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Sample records for bassiana para musca

  1. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  2. Microscopic investigation to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. treatment on different life stages of Musca domestica (L.).

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    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic investigation was done to determine the effect of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on different life stages of Musca domestica . Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fungal infected larvae showed sluggish movement, rigor, and failure of body to balance in water. Treated larvae also revealed varied level of cuticle shrinkage and extreme dehydration. Surface of B. bassiana infected pupae showed varied stage of mycelial growth, while the cadaver of adult fly was observed to have extensive fungal growth covering their entire body surface. The application of C. citratus oils on M. domestica larvae resulted in skin shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation, while the treated pupae showed high incidence of incomplete emergence and malformation in emerged adult flies. The current study establishes effect of C. citratus essential oil and B. bassiana infection on different life stages of M. domestica .

  3. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius.

  4. Factibilidad del empleo de hongos entomopatógenos en el control de Musca domestica l. en paisajes antropizados del Noroeste de Michoacán, México.

    OpenAIRE

    García Munguía, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue seleccionar aislamientos de los hongos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana capaces de colonizar y controlar adultos y larvas de Musca domestica e identificar las condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa favorables para su empleo. B. bassiana y M. anisopliae fueron transmitidos sexualmente en M. domestica usando 1, 5 y 10 machos vírgenes de 3 dias de edad, expuestos a 6 x 108 conidias mL- 1 de hongos los cuales fueron confinados con 30 hemb...

  5. Evaluación de Beauveria bassiana para el combate de insectos plaga en maíz almacenado

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    Juan Diego Molina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana, para controlar los insectos plaga Prostephanus truncatus y Stophilus zeamais, en mazorcas de maíz almacenado. Se evaluó también la patogenicidad del hongo sobre Teritriosoma nigrescens, depredador natural de P. truncatus. Se mezclaron conidios secos del hongo con kaolinita y se aplicaron a trojas de maíz de 450 mazorcas acomodadas en capas de 50. Se montaron dos ensayos, en el primero se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo al momento de almacenar el maíz, y en el segundo se evaluaron aplicaciones del hongo realizadas después de almacenar el maíz. La mortalidad de P. truncatus fue cuatro veces mayor en el ensayo donde se aplicó el hongo en forma preventiva. La mortalidad de S. zeamais fue el doble en el tratamiento donde se aplicó el hongo al momento de inocular con P. truncatus. Los niveles de mortalidad por B. bassiana fueron mayores en P. truncatus que en S. zeamais, pero S. zeamais, pero este último mostró un 20% más de infección que el primero

  6. Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. isolates to control Alabama argillacea (Huebner caterpillars Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. para o controle de lagartas de Alabama argillacea (Huebner

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    Everardo César Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is considered to be one of the key pests in herbaceous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch cropping, with constant occurrence in all cotton-growing states of Brazil. In this study Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates were screened and evaluated for pathogenicity against Alabama argillaceae. Initially, a screening of ten isolates of each fungus in a concentracion of 10(8 conidia mL-1, was carried out on 3rd instar larvae of A. argillacea. Further studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of six and seven isolates of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana, respectively, against 3rd instar larvae of A. argillacea and using the concentrations of 10(6, 10(7, 10(8, and 10(9 conidia mL-1. The experiments were carried out in Recife, PE, Brazil, at 27 ± 2ºC, RH 70 ± 5% and a photophase of 12 hours. Mortalities caused by M. anisopliae isolate at the different concentrations ranged from 4.5 to 91.2%, the highest mortality percentage being found for the isolate 1189 at 10(9 conidia mL-1. The isolate 645 of B. bassiana caused the highest mortality at the highest concentration, followed by isolates 634, 604, and IPA 198. The lowest lethal time for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, was achieved by the isolates 483 (4.1 days and 1189 (2.0 days, respectively. The isolates 1189, 1022 e 866 of M. anisopliae and 483, IPA198 and 604 of B. bassiana, at 10(8 e 10(9 conidia mL-1 are promissing for use the integrated control of A. argillacea larvae, but M. anisopliae seems more effective.O curuquerê-do-algodoeiro (Alabama argillacea é considerado uma das principais pragas do algodoeiro herbáceio no Brasil, com ocorrência comum em vários estágios de crescimento da cultura. Este trabalho avaliou a patogenicidade e selecionou isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana, para lagartas do curuquer

  7. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill y Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin para el control de pupas de Prodiplosis longifila Gagné en el cultivo de esparrago

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    Carolina Cedano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de los hongos entomopatógenos Baeuveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisioplae sobre la s pupas de Prodiplosis longifila para reducir la población de adultos de este insecto. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de dos concentraciones diferentes de propágulos (micelio y conidias de cada entomopatógeno, una fue de 1x10 6 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 25 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno y la otra de 1x10 7 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 40 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno más un testigo sin aplicación. La aplicación se realizó a través del sistema de riego y se inició 15 días después del desaporque (término de cosecha, repitiéndose cada 5 días durante un mes coincidiendo con la etapa de mayor caída de pupas al suelo. El tratamiento de Baeuveria bassiana a la concentración de 1 x10 7 propágulos /mililitro presentó el 5 3 . 4 % de las pupas en el suelo con micelio del hongo. Estos resultados permiten indicar a B. bassiana como un biocontrolador promisorio de esta plaga.

  8. Cordyceps bassiana

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    Jin, Enze; Han, Seongho; Son, Mina; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps belongs to a genus of acormycete fungi and is known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Cordyceps species on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and their underlying molecular mechanism. A cell proliferation assay showed that Cordyceps bassiana ethanol extract (CBEE) significantly inhibited VSMC proliferation. In addition, neointimal formation was significantly reduced by treatment with CBEE in the carotid artery of balloon-injured rats. We also investigated the effects of CBEE on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway. Western blot analysis revealed increased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in VSMCs treated with CBEE. Pretreatment with U0126 completely abrogated CBEE-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, CBEE exhibited anti-proliferative properties that affected VSMCs through the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. Our data may elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of this natural product .

  9. Evaluación de aislamientos nativos de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae para el control del gusano del fruto Heliothis virescens (Fabricius 1771) en el cultivo de tomate Solanum lycopersicum (Mill) en Guasave, Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaxiola Castro, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluaron en laboratorio 10 aislamientos nativos de hongos entomopatógenos, tres de M. anisopliae y siete de B. bassiana sobre larvas de segundo y tercer estadío de gusano del fruto (Heliothis virescens) provenientes de una cría axénica; los dos aislamientos más patogénicos fueron B. bassiana con clave B1 y B2, por presentar mortalidad de larvas superior a 55%. Con estos mismos aislamientos se realizó un bioensayo para determinar la DL50 y la TL50. También se evaluó ...

  10. Estudios de laboratorio para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann (Diptera: Tephritidae (Mosca del Mediterráneo con Beauveria bassiana

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    Luis Porras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de seleccionar cepas promisorias de Beauveria bassiana para el control de Ceratitis capitata, se realizó, en condiciones de laboratorio, una serie de ensayos empleando la mosca adulta como estado vulnerable al parasitismo por el hongo entomopatógeno. Para la selección se utilizó una concentración de 5x109 CV.m-2 del hongo. Se determinó la CL90, la sobrevivencia media (SM, la compatibilidad con insecticidas, además de ensayos de producción con el hongo. Así como la compatibilidad de los insecticidas Mercaptotion 100% CE (Lupara® y Dimetoato 40% CE (Sistémico Icona con las cepas seleccionadas. Se cuantificó la viabilidad de los conidios en platos de Petri pos-tratamiento, a 50, 100 y 200% de la dosis comercial del insecticida. A partir de 7 cepas evaluadas (mortalidad 97-14% fueron seleccionadas la Bb 26, la Bb 259, la Bb 132, y la Bb 238. Los valores de CL90 estuvieron entre 1x109 y 3,8 x1011 CV.m-2 (Bb 238 y Bb 26, respectivamente. La SM de las cepas varió de 7-12 días (Bb 238 y Bb 26, respectivamente. La mayor producción fue de 7x109 UFC.mg-1 y 20,7 g.conidios.kg-1 de arroz (Bb 26. Todas las cepas fueron compatibles con Mercaptotion y la Bb 132 presentó la mayor compatibilidad con el Dimetoato. En conclusión, los ensayos en el laboratorio permitieron seleccionar cepas de B. bassiana con potencial para controlar C. capitata.

  11. Efecto de Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii y la aplicación de gasoil en el control de moscas caseras en galpones avícolas

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    L. J. Cova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar en condiciones de campo la patogenicidad de Beauveria bassiana y Beauveria brongniartii (cepa: LF- 08 y LF-05, respectivamente en comparación con la práctica común de usar gasoil alrededor de los galpones de cría de pollos, como control temporal de Musca domestica. Esporas de B. bassiana y B. brongniartii nebulizadas en el interior de galpones de cría con siete pollos/m2, a dosis de 9 x 107 conidias/ml en 15 L de agua para cada 1200 m2, redujeron significativamente la densidad de moscas adultas. El porcentaje de reducción poblacional se indujo tras nebulizar B. bassiana y B. brongniartii una vez por semana, durante tres semanas, en un 80, 81 y 100% y 24, 85 y 95 %, respectivamente; con presiónentomicida adicional de 94 y 80% a las tres semanas siguientes, respectivamente. La nebulización con agua y aditivos inocuos, en galpones vecinos arrojó valores de reducción de densidad de moscas de 67, 94 y 61%, respectivamente,con presión entomicida adicional de 91%. En los galpones tratados sólo con gasoil, se registró una densidad de moscas de -55, 70 y -115 %, respectivamente, con presión entomicida adicional de 91%. Los resultados permiten concluir que el uso de ambos hongos entomopatógenos es factible para controlar a M. domestica en galpones avícolas, mediante una aplicación semanal durante tres semanas.

  12. Successful Development of Cordyceps bassiana Stromata from Beauveria bassiana

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    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2010-01-01

    A specimen of Beauveria bassiana was collected from Yang-yang of Gangwon province, Korea in October 2006. Conidial isolates were prepared from the specimen by the dilution method and inoculated in brown rice medium for fruiting body production. After nearly two months incubation for perithecial stromata developed from single isolates as well as from their combinations. They were determined as Cordyceps bassiana by observing the stromatal characters and their conidial structures. This is the first report of the development of C. bassiana from B. bassiana cultures. PMID:23956619

  13. Efecto de Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii y la aplicación de gasoil en el control de moscas caseras en galpones avícolas

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    L. J. Cova; J. V. Scorza; D. E. García; L. M. Cañizales; C. C. Guedez; M. L. Avendaño; M. G. Medina

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar en condiciones de campo la patogenicidad de Beauveria bassiana y Beauveria brongniartii (cepa: LF- 08 y LF-05, respectivamente) en comparación con la práctica común de usar gasoil alrededor de los galpones de cría de pollos, como control temporal de Musca domestica. Esporas de B. bassiana y B. brongniartii nebulizadas en el interior de galpones de cría con siete pollos/m2, a dosis de 9 x 107 conidias/ml en ...

  14. Infectivity of housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to different entomopathogenic fungi.

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    Farooq, Muzammil; Freed, Shoaib

    The housefly Musca domestica is a worldwide insect pest that acts as a vector for many pathogenic diseases in both people and animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the virulence of different local isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea on M. domestica using two bioassay techniques: (1) adult immersion and (2) a bait method applied to both larvae and adults. The results showed evidence of a broad range of responses by both stages (larvae and adults) to the tested isolates of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea. These responses were concentration-dependent, with mortality percentages ranging from 53.00% to 96.00%. Because it resulted in lower LC 50 values and a shorter lethal time, B. bassiana (Bb-01) proved to be the most virulent isolate against both housefly larvae and adults. Sublethal doses of the tested isolates were also assessed to evaluate their effect on M. domestica fecundity and longevity. The fungal infections reduced housefly survival regardless of their sex and also decreased egg production in females. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeito de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos de Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae = Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on adults of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos do parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov. Foram utilizados os isolados Esalq 447 de B. bassiana e E9 de M. anisopliae, na concentração de 107 conídios mL-1. Os resultados mostraram que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae não reduziram a longevidade média do parasitóide. B. bassiana proporcionou porcentagem de mortalidade total de 26% e porcentagem de mortalidade confirmada de 21%, já M.anisopliae causou mortalidade total de 15% e confirmada de 9%, demonstrando que M. anisopliae foi menos agressivo. Portanto, em função dos resultados apresentados, a implementação no manejo integrado de P. xylostella com M. anisopliae, B. bassiana e O.sokolowskii pode ser uma excelente alternativa para otimizar o sistema produtivo das brássicas.The selectivity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to adults of the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov was evaluated. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and Esalq 447 of B. bassiana were used at the concentration of 107 conidia mL-1. The results showed that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae reduced significantly the mean longevity of the adults about 6.7 and 4.7 days respectively. B. bassiana induced 26% and 21% of total and confirmed mortalities, respectively, while M. anisopliae caused 15% and 9% of total and confirmedmortalities, showing that the isolate of M. anisopliae was less aggressive. Therefore, in function of the presented results the combination of M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and O. sokolowskii in the integrated management of P. xylostella may be an excellent alternative for optimizing the cabbage growing system.

  16. (coleoptera: curculionidae) to beauveria bassiana and metarhizium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS (MOSTCH.) (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE. Addis Teshome1 and Tadele Tefera 2, ∗. 1 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako Research Centre, PO Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2 Department ...

  17. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

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    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  18. Production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes by Beauveria bassiana

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    Józefa Chrzanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of proteolytic enzymes by two strains of Beauveria bassiana 278, B. bassiana 446 and one strain of Ascosphera apis 496 was analysed. It was demonstrated that the strain of B. bassiana 278 proved to be the best producer of basic and acid proteases. The influence of different environmental factors such as nitrogen and carbon sources on the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes was assessed. In addition the acid protease from B. bassiana was partially characterized.

