria: Proposed limits for environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    There are concerns that selection pressure from antibiotics in the environment may accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there is currently no regulatory system that takes such risks into account. In part, this is due to limited knowledge of environmental concentrations that might exert selection for resistant bacteria. To experimentally determine minimal selective concentrations in complex microbial ecosystems for all antibiotics would involve considerable effort. In this work, our aim was to estimate upper boundaries for selective concentrations for all common antibiotics, based on the assumption that selective concentrations a priori need to be lower than those completely inhibiting growth. Data on Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for 111 antibiotics from the public EUCAST database. The 1% lowest observed MICs were identified, and to compensate for limited species coverage, predicted lowest MICs adjusted for the number of tested species were extrapolated through modeling. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection were then assessed using an assessment factor of 10 to account for differences between MICs and minimal selective concentrations. The resulting PNECs ranged from 8 ng/L to 64 μg/L. Furthermore, the link between taxonomic similarity between species and lowest MIC was weak. This work provides estimated upper boundaries for selective concentrations (lowest MICs) and PNECs for resistance selection for all common antibiotics. In most cases, PNECs for selection of resistance were below available PNECs for ecotoxicological effects. The generated PNECs can guide implementation of compound-specific emission limits that take into account risks for resistance promotion.

  3. After 'dieselgate': Regulations or economic incentives for a successful environmental policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2016-08-01

    In September 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that it started investigations against the automaker Volkswagen for illegally installing software that allowed some diesel-powered vehicle models to pass stringent emission tests for type-approval. Although generally prohibited, modern software makes it feasible for vehicles to detect an emission test and modulate engine operation or emission control accordingly. It has also been well known to experts worldwide - and readers of this Journal - that emission tests for motor vehicles are conducted with outdated test procedures which do not reflect today's actual driving conditions and enable automakers to exploit 'flexibilities' so as to yield artificially low emission results. For example, on-road carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of cars that entered the European market in 2014 were reportedly 40% higher than their formal test emissions, while this gap was less than 10% in the early 2000s (Tietge et al., 2015). In the case of health-related pollutant nitrogen oxides (NOx), this gap seems to be markedly higher, in particular for diesel-powered cars (Weiss et al., 2012) - whereas this does not seem to be a serious problem for other air pollutants. In internal combustion engines of motor vehicles there is still a trade-off between NOx emissions and fuel efficiency (and hence CO2 emissions): a fast combustion with high temperatures is optimal for maximum fuel efficiency and minimum CO2 emissions, whereas these conditions give rise to higher NOx emissions. Conversely, NOx control techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation reduce combustion temperature and often lead to lower fuel efficiency. In short, it becomes ever more difficult for internal combustion engines to meet the increasingly stringent legislated standards for some air pollutants and carbon dioxide at the same time. This increases the probability of applying legal and illegal defeat strategies.

  4. Phytohormonal Regulation of Biomass Allocation and Morphological and Physiological Traits of Leaves in Response to Environmental Changes in Polygonum cuspidatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Daisuke; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Plants plastically change their morphological and physiological traits in response to environmental changes, which are accompanied by changes in endogenous levels of phytohormones. Although roles of phytohormones in various aspects of plant growth and development were elucidated, their importance in the regulation of biomass allocation was not fully investigated. This study aimed to determine causal relationships among changes in biomass allocation, morphological and physiological traits, and endogenous levels of phytohormones such as gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) in response to environmental changes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Seedlings of P. cuspidatum were grown under two light intensities, each at three nitrogen availabilities. The seedlings grown in high light intensity and high nitrogen availability (HH) were subjected to three additional treatments: Defoliating half of the leaves (Def), transferral to low nitrogen availability (LowN), or low light intensity (LowL). Biomass allocation at the whole-plant level, morphological and physiological traits of each leaf, and endogenous levels of phytohormones in each leaf and shoot apex were measured. Age-dependent changes in leaf traits were also investigated. After the treatments, endogenous levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves significantly increased in Def, decreased in LowN, and did not change in LowL compared with HH seedlings. Among all of the seedlings, the levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves were strongly correlated with biomass allocation ratio between leaves and roots. The levels of GAs in the youngest leaves were highest, while the levels of CKs were almost consistent in each leaf. The levels of CKs were positively correlated with leaf nitrogen content in each leaf, whereas the levels of GAs were negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate content in each leaf. These results support our hypothesis that GAs and CKs are key regulatory factors that control biomass

  5. Phytohormonal Regulation of Biomass Allocation and Morphological and Physiological Traits of Leaves in Response to Environmental Changes in Polygonum cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Daisuke; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Plants plastically change their morphological and physiological traits in response to environmental changes, which are accompanied by changes in endogenous levels of phytohormones. Although roles of phytohormones in various aspects of plant growth and development were elucidated, their importance in the regulation of biomass allocation was not fully investigated. This study aimed to determine causal relationships among changes in biomass allocation, morphological and physiological traits, and endogenous levels of phytohormones such as gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) in response to environmental changes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Seedlings of P. cuspidatum were grown under two light intensities, each at three nitrogen availabilities. The seedlings grown in high light intensity and high nitrogen availability (HH) were subjected to three additional treatments: Defoliating half of the leaves (Def), transferral to low nitrogen availability (LowN), or low light intensity (LowL). Biomass allocation at the whole-plant level, morphological and physiological traits of each leaf, and endogenous levels of phytohormones in each leaf and shoot apex were measured. Age-dependent changes in leaf traits were also investigated. After the treatments, endogenous levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves significantly increased in Def, decreased in LowN, and did not change in LowL compared with HH seedlings. Among all of the seedlings, the levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves were strongly correlated with biomass allocation ratio between leaves and roots. The levels of GAs in the youngest leaves were highest, while the levels of CKs were almost consistent in each leaf. The levels of CKs were positively correlated with leaf nitrogen content in each leaf, whereas the levels of GAs were negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate content in each leaf. These results support our hypothesis that GAs and CKs are key regulatory factors that control biomass

  6. Environmental factors regulating cyanobacteria dominance and microcystin production in a subtropical lake within the Taihu watershed, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-min NI; Jian-ying ZHANG; Teng-da DING; R. Jan STEVENSON; Yin-mei ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the pattern ofphytoplankton and their dependence on water quality variables,can help the management of eutrophic lakes.The aim of this study was to determine water quality and environmental factors associated with cyanobacteria dominance and microcystin production in Qingshan Lake,a subtropical lake located in the headwater of the Taihu watershed,China.Water samples collected monthly from 10 study sites in Qingshan Lake were analyzed for the species distributions of freshwater algae and physico-chemical parameters including total nitrogen (TN),ammonia (NH4+-N),nitrate (NO3 -N),total phosphorus (TP),and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) from June,2008 to May,2009.Qingshan Lake was found to be eutrophic,based on the calculated trophic state index (TSI).The average TN of 4.33 mg/L during the study period exceeded the Surface Water Quality Standards of China.TP was significantly correlated with relative abundance of cyanobacteria and Microcystis biovolume,indicating its important role in regulating cyanobacteria.Microcystis,Anabaena,and Oscillatoria were dominant cyanobacteria in Qingshan Lake from June to November,2008.Cyanobacteria dominance was regulated by water temperature and TP.Principal component analysis further indicated that microcystin production was most affected by water temperature,TP,and cyanobacteria biomass.Results suggest that the control of TP in summer can mitigate cyanobacteria dominance and microcystin production in Qingshan Lake,and close monitoring should be undertaken in summer.

  7. Bridging the gap between the gold mining industry and the environmental and societal degradation through regulation : a qualitative study for identifying contractual elements for a hypothetical regulation of the South African gold mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Joakim Bergan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an identification and analysis of the contractual elements, i.e. requirements, for a hypothetical regulation of the South African gold mining industry. The identification of contractual elements is based on their probability in contributing in reversing trends of environmental and societal degradation deriving from gold mining. Second, this thesis explores the potential for such a regulation to achieve these objectives in South Africa. Except from a few initiatives of ...

  8. The snowmobile and environmental quality: A report on social and environmental effects of the snowmobile with suggested policies for its regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to educate policy-makers on the environmental and social costs and benefits of snowmobiles. It concentrates on the environmental impact of...

  9. Can stakeholder partnerships in a civil regulated environmental practice, create sustainability? : The phenomenon of Forest Stewardship Council meets practice in Sveaskog and IKEA.

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Bo-Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Forest Stewardship council (FSC) is a good example of a civil regulated environmental labelling-initiative. It is also an arena for different organisations interesting in sustainable forestry to work and handle forestry issues. FSC has allowed many private initiatives to move ahead of poor national and international environmental legislation. Instead they have turned towards the market with consumer pressure and in co-operation with companies. The sustainable forestry initiative has become a ...

  10. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  11. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  12. Application Research on Mould Inhibitors Production of Beauveria bassiana%白僵菌生产中防霉剂的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪东; 舒燕; 邬里洋; 周映华; 王升平; 高书锋; 周小玲; 曾发娇

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of Beauveria bassiana vulnerable to mould contamination in solid culture, the corn borer Beauveria bassiana ABUV-3 and the pine caterpillars Beauveria bassiana DBUV-7 as for the tested strains, a series of studies of 40%Kejunling and other ifve kinds of mould inhibitors were conducted. The results showed that the ifve kinds of mould inhibitors on spores and bacteria of Mucor, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, green mould and Aspergillus lfavus all have inhibitory effect, in which the inhibitory effects, the 70% of soluble Junjuesha and Lvmeiba powder was the best; although the direct action of the 5 mould inhibitors will bring inhibited effect on the spore germination ofBeauveria bassiana, there was no inhibitory effect on spore production and germination by adding a certain amount of mould inhibitor when producing spore in solid culture. Therefore, it is suggested that in the process of production ofBeauveria bassiana, in solid culture medium added with 500 times liquid of 70% Junjuesha and Lvmeiba powder (equivalent dose for 2 mg / mL) to inhibit mould contamination.%为了解决白僵菌固体培养时易遭受霉菌污染问题,以玉米螟白僵菌ABUV–3和松毛虫白僵菌DBUV–7为供试菌株,对40%克菌灵等5种防霉剂进行了系列研究。结果表明:5种防霉剂对毛霉菌、木霉菌、根霉菌、绿霉菌和黄曲霉菌的孢子和菌体均有抑制作用,其中以70%菌绝杀可溶性和绿霉霸粉剂的抑制效果最好;虽然5种防霉剂直接作用时会对白僵菌的孢子萌发产生抑制作用,但在固体培养生产孢子时添加一定量的防霉剂,对孢子产量及其萌发并没有抑制作用。因此,建议在白僵菌生产过程中,在固体培养基中添加70%菌决杀和绿霉霸粉剂500倍液(折合剂量为2 mg/mL),用以抑制霉菌的污染。

  13. Estudio de las condiciones de mezclado en fermentador para la producción de blastosporas de Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Study of the mixing conditions in bioreactor for blastospores production of Beauveria bassiana.Resumen: Se caracterizaron tres fermentadores: New Brunswick M-19 de 14 litros, Applikon Biocontroller 1035 de 7 litros y New Brunswick Bioflo III de 7 litros, determinando el coeficiente volumétrico de transferencia de oxígeno (KLa, la retención de gas (RG y el tiempo de mezclado (tM. El fermentador New Brunswick Bioflo III tuvo los mejores valores con una relación de diámetro del impulsor/diámetro del tanque (DI/DT de 0.43, KLa = 9.5-208 h-1 y tM = 1.0-3.0 s, por lo que fue seleccionado para realizar la producción de blastosporas de Beauveria bassiana, utilizando melaza como fuente de carbono. Se estudiaron las condiciones de mezclado, utilizando diferentes combinaciones de impulsores tipo Rushton, Maxflo y Lightnin, bajo un diseño experimental factorial 32. El tiempo de propagación fue de 4 días, el volumen de trabajo 4 litros, 10% de inóculo (1x106 blastosporas/ml, temperatura 30°C, agitación de 400-500 rpm, aireación de 0.5-1.0 vvm, y pH de 5.4.El hongo se desarrolló mejor utilizando la combinación de impulsores Rushton-Maxflo a 400 rpm y 1.0 vvm (F = 10.324, p £ 0.0123 (DMS=0.585, obteniendo una concentración de 1.2x109 blastosporas/ml, 2.2 g/l de biomasa y 2.48 g/l de consumo de sustrato (Y x/s=0.89. Las condiciones de mezclado y los parámetros obtenidos pueden ser aplicados en otros fermentadores para optimizar la producción de blastosporas de B. bassiana en la elaboración experimental de bioinsecticidas.Palabras clave: fermentación líquida, aireación, agitación, hongo entomopatógeno.Abstract: In this work three fermenters were characterized: New Brunswick M-19 of 14 liters, Biocontroller Applikon 1035 of 7 liters and New Brunswick Bioflo III of 7 liters, determining the volumetric coefficient of oxygen transfer (KLa, gas retention (GH and the mixing time (tM. The fermenter New Brunswick Bioflo III