  19. Beauveria bassiana: Quercetinase production and genetic diversity

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    Eula Maria de M. B., Costa; Fabiana Cristina, Pimenta; Christian, Luz; Valéria de, Oliveira; Marília, Oliveira; Elda, Bueno; Silvana, Petrofeza

    2011-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana genetic diversity and ability to synthesize quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (quercetinase) were analyzed. B. bassiana isolates, obtained from Brazilian soil samples, produced quercetinase after induction using 0.5 g/L quercetin. B. bassiana ATCC 7159 (29.6 nmol/mL/min) and isolate IP 11 (27.5 nmol/ml/min) showed the best performances and IP 3a (9.5 nmol/mL/min) presented the lowest level of quercetinase activity in the culture supernatant. A high level of polymorphism was detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The use of internal-transcribed-spacer ribosomal region restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) did not reveal characteristic markers to differentiate isolates. However, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequence analysis provided more information on polymorphism among the isolates, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity into three large groups. Correlation was tested according to the Person's correlation. Data of our studies showed, that lower associations among groups, level of quercetinase production, or geographical origin could be observed. This study presents the production of a novel biocatalyst by B. bassiana and suggests the possible industrial application of this fungal species in large-scale biotechnological manufacture of quercetinase. PMID:24031599

  20. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  1. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenecity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates of Ethiopian origin on eggs and adults of the two spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, effect of temperature on virulence, as well as potentials of isolates in the greenhouse condition was assessed during October 2008 ...

  2. Pertumbuhan dan Reproduksi Lalat Musca domestica pada Berbagai Media Perkembangbiakan

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    Endang Puji Astuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Musca domestica was insect that disturbing human and other animal. Intensity M. Domestica with human living includes public healthy. The aim of research is to observe succeed of Mdomestica in breeding wether difJerent place. Larva growth in each stadia was different, 2-4 days average. Its contributed by humidity. On dry container, pupae that succes eksklosi only 50%. Presentation offood show difJerences oflarvae development. 3rd stage of larvae that has enough food is 17mm in length and 12mm in length for larvae with less food. Salty water make larvae growing faster than water without salto Development of Musca domestica in laboratory injluenced by high humidity, preset of food and adaptation of Musca domestica its self.Keywords : Musca domestica, rearing, development, humidity, food, salt - water

  3. Using the fungus Entomophthora muscae (chon Fresenius to eliminate some larval roles of Musca domestica

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    Walaa Yas Lahmood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studied effect serial concentrations from spores filtrate of fungus Entomophthora muscae on some larval roles of musca domestica in laboratory. Results were made clear that the insect roles are sensitive to fungus, and treated the food larva of musca domestica and sprinkle it by concentration 2.8×106 , 2.8×107, 2.8×108 (spore/ml has led to get rates of destruction of cumulative faculty certified on the concentration and time its magnitude 16.60 , 47.67, 53.30 % respectively , also recorded some phenotypic distortion infected dead larva represent by contraction and blackening body. The treatment of pupael by sprinkling the previous fungus concentration recorded rate of destruction of accumulative faculty its magnitude 13.33, 26.67, 33.33% respectively, also the rates emergence of adults ranged between 66.67 – 86.67 % in comparison with rates of emergence of adults in control treatment 96.67% The results are made clear that adults treatment by sprinkle with last concentration from fungus spore filtrate recorded rates of distraction its magnitude 46.61, 56.67, 70% respectively after one week from treatment .

  4. Parasite protozoa of importance in public health picked up by Musca domestica Linnaeus in Lima, Peru

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    Cárdenas, Martín; Martínez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudia...

  5. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    (moringa e Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (sementes, folhas e raízes e Melia azedarach,(cinamomo Nerium oleander, (espirradeira Azadirachta indica (nim (apenas folhas, na mortalidade e repelência de H. hampei, e sua compatibilidade com Beauveria bassiana, importante inimigo natural desta praga. Para avaliar a mortalidade, ofereceram-se aos adultos, folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L tratadas por imersão em solução de endosulfan e em extratos vegetais na concentração de 10%. A repelência foi avaliada em testes com e sem chance de escolha, entre frutos de cafeeiro tratados e não tratados. A compatibilidade entre os extratos e Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 foi analisada quantificando a germinação, unidades formadoras de colônias, crescimento vegetativo e produção/produtividade de conídios. As maiores mortalidades foram observadas quando folhas foram tratadas com o extrato etanólico das de T. purpurea (folhas que não diferiu do endosulfan, e de extrato aquoso e etanólico da semente de M. oleifera. Em testes com chance de escolha, todos os extratos etanólicos possuíram ação repelente, sendo que a maior repelência foi causada por M. oleifera (raiz e T. purpurea (semente. Os extratos aquosos de folhas e semente de M. oleifera e de folhas de N. oleander apresentaram a maior repelência. Nos ensaios sem chance de escolha o maior nível de repelência foi para frutos de cafeeiro tratados com A. indica (folhas. O extrato etanólico de folhas de M. oleifera afetou negativamente a germinação. Estes estudos mostraram o potencial desses extratos para uso a campo como uma alternativa ao controle químico, sendo também seletivos para B. bassiana.

  6. Effects of the temperature and storage on formulations with Mycelia of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson J. Marques

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with preparation of experimental formulations with mycelia of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The formulations were prepared with sodium alginate and pre-gelatinized corn-starch. They were kept at 25, 30 and 35±1ºC. Pre-gelatinized corn starch was more suitable that the sodium alginate for the preparations of formulations with mycelia of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae.Este estudo visou a elaboração de formulações experimentais com micélios de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Os experimentos foram desenmvolvidos no laboratório de Patologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, em Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil. As formulações foram preparadas com alginato de sódio e amido de milho pregelatinizado e submetidas às temperaturas de 25,30 e 35ºC 1ºC. O amido de milho pregelatinizado foi mais adequado que o alginato de sódio para elaboração de formulações com micélios de B. bassiana e M. anisopliae.

  7. Mortalitas Aedes albopictus akibat infeksi horizontal Beauveria bassiana dan aktivitas enzim Kitinase Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firda Yanuar Pradani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dengue fever is a disease caused by dengue virus and spread by Aedes aegypti as a primer vector and Ae. albopictus as a secondary vector. The vector control  by using  insecticide was commonly used, however, it caused vector resistance.  Alternative ways of vector control is needed to overcome this problem. Microorganism like bacteria and fungi has potential effect to become insecticides and eliminate vector diseases. Hence, microorganism could be used as one of the alternative ways of vector control. One of potential fungi that has pathogenicity to mosquitoes was Beauveria bassiana.  The purpose of this research was to found out about the effect of conidia  B. bassiana concentration to mortality of A. albopictus. This study also aimed to observe mortality condition of mosquito (feed and unfeed infect by fungi, potential horizontal transfer and chitinase activity produced by B. bassiana. Mortality data were analyzed by univariate test and followed by Tukey’s analysis. The result showed that mortality of A. albopictus is influenced by concentration of conidia.  There is no effect of mosquito condition on mortality rate, and there are no interaction between conidia concentration  and mosquito condition. Mortality rate of A. albopictus in concentration 105 is 23.05% ,while mortality rate in 107 was higher, 31.47%, concentrtion 105 Chitinolotic indexs of B. bassiana is 1.67 and specific activity of enzyme chitinase is 1.0557 unit/mg. Keywords: dengue fever, Beauveria bassiana, conidia concentration, chitinase enzyme Abstrak. Demam berdarah dengue (DBD merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue dan ditularkan melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes aegypti sebagai vektor primer dan Ae. albopictus sebagai vektor sekunder. Pengendalian vektor selama ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan insektisida dengan resiko terjadi resistensi. Upaya pencarian insektisida alternatif yang ramah lingkungan dan aman terus dilakukan dengan melakukan

  8. Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana sobre estágios imaturos de Stomoxys calcitrans Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana on immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Moraes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Por ser um díptero hematófago, a mosca Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758 ocasiona grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira. Atualmente, pesquisas têm sido direcionadas para métodos de controle que reduzam a utilização de inseticidas químicos e que preservem o meio ambiente. Este estudo avaliou o potencial entomopatogênico dos isolados CG 138 e CG 228 de Beauveria bassiana sobre ovos, larvas e pupas de S. calcitrans em condições ambientais e o isolado ESALQ 986 de B. bassiana em ovos, nas mesmas condições. Para cada isolado fúngico, foram utilizadas as concentrações de 2x10(6, 2x10(7 e 2x10(8 conídios ml-1. Os resultados sugerem que os isolados CG 138, CG 228 e ESALQ 986 apresentaram efeito saprofítico, pois não afetaram significativamente o desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos da mosca dos estábulos, comprometendo dessa forma sua utilização como agente entomopatogênico.Because it is a hemathofagic diptera, the Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758 inflicts great losses in the Brazilian cattle. Nowadays, researches have been directed to the control methods that reduce the use of chemical insecticides and preserve the environment. This study evaluated the entomopathogenic potential of the isolated CG 138 and CG 228 of Beauveria bassiana on eggs, larvae and pupae of S. calcitrans in environmental conditions and the isolated ESALQ 986 of B. bassiana in eggs. For each fungal isolated were used concentrations of 2x10(6, 2x10(7 and 2x10(8 conidia ml-1. The results suggest that the isolated CG 138, CG 228, ESALQ 986 present a saprophytic effect, because they did not affect significantly the development of immature stages of the stable flies, affecting this way its use as entomopathogenic agent.

  9. Efek Beauveria bassiana pada Anopheles maculatus Fase Aquatik di Laboratorium

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    Bina Ikawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBeauveria bassiana can be used both as for controlling agricultural insect and protecting health. Thisstudy aims to examine the effects of aquatic phase of B. bassiana on An. maculatus in the laboratory.Samples were eggs and larvae of An. maculatus reared from Banjarnegara colony. Eggs and instarlarvae II, III and IV and their control which consisted of 10 larvae/eggs were replicated six times andcontacted to B. bassiana spores for 15 minutes and then transferred to aquades to be maintained forobservation, in every 24 hours as long as 192 hours (8 days. Probit analysis found that applicationof B. bassiana caused damage of external coat of eggs and inhibited >60% of unhatched eggs. Lethaldosage was dosage spores of 1,713x107 (16 days, whereas the lethal dose required to make 50% ofunperached eggs is a dose of spore concentration of 1,361x107 (11.6 days. Higher concentrationswill be needed to know the faster effects B bassiana on An. maculatus larvae or eggs.Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Anopheles maculatus, aquatic phase, laboratory AbstrakBeauveria bassiana dapat digunakan baik sebagai pengendali serangga pertanian maupun kesehatan.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji efek B. bassiana terhadap An. maculatus pada fase akuatik dilaboratorium. Sampel uji berupa telur dan larva An. maculatus dari koloni Banjarnegara. Telur danlarva instar II,III dan IV serta kontrol masing-masing sebanyak 10 ekor/butir dengan replikasi 6 kalidikontakkan dengan spora B. bassiana selama 15 menit dan selanjutnya dipindahkan ke aquadesuntuk dipelihara untuk dilakukan pengamatan, pengamatan dengan mikroskop compound terutamapada larva yang lemah/mati setiap 24 jam selama 192 jam (8 hari. Analisis probit membuktikanbahwa aplikasi B. bassiana pada telur menimbulkan efek kerusakan pada lapisan luar telur diketahuidari pengamatan dengan mikroskop serta mampu menghambat >60% telur tidak menetas. Simulasidengan análisis probit menunjukkan lethal dose yang dibutuhkan

  10. The Early Time History of Nova Muscae 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A.

    1991-01-01

    Nova Muscae 1991 (GRS 1121-684) was discovered by the Watch all-sky x-ray monitor in January 1991, shortly after the start of the outburst. The observations reported here cover part of the initial rise to maximum light in the 6-100 keV range, and the first two weeks of decline. During this period...

  11. Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae) to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Renato Cassol de; Alves, Luis Francisco Angeli; Neves, Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro

    2002-01-01

    A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliare...

  12. Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinnon, Aimee C.; Saari, Susanna Talvikki; Moran-Diez, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increased focus on the potential of endophytic Beauveria bassiana for the biocontrol of insect herbivores. Generally, detection of endophytes is acknowledged to be problematic and recovery method-dependent. Herein, we critically analyse the methodology reported...... for the detection of B. bassiana as endophytes following experimental inoculation. In light of the methodology, we further review the effects of endophytic B. bassiana on insect herbivores. Our review indicated the need for stringent protocols for surface sterilisation including thorough experimental controls....... For molecular detection protocols by PCR, residual DNA from surface inocula must also be considered. The biocontrol potential of B. bassiana endophytes appears promising although both negative and neutral effects on insect herbivores were reported and there remains ambiguity with respect to the location...