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Bemisia tabaci nymphs infected with Beauveria bassiana%感染球孢白僵菌的烟粉虱若虫免疫应答转录组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登杰; 吴圣勇; 雷仲仁; 王海鸿

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] To screen the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) genes that respond to infection by Beauveria bassiana in order to further elaborate molecular mechanisms underlying the immune response to fungal infection. [Methods] High throughput sequencing technology was used in the transcriptome analysis of Bemisia tabaci 4th instar nymphs that were either infected, or uninfected (control), with B. bassiana. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their functions, classifications and signaling pathways were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. [Results] 232 554 non-redundant Unigenes were identified, among which N50 and N90 were 1 153 bp and 260 bp in length, respectively. The average length of all Unigenes were 674 24 bp. Among the 1 166 DEGs (P<0.05) identified, 474 were up-regulated and 692 were down-regulated, and 405 are known to be involved in insect immune response. The identified Unigenes were enriched in 156 biological processes (66 402 Unigenes), 89 cellular components (27 645 Unigenes) and 154 molecular functions (73 417 Unigenes) by GO analysis. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that 1 145 DEGs were mapped to 309 distinctive pathways, and were enriched in 76 pathways. [Conclusion] Four hundred and five genes that are possibly involved in the immune recognition and defense of whitefly nymphs against B. bassiana infection were sequenced. The results provide a bioinformatic data base for using entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control for whitefly.%【目的】筛选烟粉虱 Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)若虫应对白僵菌 Beauveria bassiana 侵染的应答基因,以进一步研究烟粉虱免疫反应的分子机制。【方法】采用新一代高通量测序技术对感染和非感染白僵菌的烟粉虱4龄若虫进行了测序分析,并筛选了差异表达基因;利用生物信息学工具对转录组测序得到的基因进行了功能注释、分类以及参与的信号通路展示。【结果】组装得到非冗余 Unigene 232554

  15. Impact of environmental chemicals on key transcription regulators and correlation to toxicity end points within EPA's ToxCast program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew T; Dix, David J; Judson, Richard S; Kavlock, Robert J; Reif, David M; Richard, Ann M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Romanov, Sergei; Medvedev, Alexander; Poltoratskaya, Natalia; Gambarian, Maria; Moeser, Matt; Makarov, Sergei S; Houck, Keith A

    2010-03-15

    Exposure to environmental chemicals adds to the burden of disease in humans and wildlife to a degree that is difficult to estimate and, thus, mitigate. The ability to assess the impact of existing chemicals for which little to no toxicity data are available or to foresee such effects during early stages of chemical development and use, and before potential exposure occurs, is a pressing need. However, the capacity of the current toxicity evaluation approaches to meet this demand is limited by low throughput and high costs. In the context of EPA's ToxCast project, we have evaluated a novel cellular biosensor system (Factorial (1) ) that enables rapid, high-content assessment of a compound's impact on gene regulatory networks. The Factorial biosensors combined libraries of cis- and trans-regulated transcription factor reporter constructs with a highly homogeneous method of detection enabling simultaneous evaluation of multiplexed transcription factor activities. Here, we demonstrate the application of the technology toward determining bioactivity profiles by quantitatively evaluating the effects of 309 environmental chemicals on 25 nuclear receptors and 48 transcription factor response elements. We demonstrate coherent transcription factor activity across nuclear receptors and their response elements and that Nrf2 activity, a marker of oxidative stress, is highly correlated to the overall promiscuity of a chemical. Additionally, as part of the ToxCast program, we identify molecular targets that associate with in vivo end points and represent modes of action that can serve as potential toxicity pathway biomarkers and inputs for predictive modeling of in vivo toxicity. PMID:20143881

  16. Energy-economy relationship and environmental regulation in the presence of unrecorded economy; Relation energie-economie et regulation environnementale en presence de l'economie non-enregistree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanfil, F.

    2008-12-15

    This PhD thesis including five manuscripts and a brief international comparison analysis proposes a multi-field study on the economic and environmental effects of energy consumption. It first investigates the causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in Turkey and then offers a new methodology for the estimation of unrecorded economy based on environmental data. The thesis develops also asymmetric information models, where the regulator does not know the true emission level of each firm that it wishes to regulate, so as to examine to what extend different enforcement mechanisms affect incentives for the firms to reduce polluting emissions and to invest in clean energy technologies. In order to provide a complete insight on the effects of both fiscal and environmental enforcement policies, some similar analysis are conducted taking into account the existence of unrecorded economy. The results in this thesis essentially show that: first, energy conservation policies can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without any adverse effect on the recorded economic activities; second, different audit mechanisms should be used depending on the environmental objective of the enforcement agency; third, in some cases, environmental regulations may increase the size of unrecorded economy; fourth, economic policies to combat unrecorded economy may not serve as a complement to energy conservation policies. (author)

  17. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  18. 白僵菌RAPD-PCR反应体系优化%RAPD-PCR Reaction System for Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓鹏; 李会平; 黄大庄; 唐秀光

    2012-01-01

    为了建立一套适宜于白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)退化研究的RAPD-PCR反应体系及反应程序,通过采用L16( 45)正交试验及退火温度和循环次数的单因素优化对反应体系中的各因素进行优化组合.结果表明:20μL PCR反应体系及反应程序中各因素优化组合为,10×Buffer 2 μL,MgCl2(25 mmol/L)2.4 μL,4种dNTP(各2.5mmol/L)0.8 μL,随机引物(10 μmol/L)1.4 μL,TaqDNA聚合酶(5 U/μL)0.4 μL,模板DNA( 10 mg/L)1 μL.反应条件为,94℃预变性2 min,94℃变性30 s,38℃退火40 s,72℃延伸1 min,循环次数40次,72℃延伸5 min.%An experiment was conducted to establish an optimal PCR (polymerase chain reaction) reaction system and procedure for the degradation of Beauveria bassiana. Single factor test and L16(45) orthogonal experiment were used to optimize the combination of factors for the reaction system. The optimum factor combination was obtained with 20 μL reaction volume containing 2 μL l0×Buffer, 2.4 μL MgCl2(25 mmol/L) , 0. 8 μL four types of dNTPs (each 2. 5 mmol/L) , 1.4μL random primer (10 μmol/L) , 0.4 μL Taq polymerase (5 U/ μL) , and 1 μL template DNA (10 mg/L). Reaction conditions were as follows; predenaturing at 94 degrees C for 2 min, followed by 40 cycles of denaturing at 94 degrees C for 30 s, annealing at 38 degrees C for 40 s, extension at 72 degrees C for 1 min, and final extension at 72 degrees C for 5 min.

  19. Investigating the need for regulation of the South African environmental control officer industry / Ruan Samson Colyn Mostert

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Ruan Samson Colyn

    2014-01-01

    Currently the entire South African industry of Environmental Control Officers (ECOs) is unregulated, yet ECOs have the important task of checking and verifying compliance to environmental regulatory and performance requirements. According to international best practice principles for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the process should be made credible through independent checks and verification (IAIA, 1999:3). According to the Environmental Impact Assessment Management St...

  20. Environmental law for environmental management. Compliance audits in the context of the regulations on environmental auditing. A guide to applicable regulations of the federal government and the state governments, with keyword references, for corporate environmental management and environmental auditing and reporting. 4. tot. new rev. ed.; Umweltrecht fuer Umweltmanagement. Die Einhaltung einschlaegiger Umweltvorschriften im Rahmen der Oeko-Audit-Verordnung. Aktuelle Rechtsvorschriften des Bundes und der Laender, erschlossen fuer die betriebliche Praxis und die Umweltbetriebspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, S. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This compilation, 'environmental law for environmental management', (URUM), is the 4th updated issue. Part I of the publication presents a list of all current regulations and administrative provisions of the German Federal Government and the Laender governments, relating to the entire system of environmental auditing of commercial and industrial enterprises. Part II is a keyword index with numbers, the numbers referring the user to all the legal provisions of relevance for his particular company for environmental reporting or auditing purposes. The keyword index is based on an exhaustive analysis of all legal provisions, for identification of the terminology used for specification of requirements according to types of facilities/plants, equipment, operating conditions and processes, materials and substances produced or used, and other operation-related terms and concepts, so that the reader finds his specific, selective guide to all relevant requirements and provisions. The compilation is an indispensable help and source of reference for any enterprise wishing to apply for certification in compliance with the Council Directive 1836/93 (EC), of June 1993, relating to voluntary participation of commercial or industrial enterprises in an EC-wide system for environmental management and environmental auditing (Environmental Audit Directive). (orig./CB) [German] Fuer diese Zusammenstellung 'Umweltrecht fuer Umweltmanagement' (URUM) wurden alle umweltrelevanten Rechts- und Verwaltungsvorschriften des Bundes und aller Bundeslaender auf Regelungen fuer Betriebsarten, Betriebseinrichtungen, Arbeitsverfahren, erzeugte oder verwendete Materialien und Stoffe und sonstige betriebsbezogene Nennungen durchgesehen und die entsprechenden Stichworte mit Hinweisen auf die jeweiligen Rechtsquellen zusammengestellt. Ausgehend von den tatsaechlichen Gegebenheiten des einzelnen Betriebes wird damit eine passgenaue Auflistung der zu beachtenden Vorschriften moeglich

  1. 玉米根际土球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Beauveria bassiana From Maize Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方新; 梅玉云; 张强; 齐永霞; 丁婷

    2016-01-01

    为明确虫生真菌在玉米根际的分布情况,通过选择性培养基对采自安徽省涡阳、萧县、蒙城3地的玉米根际土壤中的虫生真菌进行了分离,并结合形态特征及rDNA ITS序列分析对分离的菌株进行了鉴定.结果表明,从玉米根际土壤中共分离得到39个白僵菌菌株,经鉴定均为球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana),且不同菌株间的菌落生长速度和分生孢子产生量存在显著差异.本研究对丰富玉米地下害虫及土传病害的生物防治资源具有重要的意义.

  2. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. / Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari and the conidia grown on insect were used to prepare the inoculum containing 108conídia/mL. These conidia were inoculated at 1% (v/v in culture liquid medium containing D-glucose (10g, yeast extract (5g, NaNO3 (1,58g, Na2HPO4.7H2O (1,05g, KCl (1g, MgSO4.7H2O (0,6g and KH2PO4 (0,36g per liter. The cultivation was carried at 28°C and 180rpm during 5 days. Culture fluid was obtained by filtration and centrifugation at 8.000g, and the chitinases were isolated and concentrated by ultrafiltration using 10 and 100kDa cut off membranes under nitrogen pressure. Chitinase activity was detected and quantified using N-acetylglucosamine released by hydrolysis of colloidal chitin at 40 to 60ºC, at 50, 100 and 200 mM ionic concentrations of buffers sodium acetate (pH 4.0 to 6.0; sodium phosphate (pH 6.0 to 8.0; and Glycine-NaOH (pH 8.0 to 10.0 during 60 minutes. Maximum chitinase activity was at 45ºC and pH 5.5, and was also high at pH 6.0 and pH 8.5 using 50mM buffer. The chitinase activity increased and was stable during an hour at optimum conditions of the reaction, shown the stable nature of this enzyme.Beauveria bassiana é um fungo entomopatogênico utilizado no controle biológico de insetos-praga que infestam produtos agrícolas. O mecanismo de infecção envolve a produção de enzimas extracelulares, como proteases e quitinases que degradam a cutícula dos insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros cinéticos de pH, temperatura, concentração iônica e tempo de

  3. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana associado a gel polimerizado de celulose no controle do carrapato Anocentor nitens em teste de campo Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana associated with cellulose polymerized gel in the control of the tick Anocentor nitens in a field test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 20 equídeos naturalmente infestados por Anocentor nitens, dos quais seus pavilhões auriculares foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos distintos: gel associado a Beauveria bassiana, apenas gel, apenas B. bassiana e um grupo-controle. Procederam-se à contagem e ao registro do número total de fêmeas adultas (>3mm em cada pavilhão auricular, nos dias 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 e 28, para cálculo do percentual de controle. Foram coletadas e mantidas em laboratório 20 fêmeas pertencentes a cada tratamento, para cálculo dos períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação e eclosão, e peso médio das posturas. No grupo tratado com o composto gel associado a B. bassiana, observou-se percentual de controle maior que 50%, entre o 4º e o 25º dia, assim como decréscimo progressivo do peso médio da postura das fêmeas coletadas no período entre o 7º e 14º dia. Para os outros tratamentos, o percentual de controle manteve-se abaixo de 20%, e o peso da postura não apresentou diferença significativa. Os percentuais de controle, assim como as reduções no peso médio da postura, sugerem que a utilização do composto gel associado a B. bassiana potencializou a virulência do entomopatógeno.Twenty horses naturally infected by Anocentor nitens were selected and their auricular pinna were submitted to four treatments: gel associated with Beauveria bassiana, gel only, B. bassiana only, and a control group. The count and the register of the total number of grown up tick females (>3mm were performed in each auricular pinna on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 for the calculus of percentage of control. Twenty females from each treatment were collected and maintained in laboratory, to calculate the periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, and hatching and mean weight of oviposition. In the group treated with the gel associated to B. bassiana, it was observed a control percentage higher than 50% from the 4º

  4. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  5. Optimization of erythritol and glycerol accumulation in conidia of Beauveria bassiana by solid-state fermentation, using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarocco, Federico; Lecuona, Roberto E; Couto, Alicia S; Arcas, Jorge A

    2005-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are widely produced for use as mycoinsecticides. Therefore, improvement of the shelf life of fungal propagules under good and adverse conditions should be a pre-requisite of their production. In order to improve conidial physiology as well as mycoinsecticide efficiency, culture conditions may be varied. The Doehlert design was used to generate response surfaces with an estimation of the parameters of the quadratic model allowing the study of three different factors at a different number of levels. This experimental design was applied to optimize water activity (aw), pH, and fermentation time for Beauveria bassiana conidial production and accumulation of polyols in solid-state fermentation. Thus, it was possible to identify the region in the experimental range in which the optimum values of these parameters were simultaneously achieved. Maximal conidia production was achieved at pH 5-6 and aw=0.999. Under these conditions, polyol accumulation was 3 mg erythritol/g conidia and 29.6 mg glycerol/g conidia. However, maximal polyol accumulation was achieved at pH 4.5 and aw 0.950; erythritol production increased 33-fold and glycerol production 4.5-fold. Under these conditions conidia production was 1,000 times lower. The possibilities of increasing the quality of the biocontrol agent without neglecting yield are discussed. PMID:15731900

  6. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  7. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  8. Evaluación de un biorreactor de lecho empacado para el desarrollo del hongo Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Zapata Arley David

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación del biorreactor de lecho empacado para el desarrollo del hongo Beauveria bassiana se hizo con base en las variables temperatura y concentración de conidias, utilizando un sustrato sólido constituido por trigo entero. Se tomaron como parámetros de operación, la altura del lecho, el flujo de aire y la posición dentro del biorreactor, siendo el tiempo de fermentación un parámetro predeterminado que permitió monitorear las variables y comparar la productividad en el desarrollo del hongo. Se pudo observar, con ayuda de un diseño de experimentos factorial y una prueba de Tukey, que bajo ciertas condiciones de operación como una relación H/D = 0.9 (H: altura del lecho, D: diametro del biorreactor y un flujo de aire de 12.3 L/min, se incrementó significativamente la productividad del hongo con respecto al método tradicional de producción (botellas bajo la escala ensayada, siendo la posición un factor poco significativo en el proceso. Palabras clave: Fermentación en estado sólido, control biológico.

  9. mRNAs involved in copper homeostasis are regulated by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway depending on environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccarelli, Megan; Scott, Taylor D; Steele, Megan; Kebaara, Bessie W

    2016-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (NMD) is an mRNA degradation pathway that degrades mRNAs that prematurely terminate translation. These mRNAs include mRNAs with premature termination codons as well as many natural mRNAs. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a number of features have been shown to target natural mRNAs to NMD. However, the extent to which natural mRNAs from the same functional group are regulated by NMD and how environmental conditions influence this regulation is not known. Here, we examined mRNAs involved in copper homeostasis and are predicted to be sensitive to NMD. We found that the majority of these mRNAs have long 3'-UTRs that could target them for degradation by NMD. Analysis of one of these mRNAs, COX19, found that the long 3'-UTR contributes to regulation of this mRNA by NMD. Furthermore, we examined an additional mRNA, MAC1 under low copper conditions. We found that low copper growth conditions affect NMD sensitivity of the MAC1 mRNA demonstrating that sensitivity to NMD can be altered by environmental conditions. MAC1 is a copper sensitive transcription factor that regulates genes involved with high affinity copper transport. Our results expand our understanding of how NMD regulates mRNAs from the same functional group and how the environment influences this regulation.

  10. Serine proteases SP1 and SP13 mediate the melanization response of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, against entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Shen, Dongxu; Hong, Fang; Wang, Guirong; An, Chunju

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to entomopathogenic fungi is one approach for insect pest control. Little is known about the immune interactions between fungus and its insect host. Melanization is a prominent immune response in insects in defending against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Clip domain serine proteases in insect plasma have been implicated in the activation of prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the melanization. The relationship between host melanization and the infection by a fungus needs to be established. We report here that the injection of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana induced both melanin synthesis and phenoloxidase activity in its host insect, the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). qRT-PCR analysis showed several distinct patterns of expression of 13 clip-domain serine proteases in response to the challenge of fungi, with seven increased, two decreased, and four unchanged. Of special interest among these clip-domain serine protease genes are SP1 and SP13, the orthologs of Manduca sexta HP6 and PAP1 which are involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Recombinant O. furnacalis SP1 was found to activate proSP13 and induce the phenoloxidase activity in corn borer plasma. Additionally, SP13 was determined to directly cleave prophenoloxidase and therefore act as the prophenoloxidase activating protease. Our work thus reveals a biochemical mechanism in the melanization in corn borer associated with the challenge by B. bassiana injection. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the immune responses of Asian corn borer against B. bassiana. PMID:25900291

  11. Selection, assessment of virulence to Alphitobius diaperinus, and Pr1 enzyme production of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. isolates cultured at stress temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Christiane Constanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a promising agent for use in insect control. Its pathogenic activity, as well as other factors such as temperature that can interfere with its development, should be assessed, thus, establishing the foundations for B. bassiana use in biological control programs. The objective of this study was to select and induce tolerance of B. bassiana isolates to high and low temperatures and to assess their virulence before and after exposure to those temperatures. A pre-selection test was performed, in which the tolerance of isolates to stress temperatures was tested and compared to the ideal growth temperature of 25 °C for this organism. For the isolates/temperature combinations resulting in growth, conidia germination and colony-forming units (CFUs were assessed. The isolates Unioeste 4 and Unioeste 40 exhibited >95% germinated conidia at 16 and 31 °C. Thereafter, they underwent four consecutive passages at maximum and minimum tolerated temperatures (10 and 37 °C. A significant difference in germination was observed between the two isolates at all temperatures tested. More CFUs were observed for Unioeste 4 compared to Unioeste 40 at all temperatures, and in the case of the latter, there was no difference in CFU formation at 10 and 25 °C. For both isolates, decreased vegetative growth was observed at 37 °C. Recovery of virulence was observed in both isolates, as determined by insect mortality. No relationship was observed between production of the enzyme Pr1 and the virulence of the isolates.

  12. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  13. 白僵菌对烟蚜的致病性研究%Study on Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana on Tobacco Aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刚; 徐明勇; 钱凤英; 张西仲

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana on tobacco aphid. [ Method] The pathogenicity of four Beauveria bassiana (B-l ,B-2,B-3 and B-4)strains on the tobacco budworm was studied. [ Result] Different tested Beauveria bassiana strains had different levels of insecticidal effect on tobacco aphids. The corrected mortality of tobacco budworm treated by B-3 was more than 95% ; the mortality rates of conidia of B-l and B-2 strains against tobacco aphid were over 80% , and their hyphae also caused higher morbidity a-gainst tobacco aphid; metabolites of different strains of had a strong contact action against tobacco budworm, and all the mortality rates of metabolites of different strains against tobacco aphid were over 85% after 48 h treatment. [Conclusion] The research provides reference for further study on microbial control of tobacco aphid.%[目的]探讨白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)对烟蚜的致病性.[方法]以4株球孢白僵菌(B-1、B-2、B-3和B-4)为供试菌株,测定其对烟草蚜虫的致病性.[结果]受测的4株白僵菌菌株对烟草蚜虫均有不同程度的杀虫效果.其中,B-3处理烟草蚜虫的校正死亡率达到95%以上,B-1、B-2菌株的分生孢子处理烟草蚜虫的校正死亡率超过80%,其菌丝对蚜虫也有较高的致病率;4株菌株的代谢产物对烟草蚜虫均有较强的触杀作用,施用48 h后其烟草蚜虫的校正死亡率均超过85%.[结论]为烟草蚜虫的微生物防治研究提供了参考.

  14. Understanding environmental drivers in the regulation of soil respiration dynamics after fire in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, soil CO2 efflux, soil C, soil moisture, soil temperature Introduction Soil respiration (Rs) has become a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of these CO2 fluxes from soils (Van Groenigen et al., 2014). In addition to its importance in the global C cycle, Rs is a fundamental indicator of soil health and quality that reflects the level of microbial activity and provides an indication of the ability of soils to support plant growth (Oyonarte et al., 2012; Munoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Wildfires can have a significant impact on Rs rates, with the scale of the impact depending on environmental factors such as temperature and moisture, and organic C content in the soil. Vegetation cover can have a significant effect on regulating organic C contents; and while advances are made into understanding the effects of fire on organic C contents and CO2 fluxes (Granged et al., 2011; Willaarts et al., 2015; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016), there is limited knowledge of the variability of Rs across ecosystem types, vegetation communities, and responses to fire. In this research we aimed to assess the impacts of a wildfire on the soil CO2 fluxes and soil respiration in a semi-arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara biogeographical region), and to understand the main environmental drivers controlling these fluxes in different vegetation types. The study has application for other arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Methods The study area was selected following a wildfire that affected 25 ha in February 2014. Twelve plots were established in the burnt site (B) within a 400 m2 area, and 12 plots in an adjacent unburnt control site. At each site, three plots were installed below the canopy of each of the most representative vegetation types of the areas: Eucalyptus trees, Acacia shrubs and Triodia grasses, and three on bare soil. Soil sampling and measurement of soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were

  15. A Comparative Analysis between Environmental Protection (Waste Management Regulation 2000 and Bidhan Nagar Municipal Solid Waste Management to Propose a Realistic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Maity

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM of environmental protection (waste management regulation 2000 and Bidhan Nagar municipal corporation was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two model is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced to the involvement of the government sector, are also presented.

  16. Can individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental variables explain educational differences in vegetable consumption?: a cross-sectional study among Dutch adults

    OpenAIRE

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background Educational differences in health-related behaviors, where low- and moderate-educated individuals have poorer outcomes than high-educated individuals, are persistent. The reasons for these differences remain poorly understood. This study explored whether individual cognitions, self-regulation and environmental-level factors may explain educational differences in vegetable consumption. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,342 Dutch adults, of whom 54.5% were low/mod...

  17. A Comparative Analysis between Environmental Protection (Waste Management) Regulation 2000 and Bidhan Nagar Municipal Solid Waste Management to Propose a Realistic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Maity, S. K.; B. K. Bhattacharyay; BHATTACHARYYA, B.; Swapan Kumar Maity

    2012-01-01

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) of environmental protection (waste management) regulation 2000 and Bidhan Nagar municipal corporation was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two model is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced to the involvement of the...

  18. Nano Regulation in Austria (II): Workplace Safety, Industrial Law and Environmental Law (NanoTrust Dossier No. 019en – January 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Gazsó, André; Eisenberger, Iris; Nentwich, Michael; Simkó, Myrtill; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This dossier focuses on workplace safety, industrial law as well as on environmental law (water, air, soil, waste). These fields of law are likewise influenced by EU law and are very complex due to their interlocking with Austrian law. Discussion and conclusion refer to both dossiers on nano-regulation in Austria. They tentatively conclude that current legislation covers in principle nanotechnologies, especially in those cases where nano materials / nano products endanger legal interests. Exi...

  19. Public choice and environmental regulation: tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe. New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Svendsen provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the actual experience with systems of tradable permits for environmental management. Moreover, he puts this treatment in a public-choice framework so that we can understand why policy makers in Europe have chosen green taxes, while...

  20. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully “tank-mixed”. A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed.

  1. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom.