  13. Suscetibilidade de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae ao fungo Beauveria bassiana Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cassol de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliares de erva-mate (2,2 cm² foram previamente infestados com 20 fêmeas adultas. Alíquotas de 1 mL de cada suspensão de conídios dos diferentes isolados de B. bassiana, ajustadas na concentração de 1,0x10(8 conídios mL-1 foram pulverizadas, separadamente, sobre um conjunto de 5 discos. Os discos foliares foram mantidos flutuando em água destilada, em caixas plásticas (3 cm de diâmetro, sob condições controladas. Diariamente, os ácaros mortos foram transferidos para câmara úmida, para confirmação de mortalidade causada pelo fungo. A mortalidade total variou entre 77 e 98% (6 dias após a aplicação, não permitindo diferenciar os isolados quanto à virulência (P>0,05. Já a mortalidade confirmada variou entre 19 e 75%, permitindo diferenciá-los (PThe Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis crop is an important economical activity in Southern Brazil. With the increase of tea consumption in the 80s, the number of monoculture crops also increased, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophagous insect and mite populations, such as the red mite Oligonychus yothersi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the red mite O. yothersi to the several strains of the Beauveria bassiana fungus. The experiments were carried out in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. Leaf disks of Paraguay tea (2.2 cm² were previously infested with 20 adult females. Five disks were inoculated with 1 mL of each conidial suspension of B

  14. Insectistatic and insecticide activity of Beauveria bassiana in Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae

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    Víctor H. Marín-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Bradysia impatiens causa pérdidas significativas en viveros e invernaderos de México. Objetivo: El efecto insecticida e insectistático de Beauveria bassiana se evaluó sobre B. impatiens. Materiales y métodos: El efecto insecticida e insectistático de conidios (10 7 conidios·mL -1 , enzimas (10 000 ppm, metabolitos (10 000 ppm y extracto crudo de B. bassiana se evaluó a los 8 y 20 días. Los datos de mortalidad corregida de larvas y pupas de B. impatiens y emergencia relativa de adultos, transformados con la función arcoseno, se sometieron a un análisis de varianza y comparación de medias de Tukey ( P < 0.05. Resultados y discusión: En el día 8, los conidios tuvieron la mayor actividad insecticida con 31.1 % de mortalidad corregida, mientras que la actividad de las enzimas fue nula. A los 20 días, los tratamientos de metabolitos y conidios tuvieron el mayor efecto en la mortalidad, 47.5 y 42.1 %, respectivamente. Dichos tratamientos tuvieron la mayor actividad insectistática. La emergencia de adultos a los 20 días fue menor con los conidios (6 %, mientras que con las enzimas fue de 100 %. Los metabolitos provocaron que 65 % de los adultos mostraran malformaciones. Conclusión: Los metabolitos y conidios de B. bassiana podrían emplearse para el control de larvas y pupas de B. impatiens.

  15. Effect Of Beauveria Bassiana Doses On Spodoptera Litura Mortality

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    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is a parasitic mold for insect it is commonly used as a control agent. Spodoptera litura is insect pest attacked tobacco plants in Salatiga. This studied would give analysis the effectiveness of B. Bassiana on S. litura larvae mortality with various doses. B. bassiana was obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board BPTBUN in Salatiga Central Java as dust formulation. The S. litura. larvae were obtained from tobacco farm then adapted to laboratory environment for two days before used for Bioessay. There were five different doses treatment 1g 100 mL-1 2g 100 mL-1 4g 100 mL-1 8g 100 mL-1 and 0 g 100 mL-1 as control. Each treatment used 10 larvae and repeated five times. The result showed that B. bassiana with 8 g100 mL-1 concentration was more effective to kill S.litura larvae than others doses. The important finding of this research is that B. Bassiana can be used to control S. litura larvae safely and not pollute the environment.

  16. Influência da temperatura e do tipo de substrato na produção de larvas de Musca domestica linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Cruz Weigert; Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo; Daniel Loebmann; José Augusto Reis Nunes; Antonio Luís Garcia dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Em sala climatizada no Ranário Experimental da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (REURG), quatro moscários foram preparados, colocando-se em cada um cerca de 5000 pupas de Musca domestica. Após o nascimento das moscas, cada moscário recebeu, além das bandejas com alimento (açúcar e leite), uma bandeja com substrato para postura, constituído de farelo de trigo umedecido. Diariamente os substratos para postura foram homogeneizados e distribuídos entre 15 bandejas pequenas, acondiciona...

  17. Musca domestica como vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en mercados y basurales de Lima y Callao

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    Vilma Béjar C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Demostrar que la mosca doméstica (Musca domestica es un vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en distritos de Lima y Callao. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo transversal. Unidad de estudio: Musca domestica. Entre mayo de 2004 y julio de 2005 se realizó un muestreo en diferentes distritos de las provincias de Lima y el Callao teniendo en cuenta el índice de infestación de cada zona elegida. Se recolectaron moscas de mercados, periferia y basurales aledaños. En el laboratorio fueron procesadas en medios de cultivo para aislamiento de enterobacterias y su identificación. Resultados: De un total de 780 moscas domésticas se aisló Escherichia coli enteropatógena, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se estableció una relación directa entre el hallazgo de bacterias enteropatógenas y las zonas de mayor grado de infestación (20 moscas/hora de observación. Conclusión: El aislamiento de bacterias enteropatógenas en Musca domestica permitió demostrar su papel vector.

  18. Results of target tracking with a Musca domestica inspired sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Robert W; Khan, Arif; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Frost, Susan

    2014-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous work done at the University of Wyoming (and presented at a previous Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium), this paper discusses the results of using a Musca domestica based sensor platform as a target tracking mechanism for the measurement of wing deflection of fixed-wing aircraft. The testing of the sensor hardware and accompanying software is described, and the results are analyzed. Work remains to be done to improve robustness and adaptability, but given specific operating conditions, the sensor is a viable alternative to other technologies, and provides results with improved efficiency, speed, and computational load.

  19. Immune Response of Mormon Crickets to Infection by Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex), a tettigoniid, is a major pest of crops and rangeland in the western United States. Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungi that serves as a biological control agent of this pest and other grasshoppers. Adult Mormon crickets were drawn from a topical bio...

  20. Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to control the banana weevil. V. Tumuhaise, C.M. Nankinga, C.S. Gold, S. Kyamanywa1, P. Ragama, W.K. Tushemereirwe2. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P.O. Box 7878 Kampala, Uganda. 1Department of Crop Science, Makerere University, P.O. ...

  1. Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to control the banana weevil. V Tumuhaise, C M Nankinga, C S Gold, S Kyamanywa, P Ragama, W K Tushemereirwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Pathogenicity of isolates of Beauveria bassiana to the banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to screen ten isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana for pathogencity against C.sordidus. Twenty weevils were inoculated with the fungus by dipping them into a fungal suspension containing 1x108 conidia ml-1 for 11 seconds. The suspension was then drained out and ...

  3. Patogenicidad del hongo Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre la chinche Monalion dissimulatum distant plaga del cacaotero Teobroma Cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Dora A.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensayos previos con varias especies de hongos entomopatógenos sobre la chinche Monalion dissimulatum Distant (Hem.; Miridae dieron prioridad al patógeno Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Se evaluaron dos cepas de B. bassiana una procedente de Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier (Col; Curculionidae (Bb T 011 y otra aislada de M. dissimulatum (Bb 012, a dosis crecientes de 1 x 106,2.5 X 103,5 X 103,7.5 X 103 y 1 X 109 conidias/ml. Todos los insectos tratados, independiente de su estado de desarrollo biológico, fueron susceptibles al ataque patogénico de las dos cepas. Para ambas cepas fungosas, la dosis a la cual se obtuvo el mayor porcentaje de mortalidad significativa estuvo entre 2.5 x 103 y 7.5 X 103 conidias/ml, con mortalidades que variaron entre 33.75 - 49.75 y 43.75 - 62.5 para Bb T 011,68.75.86.87 y 78.12-89.37 para Bb 012 al cabo de 10 y 15 días respectivamente. La cepa Bb 012 fue más virulenta sobre M. dissimulatum que Bb T 011.Previus test with several entomopathogenic fungus species on Monalonion dissimulatum Distant bug (Hem.; Miridae gave priority to 1he pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Two B. bassiana strains were evaluated: one of them comming from Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier (Col.; Curculionidae (Bb T 011 and the other isolated from M. dissimulatum (Bb 012, to 1 x 106,2.5 X 103,5 X 108,7.5 X 103 and 1 x 109 conidium/ml increasing dosage. All insects treated independently of its biologycal state of development were susceptibles to 1he pathogenic attack of 1he two strains. For OO1hfungis strains 1he dosage at which a higher percentage of significant mortality was obtained ranged between 2.5 x 103 and 7.5 x 1011 conidium/ml with mortality was ranged between 33.75 -49.75 and 43.75 - 62.5 for Bb T 011, 68.75 - 86.87 and 78.12- 89.37 for Bb 012 in 10 and 15 days respectivetly.

  4. Fungos associados à Musca Domestica capturadas através de armadilhas com isca química e busca direta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,E.G.; Borges,M.A.Z.; Valério,H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho avaliou o isolamento de fungos em Musca domestica através da busca direta e por meio de iscas químicas e também a influência desta isca química para o crescimento de fungos encontrados nessas moscas. Foram realizadas coletas usando armadilhas com iscas químicas, compostas do inseticida Imidacloprid e outra por busca direta. Verificou-se que em 71,73% das moscas coletadas por busca direta apresentaram crescimento fúngico, enquanto as moscas capturadas usando iscas químicas aprese...

  5. Controle associado de Alphitobius diaperinuse efeito de microrganismos eficazes no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana Associated control of Alphitobius diaperinus and effect of effective microorganisms in the development of Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de Beauveria bassiana (Bb, terra diatomácea (TD e microrganismos eficazes (EM-4, associados ou não, no controle de Alphitobius diaperinus, e o efeito de EM-4 no desenvolvimento de B. bassiana. Os agentes de controle (Bb, TD e EM-4, em diferentes concentrações e combinações, foram aplicados em uma mistura de cama-de-frango e ração, em que os insetos foram acondicionados por dez dias. Avaliaram-se, in vitro: a germinação, as unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC, o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de conídios de Bb em contato com suspensão aquosa de EM-4 (1% não filtrada e filtrada. Os maiores índices de mortalidade foram observados nos tratamentos TD + Bb + EM-4 e TD + Bb, nas maiores concentrações. Verificou-se efeito não-aditivo sinérgico para TD + Bb nas três concentrações. Nos testes com EM-4 filtrado, não houve diferença em relação à testemunha quanto à germinação e às UFC, entretanto, o crescimento vegetativo e a produtividade de conídios foram negativamente afetados. O uso conjunto de B. bassiana e terra diatomácea, para o manejo de populações de A. diaperinus, pode reduzir o uso de produtos químicos.The objective of this work was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana (Bb, diatomaceous earth (TD and effective microorganisms (EM-4, associated or not, to Alphitobius diaperinus control, and the EM-4 effect on B. bassiana development. The control agents (Bb, TD and EM-4, in different concentrations and combinations, were applied in a mixture of litter and chicken food, where insects had been left per ten days. Conidia germination, colony-forming units (CFU, vegetative growth and the productivity of Bb conidia were evaluated when in contact with a filtered and non filtered watery EM-4 suspension (1%. The highest indices of mortality were observed in the treatments TD + Bb + EM and TD + Bb in the highest concentrations. A synergic non additive effect was

  6. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  7. The Metapleural Secretion of Acromyrmex laticeps (Forel does not have Fungicide Effect on the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

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    Luciane Junqueira

    2014-12-01

    Resumo. A glândula metapleural (GMP é uma estrutura exógena, encontrada apenas nos formicídeos, sendo mais desenvolvida nas fêmeas e operárias, enquanto nos machos ou está atrofiada ou não existe. Tem sido sugerido várias possíveis funções para a secreção produzida por esta glândula, sendo a hipótese de efeito protetor contra entomopatógenos a mais estudada. Para testar esta hipótese, foi aplicada uma suspensão de conídios (1,30 x 106 de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. nas GMP e na porção ântero-superior do metatórax (ASM de fêmeas aladas de Acromyrmex laticeps (Forel, enquanto nos machos a suspensão foi aplicada apenas na porção ASM, pois estes não apresentam o átrio característico da GMP. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a secreção metapleural das fêmeas desta espécie não possui efeito fungicida sobre B. bassiana, e que tanto os machos como as fêmeas alados são sensíveis a este fungo entomopatogênico.

  8. Cultural Characteristics and Fruiting Body Production in Cordyceps bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Tae-Wong

    2010-01-01

    Single ascospore isolates of Cordyceps bassiana were observed for their colony pigmentation on Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract (SDAY) plates and were inoculated in a brown rice medium for production of fruiting bodies. Colony pigmentation did not show any relationship with perithecial stromata formation. The isolates were also grown on opposite sides of SDAY agar plates and were observed for vegetative compatibility. Neither vegetative compatibility nor perithecial stromata could be found to be related to each other. It was concluded that fertile fruiting body production was independent of colony pigmentation and vegetative compatibility. Synnemata formation was found to be more common than perithecial stromata formation. This might be due to its highly conidiogenous anamorphic stage, i.e., Beauveria bassiana. PMID:23956638

  9. Syk-Mediated Suppression of Inflammatory Responses by Cordyceps bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Nam, Gyeong Sug; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-01-01

    The fruit body of artificially cultivated Cordyceps bassiana has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Although it has been suggested that the fruit body has neutraceutic and pharmaceutic biomaterial potential, the exact anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the immunopharmacologic activity of Cordyceps bassiana under in vitro conditions and investigated its anti-inflammatory mechanism. Water extract (Cm-WE) of the fruit body of artificially cultivated Cordyceps bassiana without polysaccharide fractions reduced the expression of the proinflammatory genes cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and promoted the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, this fraction suppressed proliferation and interferon (IFN)-[Formula: see text] production in splenic T lymphocytes. Cm-WE blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-[Formula: see text]B and activator protein (AP)-1 and their upstream inflammatory signaling cascades, including Syk, MEK, and JNK. Using kinase assays, Syk was identified as the target enzyme most strongly inhibited by Cm-WE. These results strongly suggest that Cm-WE suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting Syk kinase activity, with potential implications for novel neutraceutic and pharmaceutic biomaterials.

  10. Immune Response of Mormon Crickets that Survived Infection by Beauveria Bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic Ascomycete fungus that serves as a biological control agent of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) and other grasshopper pests. To measure the dose dependent response of Mormon crickets to fungal attack, we applied B. bassiana strain GHA topically to...

  11. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana

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    M Abdigoudarzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. 