  2. Research on Corn Borer Prevention by Using Beauveria Bassiana Sealing Method%白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳广

    2014-01-01

    Corn borer is one of the main pests of maize crops. Using beauveria bassiana sealing method can decrease the quantity of corn borer larva. The article introduces the features and growing condition of corn borer, expounds the theory, methods, effects, considerations and advantages of using beauveria bassiana sealing method for corn borer prevention, provides a reference for the application and extension for the technique.%玉米螟是危害玉米作物的主要害虫之一,利用白僵菌可以有效减少玉米螟幼虫数量。介绍玉米螟的危害特点与发生条件,阐述白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟技术的原理、方法、效果、注意事项及优点,为该技术的推广应用提供参考。

  3. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  4. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions. PMID:16362818

  5. 外商直接投资如何影响中国工业环境规制%How Does FDI Influence China's Industrial Environmental Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪庆

    2015-01-01

    Based on the panel data from 28 provinces during 2002-2011,35 industrial sectors during 2002-2011,this article examines the impacts of FDI on industrial environmental regulation empirically. Research from the provinces show that,FDI significantly improve the industrial environmental regulation,the positive impact is mainly reflected in pollution treatment,the impact on pollution control investment is not obvious. Research from industrial show that, there is significant difference between the impacts of FDI on various pollution regulation indexes;moreover,through FDI spillover channels,the positive impacts from competitive effects,demonstration effects are more significant than the impacts from mobility effects;only industries' R&D investment, while foreign investment degree reaches a high level, the positive impact of FDI on industrial environmental regulation will be relatively significant. Therefore, how to optimize the utilization of foreign direct investment in order to enhance industrial environmental regulation is a important issue in our future foreign investment and environmental policy.%利用2002-2011年我国28个省区和2002-2011年35个工业行业的面板数据,实证考察了FDI对中国工业环境规制的影响. 省区研究表明,FDI显著提升了工业环境规制,但此种积极影响更多反映在治污处理方面,对治污投资的提升并不明显. 行业研究表明,FDI对不同污染处理规制的影响也存在显著差异,且FDI示范、竞争溢出的积极影响比人员流动溢出更加显著;只有当行业研发投入、外资进入度达到较高水平时,FDI对工业环境规制的积极影响才会比较显著. 因此,如何优化外资利用以提升工业环境规制水平,是未来我国制定外资和环保政策时应当考虑的重要问题.

  6. Morphological and Molecular Identification of aBeauveria bassiana Strain%一株球孢白僵菌的形态及分子生物学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达综; 高慧珊; 刘娜; 何洁明; 徐树兰; 郑常格; 吕思行

    2015-01-01

    利用PDA培养基,对收集自广东茂名的玉米螟(Pyrausta nubilalis)病原真菌(编号:Bba1菌株)进行分离培养。对 Bba1菌株的菌落形态、产孢结构和分生孢子形态、大小进行观察和测量,从形态学初步鉴定该菌株为球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana);同时对Bba1菌株的26,s rDNA和rDNA ITS区域进行序列分析,与NCBI数据库中球孢白僵菌的同源性达到99%,以上。最终判定来自玉米螟的病原真菌Bba1菌株为球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)。%A strain(No.Bba1)was isolated using PDA culture medium from the muscardine cadaver ofPyrausta nubilalis collected from Maoming in Guangdong Province.In this study,the colony morphology,spore structure,spore shape and size of Bba1 strain were observed and measured,and it was initially identified asBeauveria bassiana.At the same time,its 26,s rDNA and rDNA ITS were sequenced and then compared with those ofBeauveria bassiana in NCBI database.The re-sults showed the homology was above 99%,.Eventually,Bba1 strain was identified asBeauveria bassiana.

  7. Regulation of migration in Mythimna separata (Walker) in China: A review integrating environmental, physiological, hormonal, genetic, and molecular factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata, undertakes a seasonal, long-distance, multigeneration roundtrip migration between Southern and Northern China. The developmental decision to migrate is facultative and controlled by environmental, physiological, hormonal, genetic, and molecular fac...

  8. New Features on the Environmental Regulation of Metabolism Revealed by Modeling the Cellular Proteomic Adaptations Induced by Light, Carbon, and Inorganic Nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin, Stéphanie; Leprince, Pierre; Sluse, Francis E; Franck, Fabrice; Mathy, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate), and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium) in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE) enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays) into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle, and protein metabolism). The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon, and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview of the

  9. New Features on the Environmental Regulation of Metabolism Revealed by Modeling the Cellular Proteomic Adaptations Induced by Light, Carbon, and Inorganic Nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin, Stéphanie; Leprince, Pierre; Sluse, Francis E.; Franck, Fabrice; Mathy, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate), and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium) in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE) enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays) into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle, and protein metabolism). The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon, and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview of the

  10. New Features on the Environmental Regulation of Metabolism Revealed by Modeling the Cellular Proteomic Adaptations Induced by Light, Carbon, and Inorganic Nitrogen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérin, Stéphanie; Leprince, Pierre; Sluse, Francis E; Franck, Fabrice; Mathy, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are currently emerging to be very promising organisms for the production of biofuels and high-added value compounds. Understanding the influence of environmental alterations on their metabolism is a crucial issue. Light, carbon and nitrogen availability have been reported to induce important metabolic adaptations. So far, the influence of these variables has essentially been studied while varying only one or two environmental factors at the same time. The goal of the present work was to model the cellular proteomic adaptations of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii upon the simultaneous changes of light intensity, carbon concentrations (CO2 and acetate), and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (nitrate and ammonium) in the culture medium. Statistical design of experiments (DOE) enabled to define 32 culture conditions to be tested experimentally. Relative protein abundance was quantified by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Additional assays for respiration, photosynthesis, and lipid and pigment concentrations were also carried out. A hierarchical clustering survey enabled to partition biological variables (proteins + assays) into eight co-regulated clusters. In most cases, the biological variables partitioned in the same cluster had already been reported to participate to common biological functions (acetate assimilation, bioenergetic processes, light harvesting, Calvin cycle, and protein metabolism). The environmental regulation within each cluster was further characterized by a series of multivariate methods including principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions. This metadata analysis enabled to highlight the existence of a clear regulatory pattern for every cluster and to mathematically simulate the effects of light, carbon, and nitrogen. The influence of these environmental variables on cellular metabolism is described in details and thoroughly discussed. This work provides an overview of the

  11. Impact of new environmental and safety regulations on uranium exploration, mining, milling and management of its waste. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for health, safety and the environment has grown rapidly during the last two decades. Exploitation of any mineral commodity, including uranium, involves the modification of the surrounding environment. Appropriate regulations governing such activities can assure good practices and minimize possible negative impacts on the environment and the health and safety of the workers and the general public. During the past few years, a number of countries have promulgated new regulations related to uranium exploitation, mining, milling and the related waste management. Recent regulations are stricter in terms of environmental assessment, mitigation, radiation protection and control of waste. The impact of those regulations in developed countries has resulted in better planning of operations, improvement in mine and mill designs and a more efficient approach to tailings management. The Meeting was attended by 25 participants from 17 countries representing government organizations and private industry. This document includes 21 papers presented at the Meeting on new experiences in major uranium producing countries on the subject, past producers, as well as on country where regulations and related regulatory structure are still at the early evolutionary stage. Each of the papers was indexed separately

  12. 论区际环境关系及其调控%Discussion on Inter-regional Environmental Relationship and Its Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴明忠; 唐志刚; 王波; 王腊春

    2001-01-01

    The study on inter-regional environmental relationship isbecoming an important subject in the theoretical and practical fields of environmental science.Along with the development of productivity,environment is involved into social and economic life of human as a type of rare resource.Because distinct environmental interests exist in different partial regions,and some subjects of environmental interests (such as enterprise,company,etc.)in one region would bring external cost to other regions under the pressure of pursuing the maximum benefits,some profound changes must take place on the primitive and pure natural relationship among regions;Meanwhile,the new inter-regional environmental relationship will develop and establish.The authors think that the inter-regional environmental relationship is influenced by many factors,such as economy,law and administration,etc.So we should regulate and control inter-regional environmental relationship considering these factors,before we can build up a scientific,reasonable and fair environmental collaborating relationship among regions and realize the goals that environmental resources can be utilized intensively and environmental problems can be resolved systematically.%区际环境关系是环境科学理论和实践研究的重要课题。随着生产力的发展,环境作为一种稀缺资源纳入人类的经济生活和社会生活中,由于存在局部环境利益的差异,不同区域的环境利益主体在追求利益最大化的驱动下,势必把环境成本转嫁与其他区域,这就促使原始的纯粹的区际自然关系发生深刻变化,新的区际环境关系发育和建立。文章认为,区际环境关系受社会经济诸多因素的影响,应从经济、法律和行政等多方面着手调控区际环境关系,建立科学、合理、公平的区际环境协作关系,以实现环境资源的集约化使用和生态环境问题的系统整治。

  13. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  14. 环境规制、空间溢出与地区产业竞争力%Environmental Regulation, Spatial Spillover and Regional Industrial Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文普

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the influencing factors of industrial competitiveness,especially environmental regulation.It uses the data of large and medium industrial enterprises among the 30 provinces in China in the period 1999-2009.The paper estimates the relationship between industrial competitiveness and environmental regulation using non-spatial model and spatial Durbin model.The results find that the direct and spillover effects of pollution-controlling variable are-0.17 and 0.559 respectively,which are greatly significant.And its total effect is significantly positive.This indicates that environmental regulation has considerable positive spatial spillover,which is likely to induce environmental race to the bottom at regional level.If ignoring the pollution spillovers effects,it will greatly underestimate the role of environmental regulation.We also find that the direct effects of foreign direct investment,Scientific and technology personnel,and industrial scale on industrial competitiveness are significantly positive.And then we suggest that the government should speed up to perfect the system of environmental compensation:First,the central government should establish and improve the legislation of environmental compensation.Second,it should perfect the environmental compensation management system to coordinate and guide cross-province environmental compensation.Third,it should intensify the financial transfer concerning environment compensation.%利用1999-2009年中国30个省大中型工业企业数据,考察了产业竞争力的影响因素,特别是环境规制的影响.通过非空间模型和空间Durbin模型检验了产业竞争力和环境规制的关系.在空间模型中,估算了直接和溢出效应.结果发现,环境规制变量的直接和溢出效应分别为-0.17和0.559,且统计上高度显著,进而其总效应也显著为正.这表明,环境规制有较高的正的空间溢出效应,这似乎有可能引发地区间的环境竞次竞争行为

  15. Effective Regulations with Little Effect? The Antecedents of the Perceptions of Environmental Officials on Enforcement Effectiveness in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E.; Wong, Wilson Wai-Ho

    2006-09-01

    Enforcement gaps are an especially vexing problem in China due to pervasive “pro-growth” local government priorities, the weak administrative capacity of environmental agencies themselves, and relatively weak levels of societal support for a cleaner environment. This study seeks to examine this problem from the perspective of the local enforcement officials by empirically examining the relationships between these and other influences on their perceptions of enforcement effectiveness. Using samples of enforcement officials from the fast-growing cities of Chengdu, Dalian, and Guangzhou, this study finds that many of the more commonly cited problems related to regulatory enforcement were not as influential in accounting for variations in perceptions of enforcement effectiveness than the current literature might suggest. Moreover, this study also finds that the pattern of influences varies greatly across jurisdictions, with only the officials’ belief in the legitimacy of the governments’ policies being significant in all three samples. Strong influences on perceptions of enforcement effectiveness in two of the three samples include the environmental values of enforcement officials, their perceptions of organizational capacity for enforcement, and their assessment of government support for environmental protection. Although government support was found to be a strong predictor of enforcement effectiveness in two of the three samples, the influence of societal support had a somewhat mixed and more complicated effect. In addition, this study suggests that further improvements in enforcement effectiveness may be possible by cultivating or selecting enforcement officials with strong environmental values and beliefs in the legitimacy of the government’s environmental policy to take charge of enforcement. Because it is generally accepted that local environmental protection bureaus are generally upgrading their organizational capacity for improvement as the result of

  16. 生物防治白僵菌与家蚕病原白僵菌的生物学特性初步比较%A Preliminary Comparison on Biological Characteristics of Biocontrol Agent Beauveria bassiana and Silkworm Pathogen Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉平; 吕思行; 米红霞

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide experimental data for the source-tracking and control of white muscardine disease and for safety assessment of applying Beauveria bassiana insecticide in silkworm rearing areas, PDA medium and scanning electron microscopy were used for isolation, identification and observation of 2 biocontrol agents, namely B. bassiana strain Bb2 used for forest protection in Guangzhou City and B. bassiana strain Bb7 preserved in the South China Agricultural University, and of 3 B. bassiana isolates collected in Guangdong provincial silkworm rearing areas at Huazhou Silkworm Eggs Production Farm, Daqiao Village of Huazhou City, and Xiao Village of Wengyuan County, respectively. A prelimina ry comparison was conducted on the biological characteristics between the above5 strains. The results showed that there existed differences on the colonial morphology, vegetative growth, spore quantity and other biological characteristics of the 5 strains. Among them, strain Bb2 grew the fastest, and strains Bb8 and Bb13 had the highest spore quantities. The conidiospores from muscardine pupae infected by strains Bb8 and Bb14 were spherical or near-spherical under scanning electron microscope. Both of them belonged to [ Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ] The results also showed that there existed certain similarities in biological characteristics between the pathogens of silkworm white muscardine from some silkworm rearing areas and from biocontrol agent B. bassiana. Meanwhile, some diversity also existed in B. bassiana strains from the same silkworm rearing area. Therefore, it is implied that the source of white muscardine is rather complex, and further investigation is thus needed to ascertain whether the two biocontrol agents Bb2 and Bb7 belong to B. bassiana.%对广州市森林保护用生防白僵菌Bb2、华南农业大学保存生防用白僵菌Bb7以及收集自广东省化州蚕种场、化州市笪桥村、翁源县硝村等蚕区的3株家蚕白僵菌分离株(Bb8

  17. Ação in vitro dos fungos Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok sobre ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae In vitro action of the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok on ninphs and adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Reis

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a mortalidade in vitro de ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense frente à ação de isolados dos fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram avaliados três isolados de M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 e dois de B. bassiana (986 e 747. As suspensões de conídios foram preparadas a partir de fungos produzidos em meio de arroz, e cada bioensaio foi constituído de quatro tratamentos nas concentrações 10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conídios/ml e um grupo-controle. A análise constou da observação do percentual de mortalidade, 15 dias após o tratamento ou após a ecdise de adultos. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à mortalidade para todos os isolados e todos os instares. Nos grupos tratados houve aumento considerável na mortalidade à medida que se aumentava a concentração de conídios na suspensão. Conclui-se que todos os isolados testados causaram mortalidade em testes in vitro sobre esses estádios evolutivos, sugerindo o controle do A. cajennense pela ação desses fungos.This work aimed at the evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense nimphs and adults to isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi. Three isolates of M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 and two of B. bassiana (986 e 747 were used. Conidia suspensions were made from fungi grown up in a rice culture medium and each test consisted of four treated groups (10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conidia/ ml plus a control group. Viability of individuals was assessed 15 days after treatment or after adult ecdisis. Significative differences were found for all treatments and for all stages studied. A large reduction in the viability of ticks was observed, and this effect increased as conidia concentration raised. Based upon the results obtained, it can be concluded that all isolates tested presented an in vitro lethality for the biological stages of A. cajennense evaluated

  18. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampei)
    Identificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei))

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira; Diogo Maciel de Magalhães; Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos; Dalva Trevisan; Eliana Tiemi Ito; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Geni Silva Varéa; Jakeliny Akemi Yamamoto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei). Uma suspensão contendo 106 con...

  19. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho; Marcelo Elias Fraga; Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes; Carlos Alberto da Rocha Rosa

    2010-01-01

    As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para...

  20. Environmental Regulation, Spatial Effect and Environmental Efficiency%环境管制对中国工业环境效率影响的空间面板数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍俭

    2014-01-01

    Environmental regulation is a powerful tool of the government environmental protection , wheth-er to choose the better environmental efficiency mode of production depends not only on the enterprise in -ternal environmental management ability , but also depends on the power degree of government environ-mental regulation .This paper applies the SBM -Undesirable model to measure environmental efficiency in China from 2000 to 2010.Using the spatial linear panel model of 30 provinces and cities, this paper finds that the government environmental regulation has obvious spatial spillover effects , industrial environ-mental efficiency also presents a certain degree of spatial agglomeration , and the traditional estimations have underestimated this effect owing to not considering spatial correlation .Because the sewage collection system is not reasonable and “pollution haven effect” exist, to some extent, the present income of sewage fee reduces the efficiency of the industrial environment .Therefore, to promote coordinated development of regional economy , our country should pointedly establish the coordinated regional development policy based on regional space difference and should fully consider the impact of related industries on environ -mental efficiency to develop scientifically industry planning and to optimize the industrial layout , then to promote the good environmental cooperation mechanism among regions .%环境管制是政府环境保护的一种有力工具,企业是否选择更优的环境效率生产方式不仅仅取决于企业内部的环境管理能力,更取决于政府环境管制力度的大小。本文在采用SBM-Undesirable 模型测度了中国30个省(市)2000-2010年的工业环境效率后,借用空间面板回归模型发现,政府环境管制具有明显的空间溢出效应,工业环境效率也呈现一定程度上的空间集聚现象,传统的面板回归模型因没有考虑空间相关性而低估了这一作用。

  1. Impacts of proposed RCRA regulations and other related federal environmental regulations on fossil fuel-fired facilities: Final report, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    Estimation of the costs associated with implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for non-hazardous and hazardous material disposal in the utility industry are provided. These costs are based on engineering studies at a number of coal-fired power plants in which the costs for hazardous and non-hazardous disposal are compared to the costs developed for the current practice design for each utility. The relationship of the three costs is displayed. The emphasis of this study is on the determination of incremental costs rather than the absolute costs for each case (current practice, non-hazardous, or hazardous). For the purpose of this project, the hazardous design cost was determined for both minimum and maximum compliance.

  2. Patogenicidade de isolados de Beauveria bassiana para ovos, larvas e ninfas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolates towards eggs, larvae and engorged nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Prette

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a ação dos isolados JAB 07, CB 7 e AM 9 do fungo Beauveria bassiana para ovos, larvas e ninfas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Padronizou-se a concentração de 109 conídios mL-1 para cada isolado e por meio de diluições seriadas, obtiveram-se as suspensões com concentrações de 10(8 e 10(7con. mL-1. Preparou-se um bioensaio para cada fase do ciclo de vida do carrapato. Cada ensaio foi composto por 10 grupos tratamentos, formados por um isolado do fungo e uma concentração de conídios, e um grupo controle contendo apenas o veículo das suspensões. Os isolados do fungo, aplicados nas diferentes concentrações de esporos, causaram redução no percentual de eclosão de larvas oriundas de ovos infectados (0,7 a 12,1% de eclosão e no percentual de ecdise de larvas (4,7 a 33,7% de ecdise e ninfas (0 a 16,7% de ecdise. Não houve diferença entre os isolados (P>0,05 quanto à infecção de ovos, mas a aplicação de 109 con./mL de JAB 07 e AM 9 promoveu redução significativa da eclosão de larvas, em relação à concentração de 10(7con. mL-1. O isolado CB 7 foi o mais eficaz na redução do número de ecdises de larvas. Os isolados e as concentrações de conídios não diferiram (P>0,05 quanto à capacidade de redução do percentual de ecdise de ninfas, mas evidenciou-se intensa atividade patogênica do fungo.The aim of the present study was to determine the action of isolates JAB 07, CB 7 and AM 9 of the fungus Beauveria bassiana on eggs, larvae and engorged nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. A concentration of 109 conidia mL-1 was standardized for each isolate and suspensions containing 10(8 and 10(7 conidia mL-1 were obtained by serial dilution. A bioassay was prepared for each phase of the life cycle of the tick. Each assay comprised 10 treatment groups, consisting of one fungal isolate and one conidial concentration, and one control group containing only the vehicle of

  3. Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. spores production in biphasic process utilizing different liquid media/ Produção de esporos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. num processo bifásico utilizando diferentes meios líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Zorzetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic production techniques are developed with the objective of increasing productivity and reducing costs of the process. The objective of this study was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana biomass production in liquid media and conidiogenesis in a biphasic process. The liquid media were: CF (crysalid flour, PD (potato dextrose and CFPD (crysalid flour+potato+dextrose. The evaluation periods for biomass production were: 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. For production by biphasic process different quantities of liquid media (5, 10, 15 and 20 mL with different incubation periods (24, 48 and 72 hours, were added on the pre-cooked rice (200 g with conidia production evaluation after 10 days. CFPD media was the most productive biomass in all evaluated periods. In the biphasic process, bigger conidia production were attained when it was utilized fungi biomass produced in CF and CFPD (2.7 x 1012 and 2.8 x 1012 conidia/g of rice for rice inoculation. The quantities of 5, 15, 20 mL of liquid media, inoculated on the rice were not statistically different. The incubation periods of 24 and 48 hours of the fungus in the liquid media, gave bigger cionidiogenesis then 72 hours. The data show the necessity of carbon and nitrogen for biomass production in the liquid media and for conidiogenesis in the solid media. Also with these informations it was possible to optimize the biphasic process, adding 5 mL of the liquid media CFPD on the rice (200 g with 24 hours of incubation.Técnicas de produção de fungos entomopatogênicos são desenvolvidas buscando aumentar a produtividade desses patógenos e reduzir custos do processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa de Beauveria bassiana em meios líquidos e a conidiogênese no processo bifásico. Os meios líquidos testados foram: FC (farinha de crisálida, BD (batata+dextrose e FCBD (farinha de crisálida+batata+dextrose. Os períodos de avaliação da produção de biomassa foram

  4. REVIEW OF THE METHODS USED IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PROJECTS OF REGULATIONS ON DETERMINING THE USE OF WATER CONDITIONS IN WATER REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pyszny

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine what methods of assessment are used for the strategic environmental assessment, and what is the range of usage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in strategic environmental assessment of projects of regulations on determining the conditions for use of water in water regions in Poland. Based on the analysis it can be concluded that in most of the analyzed documents, the assessment criteria are not explicitly defined and not applying quantitative methods of forecasting the impact on the environment makes it impossible to compare the nature and primarily the scale of the impact on the individual components of the environment.Wider use of Geographic Information Systems in strategic environmental assessment is recommended, not only for data visualization but mainly for the use of tools helping to conduct spatial analysis and decision making. The results confirm that methods currently used in strategic environmental assessment are not sufficiently rewarding and provide technical and methodological challenge for experts working on their development. Solving the problem requires the development of more innovative and effective methods of evaluation.

  5. 球孢白僵菌液体制剂研究%The Study on A Liquid Preparation of Beauveria Bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱天辉; 杨世璋; 李远翔

    2001-01-01

    Effects of different media and fermentative conditions on the production of spores and cumulation of mycelial substence for Beauveria bassiana were studied by means of liquid fermentation. The results show that Beauveria bassiana does not produce blastospores on five media except for the medium (substitute code D) which contains 5% waste sugar, 1% corn abstract, and 0.1% K2HPO4, meanwhile, the D-medium, on which Beauveria bassiana grows well and produces bigger spores, is regarded as a ideal liquid carrier. The optimal fermentative conditions are as follows: temperature 25~30℃, pH6.0~7.0, Vibrating time 96hr, and not excess 1/6 flak volume as ventilation index.%通过液体发酵试验,研究了不同营养基质、不同发酵条件对球孢白僵菌液生分生孢子、芽孢子、干物质积累的影响,结果显示:在5种培养基中,除“糖蜜5%、玉米浸提液1%、K2HPO4 0.1%”(代号D)外,其它均不产生芽孢子,以D配方生物量最高,孢子较大,为本试验选出的液体制剂的理想载体,最佳发酵条件为温度25~30℃,pH6.0~7.0,通气量以瓶装培养液量为指标不超过1/6瓶装量,发酵时间以96小时为佳。白僵菌液体制剂的理想载体与最佳发酵条件的组合可使白僵菌液生分生孢子达2.5×1010左右,超过了目前四川固体发酵的生产水平。

  6. Container and waste pile standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste facilities: consolidated permit regulations--Environmental Protection Agency. Amendments to interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is today promulgating amendments to the hazardous waste management regulations regarding the management of hazardous waste in containers and piles and associated permit regulations (40 CFR Part 264, Subparts I and L, and Part 122, Subpart B). These amendments better tailor the standards to the particular type of hazard posed by specific situations. The standards for containers are amended to waive the containment system requirements for wastes that do not contain free liquids, provided that the wastes are protected from contact with accumulated liquid. The standards for waste piles are amended to waive the containment system requirements for wastes that do not contain free liquids, provided that the pile is protected from precipitation by a structure and from surface water run-on and wind dispersal of the waste by the structure or some other means. The Agency believes these amendments believes these amendments will not reduce the level of protection of human health and the environment.