  12. Novel neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column for Drosophila and Musca nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, M; Latli, B; Casida, J E

    1996-10-01

    Neonicotinoids such as the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) act as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Head membranes of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica have a single high-affinity binding site for [3H]IMI with KD values of 1-2 nM and Bmax values of 560-850 fmol/mg of protein. Locusta and Periplaneta nAChRs isolated with an alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT)-agarose affinity column are known to be alpha-subunit homooligomers. This study uses 1-[N-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-ethyl]amino-1-amino-2-nitroethene++ + (which inhibits [3H]IMI binding to Drosophila and Musca head membranes at 2-3 nM) to develop a neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column. The procedure-introduction of Triton-solubilized Drosophila or Musca head membranes into this neonicotinoid-based column, elution with IMI, and analysis by lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamicle gel electrophoresis-gives only three proteins (69, 66, and 61 kDa) tentatively assigned as putative subunits of the nAChR; the same three proteins are obtained with Musca using the alpha-BGT-agarose affinity column. Photoaffinity labeling of the Drosophila and Musca putative subunits from the neonicotinoid column with 125I-alpha-BGT-4-azidosalicylic acid gives a labeled derivative of 66-69 kDa. The yield is 2-5 micrograms of receptor protein from 1 g of Drosophila or Musca heads. Neonicotinoid affinity chromatography to isolate native Drosophila and Musca receptors will facilitate studies on the structure and function of insect nAChRs.

  13. Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae

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    Luciane Modenez Saldivar Xavier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de isolados dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 sob condições de laboratório e em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste de Dourados, MS, durante o ano de 2003. Foram avaliados dez isolados de M. anisopliae e onze de B. bassiana, em laboratório, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições (10 adultos e 5 ninfas/parcela. A patogenicidade de M. anisopliae (Ma69 também foi testada em ninfas e adultos, separadamente, em laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os níveis de mortalidade do percevejo foram maiores com os isolados de M. anisopliae que variaram de 73,3% a 94,7% contra 10,7% a 78,7% para os de B. bassiana. Em casa de vegetação, a porcentagem de mortalidade do percevejo causada pelo fungo Ma69 foi de 57,3% e não foi constatada diferença por este isolado quanto à mortalidade de ninfas e adultos, em laboratório. Todavia, em casa de vegetação, os níveis de mortalidade foram significativamente maiores (pPathogenicity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin to stinkbug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot. The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69 was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stinkbug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%. In greenhouse, stinkbug mortality due to the M. anisopliae

  14. Selection and evaluation of virulence of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. submitted to different temperatureSeleção e avaliação da virulência de isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. submetidos a diferentes temperaturas

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    Junio Tavares Amaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. has been reported as agent of Insects control. It is necessary to investigate the pathogenic activity and also factors such as temperature that might interfere their development, to make sure that could be used in biology program control. The aim of this study was to select isolates of Beauveria bassiana tolerants to high temperatures and to verify the virulence of them before and after exposure. A pre-selection was realized whereby 15 isolates were inoculated in complete medium and incubated at 30C°, 35C° and 40°C. For isolates there was an increase isolates/temperature, were evaluated the germination and colony forming units (CFU. No development of any isolated was found at temperatures of 35 and 40°C and the best percentage of germination in CFU was obtained by Unioeste 4, CG 26 and UEL 24 at 30°C that were inoculated in complete medium at 25°C and 32°C to compare of development parameters. For all isolates there was a germination delay at 32°C and there was no difference between the isolates and neither the temperatures with percentages among 80,1 and 90,4% of colonies formed in CFU. However, for conidia production there was a reduction to all isolates at 32°C. For virulence test was observed a decrease of 88% confirmed adults mortality of Alphitobius diaperinus at 32°C by Unioeste 4 confirmed mortality.O fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals. tem sido relatado como um promissor agente de controle de insetos. É necessário investigar a atividade patogênica e também fatores como a temperatura que pode interferir no seu desenvolvimento, estabelecendo assim bases para o seu uso em programas de controle biológico. O objetivo desse trabalho foi selecionar isolados de Beauveria bassiana tolerantes a temperaturas elevadas e verificar a virulência destes antes e após a exposição às temperaturas. Realizou-se uma pré-seleção, na qual 15 isolados foram inoculados em

  15. Encontro do parasita Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae no Brasil Finding of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasite breeding in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Brazil

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    Carlos H Marchiori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Hemencyrtus herbertii parasitando pupas de Musca domestica em fezes humanas no Brasil.This is the first report of the occurrence of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasitizing pupae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in human feces in Brazil.

  16. Molecular and morphological comparison of two different types of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Shayegh, Hossein; Ahmadi, Amin

    2014-12-01

    Habronema muscae is a spirurid nematode that undergoes developmental stages in the stomach of equids, causing chronic catarrhal gastritis. Despite preceding investigations have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for molecular diagnosis, we aimed to assess the applicability of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences to identify the H. muscae infection and to assess the level of intraspecific variations in this parasite obtained from affected horses in Southern Iran. According to the morphological characterizations, two different isolates of H. muscae were identified. Although the majority of the recovered specimens had normal characterizations of H. muscae, a number of parasites showed an abnormal feature as large, asymmetrical, and thick cuticular extensions was observed at their anterior end (head region) in gross and histologic examinations. Unexpectedly, molecular assay disclosed that both morphologically distinct samples were completely identical to each other based on cox1 sequence. Multiple alignment of the cox1 amino acid sequences showed that all polymorphism sites were silent. Also, phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that H. muscae form a sister group to Spirocerca lupi and Thelazia callipaeda.

  17. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana associado a gel polimerizado de celulose no controle do carrapato Anocentor nitens em teste de campo Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana associated with cellulose polymerized gel in the control of the tick Anocentor nitens in a field test

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    E.J. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados 20 equídeos naturalmente infestados por Anocentor nitens, dos quais seus pavilhões auriculares foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos distintos: gel associado a Beauveria bassiana, apenas gel, apenas B. bassiana e um grupo-controle. Procederam-se à contagem e ao registro do número total de fêmeas adultas (>3mm em cada pavilhão auricular, nos dias 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25 e 28, para cálculo do percentual de controle. Foram coletadas e mantidas em laboratório 20 fêmeas pertencentes a cada tratamento, para cálculo dos períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação e eclosão, e peso médio das posturas. No grupo tratado com o composto gel associado a B. bassiana, observou-se percentual de controle maior que 50%, entre o 4º e o 25º dia, assim como decréscimo progressivo do peso médio da postura das fêmeas coletadas no período entre o 7º e 14º dia. Para os outros tratamentos, o percentual de controle manteve-se abaixo de 20%, e o peso da postura não apresentou diferença significativa. Os percentuais de controle, assim como as reduções no peso médio da postura, sugerem que a utilização do composto gel associado a B. bassiana potencializou a virulência do entomopatógeno.Twenty horses naturally infected by Anocentor nitens were selected and their auricular pinna were submitted to four treatments: gel associated with Beauveria bassiana, gel only, B. bassiana only, and a control group. The count and the register of the total number of grown up tick females (>3mm were performed in each auricular pinna on days 0, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 for the calculus of percentage of control. Twenty females from each treatment were collected and maintained in laboratory, to calculate the periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, and hatching and mean weight of oviposition. In the group treated with the gel associated to B. bassiana, it was observed a control percentage higher than 50% from the 4º

  18. Compatibility between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and insecticides used in coffee plantations Compatibilidade entre o fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana e inseticidas usados na cultura do cafeeiro

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    Carolina Natali de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    controle, reduzindo assim a quantidade de inseticidas. O efeito fungitóxico in vitro das formulações inseticidas de Tiametoxan, Ciflutrin, Deltametrin, Alfacipermetrina, Triazofos, Clorpirifós, Fenpropatrin e Endosulfan em três concentrações (RC= recomendação média para campo, 0,5 ´ RC e 2 ´ RC, foi avaliado sobre a germinação dos conídios, crescimento vegetativo e produção de conídios no fungo Beauveria bassiana. Apenas cinco formulações inseticidas, na concentração RC, proporcionaram viabilidade dos conídios acima de 60%. A viabilidade deve ser considerada o parâmetro mais importante a ser avaliado por ser o passo inicial no processo de infecção. As formulações de Alfacipermetrina, Tiametoxan e Ciflutrin, nas menores concentrações, causaram a menor inibição da germinação, sem diferença em relação à testemunha. Analisando-se o crescimento vegetativo, observou-se que a formulação de Tiametoxan nas menores concentrações, não inibiu o crescimento radial, sendo o crescimento vegetativo nos demais tratamentos inferior à testemunha. A formulação de Tiametoxan também proporcionou a menor inibição na produção de conídios. Os inseticidas com formulações de Alfacipermetrina e Tiametoxan mostraram-se compatíveis com o fungo Beauveria bassiana (CG 425, importante agente natural de controle da broca do café Hypothenemus hampei e podem ser recomendados para MIP no cafeeiro

  19. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  20. Transcriptional response of Musca domestica larvae to bacterial infection.

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    Ting Tang

    Full Text Available The house fly Musca domestica, a cosmopolitan dipteran insect, is a significant vector for human and animal bacterial pathogens, but little is known about its immune response to these pathogens. To address this issue, we inoculated the larvae with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and profiled the transcriptome 6, 24, and 48 h thereafter. Many genes known to controlling innate immunity in insects were induced following infection, including genes encoding pattern recognition proteins (PGRPs, various components of the Toll and IMD signaling pathways and of the proPO-activating and redox systems, and multiple antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, we also uncovered a large set of novel immune response genes including two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides (muscin and domesticin, which might have evolved to adapt to house-fly's unique ecological environments. Finally, genes mediating oxidative phosphorylation were repressed at 48 h post-infection, suggesting disruption of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial function at the late stages of infection. Collectively, our data reveal dynamic changes in gene expression following bacterial infection in the house fly, paving the way for future in-depth analysis of M. domestica's immune system.

  1. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana-28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana-22 extract. The LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae values of B. bassiana-28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana-28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm−1. Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm−1, assigned to N–H stretching, 2927.94 cm−1 assigned to C–H bonding and 1595.13 cm−1 assigned to C–O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N-hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%; Z,Z-9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%; 9-eicosyne (10.832%; heptacosane (5.148%; tetrateracontane (5.801%; and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%. Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana-28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana-28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  2. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  3. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  5. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

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    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  6. X-Ray Transient in Musca (GRS 1121-68 = GS 1124-683)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren; Makino, F.

    1991-01-01

    Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "A new x-ray source in Musca, GRS 1121-68, has been discovered in data obtained by the WATCH detectors on Jan. 9. The spectrum of the source was harder than that of the Crab nebula, and the flux was about twice that from...

  7. A microsatellite marker linkage map of the housefly, Musca domestica : Evidence for male recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeyer, B.; Pen, I.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    We present the first molecular marker linkage map for Musca domestica containing 35 microsatellite plus six visible markers. We report the development of 33 new microsatellite markers of which 19 are included in the linkage map. Two hundred and thirty-six F2 individuals were genotyped from three

  8. Adaptation of Musca domestica L. field population to laboratory breeding causes transcriptional alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H.; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Expression of genes coding for detoxification enzymes play a role in the response of the housefly when encountered by a xenobiotic. The highest level of constitutive gene expression of nine P450...

  9. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    OpenAIRE

    Edith eJoseph; Edith eJoseph; Sylvie eCario; Anaële eSimon; Marie eWörle; Rocco eMazzeo; Pilar eJunier; Daniel eJob

    2012-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxal...

  10. Protection of Metal Artifacts with the Formation of Metal?Oxalates Complexes by Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Ana?le; W?rle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal–oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L−1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid a...

  11. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  12. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

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    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  13. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo.) for the management of mungbean insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, M. S. Y. I.; Prayogo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In order to reduce the use of insecticide, the application of Beauveria bassiana may be an alternative control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of B. bassiana for controlling mungbean pest. The experiment was conducted in Ngale Research Station from February to May 2017, using randomized block design, seven treatments, four replicates. The treatments were frequency of application; P1= six times, P2= five times, P3= four times, P4= three times, P5= once, P6= full protection using chemical insecticide, and P7= no protection. Application of B. bassiana four to six times can suppress the population of Empoasca sp., Riptortus linearis, and Maruca testulalis, but did not significantly different with the application of chemical insecticide. Based on the seed weight, application of B. bassiana six times (659.7 g/plot) led to significantly high as compare with the application of chemical insecticide (374 g/plot). Application of B. bassiana tended to be secure to natural enemies, especially Coccinella sp., Oxyopes javanus, and Paederus fuscipes. Both of those predators were not found on the application of chemical insecticide. Hence, B. bassiana can be recommended as a biological agent in integrated pest management component on mungbean because of effective and environmentally friendly.

  14. Diatomaceous earth increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Tribolium castaneum larvae and increases conidia attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Waseem; Lord, Jeffrey C; Nechols, James R; Howard, Ralph W

    2004-04-01

    This research tested the suppressive ability of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Adults did not show a dose response to B. bassiana, and the addition of diatomaceous earth (DE) did not result in a significant increase in mortality. Against larvae, however, DE at 190 mg/kg grain enhanced the efficacy of B. bassiana at all concentrations ranging from 33 to 2,700 mg of conidia per kilogram of grain. The presence of DE resulted in 17- and 16-fold decreases in the median lethal concentration of B. bassiana at 56 and 75% RH, respectively. No significant differences in larval mortality in response to B. bassiana and diatomaceous earth alone or in combination were found between 56 and 75% RH. Conidial attachment to larvae was significantly greater with 190 mg/kg DE than without it. The partial analysis of lipids taken up by DE from the larvae revealed the removal of phospholipids and long-chain fatty acids. These results support the hypothesis that diatomaceous earth enhances the efficacy of B. bassiana against larval T. castaneum, at least in part by damaging the insect cuticle, thus increasing conidial attachment and making nutrients more available to conidia for their germination.