  7. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  8. Shale Gas Extraction in Europe and Germany - The Impacts of Environmental Protection and Energy Security on Emerging Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2016-01-01

    Shale gas extraction is a technology that is recently arriving in Europe and Germany. The technology brings about a considerable amount of potential environmental threats, but the extraction of shale gas also promises energy security rewards. When the European and German systems for energy and envir

  9. The life history and its environmental regulation in the subtidal red alga, Acrosymphyton purpuriferum (J. Ag.) Sjöst.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, Antje Maatje

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis a descrlption is given of the life history of the benthic marine red alga Acrosymphyton puriferum (J. Ag.) Sjöst. (Rhodophyceae, Cryptonemiales) and of the influence environmental factors have on the course of this life history. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Theoretical and Empirical Research Progress in Evaluating Environmental Regulation Strength%环境规制强度测度理论与实证进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 李颖

    2012-01-01

    With increasing importance of environmental issues in the global economy and politics fields, Envi- ronmental regulation has been a research focus in the field of economics. A great amount of inspiring achievements constantly enrich people's understanding of environmental regulation itself and its impacts in the perspective of Eco- nomics. Although theoretical research has generated a lot of breakthroughs, empirical study in this field is facing obstacles of evaluating indicator, that is how to choose and acquire appropriate indicators to make comparisons among countries or industries. Due to lack of appropriate and consistent evaluating indicator, similar empirical re- searches often reach to contrary conclusions or insignificant regression results, making the conclusions of empirical researches less convincing. By researching and comparing domestic and foreign literatures of Environmental Regula- tion, it's found that foreign indicators follow a clear development route, from qualitative description to simple quan- titative indicator and then to composite index, from input oriented to output-oriented. Input-oriented indicator includes Pollution Abatement Cost (similar indicator such as regulation compliance cost), pollution control invest- ment, number of inspections and government expenditure, while output-oriented indicator includes discharge fee/ tax and major pollutants emissions. After being introduced into empirical study by Walter & Ugelow( 1979), com- posite index has experienced a transformation from mainly input-oriented indicator based to input-oriented indicator based while EPI index has been created and widely used to describe a country's environmental performance. Do- mestic literatures mainly cpncentrate on two kinds of simple quantitative indicators, Pollution Control Investment and Pollutant Emissions, and composite index based on them. In recent years, indicator selection in domestic re- search has been developed to be more complex and various

  11. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Heijden

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  12. Environmental Stewardship: How Semiconductor Suppliers Help toMeet Energy-Efficiency Regulations and Voluntary Specifications inChina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizhen, Li; Fanara, Andrew; Fridley, David; Merriman, Louise; Ju,Jeff

    2007-01-15

    Recognizing the role that semiconductor suppliers can playin meeting energy-efficiency regulations and voluntary specifications,this paper provides an overview of Chinese policies and implementingbodies; a discussion of current programs, their goals, and effectiveness;and possible steps that can be taken tomeet these energy-efficiencyrequirements while also meeting products' high performance and costgoals.

  13. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Meza-Canales, Ivan David;

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are well-established as important phytohormonal regulators of plant growth and development. An increasing number of studies have also revealed the function of these hormones in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. While the function of certain CK classes, including tra...

  14. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  15. The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

    It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a

  16. Conflict of trade-facilitating environmental regulations with biodiversity concerns: the case of coffee-farming units in India

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, A

    2002-01-01

    Coffee farming units of India, with their strong orientation to export markets, have in the World Trade Organization (WTO) era, displayed a high propensity for compliance with trade facilitating environmental norms arising from sanitary and phytosanitary measures. However, farming units seek to recoup incremental costs arising from compliance with these norms through unsustainable exploitation of their biodiversity wealth. Based on this unique case of conflict between WTO-related environmenta...

  17. The algR gene, which regulates mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, belongs to a class of environmentally responsive genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Deretic, V; Dikshit, R; Konyecsni, W M; Chakrabarty, A. M.; Misra, T K

    1989-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa capsule, composed of polysaccharide alginate, is an important Pseudomonas virulence factor encountered primarily in cystic fibrosis. The regulatory algR gene positively controls transcription of a key alginate biosynthetic gene, algD. The algR gene was subcloned and sequenced by creating a set of nested deletions in M13 bacteriophage. DNA sequence analysis of algR revealed the homology of its gene product with a recently recognized class of environmentally responsiv...

  18. Preparation and Regeneration of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin Protoplast%球孢白僵菌原生质体制备和再生条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝江; 朱天辉; 韩珊; 谯天敏; 闫晓星; 李芳莲; 冯民富

    2011-01-01

    球孢白僵菌[Beauveria bassiana(Balsamo)Vuillemin]经液体培养后,采用酶解方法制备其菌丝原生质体,并采取单因素实验对再生条件进行了研究.结果表明,经纤维素酶制备球孢白僵菌原生质体后,再生的最佳条件是:用L-broth培养基培养球孢白僵菌78 h,KCl 0.8 mol/L(再生用蔗糖0.6 mol/L),柠檬酸-柠檬酸钠缓冲液为缓冲系统,纤维素酶:蜗牛酶:溶菌酶=5:2.5:2.5(mg/mL),在32℃水浴中酶解3 h(pH自然).

  19. Screening of Superior Strain of Beauveria bassiana Parasitized on Monochamus alternatus%松墨天牛寄生白僵菌的优良菌株筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马良进; 杨毅; 张立钦

    2006-01-01

    对21个球孢白僵茵(Beauveria bassiana)茵株的生长、产孢能力、抗逆性等生物学性状以及对松墨天牛(M. alternatus)4龄幼虫的毒力进行了全面的比较研究.综合各菌株的生物学特性和对天牛幼虫的毒力指标,最终得出防治松墨天牛幼虫最优良菌株是来自浙江象山的Bxs和来自江苏的B5菌株,其中Bxs在生长指标上略占优势,B5在抗性指标上略占优势.

  20. Natural Occurrence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales on Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rossoni

    2013-07-01

    Resumo. Relata-se a ocorrência natural de um fungo entomopatogênico sobre a lagarta Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em uma área de soja convencional situada no município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. A lagarta foi coletada a campo e levada ao laboratório de microbiologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, onde permaneceu em câmera úmida por aproximadamente 7 dias. Posteriormente, o fungo foi isolado em meio de cultura (BDA para identificação da espécie do entomopatógeno. O fungo foi identificado como Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales e, isso representa o primeiro registro de parasitismo, dessa espécie, sobre a lagarta-da-soja no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.

  1. Studies on Karyotype of Beauveria bassiana,a Pathogenic Fungus to Bombyx mori L.%家蚕病原白僵菌的核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时连根

    2000-01-01

    用脉冲凝胶电泳中的等高压均匀电场(counter-clamped homogeneous electric field,CHEF)凝胶电泳技术研究了家蚕病原白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)核型.家蚕病原白僵菌至少有6条染色体,估算其大小在2.5~7.2Mbp之间,3种分离菌株的核型大小为26.5~29.0Mbp.家蚕病原白僵菌核型在分离菌株间存在多型性.

  2. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  3. Genetic improvement of the nematicidal fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum against Heterodera glycines by expression of the Beauveria bassiana Cdep1 protease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Peng, De-Liang; Yu, Wen-Bin; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important nematophagous fungus with potential as a biopesticide against plant-parasitic nematodes. The Pr1A-like cuticle-degrading protease (Cdep1) gene originating from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was transformed into the nematophagous fungus L. attenuatum using a polyethylene-glycol mediated protoplast-based transformation system. Protease activity was increased 0.64- to 1.63-fold 2-10d after growth in the transformed L. attenuatum. Inhibition of egg-hatching and J2 motility of soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) by cell-free fungal culture filtrates were enhanced by 17-76% 2-14d and 43-152% 1-13d after incubation, respectively. PMID:27342597

  4. Environmental Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Toshihiro; Matthew A. Cole; Robert J R ELLIOTT

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of firms shifting stages of their production processes overseas. In this paper we investigate whether firms outsource the dirtier stages of production to minimise domestic environmental regulation costs - a process broadly consistent with the pollution haven hypothesis. We develop a theoretical model of environmental outsourcing that focuses on the roles played by firm size and productivity, transport costs and environmental regula...

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations on the Decommissioning of γ-Irradiator Facilities%γ辐照装置退役环境影响评价要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓涛; 党磊; 宋培峰

    2012-01-01

    2011年环境保护部发布了《放射性同位素与射线装置安全和防护管理办法》,进一步明确了γ辐照装置退役环境影响评价的内容。本文介绍了γ辐照装置退役项目的环境影响评价要求,并就实践中的情况提出了几个建议。%Since the release of the regulation "Safety and Protection Management Measures on the Radio-isotopes and Radiation Facilities", the content of the environmental impact assessment on the decommissioning of γ-irradiator facilities is further made clear. The environmental impact assessment method was introduced on the decommissioning of γ-irradiator facilities. Conclusions whether the site could be opened or not would be get by the essential monitoring, analysis and evaluation, according to the state regulations and standards.

  6. Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas ePedrini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities.. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP, a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and 4 CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1 out of 6 genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular

  7. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  8. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana ao psilídeo Diaphorina citri e compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana a ninfas de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae e verificar a compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários e sua persistência em plantas de citros. Ninfas de D. citri foram pulverizadas com B. bassiana, nas concentrações 5x10(6, 1x10(7, 5x10(7, 1x10(8, 5x10(8 e 1x10(9 conídios mL-1, para determinação da concentração letal. Para avaliação da compatibilidade do fungo com produtos fitossanitários, extrato de nim e cinco inseticidas de quatro grupos químicos diferentes foram incorporados individualmente ao meio de cultura BDA em que o fungo foi cultivado. Avaliaram-se o crescimento vegetativo, a esporulação e a viabilidade do entomopatógeno. Plantas de citros, mantidas em casa de vegetação, foram tratadas primeiramente com os produtos fitossanitários e depois com o entomopatógeno. Avaliaram-se os tempos de exposição de 24 horas e de 7 e 14 dias. O fungo foi patogênico às ninfas de D. citri; a CL50 foi de 0,4x10(7 e a CL90 de 6,7x10(7 conidios mL-1, no décimo dia de avaliação. Em laboratório, os produtos fitosssanitários reduzem o crescimento do fungo. Em casa de vegetação, os produtos não afetam a sobrevivência do fungo nas plantas de citros.

  9. Using Beauveria bassiana to Control Loudonta dispar%应用白僵菌防治竹镂舟蛾的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢阿彬

    2011-01-01

    Different generations of Loudonta dispar were conducted controlling experiments by beauveria bassiana with different doses.Result shows that: beauveria bassiana can be used as the excellent pollution-free biological agent to control the 1st 3rd generation of Loudonta dispar in Yidu town of Yongchun county in Fujian province,of which the control effect is optimal;especially for the 1st generation,the correction mortality rate are top to 95.52% after 15 d of control,but the control effect of the 2nd generation is poorer,may be due to the temperature,humidity other factors during the experiment;other agents should be chosen for controlling Loudonta dispar.%采用不同剂量白僵菌对不同代数竹镂舟蛾进行防治试验,结果表明:白僵菌可作为福建省永春县一都镇竹镂舟蛾第1代和第3代的优良无公害生物防治药剂,其防治效果较好,尤其对第1代防治15 d后其校正死亡率最高可达95.52%,但第2代防治效果较差,可能与试验期间温度、湿度等因素影响有关,在防治时应考虑选择其他药剂。

  10. 白僵菌油悬浮剂防治草原蝗虫药效评价%Pesticide Effect Evaluation of Beauveria Bassiana SC on Grassland Locusts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亿兵; 金焕贵; 刘颖

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to confirm the practical effect of beauveria bassiana SC on grassland locusts and provide scientific basis for large area application. The results showed that it was safe to steppe vegetation when using the ball spore beauveria bassiana oil SC of 10 billion spores per milliliter in the dosage range from 2 250 to 3 000 mL·hm^-2. The control efficiency on grassland locust was improved by the increasing dosage. The peak effect value after using the drug 7 days,the average control efficiency was 68. 24%-77.44% ,and the aftereffect could last for 7 days. The recommended dosage of the drug was from 2 250 to 3 000 mL·hm^-2 for better use.%为了验证应用白僵菌油悬浮剂防治草原蝗虫的实际效果,为大面积推广应用提供科学依据而进行药效评价试验。结果表明:100亿孢子·mL^-1球孢白僵茼油悬浮剂在2250~3000mL·hm^-2剂量范围内对草原植被生长安全。随着用药量增加,对草原蝗虫的防效也提高。药后7d达到作用高峰,平均防效为68.24%~77.44%,后效可持续7d。推荐用量以2250-3000mL·hm^-2为佳。

  11. 企业环境自我规制的动因及其政策启示%Motivation for Firms to Adopt Environmental Self-regulation and Its Policy Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小静; 李延喜; 栾庆伟

    2011-01-01

    Environmental self-regulation solves the problems of incentives and asymmetric information in traditional regulation. Therefore it has become an efficient part of the whole environmental regulation system. Motivations for a firm to adopt self-regulation origins from four targets: to increase productivity, to cater to the green customers, to relieve external press, and to take as a strategy for government regulation and market competition. Moreover, environmental self-" regulation is affected by firm size, R&D capability and former environmental performance. It is difficult for the majority of Chinese firms to adopt environmental self-regulation. However, policies are suggested to taken including information release and guiding the investors. The government should change its role in environmental regulation and help the firms in improving their environmental standards.%环境自我规制解决了传统规制中的信息不对称和激励问题,是对环境规制体系的有效补充.企业环境自我规制的动因主要来自于四方面:提高生产力、迎合“绿色”消费者的偏好、缓解外部压力,以及作为应对政府规制和市场竞争的一种策略性行为.此外,企业的规模、研发能力、过去的环境绩效等,也对自我规制产生影响.我国尚不具备全面实施企业环境自我规制的条件,但应加强信息披露和对投资者的引导,转变政府在环境规制体系中的作用,为企业提高环保标准服务.

  12. Environmental Economics for Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekko van Ierland

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental economics deals with the optimal allocation of production factors and correcting market failure in protecting the environment. Market failure occurs because of externalities, common property resources, and public goods. Environmental policy instruments include direct regulation, taxes/subsidies, tradable permits, deposit systems, voluntary agreements, and persuasion.