  15. The enhancement by caffeine of the frequency of lethal dominant mutation induced by gamma radiation in oocytes of Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targa, H.J.; Rogatko, A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained, when a new technique for feeding insects is employed, on the effects of caffeine of the radiation - induced breaks of oocyte chromatids of Musca domestica are presented. (M.A.) [pt

  16. House Fly (Musca domestica L. (Diptera Muscidae Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L. (Díptera Muscidae en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L. and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, larva mortality, pupa size, and weight and time of development to the adult stage were assessed. Results show that swine, poultry and calf manure produced a significantly higher number of adult flies, shorter life cycles and larger and heavier pupae. Cow, dog, goat and horse manure follow in effectiviveness for fly production. Composted swine manure was totally ineffective for domestic fly development.En algunas comunas del Valle del Huasco, Región de Atacama, Chile, se encuentran diversas explotaciones pecuarias con diferentes sistemas de manejo, las cuales constituyen focos generadores de mosca doméstica, Musca domestica L., y otras especies de moscas con importancia sanitaria y médica. Estos insectos provocan pérdidas económicas en dichos planteles afectando además el bienestar de poblaciones urbanas cercanas. Con el objetivo de cuantificar la importancia de dichos focos en la generación de mosca doméstica, se realizó un ensayo de laboratorio donde se evaluó como sustrato de desarrollo del insecto estiércol de diferentes especies animales y estiércol de cerdo compostado. La calidad de estos sustratos en la producción del insecto se evaluó a través de los siguientes parámetros biológicos: tiempo de desarrollo de larvas, mortalidad de larvas, tamaño y peso de pupas, y tiempo hasta la emergencia de moscas adultas. Los resultados indicaron que el estiércol de cerdo, gallina y ternero produce significativamente más moscas adultas, con un

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopic Morphological Study and Flow Cytometric Viability Assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii Susceptible to Musca domestica cecropin

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Shuiqing; Li, Rongjiang; Feng, Yongwen; Wang, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the extremely limited armamentarium. Expectations about antimicrobial peptides' use as new powerful antibacterial agents have been raised on the basis of their unique mechanism of action. Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc), a novel antimicrobial peptide from the larvae of Housefly (Musca domestica), has potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. Here we evaluated the...

  18. Field Studies of Entomophthora (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales)-Induced Behavioral Fever in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, V.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner

    2001-01-01

    House flies were collected over 3 days (three to five times per day) from specific sites on a dairy farm with a range of high to low temperatures. Flies were held individually to determine whether the distribution of fungus-infected (Entomophthora muscae and E. schizophorae) house flies differed ...... that behavioral fever occurs in the field for flies infected with both E. muscae and E. schizophorae and that flies can cure themselves of infection through the use of artificial heat sources....

  19. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Entomophthora muscae — moisture as a factor affecting its transmission and conidial germination

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    John P. Kramer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The role played by moisture in the transmission of Entomophthora muscae and in the germination of its conidia was investigated. A majority of adult house flies exposed to conidial showers that fell upon surfaces covered with droplets of condensation acquired the parasite, while no flies exposed to conidial showers that fell upon dry surfaces did so. A microscopical study of conidial showers showed that germination was practically non-existent on dry surfaces while a vast majority of conidia that fell upon a droplet-covered surface germinated. A method for the in vivo culture of E. muscae was developpd and 11 serial passages of the fungus were achieved. Resting spores rather than conidia became the dominant form produced in the cadavers, and flies in a twelfth group remained unifected.

  1. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  2. Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Larva Musca Domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam Beberapa Jenis Kotoran Ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Rosyad, Abdul; Kinasih, Ida

    2013-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly's life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  3. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani Eka Putra; Abdul Rosyad; Ida Kinasih

    2015-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  4. Pengaruh Beauveria bassiana terhadap Mortalitas Semut Rangrang Oecophylla smaragdina (F. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Sodiq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the laboratory and cacao plantation in Kaliwining Jember, during August to November 2008. The objective of this research was to study the effect of B. bassiana on the mortality of larvae, pupae and adults of O. smaragdina. A factorial completly randomized design was used in the laboratory experiment. Two factors were tested in the experiment, the first factor was spore concentration; the second factor was the stadia of the ants (larva, pupa and adult. The experiment was replicated, 4 (four times. The field research used a randomized block complete design with four treatments and four replications. Results of this study showed that B. bassiana was the mortality source of larva, pupa and adult stages of O. smaragdina. A concentration of 108 spores/ml B. bassiana was effective to control larvae and pupae of O. smaragdina.

  5. Polymorphism of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitina, G V; Tokarev, Y S; Movila, A A; Yli-Mattila, T

    2011-03-01

    Polymorphism of 10 Beauveria bassiana strains, isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Moldova, was evaluated using traditional (morphological and cultural properties) and molecular (RAPD patterns and ITS sequences) methods. The isolates differed greatly in morphological and cultural features, such as color, consistence, and growth rate. Four RAPD-PCR markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of the strains. Phylogenetic neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD patterns divided strains into 3 major clades. The ITS sequences of 8 strains were identical to those of known B. bassiana strains. Two subsets (1 and 2) different by one nucleotide change were found in the ITS1 region. One strain of subset 1 was different from known B. bassiana strains by possessing 2 point mutations in the ITS region. RAPD-based clustering correlated to ITS sequence and colony morphology-based grouping of the strains. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  7. Protozoarios parásitos de importancia en salud pública transportados por Musca domestica Linnaeus en Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Cárdenas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudiaron un total de 100 lotes. Las moscas fueron disecadas y procesadas con agua destilada estéril para obtener un macerado intestinal. Para la observación de los parásitos se utilizó el método directo simple y la coloración tricrómica de Gomori ácido resistente modificado. Se encontraron los siguientes protozoarios que parasitan al hombre: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%, Giardia lamblia (3,0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%, Endolimax nana (5,0% y Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%. Se reporta por primera vez para el Perú a B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis en M. domestica.

  8. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE Chrysomya albiceps A Beauveria bassiana EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHRYSOMYA ALBICEPS TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann é um importante vetor de doenças de animais e humanos, e também causador de miíases secundárias. Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, sobre ovos, larvas e adultos em condições de laboratório climatizado sob a temperatura de 28 ± 1 °C. Foram feitas suspensões de conídios (104, 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios.mL-1, para análise dos parâmetros biológicos. No bioensaio com ovos, o percentual de eclosão variou de 84,81% a 97,22%. No bioensaio com larvas, o período de pré-pupa variou de 1 a 1,04 e de pupa, de 5,00 a 5,09 dias; o percentual de emergência de adultos a partir de larvas tratadas variou de 30,88% a 80,82%. No bioensaio com adultos, a longevidade para machos e fêmeas foi de 4,51 a 6,77 e 10,19 a 14,67 dias, respectivamente; a mortalidade acumulada no 7° dia variou de 47,50 % a 81,20% para machos e de 23,70 % a 55,00% dias para fêmeas; o período de postura variou de 10 a 17,75 dias e o percentual de larvas eclodidas a partir de fêmeas infectadas variou de 71,39% a 91,25%.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fungo entomopatogênico, parâmetros biológicos, patogenicidade.

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann is an important vector of animal and diseases as well as causer of secondary myiasis. In order to minimize the effect of the problems caused by C. albiceps, the pathogenicity of the Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, over eggs, larvae and adults in acclimatized laboratorial conditions under the temperature of 28 ± 1 °C was evaluated. Suspensions of conidia (104, 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia.mL-1

  9. Effect of Storage Temperature on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Viability on Several Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukamto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the entomopatogenous fungus types commonly observed and showed potency as myco-insectiside is Beauveria bassiana(Bals. Vuill.In order to support effectiveness and patogenous activity of B. bassiana, it is necessary to add a carrying agent that protects its spores from ultra violet ray. This study aims to investigate the effect of storage temperature on viability of B. Bassianaspores on the carrier material. The observation was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design by three factors. The first factor was carrier (C, that consists of C1 = rice flour, C2 = maize flour and C3 = tapioca flour. The second factor was dosage (D, that consists of D1 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 1 g carrier; D2 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 5 g carrier and D3 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 10 g carrier. The third factor was temperature of the storage (T,that consists of T1 = 5oC; T2 = 23oC and T3 = 29oC. Viability of B. Bassiana spores was examined by observing development of 100 blastopores randomly and determined under light microscope with 400 times magnification. Observation was conducted in two replicates after the spores of B. bassiana were kept in the storage for 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The result showed that by adding 1 g tapioca flour and temperature of storage of 5oC was potentiall in keeping viability of B. bassianaspores at least for 2 months. It was due to that tapioca flour gave better effect than rice and maize flours in keeping the storage and appropriate low temperature. Viability of B. bassianaspores decreased with increasing carrier dosage, temperature and duration of the storage. Whereas, storage at 5oC was found to be a better condition in keeping viability of dry pure B. bassianaspores longer than conditions of 23o and 29oC. Key word:Beauveria bassiana, temperature, viability,carrier.

  10. RNA-Seq Analyses for Two Silkworm Strains Reveals Insight into Their Susceptibility and Resistance to Beauveria bassiana Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Liang; Li, Qingrong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-02-10

    The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana ) and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana ) using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between treated samples and untreated controls, and between the two silkworm strains, were identified. DEGs and the enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the two strains exhibited an obvious difference. Several genes encoding cuticle proteins, serine proteinase inhibitors (SPI) and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and the drug metabolism pathway involved in toxin detoxification were considered to be related to the resistance of K8 to B. bassiana. These results revealed insight into the resistance and susceptibility of two silkworm strains against B. bassiana infection and provided a roadmap for silkworm molecular breeding to enhance its resistance to B. bassiana .

  11. RNA-Seq Analyses for Two Silkworm Strains Reveals Insight into Their Susceptibility and Resistance to Beauveria bassiana Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Xing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The silkworm Bombyx mori is an economically important species. White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is the main fungal disease in sericulture, and understanding the silkworm responses to B. bassiana infection is of particular interest. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these responses in two silkworm strains Haoyue (HY, sensitive to B. bassiana and Kang 8 (K8, resistant to B. bassiana using an RNA-seq approach. For each strain, three biological replicates for immersion treatment, two replicates for injection treatment and three untreated controls were collected to generate 16 libraries for sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between treated samples and untreated controls, and between the two silkworm strains, were identified. DEGs and the enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways of the two strains exhibited an obvious difference. Several genes encoding cuticle proteins, serine proteinase inhibitors (SPI and antimicrobial peptides (AMP and the drug metabolism pathway involved in toxin detoxification were considered to be related to the resistance of K8 to B. bassiana. These results revealed insight into the resistance and susceptibility of two silkworm strains against B. bassiana infection and provided a roadmap for silkworm molecular breeding to enhance its resistance to B. bassiana.

  12. PATOGENICIDADE DE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. VUILL. AO ÁCARO Tetranychus urticae KOCH PATHOGENICITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. VUILL. AGAINST Tetranychus urticae KOCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tamai

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch foi desenvolvido a 25 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando-se fêmeas recém-emergidas. Os ácaros foram mantidos durante seis dias em discos de folha de Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. inoculadas com B. bassiana, isolado 447, nas concentrações: 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 e 1x109 conídios/ml. Este isolado mostrou-se patogênico a T. urticae, apresentando aumento nos valores das mortalidades acumuladas (total, corrigida e confirmada à medida que a suspensão de conídios se tornou mais concentrada. Nas seis concentrações testadas, os valores de mortalidade corrigida ao sexto dia, foram inferiores a 50%, sendo observada apenas na concentração de 1x109 conídios/ml, mortalidade total superior a 50%.The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. for Tetranychus urticae Koch was studied at 25 ± 2oC, 70 ± 5% RH and 12 h photophase, using recently emerged females. Mites were maintained for 6 days on leaf disks of Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC. inoculated with B. bassiana, isolate 447, at concentrations of 5x106, 1x107, 5x107, 1x108, 5x108 and 1x109 conidia/ml. Progressively higher values of accumulated mortality (total, corrected and confirmed were observed with increasing concentrations of conidia. At all concentrations, corrected mortality was lower than 50% on the sixth day. Total mortality higher than 50% was observed only at concentration of 1x109 conidia/ml.

  13. Ação in vitro dos fungos Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok sobre ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae In vitro action of the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok on ninphs and adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a mortalidade in vitro de ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense frente à ação de isolados dos fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram avaliados três isolados de M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 e dois de B. bassiana (986 e 747. As suspensões de conídios foram preparadas a partir de fungos produzidos em meio de arroz, e cada bioensaio foi constituído de quatro tratamentos nas concentrações 10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conídios/ml e um grupo-controle. A análise constou da observação do percentual de mortalidade, 15 dias após o tratamento ou após a ecdise de adultos. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à mortalidade para todos os isolados e todos os instares. Nos grupos tratados houve aumento considerável na mortalidade à medida que se aumentava a concentração de conídios na suspensão. Conclui-se que todos os isolados testados causaram mortalidade em testes in vitro sobre esses estádios evolutivos, sugerindo o controle do A. cajennense pela ação desses fungos.This work aimed at the evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense nimphs and adults to isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi. Three isolates of M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 and two of B. bassiana (986 e 747 were used. Conidia suspensions were made from fungi grown up in a rice culture medium and each test consisted of four treated groups (10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conidia/ ml plus a control group. Viability of individuals was assessed 15 days after treatment or after adult ecdisis. Significative differences were found for all treatments and for all stages studied. A large reduction in the viability of ticks was observed, and this effect increased as conidia concentration raised. Based upon the results obtained, it can be concluded that all isolates tested presented an in vitro lethality for the biological stages of A. cajennense evaluated

  14. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  15. First report of pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana RBL1034 to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... natural enemies and resultant increased bio-diversity. (Lacey et al., 2001). Moreover, the use of fungal biopesticides could supplement chemical-based control strategies in integrated vector management programmes especially in areas where resistance to insecticides have been reported. B. bassiana may ...

  16. Efficacy Of Beauveria Bassiana Against Helopeltis Sp. On Cacao Theobroma Cacao

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    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cacao Theobroma cacao is the top five major plantation commodities in Indonesia. Cocoa fruits in Temanggung Central Java Province were attacked by fruit sucking insect Helopeltis sp. Helopeltis sp is also known as a major pest in plantation crops in Indonesia. This study aimed to analyzed the mortality of Helopeltis sp. after the application of parasitic fungi Beauveria bassiana in certain doses. B. bassiana used was in form of kaolin powder produced by Plantation Corps Protection Center BPTBUN of Salatiga. This study used four doses of treatment 0 gL-1 100 gL-1 150 gL-1 and 200 gL-1. B. bassiana used had a spore density of 4.2 x 108 sporesg with viability of 67.2. Results of the study showed that B. bassiana could infect and kill Helopeltis sp. The optimum dose to control the population of Helopeltis sp. is 150 gL-1. Spraying was conducted two days in a row then followed by 1 week interval. This study took more than four weeks to completely kill the test insects. The results are useful for the recommendations of biological control agent of Helopeltis sp pest in the field.

  17. Population density of Beauveria bassiana in soil under the action of fungicides and native microbial populations

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    Flávia Barbosa Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether populations of naturally-occurring soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes influence the effect of fungicides on the survival and growth of Beauveria bassiana. The toxicity of methyl thiophanate, pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and copper oxychloride at the recommended doses was analyzed in culture medium and in soil inoculated with fungus at various time points after addition of fungicides. All fungicides completely inhibited the growth and sporulation of B. bassiana in the culture medium. The fungicides were less toxic in soil, emphasizing the action of the microbial populations, which interfered with the toxic effects of these products to the fungus. Actinomycetes had the greatest influence on the entomopathogen, inhibiting it or degrading the fungicides to contribute to the survival and growth of B. bassiana in soil. Native populations of fungi and bacteria had a smaller influence on the population density of B. bassiana and the action of fungicides towards entomopathogen. The toxic effect of the fungicides was greater when added to the soil one hour before or after inoculation than at 48h after inoculation.

  18. Evaluation of Soyscreen in an Oil-based Formulation for UV Protection of Beauveria bassiana Conidia

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoyScreen oil was studied as a formulation ingredient to protect Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia from UV degradation. Feruloylated soy glycerides, referred to as SoyScreen oil, are biobased ultraviolet-absorbing molecules made by combining molecules of soybean oil with ferulic acid. ...

  19. Molecular characterization of a novel amalgavirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koloniuk, Igor; Hrabáková, Lenka; Petrzik, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2015), s. 1585-1588 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13136; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Monopartite DsRNA Virus * Beauveria bassiana * amalgaviruses infecting fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2015

  20. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  1. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

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    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion's leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  2. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  3. Acoustic activity cycles of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) early instars after Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a pest of many crop and ornamental palm tree species in subtropical regions worldwide. Larvae tunnel and feed unseen in the trunks, ultimately causing irreparable harm and killing the palm. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin is under evaluation as ...

  4. BIOEFFICACY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS AGAINST HOUSEFLY, MUSCA DOMESTICA L.

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. CHINTALCHERE; S. LAKARE; R. S. PANDIT

    2013-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect, associated with vectoring of various etiologicalagents. In order to search for effective control method, bioefficacy of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)and Clove leaf (Eugenia coryophyllus) was studied against housefly. The LC (50) 3.18ug/cm2 value of Clove leaf oilwas found highly effective as compared to LC (50) value 4.39ug/cm2 of Thyme essential oil for inducing mortalityof M. domestica larvae. The adulticidal activity o...

  5. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

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    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  6. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  7. Patogenisitas Cendawan Entomopatogen Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes pada Berbagai Stadia Kepik Hijau (Nezara viridula L.

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    Yusmani Prayogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of  Beauveria bassiana Bals. Vuill. (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes on various stages of eggs and nymphs of the green stink bug (Nezara viridula L. . The green stink bug (Nezara viridula L. is one of the important soybean pod-sucking bug besides brown stink bug (Riptortus linearis and  green stink bug (Piezodorus hybneri. Up to now, pest control mostlyrely on the chemical insecticides,  The objectiveof this experiment was to study the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassianaon various stages of eggs and nymphs of the  green stink bug.  Experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Entomology, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI Malang, from January to June 2011. The treatments consists of various eggs and nymphs stages of green stink bug. The results showed that B. bassiana was able to infect the eggs green stink bug both of the newly laid and the six days old eggs.   As a results of this infection, 96% eggs did not hatched.  The younger of eggs, the more susceptible to B. bassiana. The infected egg prolonged hatching periods to three days. B. bassianawas also toxic to all stages of  the green stink bug, especially to the first and second instarswith mortality  rate of 69-96%. The nymph of third, fourth, ad fifth instar and adult  stage were more tolerant to the B. bassiana infection. This study suggest that one way to control green stink bug be  the use of entomopathogen B. bassiana againts their ggs or younginstar.

  8. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  9. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  10. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Lyimo, I.N.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Takken, W.; Russell, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond

  11. Protection of metal artifacts with the formation of metal–oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid a...

  12. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  13. Patogenisitas Isolat Beauveria bassiana dan Metarhizium anisopliae asal Tanah Lebak dan Pasang Surut Sumatera Selatan untuk Agens Hayati Scirpophaga incertulas

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    Rosdah Thalib

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogeicity of Beauveria bassiana and  Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates from Fresh Swamp and  Tidal Lowland, South Sumatra for Scirpophaga incertulas Biological Agents.  The objectives of the research weret o explore and to determine the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic  fungi againts the larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas, and to measure conidial viability and density of the fungi.  The method for fungi exploration used larvae of Tenebrio molitor baiting submerged in the soil.  The soil was taken from fresh swampand tidal lowland rice in South  Sumatra.  From the exploration study, we found two species of entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Mortality of S. incertulas larvae that had been treated topically with fungal conidia (1x106 conidia ml-1 varied among the isolates. The highest mortality (98.33% caused by BPlus isolate of B. Bassiana and the lowest by MtmIn  isolate of M. anisopliae (57.50% and BTmTr  isolate of B. bassiana (57.50%.  The fungal colonies grew fast from the second day up to the fourth day after incubation but the growth became slow after the fifth day.  The highest conidial density was resulted by   BPcMs of B. bassiana isolate (63.33x106 conidia ml-1 but  this density was not significantly different from that of the BPlus  of B. bassiana isolate (63.11x106 conidia ml-1.  The lowest conidial density found in BTmTr of B. bassiana isolate (20.97x106 conidia ml-1 .   The isolate B. bassiana was more effective than M. anisopliae againt the larvae of S.incertulas.

  14. KERAPATAN DAN VIABILITAS SPORA BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS. AKIBAT SUBKULTUR DAN PENGAYAAN MEDIA, SERTA VIRULENSINYA TERHADAP LARVA PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA (LINN.

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    Siti Herlinda, Muhamad Darma Utama, Yulia Pujiastuti, dan Suwandi .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Density and  viability of spores  of  Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. due to sub-cultures and media enriched, and  its virulence against larvae of Plutella xylostella (Linn. This laboratory research was conducted to determine density and  viability of spores of Beauveria bassiana due to sub-cultures and media enriched, and to investigate the fungi virulence againts larvae of Plutella xylostella. B. bassiana was grown in Saborroud Dextrose Broth (SDB  cultures enriched  with  cricket powder. The results showed  that the best sub-culture was the fourth sub-culture enriched with cricket powder, producing  6.05 x 108 spores/ml with 30.7% viability.  The highest  larval mortality was found in the second sub-culture enriched with cricket powder which was reach  78.33%.  The spore density and viability, and  virulence of B. bassiana  grown in sub-culture  without  cricket powder enrichment was consistently decreasing  from the second sub-culture to the eighth. Sub-cultures enriched with cricket powder  could increase density, viability, and virulence of  B. bassiana  in  every sub-culture. Overall, the  enrichment with  cricket powder  up to 0.5% could  increase the density, viability, and virulence of B. bassiana.

  15. Effects of relative humidity, temperature, and population density on production of cuticular hydrocarbons in housefly Musca domestica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N; Den Otter, CJ

    The production of cuticular hydrocarbons by both males and females of Musca domestica L. under very wet conditions (90% relative humidity) compared to the production at 50 and 20% relative humidity is delayed up to at least 3 days after emergence from the pupae. Eight days after emergence, however,

  16. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  17. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  18. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  19. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

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    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  20. Evidence for a massive stellar black hole in x ray Nova Muscae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; Gehrels, Neil; Cheng, F. H.

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that the X-ray Nova Muscae system contains a massive, greater than 10 M solarmass, black hole. A recently measured photometric binary mass function gives the black hole mass for this system as a function of orbital inclination angle. From the spectral redshift and width of the positron annihilation gamma-ray line observed by GRANAT/SIGMA, we find the accretion disk inclination angle to be 22 deg plus or minus 18 deg. Assuming the accretion disk lies in the orbital plane of the system, the black hole mass is found to have a lower limit of 14 M solar mass although statistics are poor. This is supported by spectral modeling of combined optical/UV/x-ray/gamma-ray data and by a new Nova Muscae distance limit we derive of greater than 3 kpc. The large mass for this black hole and the high binary mass ratio it implies (greater than 20) raise a serious challenge to theoretical models of the formation and evolution of massive binaries. The gamma-ray line technique introduced here can give tight constraints on orbital parameters when high-sensitivity line measurements are made by such missions as GRO.

  1. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Antonio; Scasciamacchia, Silvia; Garofolo, Giuliano; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Tarsitano, Elvira; Adone, Rosanna

    2010-08-17

    Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus) was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  2. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

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    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  3. Effects of Persea americana Mill. seed extracts on the postembryonic development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscoide

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    Silvia del C. Molina Bertrán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The synthetic insecticides used to control Diptera are harmful to the environment and humans. Extracts and compounds from plants are a more sustainable source for the development of bio-insecticides. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of Persea americana Mill seeds as an alternative control of the species Musca domestica. Methods: The extracts were obtained by two methods, the Shaker (S and the Soxhlet extraction (SE method, using 94% ethanol as the solvent. Also, the qualitative chemical composition was determined by phytochemical screening. The effect of the two extracts on the post-embryonic development of the fly as well as the adulticidal effect was evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of metabolites such as alkaloids, coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, sugars and amino acids. The influence on the post-embryonic development of M. domestica was demonstrated, especially on the viability of larvae and neolarvae to adults; however, the effect on the weight and duration of each period was low. The adulticidal effects of the extracts were determined by the lethal concentration 50(LC50 of 2.910 mg/100 mL and 3.944 mg/100 mL for the S and SE extracts, respectively. Conclusions: Both extracts showed their insecticidal effects against Musca domestica, but the extract elaborated by S method showed greater influence diminishing viability and better adulticidal effect.

  4. Influência da temperatura e do tipo de substrato na produção de larvas de Musca domestica linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Stefan Cruz Weigert

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Em sala climatizada no Ranário Experimental da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (REURG, quatro moscários foram preparados, colocando-se em cada um cerca de 5000 pupas de Musca domestica. Após o nascimento das moscas, cada moscário recebeu, além das bandejas com alimento (açúcar e leite, uma bandeja com substrato para postura, constituído de farelo de trigo umedecido. Diariamente os substratos para postura foram homogeneizados e distribuídos entre 15 bandejas pequenas, acondicionadas em estufas climatizadas e submetidos a uma combinação de cinco temperaturas (20, 23, 26, 29 e 32ºC e três substratos para a produção de larvas (farelos de arroz, de trigo e de soja. As temperaturas de 20, 23 e 26ºC proporcionaram os melhores resultados de produção de larvas, a qual diminuiu com a elevação da temperatura, indicando ser desnecessária a utilização de aquecimento no larvário em locais onde a temperatura mínima não seja inferior a 20ºC. O farelo de trigo foi o melhor substrato para a produção de larvas de M. domestica. A maior produtividade de larvas foi verificada na 7ª e 8ª posturas.

  5. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  6. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED PESTICIDES ON THE GROWTH OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI HIRSUTELLA NODULOSA AND BEAUVERIA BASSIANA

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    Cezary Tkaczuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three pesticides used in corn protection: Targa Super 05 (chizalofop-P-ethyl, Roundup 360SL (glyphosate and Karate Zeon 050CS (lambda-cyhalothrin, on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi Hirsutella nodulosa Petch and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Fungi isolates were cultured on Sabouraud’s medium with addition of pesticides at three different concentrations. H. nodulosa was more susceptible to pesticides than B. bassiana. The most inhibitory effect on tested entomopathogenic fungi showed chizalofop-P-ethyl herbicide. Lambda-cyhalothrin at the recommended field dose showed minor toxic effect on entomopathogenic fungi, which suggests the possibility of compatible use of this insecticide with biopesticides based on the tested species.