  13. Revision of Army regulation (AR) 200-2, environmental effects of Army actions, and the application of total quality mangement (TQM) principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, H,K. [Horne Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States); Robitaille, P. [Army Environmental Center (USAEC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    AR 200-2 is the Army`s implementing regulation to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and DoD`s NEPA Directive DoDD 6050.1. AR 200-2 was last revised in the late 1980s and since then the scope of Army NEPA compliance activities have significantly increased, and NEPA practice and case law are continually changing. The purpose of revising AR 200-2 is to provide Army personel with clear and Concise guidance on how to meet their NEPA compliance requirements. The revision process included reviewing the current AR 200-2 to identify areas and topics needing clarification or modification; conferring with Army NEPA personnel to obtain views on NEPA compliance practices and procedures; conducting a review and analysis of significant, recent developments in NEPA case law; reviewing other federal NEPA implementing regulations to identify useful, transferrable concepts; preparing a {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} version of AR 200-2 to use as a starting point in the revision process; coordinating and consolidating input from the AR 200-2 Revisions Steering Committee; and responding to review comments. A draft version of AR 200-2 has been completed and informal Army-wide comments have been addressed. Some of the issues that the AR 200-2 Revisions Steering Committee considered during the revision effort included expanding the list of categorical exclusions, determining the appropriate length for the public comment period for environmental assessments prior to approval of the finding of no significant impact, determining the appropriate level of analysis for Army actions abroad, and determining whether Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) actions should be addressed under NEPA. Total Quality Management (TQM) principles were applied during the revision process. GroupSystems{trademark} software was used as a vehicle to enhance total group participation from managers to practitioners.

  14. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  15. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  16. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  17. The effect of EU environmental regulation on international trade : restriction of hazardous substance as a trade barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Keiichiro; 本田, 圭市郎

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) was established in the EU, which limited the trade of machinery, electrical and electronic equipment that have at least one of the substances considered hazardous under RoHS directive. Since countries trading with the EU must comply with this new regulation, it is expected a decrease in value of imports to the EU. In this paper, it is followed the procedures used in Heckman (1979), as well as the extended procedure suggested by Helpman, M...

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of a protease maturation factor gene fragment from Beauveria bassiana%球孢白僵菌蛋白酶成熟因子基因片段的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 谢翎; 孟慧敏; 汪章勋; 黄勃

    2012-01-01

    The fragment of a protease maturation factor gene from Beauveria bassiana was cloned using DDRT-PCR (differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) . The length of the cloned specific fragment was 295 bp. Analysis of the amino acid sequences indicated that the protease maturation factor from Beauveria bassiana was highly homologous to Aspergillus oryzae (94.44%). The expression of the protease maturation factor gene from Beauveria bassiana under different induced conditions was detected using Realtime PCR. We found that the expression of protease maturation factor gene for cuticle of cicada induced was significantly higher than that in control (nearly 8 times of control). It can be inferred that the protease maturation factor gene in Beauveria bassiana may has important application value in construction of genetic engineering strain with high toxicity.%通过mRNA差异显示技术,从蝉脱诱导培养的球孢白僵菌中分离获得了长度295 bp一种蛋白酶成熟因子的基因片段.该片段编码多肽序列与米曲霉的蛋白酶成熟因子编码氨基酸序列同源性较高,达94.44%.Realtime-PCR检测结果表明,蝉蜕诱导条件下该基因的表达量为对照的8倍左右.诱导下蛋白酶成熟因子的高效表达,表明其在白僵菌毒力相关重组菌株构建研究中可能具有重要的应用价值.

  19. Technological innovation and environmental regulation at the petroleum refining industry: the Paulinia refinery case; Inovacao tecnologica e regulacao ambiental na industria de refino de petroleo: o caso da Refinaria de Paulinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mails: adalba@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the influence of environmental regulation on the adoption of new production techniques and on the improvement of existing techniques in the refining petroleum industry, namely at the Paulinia refinery (REPLAN). Describes the techniques adopted in order to fit refining processes into the regulation about environmental impacts (related to the protection of resources like water, air and soil), and also techniques adopted in order to produce less pollutant diesel and gasoline. This article has support on bibliographic research and data collected in REPLAN and CENPES, which permit characterize technologies adopted in REPLAN at the end of the 90s and the regulatory rules that drive them. The regulation is presented under an evolutionary approach, considering that technology develops along whit the socio-economic context, the environmental regulation is a related element which determines the search and selection of technologies able to comply with regulation ensuring economic viability. Regulation is also a determinant factor for the adoption of innovations in the refining industry. Specifically in REPLAN, the environmental regulation has required large investments in order to comply processes and products with the established standards. (author)

  20. 财政分权、环境管制与污染治理%Fiscal Decentralization, Environmental Regulation and Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云雁

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization is the important institution impacting economic and social development in China, environmental regulation is the key factor promoting enterprise pollution control. In the financial decentralization system, the central government and the local government interests vary between the economic growth and environmental quality trade-offs. As environmental regulation implementation, local governments have motivation of sacrificing the quality of the environment to economic profit in economic incentives among governments. To encourage local governments to make better the implementation of environmental regulation, and prevent collusion between government and enterprises, the central government should establish the incentive and constraint mechanism of environmental regulation through paying the information rent and imposing fines on local government and enterprises.%财政分权是影响中国经济社会发展的重要制度改革,环境管制是推动企业污染治理的关键因素。在财政分权体制下,对于经济增长和环境质量的权衡取舍,中央政府和地方政府的利益诉求各有不同。地方政府作为环境管制的具体执行者,在政府间以经济激励为核心的竞争机制下,具有与企业“合谋”牺牲环境质量换取经济利益的动机。为激励地方政府更好地履行环境监管职责,约束政企合谋,中央政府可以通过向企业和地方政府支付信息租金和征收罚金,建立环境管制的激励约束机制。中国环境管制的实践具有加强中央集权模式的发展趋势,环境管制分权化的程度主要受企业减排成本差异、地区间发展水平和环境监测技术三方面因素的影响。现阶段,中国应转变以国内生产总值为核心的政府绩效考核评价体系,强化经济激励手段,提高政府补贴,积极开发环境在线监测技术,加大对环境违规的惩处力度,科学审核环境成本

  1. Protein phosphatases PP2A, PP4 and PP6: mediators and regulators in development and responses to environmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Cathrine; Kataya, Amr R A; Heidari, Behzad; Creighton, Maria T; Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Ginbot, Zekarias; Jonassen, Else M

    2014-12-01

    The three closely related groups of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP2A, PP4 and PP6 are conserved throughout eukaryotes. The catalytic subunits are present in trimeric and dimeric complexes with scaffolding and regulatory subunits that control activity and confer substrate specificity to the protein phosphatases. In Arabidopsis, three scaffolding (A subunits) and 17 regulatory (B subunits) proteins form complexes with five PP2A catalytic subunits giving up to 255 possible combinations. Three SAP-domain proteins act as regulatory subunits of PP6. Based on sequence similarities with proteins in yeast and mammals, two putative PP4 regulatory subunits are recognized in Arabidopsis. Recent breakthroughs have been made concerning the functions of some of the PP2A and PP6 regulatory subunits, for example the FASS/TON2 in regulation of the cellular skeleton, B' subunits in brassinosteroid signalling and SAL proteins in regulation of auxin transport. Reverse genetics is starting to reveal also many more physiological functions of other subunits. A system with key regulatory proteins (TAP46, TIP41, PTPA, LCMT1, PME-1) is present in all eukaryotes to stabilize, activate and inactivate the catalytic subunits. In this review, we present the status of knowledge concerning physiological functions of PP2A, PP4 and PP6 in Arabidopsis, and relate these to yeast and mammals. PMID:24810976

  2. An Overview of Application Study of Beauveria bassiana in the Control of Cosmopolites sordidus%球孢白僵菌在香蕉象甲防治中的应用研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉; 王小奇

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is the most devastating insect pest of banana crops (Musa spp.), so how to control it effectively has been an important issue. The fungus Beauveria bassiana exhibits good application effects in the control of C. sordidus, and the major achievements are shown in this paper. This will provide a reference for further study on B. bassiana and other entomopathogenic fungi, and their application in pest control.%香蕉象甲(Cosmopolites sordidus)是芭蕉属(Musa spp.)经济作物最具破坏力的害虫,如何对其进行有效防治已成为一项重要议题。球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)在香蕉象甲防治方面具有很好的应用效果,对其应用研究的主要成果进行概述,这对以后进一步研究球孢白僵菌等昆虫病原真菌及其在害虫防治上的应用具有重要的参考价值。

  3. Effects of Beauveria bassiana on virulence and cellular morphology of hemocytes of Ostrinia furnacalis%球孢白僵菌对亚洲玉米螟血细胞毒力和形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福霞; 胡维娜; 胡琼波

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To test the effect of Beauveria bassiana on SYSU-OfHe-C, a cell line from hemo-cytes of Ostrinia furnacalis. To provide a theory basis for application of B. bassiana in the prevention and treatment of O. furnacalis.[Method] MTT and CCK-8 were employed to test the virulence of B. bassiana on SYSU-OfHe-C. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the growth of B. bassiana and its influence on the morphology of SYSU-OfHe-C cells. [Result]The IC50 values of B. bassiana against SYSU-OfHe-C cells at 24 hours after treatment were recorded as 2. 8 × 105 and 1. 4 × 105 mL-1 respectively by MTT and CCK-8. Furthermore, under real-time monitoring with optical micro-scope, encapsulization and phagocytosis were not found and B. bassiana was highly competitive when the conidia of B. bassiana were inoculated in the culture of SYSU-OfHe-C cells at logarithmic stage reaching a final concentration of 3. 5 × 104 mL-1 for B. bassiana. B. bassiana started to germinate at 10 hours after treatment, and meanwhile, SYSU-OfHe-C cells started to reduce in number and change in morphology. At 24 hours after treatment, B. bassiana grew the entire visual field. The nearly round SYSU-OfHe-C cells had elongated or turned into irregular shape. Aggregation, fragmentation, cavitation, protuberance and penetration of SYSU-OfHe-C cells caused by B. bassiana mycelia were observed.[Conclusion]B. bassiana can change cellular morphology of hemocytes of O. furnacalis, but cannot induce its immune responses.%【目的】测定球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana对亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis血细胞系SYSU-OfHe-C的影响,为促进球孢白僵菌在防治亚洲玉米螟中的应用提供理论依据。【方法】采用MTT和CCK-8法测定球孢白僵菌对亚洲玉米螟血细胞系SYSU-OfHe-C的毒力,通过光学显微镜与扫描电镜观察球孢白僵菌生长及其对SYSU-OfHe-C细胞的影响。【结果】球孢白僵菌分

  4. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Spodoptera exigua Larvae at Different Temperature and Humidity%不同温湿度下球孢白僵菌对甜菜夜蛾幼虫的致病力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔璟辉; 谭周进; 陈浩涛

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenieity of Beauveria bassiana to Spodoptera exigua larvae at different temperature and humidity indoors was studied. The results showed that temperature, relative humidity and larval instar had significant impacts on the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana. The temperature range 24 - 27 ℃ , the relative humidity more than 90% and lower larval instar were the most suitable conditions for the infection of Beauveria bassiana to Spodoplera exigua larvae.%在室内研究了球孢白僵菌在不同温度和湿度条件下对甜菜夜蛾幼虫的致病力,结果表明:温度、相对湿度、幼虫龄期对白僵菌的致病力具有显著的影响,24~27℃是球孢白僵菌感染甜菜夜蛾的最适宜温度;相对湿度大于90%,甜菜夜蛾的幼虫虫龄越低,越有利于球孢白僵菌对幼虫的感染.

  5. Regulators as agents: Modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.J. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kendall, G. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Soane, E. [London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Management, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Li, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); Rocks, S.A.; Jude, S.R. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Pollard, S.J.T., E-mail: s.pollard@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with ‘aggressor’ personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with ‘avoider’ personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the ‘aggressor’ personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the ‘avoider’ personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power. - Highlights: •The role of personality and power in regulatory decision-making is poorly represented. •We built a rudimentary two-agent model to explore environmental risk decisions. •Our two agent model accounted for decisions about the sufficiency of evidence. •We examined the influence personality and power has on confidence gained. •By giving agents personality we might predict the time taken to reach consensus.