  7. Inoculation methods and virulence of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera:Curculionidae in laboratory / Métodos de inoculação e virulência de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera:Curculionidae em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Francelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to assess different inoculation methods of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar adults, in laboratory conditions on an isolates selection bioassay. Conidial suspensions of UEL151 strain were applied on insects through the following methods: spray, immersion, dorsal and ventral topical. Low mortalities were achieved for all inoculation methods, with a higher value for immersion (21.7% at 37 days after application (DAA, as the rest of methods were significantly lower. The evaluation must be extended to a maximum of 22 DAA because the sporulation rate (confirmed mortality / total mortality decreased with time in all methods, with values of 95.8 and 75.3%, at 22 and 37 DAA, respectively, on the immersion method. Dorsal and ventral topical methods caused not significant C. sordidus virulence, so new tests are necessary with different fungus concentrations.A pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar distintos métodos de inoculação de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. em adultos de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em condições de laboratório para utilização em bioensaios de seleção de isolados. Suspensões de conídios do isolado UEL151 foram aplicadas nos insetos através dos seguintes métodos: pulverização, imersão, tópica dorsal e tópica ventral. Em todos os métodos de inoculação obtiveram-se baixos valores de mortalidade total e confirmada, com valor máximo para a imersão dos insetos (21,7% aos 37 dias após a aplicação (DAA, o qual foi significativamente maior ao resto dos métodos. Verificou-se que a avaliação deve ser de no máximo 22 DAA nas condições deste experimento, já que a taxa de esporulação (mortalidade confirmada/mortalidade total diminuiu com o tempo em todos os métodos, com valores de 95,8 e 75,3%, aos 22 e 37 daa, respectivamente no caso da imersão. Os métodos de inoculação tópica dorsal e ventral não causaram virulência significativa de C. sordidus com B

  8. The mosquito melanization response is implicated in defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

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    Hassan Yassine

    Full Text Available Mosquito immunity studies have focused mainly on characterizing immune effector mechanisms elicited against parasites, bacteria and more recently, viruses. However, those elicited against entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood, despite the ubiquitous nature of these microorganisms and their unique invasion route that bypasses the midgut epithelium, an important immune tissue and physical barrier. Here, we used the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae as a model to investigate the role of melanization, a potent immune effector mechanism of arthropods, in mosquito defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, using in vivo functional genetic analysis and confocal microscopy. The temporal monitoring of fungal growth in mosquitoes injected with B. bassiana conidia showed that melanin eventually formed on all stages, including conidia, germ tubes and hyphae, except the single cell hyphal bodies. Nevertheless, melanin rarely aborted the growth of any of these stages and the mycelium continued growing despite being melanized. Silencing TEP1 and CLIPA8, key positive regulators of Plasmodium and bacterial melanization in A. gambiae, abolished completely melanin formation on hyphae but not on germinating conidia or germ tubes. The detection of a layer of hemocytes surrounding germinating conidia but not hyphae suggested that melanization of early fungal stages is cell-mediated while that of late stages is a humoral response dependent on TEP1 and CLIPA8. Microscopic analysis revealed specific association of TEP1 with surfaces of hyphae and the requirement of both, TEP1 and CLIPA8, for recruiting phenoloxidase to these surfaces. Finally, fungal proliferation was more rapid in TEP1 and CLIPA8 knockdown mosquitoes which exhibited increased sensitivity to natural B. bassiana infections than controls. In sum, the mosquito melanization response retards significantly B. bassiana growth and dissemination, a finding that may be exploited to

  9. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  10. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

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    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  11. Protection of Metal Artifacts with the Formation of Metal-Oxalates Complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Edith; Cario, Sylvie; Simon, Anaële; Wörle, Marie; Mazzeo, Rocco; Junier, Pilar; Job, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g L(-1), and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archeological and modern metal artifacts. The production of copper oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archeological and modern). The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. On silver, a co-precipitation of copper and silver oxalates occurred. As this greenish patina would not be acceptable on silver objects, silver reduction was explored as a tarnishing remediation. First experiments showed the transformation of silver nitrate into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown extracellular mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artifacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  12. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  13. Sensitivity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. to selected herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Katarina; Celar, Franci A

    2013-06-01

    The in vitro effect of six commonly used herbicides viz., amidosulfuron, dicamba, metribuzin, pyridate, S-metolachlor and tembotrione on mycelial growth of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveriabassiana (ATCC 74040) was investigated. Mycelial growthrates at 15 and 25°C were evaluated on PDA plates containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 0% of the recommended application rate of each selected herbicide. The tested herbicides were classified in 4 scoring categories based on reduction of mycelial growth in toxicity tests. All six herbicides had a fungistatic effect of varying intensities, dependent on their rate in medium, on B. bassiana. The present study showed that B. bassiana is sensitive to all tested herbicides, particularly at recommended as well as lower field rates. Metribuzin, S-metolachlor and tembotrione had a strong fungistatic effect on mycelial growth even at rates 25 and 12.5%.Pyridate was slightly harmful, depending on the rate and temperature. Dicamba and amidosulfuron had slight effect on mycelial growth. Sporulation and conidial germination of B. bassiana were significantly inhibited by all tested herbicides. Amidosulfuron and dicamba, both at 100% rate, had the lowest inhibitory effect on sporulation, i.e. 24% and 44%, respectively. Other herbicides in test showed much higher inhibitory effect on sporulation (69-95%). With exception of dicamba with 33% of conidial germination inhibition all other herbicides in test inhibited conidial germination for 70-100%. At 200% dosage, inhibition rates even increased. Of all tested herbicides, amidosulfuron and dicamba showed the least adverse effects and are therefore probably compatible with B. bassiana in the field. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Laboratory evolution of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against Anopheles stephensi larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rahele Veys-Behbahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana fungus bioassay against the larval stages of Anopheles stephensi in Iran. Methods: The fungal suspension by the concentrations of 1伊1 09, 5伊1 08, 1 08, 5伊1 07 and 1伊 107 conidia per milliliter have been prepared in different volumes (2, 4 and 6 mL and each concentration were added to containers containing 25 Anopheles larva instars 1 and 2. The mortality of the dead larvae with abnormal symptoms was recorded as a result of the fungal infection after 24, 48 and 72 h. Results: Comparison between the mean mortality rate of Anopheles stephensi larva at different concentrations of B. bassiana strain Iran 429C at 2, 4 and 6 mL showed that there was no significant relation of the mean mortality rate of larvae at concentrations of 1伊109 and 5伊108, and after 48 h resulted in 100% mortality rate of the larvae populations. In addition, there is no significant differences in the amounts of lethal times (LT (LT50 and LT90 as LT90 values calculated at a concentration of 5伊108 and in volumes 2, 4 and 6 mL were 1.46, 1.36 and 1.08 d, respectively. Conclusions: B. bassiana strain Iran 429C in 2 mL of 5伊108 concentration or the concentration of a 1伊109 mL per 100 mL of water is recommended as the optimal concentration for the control of Anopheles larvae. The development of suitable formulations of entomopathogenic fungi may be a promising prospect in the mosquito control programs.

  15. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 106 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis. PMID:25242941

  16. Effect of surfactants and temperature on germination and vegetative growth of Beauveria bassiana

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    Lizzy A. Mwamburi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three non-ionic surfactants: Tween20, Tween80 and Breakthru® were screened for their effects on spore germination and mycelial growth rates and for their influence on three isolates of Beauveria bassianaspore germination at various temperatures. Tween20 and Tween80 were compatible with all the B. bassiana isolates in the germination studies, but inhibited germination at higher surfactant concentrations, irrespective of the conidial concentrations. Breakthru® had an inhibitory effect on germination even at the lowest concentration of 0.1% on all the B. bassiana isolates. The effects of the surfactants on spore germination did not correspond with their effects on colony growth. Conidial viability within the same formulation declined significantly with increases in temperature, irrespective of the surfactant. The optimal temperature for conidial germination of B. bassiana isolates was approximately 25 °C with an upper limit at 30 °C. Isolate 7320 was identified as the least affected by the different surfactants. This isolate was able to germinate rapidly in a broad temperature range of 25–30 °C after 24 h, this characteristic being an essential factor in controlling house fly populations in poultry houses.

  17. Beauveria bassiana Strains for Biological Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantain

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    Marilene Fancelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select strains of Beauveria bassiana for controlling Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. in plantain farms (cv. Terra of the “Recôncavo” and southern regions in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The virulence of 32 B. bassiana isolates against C. sordidus was determined under laboratory conditions. Three isolates (CNPMF 407, CNPMF 218, and CNPMF 416 were selected for evaluation under field conditions in plantations located in the counties of Mutuípe and Wenceslau Guimarães. Population of C. sordidus was estimated every 15 days by using pseudostem traps. The efficiency of the three strains of B. bassiana was compared to chemical control (carbofuran, 4g/trap and absence of control. Carbofuran caused around 90% of adult mortality after 12 months, with a reduction in the population of C. sordidus since the first evaluation. A low number of trapped insects was observed in the fungus-treated plots, suggesting the efficiency of the isolates in controlling the C. sordidus population. The strain CNPMF 218 was the most efficient in controlling C. sordidus adults in both locations, causing around 20% mortality, leading to 40% population size reduction after 12 months.

  18. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 10(6) spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.

  19. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaquero Rios José Lino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835 Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872. Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 x 10(6 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.

  20. [Population genetic structure of Beauveria bassiana from south and southwest Anhui sericultural regions: ISSR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-li; Cai, Yue; Luan, Feng-gang; Wang, Bin; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2010-12-01

    White muscardine caused by Beauveria bassiana is an important factor affecting sericulture. In the present study, a total of 124 B. bassiana isolates were obtained from the silkworm cadavers, rearing rooms and appliances, surrounding mulberry orchards, pine plantations, and croplands in Jingxian County of south Anhui and Qishan County of southwest Anhui. Together with the mass production strains, the isolates were analyzed for population genetic structure by ISSR markers to trace the origin and the spreading track of the muscardine. The results showed that the two B. bassiana populations in Jingxian County and Qishan County were heterogenic, being monophyletic in Jingxian and polyphyletic in Qishan. Both the Jingxian population and the Qianshan predominant subpopulation were characterized typically by enzootic nature, i.e., low incidence and frequent occurrence, but the Qianshan non-predominant subpopulation could spread among some alternate hosts outside the rearing rooms. The groups prevailing in pine caterpillar populations in the pine plantations of Qianshan and Jingxian, the production strains, and the epizootic strain prevailing in surrounding mantids were all not associated to the silkworm muscardine, displaying safety to sericulture.

  1. Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates pathogenic to Atta bisphaerica and Atta sexdens rubropilosa soldiers under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As formigas do gênero Atta são pragas importantes de diversas culturas agrícolas, pastagens e reflorestamentos. Os fungos entomopatogênicos estão entre os fatores naturais de mortalidade dessas formigas e por isso apresentam potencial para serem usados no controle biológico dessa praga. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana patogênicos a soldados de Atta bisphaerica e Atta sexdens rubropilosa em condições de laboratório. Para a avaliação da patogenicidade, foram utilizados oito isolados de M. anisopliae e seis de B. bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, sendo a parcela composta por um grupo de 10 soldados por espécie de formiga, sendo utilizadas três repetições por tratamento. Para cada isolado, três grupos de soldados foram pulverizados com suspensão de 1,0 x 10(8 conídios ml-1 e mantidos em câmara úmida (25±1°C, 80±1% de UR e no escuro sem alimentação, sendo a mortalidade verificada diariamente. Dos 14 isolados testados, quatro de M. anisopliae e quatro de B. bassiana foram patogênicos aos soldados de ambas as espécies de formigas. A virulência foi avaliada para os isolados que causaram mortalidade igual ou maior a 50%. Para cada isolado, suspensões contendo 1,0 x 10(6 a 1,0 x 10(11 conídios ml-1 foram pulverizadas sobre três grupos de 10 soldados e igualmente acondicionados como no teste de patogenicidade. A porcentagem de mortalidade foi calculada a cada 24 horas para determinação do TL50. O isolado ENA04 de M. anisopliae foi mais patogênico, causando mais de 80% de mortalidade nos primeiros três dias após a inoculação, apresentou maior capacidade de esporular nos cadáveres dos soldados e foi o mais virulento para os soldados de A. bisphaerica, com um TL50 de 1,15 dias. Todos os isolados patogênicos aos soldados de A. sexdens rubropilosa foram igualmente virulentos.The ants of the genus Atta are important pests of several

  2. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used

  3. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated neonicotinoid resistance in the house fly Musca domestica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D K; Kristensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoids play an essential role in the control of house flies Musca domestica. The development of neonicotinoid resistance was found in two field populations. 766b was 130- and 140-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 17- and 28-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively...... impact. Neonicotinoid resistance was in all cases suppressed by PBO. The cytochrome P450 genes CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 were constitutively over-expressed in resistant strains and CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 differentially expressed between sexes. The highest level of CYP6A1 expression was observed in both gender...... of the imidacloprid-selected strain after neonicotinoid exposure. CYP6D1 expression was increased after neonicotinoid exposure in resistant males. CYP6D3 expression was induced in both sexes upon neonicotinoid exposure but significantly higher in females....

  4. Larvicidal efficiency of the fungus Amanita muscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Luiz Paiva Carapeto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the larvicidal action of two formulations of Amanita muscaria against Musca domestica. Two methods of extraction were tested: an aqueous extract from dried, powdered basidiomes (DPB; and an extract from fresh basidiomes liquefied in water (FLB. The mortality caused by the DPB extract varied from 14.67% to 100%. The efficiency of the FLB extract varied from 10.67% to 89.33%. The mean lethal concentration (LC50 of the DPB extract was approximately 1,931.02 ppm, whereas the LC50 for the FLB extract was about 30%. The extracted substances from these methods did not interfere with the development period of immatures and did not influence pupal weight. These results show the potential of A. muscaria extracts for controlling M. domestica.

  5. Plasticity in behavioural responses and resistance to temperature stress in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    2015-01-01

    , at the stressful high temperature Spanish flies flew the furthest and Danish flies the shortest distance. Neither body size nor wing loading affected flight performance, although flies with narrower wings tended to fly further (wing shape effect). Swiss flies were most active in terms of locomotor activity......Organisms can respond to and cope with stressful environments in a number of ways including behavioural, morphological and physiological adjustments. To understand the role of behavioural traits in thermal adaptations we compared heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity, flight...... performance and morphology of three European populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from different thermal conditions (Spain, Switzerland and Denmark) at benign and stressful high temperatures. Spanish flies showed greater heat resistance than Swiss and Danish flies. Similarly...