  6. Carbon regulation of environmental pH by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fangcheng; Barad, Shiri; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Dubey, Amit; Casado, Virginia; Glam, Nofar; Mínguez, Jose Diaz; Espeso, Eduardo A; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. This capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. Here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus nidulans and Fusarium oxysporum-secrete small pH-affecting molecules. These molecules modify the environmental pH, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce the expression of PACC-dependent genes. We show that, in many organisms, acidification is induced under carbon excess, i.e. 175 mm sucrose (the most abundant sugar in fruits). In contrast, alkalinization occurs under conditions of carbon deprivation, i.e. less than 15 mm sucrose. The carbon source is metabolized by glucose oxidase (gox2) to gluconic acid, contributing to medium acidification, whereas catalysed deamination of non-preferred carbon sources, such as the amino acid glutamate, by glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (gdh2), results in the secretion of ammonia. Functional analyses of Δgdh2 mutants showed reduced alkalinization and pathogenicity during growth under carbon deprivation, but not in high-carbon medium or on fruit rich in sugar, whereas analysis of Δgox2 mutants showed reduced acidification and pathogencity under conditions of excess carbon. The induction pattern of gdh2 was negatively correlated with the expression of the zinc finger global carbon catabolite repressor creA. The present results indicate that differential pH modulation by fruit fungal pathogens is a host-dependent mechanism, affected by host sugar content, that modulates environmental pH to enhance fruit colonization. PMID:26666972

  7. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in Northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. M. van Grinsven

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the Northwest of the European Union (Ireland, UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany. The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting period for the NiD (2004–2007 and results of the MITERRA-EUROPE model. Implementation of the NiD in the considered member states is fairly comparable regarding restrictions for where and when to apply fertilizer and manure, but very different regarding application limits for N fertilization. Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995 is a major contribution to the decrease of the soil N balance (N surplus, particularly in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, The Netherlands and the UK. This decrease is accompanied by a modest decrease of nitrate concentrations since 2000 in fresh surface waters in most countries. This decrease is less prominent for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of The Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater and tenacious exceedance of the water quality standards. On average the gross N balance in 2008 for the seven member states in EUROSTAT and in national reports was about 20 kg N ha−1 lower than by MITERRA. The major cause is higher estimates of N removal in national reports which can amount to more than 50kg N ha−1. Differences between procedures in member states to assess nitrogen balances and water quality and a lack of cross

  8. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. M. van Grinsven

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany. The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting period for the NiD (2004–2007 and results of the MITERRA-EUROPE model. Implementation of the NiD in the considered member states is fairly comparable regarding restrictions for where and when to apply fertilizer and manure, but very different regarding application limits for N fertilization. Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995 is a major contribution to the decrease of the soil N balance (N surplus, particularly in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This decrease is accompanied by a modest decrease of nitrate concentrations since 2000 in fresh surface waters in most countries. This decrease is less prominent for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of the Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater and tenacious exceedance of the water quality standards. On average the gross N balance in 2008 for the seven member states in EUROSTAT and in national reports was about 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1 lower than by MITERRA. The major cause is higher estimates of N removal in national reports which can amount to more than 50 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Differences between procedures in member states to

  9. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  10. 球孢白僵菌对月季长管蚜的生物防治效果%Studies on biological control of Macrosiphum roswomm by using Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓洁; 朱虹

    2015-01-01

    Macrosiphum roswomm is one of the most serious pests on Rosaceae. However, biological control of M. ros⁃womm with Beauveria bassiana still remains unreported. The patho genicity and greenhouse control effect of B. bassiana strain isolated from M.roswomm on aphid nymphs and adults, and the survival of B. bassiana on rose leaves were studied. The results showed that, under the same conditions, aphid mortality increased with increasing spore concentration. At the spore concentration of 108 spores/mL, the highest cumulative mortality was 99�3% in 5 days; the pathogenicity for adults and the third instar nymphs was much higher than the first instar nymph. Under different temperature and humidi⁃ty, the highest mortality was discovered at the condition of 25℃, and the infection mortality rate increased with the in⁃creasing of the environment humidity;the highest infection mortality in greenhouse was 94%. These results indicated that B.bassiana has a good potential in biological control of M. roswomm.%研究了1株分离自月季长管蚜( Macrosiphum roswomm Zhang)的球孢白僵菌( Beauveria bassiana ( Bals.) Vuill)对月季长管蚜若虫和成虫的致病力及温室防治效果,并对球孢白僵菌孢子在月季叶片上的存活动态进行了深入观测。结果表明:相同条件下,月季长管蚜死亡率随球孢白僵菌孢子浓度的增加而上升,在孢子浓度为108 spores/mL时,月季长管蚜5 d的最高累积死亡率为99.3%;球孢白僵菌对成虫和3龄若虫的致病性最强,1龄若虫最低。试验发现25℃时月季长管蚜死亡率最高,环境湿度越大,月季长管蚜的死亡率越高;温室内最高感染死亡率达94%,表明球孢白僵菌在月季长管蚜的生物防治中具有很好的应用潜力。

  11. Regulamentar faz diferença? O caso da evidenciação ambiental Can regulation make a difference? The case of environmental disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mussoi Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    mainly voluntary, companies can simply override regulation, making it pointless. The method of research chosen was of a descriptive and predominantly quantitative nature. The companies selected as samples were from the oil and natural gas sectors from four different countries who share cultural similarities, such as the United States, Canada, England and Australia. The environmental information was collected from annual reports year ended 2007. In order to classify the environmental data used, a suitable comparative analysis of two consecrated works was used -the study of Clarkson et al. (2008 and the study of Wiseman (1982. The statistical tests proved that there are significant differences between the regulated and the unregulated countries, and the greatest differences were found when mandatory disclosure was utilized, thus proving that countries can indeed react to different regulatory stimuli.

  12. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

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    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  13. 土壤微生态环境对白僵菌宿存影响的研究%The Effects on Survival Ability of Beauveria bassiana Under Soil Microecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永利; 王圆圆; 董建臻; 周婷; 李静

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to study the effect of soil ecological environment on Beauveria bassiana survival ability. The survival ability of Beauveria bassiana under different soil temperature, soil water content, soil texture and soil microbes was tested. The results showed that soil tempreture: In the 120 days, the survival ability was 5.94×106 cfu/g at -18℃, 1.54×106cfu/g at 25℃, and 8×102 cfu/g at 30℃. Soil water content: survival ability was the hightest on 15% soil water content, and Beauveria bassiana would reduce dramatically lower or higher than 15%; Soil texture: survival ability in loam was significantly higher than sand; soil microorganisms had an impact on the survival ability of Beauveria bassiana, which would promote or restrain the growth of Beauveria bassiana at different stages. The condition of low temperature, loam and 15% water content was conducive to Beauveria bassiana survival ability. Microorganisms restrained Beauveria bassiana survival ability at earlier stage and promoted action at later stage.%为明确土壤微生态环境对白僵菌宿存的影响.测定白僵菌孢子在不同土壤温度、不同土壤含水量、不同土壤质地及土壤微生物存在情况下的宿存量变化.结果表明:土壤温度:120天的宿存期中白僵菌孢子宿存量,-18℃为5.94× 106cfu/g,25℃为1.54× 106 cfu/g,30℃为8× 102 cfu/g;土壤含水量:15%时为3.24× 106 cfu/g,白僵菌的宿存量最高,低于或高于15%都会加速白僵菌宿存量的减少;土壤质地:壤土中白僵菌的宿存量明显高于沙土中的宿存量;土壤微生物的存在能够对白僵菌宿存量产生影响,对白僵菌的生长在不同阶段表现出一定的抑制或促进作用.低温、壤土及土壤含水量为15%的条件下有利于白僵菌的宿存.微生物存在前期对白僵菌宿存有抑制作用,后期表现为促进作用.

  14. 政府环境规制对能源效率影响的实证研究——以新疆为例%Can Government Environmental Regulations be Good for Energy Efficiency? An Empirical Study in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤济红; 高志刚

    2013-01-01

    能源效率的提高和环境污染的治理是实现可持续发展必须要解决的双重任务.基于政府环境规制的视角,以新疆1990年-2010年的数据为样本,本研究实证检验了政府环境规制对能源效率的影响.研究发现:无论是从单要素能源效率,还是从全要素能源效率的角度,政府环境规制均不利于新疆能源效率的提高,同时,政府环境规制对能源效率的抑制作用不仅体现在当期,滞后3期的抑制作用仍然显著,尤其是滞后2期的政府环境规制对当期的能源效率影响最大.最后,就实证检验的结果做出一些理论推断,并提出要大力发展循环经济的政策建议.%With rapid economic development,energy shortages and environmental deterioration have gradually restricted sustainable development.The effect of environmental regulation on energy efficiency often leads to a dilemma because government environmental regulation increases the production costs of enterprises and leads to a decline in output which is not conducive to improving energy efficiency.Using Xinjiang as an example,we selected 10 environmental pollution control indicators to represent government environmental regulation and used a DEA model to measure total-factor energy efficiency from 1990 to 2010.We found that government environmental regulation did not improve energy efficiency in Xinjiang either for single-factor energy efficiency or total-factor energy efficiency.The inhibition effect of government environmental regulation shows a lag 3 period and the greatest influence of government environmental regulation on current energy efficiency is in the lag 2 period.Although Xinjiang issued many policies and measures of environmental regulation,they were difficult to implement in economic production activities due to the pursuit of economic efficiency by government and enterprises.According to our results,a circular economy is a good development model to reduce pollution and improve

  15. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  16. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  17. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  18. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

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    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  19. NPR-9, a Galanin-Like G-Protein Coupled Receptor, and GLR-1 Regulate Interneuronal Circuitry Underlying Multisensory Integration of Environmental Cues in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jason C Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available C. elegans inhabit environments that require detection of diverse stimuli to modulate locomotion in order to avoid unfavourable conditions. In a mammalian context, a failure to appropriately integrate environmental signals can lead to Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and epilepsy. Provided that the circuitry underlying mammalian sensory integration can be prohibitively complex, we analyzed nematode behavioral responses in differing environmental contexts to evaluate the regulation of context dependent circuit reconfiguration and sensorimotor control. Our work has added to the complexity of a known parallel circuit, mediated by interneurons AVA and AIB, that integrates sensory cues and is responsible for the initiation of backwards locomotion. Our analysis of the galanin-like G-protein coupled receptor NPR-9 in C. elegans revealed that upregulation of galanin signaling impedes the integration of sensory evoked neuronal signals. Although the expression pattern of npr-9 is limited to AIB, upregulation of the receptor appears to impede AIB and AVA circuits to broadly prevent backwards locomotion, i.e. reversals, suggesting that these two pathways functionally interact. Galanin signaling similarly plays a broadly inhibitory role in mammalian models. Moreover, our identification of a mutant, which rarely initiates backwards movement, allowed us to interrogate locomotory mechanisms underlying chemotaxis. In support of the pirouette model of chemotaxis, organisms that did not exhibit reversal behavior were unable to navigate towards an attractant peak. We also assessed ionotropic glutamate receptor GLR-1 cell-specifically within AIB and determined that GLR-1 fine-tunes AIB activity to modify locomotion following reversal events. Our research highlights that signal integration underlying the initiation and fine-tuning of backwards locomotion is AIB and NPR-9 dependent, and has demonstrated the suitability of C. elegans for analysis of multisensory integration

  20. NPR-9, a Galanin-Like G-Protein Coupled Receptor, and GLR-1 Regulate Interneuronal Circuitry Underlying Multisensory Integration of Environmental Cues in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jason C.; Polan-Couillard, Lauren F.; Chin-Sang, Ian D.; Bendena, William G.

    2016-01-01

    C. elegans inhabit environments that require detection of diverse stimuli to modulate locomotion in order to avoid unfavourable conditions. In a mammalian context, a failure to appropriately integrate environmental signals can lead to Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and epilepsy. Provided that the circuitry underlying mammalian sensory integration can be prohibitively complex, we analyzed nematode behavioral responses in differing environmental contexts to evaluate the regulation of context dependent circuit reconfiguration and sensorimotor control. Our work has added to the complexity of a known parallel circuit, mediated by interneurons AVA and AIB, that integrates sensory cues and is responsible for the initiation of backwards locomotion. Our analysis of the galanin-like G-protein coupled receptor NPR-9 in C. elegans revealed that upregulation of galanin signaling impedes the integration of sensory evoked neuronal signals. Although the expression pattern of npr-9 is limited to AIB, upregulation of the receptor appears to impede AIB and AVA circuits to broadly prevent backwards locomotion, i.e. reversals, suggesting that these two pathways functionally interact. Galanin signaling similarly plays a broadly inhibitory role in mammalian models. Moreover, our identification of a mutant, which rarely initiates backwards movement, allowed us to interrogate locomotory mechanisms underlying chemotaxis. In support of the pirouette model of chemotaxis, organisms that did not exhibit reversal behavior were unable to navigate towards an attractant peak. We also assessed ionotropic glutamate receptor GLR-1 cell-specifically within AIB and determined that GLR-1 fine-tunes AIB activity to modify locomotion following reversal events. Our research highlights that signal integration underlying the initiation and fine-tuning of backwards locomotion is AIB and NPR-9 dependent, and has demonstrated the suitability of C. elegans for analysis of multisensory integration and sensorimotor