  6. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. / Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill.

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    Cristiane Mita

    2008-07-01

    reação sobre a atividade de quitinases. O fungo B. bassiana CG432 foi repicado em broca do café Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari e utilizado para preparar o inóculo contendo 108conídios ativados/mL. Estes conídios foram inoculados 1% (v/v em meio de cultura líquido constituído por D-glicose (10g, extrato de levedura (5g, NaNO3 (1,58g, Na2HPO4.7H2O (1,05g, KCl (1g, MgSO4.7H2O (0,6g e KH2PO4 (0,36g por litro. O cultivo foi conduzido a 28°C e 180rpm durante 5 dias. O fluido extracelular do cultivo foi obtido por filtração e centrifugação a 8.000g, e as quitinases foram isoladas e concentradas por ultrafiltração entre membranas de 10 e 100kDa sob pressão de nitrogênio. A atividade das quitinases foi determinada pela quantificação da N-acetilglicosamina liberada pela hidrólise da quitina coloidal durante 60 minutos de incubação a temperaturas de 40 a 60ºC, concentrações iônicas dos tampões acetato de sódio pH 4,0 a 6,0; fosfato de sódio pH 6,0 a 8,0; e glicina-NaOH pH 8,0 a 10,0, a 50, 100 e 200 mM. A atividade das quitinases foi máxima a 45ºC, em pH 5,5, mas também foi elevada em pH 6,0 e 8,5 em concentração iônica de 50mM. A atividade de quitinases aumentou durante uma hora de incubação demonstrando estabilidade das enzimas nas condições ótimas da reação.

  7. Efectos de un Inhibidor de Síntesis de Quitina en el Control de Población de Musca Domestica en una Piara Comercial

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    Hoyos Duque Diego

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La Musca domestica asociada a las actividades pecuarias, se ha convertido en un grave problema económico y sanitario dadas las notables cantidades de desechos orgánicos generados por éstas. Se evaluó la actividad y eficacia de un insecticida inhibidor de la síntesis de quitina administrado en el alimento a cerdos en engorde. Para ello se conformaron tres grupos de animales, uno por tratamiento. A cada grupo se le suministró el insecticida mezclado en el alimento así: 25, 12,5 y 0 ppm. Los animales, durante 15 días, consumieron el alimento medicado. Durante los 7 días siguientes consumieron alimento sin medicar. En ambos periodos se evaluó el efecto del insecticida. Para ello, en los días 2, 6, 9, 12 y 15 del primer periodo, se sembraron muestras fecales con larvas de M. domestica. Igual se hizo a los 2,4, 6 y 8 del segundo periodo. Posteriormente se hicieron los recuentos de transformación de larvas a pupas y de eclosión de adultos, encontrándose un control efectivo tanto de la pupación como de la emergencia de adultos sin diferencia significativa entre las dos dosis utilizadas y significativa entre estas y la de O ppm. Se halló un incremento de la metahemoglobina proporcional a la dosis usada y no se detectaron, con la prueba de ICH, efectos teratogénicos. Se recomienda, para bajar picos poblacionales e implementar un programa integrado de control, el uso de 12,2 ppm, usada en periodos alternados de 7 días, excepto en cerdos de menos de 40 kilos y hembras gestantes.

  8. Interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales and the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

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    F. Emami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, on the biological characteristics of Aphidius colemani, a parasitoid of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, was studied under laboratory conditions. Third-instar nymphs of green peach aphid were infected with 5/3×105 conidia/mL of B. bassiana, which was determined to be the lethal concentration 50 dose. They were then offered to mated female parasitoids for 24 h at different intervals. Results showed that by prolonging the release intervals of parasitoids, the number of mummies and percent emergence of parasitoids were reduced. Moreover, production of male offspring increased in the F1 generation of parasitoids. The interference of B. bassiana with parasitoid development was also studied by first exposing the aphid hosts to the parasitoids for 24 h and subsequently spraying them with B. bassiana 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after exposure. Results showed that by prolonging fungal spraying intervals, the number of mummies and percent emergence of parasitoids were increased. It appeared that the best time for applying B. bassiana would be three to four days after parasitisation.

  9. Studies on the Virome of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Reveal Novel dsRNA Elements and Mild Hypervirulence.

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    Ioly Kotta-Loizou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a wide host range and is used as a biocontrol agent against arthropod pests. Mycoviruses have been described in phytopathogenic fungi while in entomopathogenic fungi their presence has been reported only rarely. Here we show that 21.3% of a collection of B. bassiana isolates sourced from worldwide locations, harbor dsRNA elements. Molecular characterization of these elements revealed the prevalence of mycoviruses belonging to the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae families, the smallest reported virus to date, belonging to the family Narnaviridae, and viruses unassigned to a family or genus. Of particular importance is the discovery of members of a newly proposed family Polymycoviridae in B. bassiana. Polymycoviruses, previously designated as tetramycoviruses, consist of four non-conventionally encapsidated capped dsRNAs. The presence of additional non-homologous genomic segments in B. bassiana polymycoviruses and other fungi illustrates the unprecedented dynamic nature of the viral genome. Finally, a comparison of virus-free and virus-infected isogenic lines derived from an exemplar B. bassiana isolate revealed a mild hypervirulent effect of mycoviruses on the growth of their host isolate and on its pathogenicity against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, highlighting for the first time the potential of mycoviruses as enhancers of biocontrol agents.

  10. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  11. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure....

  12. Selection of optimum conditions of medium acidity and aeration for submerget cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana

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    O. A. Dregval

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of medium pH and aeration rate on growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis and Вeauveria bassiana, which are main constituents of the complex microbial insecticide. It was established optimal medium pH for B. thuringiensis – 6.0 and for В. bassiana – 6.0–7.0. The maximum productivity of the studied microorganisms was observed in the same range of aeration – 7– 14 mmol O2/l/h. The selected conditions of cultivation are necessary for the production of complex biological insecticide based on the association of B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana.

  13. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  14. Pengendalian hama penggerek ubi jalar Cylas formicarius (Fabricus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae menggunakan cendawan entomopatogen Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemen

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    Marida Santi Yudha Ika Bayu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cylas formicarius (Fabricus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae is one of the major pest on sweetpotato which can cause yield lost up to 100%. The objective of this study was to obtain the effective and efficiency control technique of sweetpotato weevils. The research was conducted on June–October 2014 at Muneng Research Station, Probolinggo, East Java, using randomized block design, five treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of immersion of sweetpotato cuttings in the suspension of conidia Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. for 30 minutes before planting; application of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS; immersion of sweetpotato cuttings in the suspension of conidia B. bassiana for 30 minutes before planting combined with application of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 WAS; application of chemical insecticide every week; and control. Analysis of variance showed that the application of various control technique significantly lowered the population of larvae and imago of C. formicarius and the level of tuber damage. The population level found on all treatments ranged from 1–4 eggs/plant, 1–19 larvae/plant, 0–0.2 pupae/plant and 0–4 imago/plant. The weight of tuber was 571–700 g/plant with the level of damage 6–53%. Low level of damage was found in the aplication of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 WAS which were 6%. Application of suspension of conidia B. bassiana on soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 WAS can suppress the population of C. formicarius on tuber and reduce the level of damage up to 48%.

  15. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

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    Quesada-Moraga Enrique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921. Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2% are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled.

  16. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

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    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  17. Detection and Quantification of the Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophyte Beauveria bassiana in Plants by Nested and Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Landa, Blanca B; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The described protocol allows detecting as low as 10 fg the entomopathogenic fungal endophyte Beauveria bassiana in host plants by using a two-step nested PCR with the ITS1F/ITS4 and BB.fw and BB.rv primer pairs. On the other hand, a qPCR protocol using BB.fw and BB.rv primers is also available allowing the quantification of up to 26 fg of B. bassiana DNA per 20 ng of leaf DNA.

  18. Hemocytes quantification in Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females infected by Beauveria bassiana s.l.

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    Maria Clemente de Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Freitas M.C., Coutinho-Rodrigues C.J.B., Perinotto W.M.S., Nogueira M.R.S., Chagas T.T., Marciano A.F., Camargo M.G., Quinelato S., Gôlo P.S., Sá F.A. & Bittencourt V.R.E.P.[Hemocytes quantification in Rhipicephalus microplus engorged females infected by Beauveria bassiana s.l.] Quantifica- ção de hemócitos em fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus microplus infectadas por Beauveria bassiana s.l. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:63- 70, 2015. Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Instituto de Veterinária, Anexo 1, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: vaniabit@ufrrj.br Rhipicephalus microplus tick is an ectoparasite with a great negative impact for veterinary medicine. Under massive infestations cattle may present severe anemia; besides that, ticks can transmit pathogenic agents causing host death. Among the methods used to alternatively control ticks is the use of the arthropodpathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana s.l. that has been considered promising due to the fungus capacity of penetration of full cuticle in all tick developmental stages, colonizing them and causing tick death. Arthropod immune response is basically composed of humoral and cellular components. Several cell types that actively work against microbial infection are present within the hemolymph. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the amount and identify hemocytes present in the hemolymph of R. microplus engorged females artificially inoculated with B. bassiana senso latu (s.l. conidia (isolate CG 206. Fungal suspension (1 × 108 conidia/mL or Tween 0.01% (control group were inoculated in R. microplus engorged females. Hemolymph collections were made through the female dorsal region (for quantitative analysis and the distal section of the legs (for qualitative analysis 24, 48 and 72 hours after fungal inoculation. Hemocytes quantification was

  19. Sensitivity of Beauveria bassiana conidia to abiotic factors after successive in vitro subcultures

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    Janaina Zorzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro successive subcultures of Beauveria bassiana isolates in different nutritional conditions on conidia heat and UV radiation tolerance and on sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide. The fungus was initially inoculated in Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae adults and after its development, the conidia were cultivated in PDA (potato dextrose agar and MPE (medium to produce Beauveria spp. conidia originating the first subculture 1st (A conidia, which were successively multiplied in their media until the 20th cultivation. Conidia taken from the 20th subculture were again inoculated in the insect and after sporulation they were once more multiplied in the media, producing the 1st (B conidia. For the tests, 1st (A, 10th, 20th and 1st (B conidia from the CG 152 and Unioeste 40 isolates were used. Successive subcultures and the medium nutritional conditions interfered on the fungus physiology, and the isolates showed different behaviors. The subcultures on PDA showed higher thermotolerance to Unioeste 40 in all subcultures and to CG 152 just after inoculation in the host. B. bassiana was susceptible to UV radiation, and this characteristic was influenced by the subcultures in different media. Both isolates were more tolerant to UV radiation when subcultivated on MPE, while just for the 40 Unioeste this tolerance increased after host inoculation. The B. bassiana sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was affected after successive subcultures in both medium. Conidia originated in MPE were more resistant to fungicide and the host inoculation increased this tolerance. These results show that it is possible to enhance the fungi efficiency to control pests, through the selection of a virulent isolate, and handling their nutritional conditions during cultivation and host inoculation.

  20. Effect of combining imidacloprid and diatomaceous earth with Beauveria bassiana on mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah R; Brandenburg, Rick L

    2006-12-01

    Sublethal doses of three orthopteran-derived strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin were topically applied to adult southern mole crickets, Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), and tested in combination with substrate treatments of diatomaceous earth (DE) and imidacloprid. Crickets treated only with the high doses (10(8) conidia per cricket) of each of the three B. bassiana strains exhibited the shortest survival times as well as the highest percentage mortality at 28 d after treatment. However, these treatments did.not differ significantly from any of the diatomaceous earth combination treatments. Two of the strains tested, 5977 and 3622, exhibited synergistic interactions with DE, whereas the third strain, GHA, was not significant for synergy. Mortality caused by the combination treatment was still greater than the expected additive effect. DE abrades the insect cuticle and absorbs cuticular lipids, aiding the entry of germinating conidia into the mole cricket hemocoel. None of the three strains exhibited synergy when combined with imidacloprid, and mortality of all combination treatments was less than additive. For strain 5977, there was an antagonistic interaction with imidacloprid. It was difficult to obtain <30% mortality for imidacloprid only treatments, which was considered the upper limit for sublethal doses. The mean percentage mortality caused by imidacloprid was 37.5%, and this high percentage made it difficult for any combination treatment to cause significantly more mortality than the expected additive effect. These results clarify the interactions of other control products with B. bassiana and provide a basis for a reduced pesticide approach to mole cricket control.

  1. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  3. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo...... comprised the applied B. bassiana strain GHA. Larvae pupating in soil cages in the orchard for 49 d displayed 17% mycosis. The high efficacy under laboratory conditions was not seen in the field. B. bassiana application resulted in densities above the upper natural background level during the growing season...

  4. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana, isolado 986, sobre o ciclo biológico do cascudinho Alphitobius diaperinus em laboratório Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana, strain 986, over the biologic cycle of the Alphitobius diaperinus beetle in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado para verificar a eficácia do fungo Beauveria bassiana em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento de Alphitobius diaperinus e assim saber em que fase ele é mais susceptível ao controle biológico. O fungo B. bassiana, isolado 986, foi testado em duas concentrações (3,4 X 10(6 e 3,4 X 10(8 conídios ml-1 mais um grupo controle. Foram realizadas duas leituras, uma sete e outra quatorze dias após a aplicação dos fungos. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(6, 54% dos ovos tratados estavam inférteis, ocorrendo 54% de mortalidade de larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 22,5% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 9,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 24,5% de mortalidade das pupas. Na concentração 3,4 X 10(8, 66,8% dos ovos tratados estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 56% das larvas tratadas nos estádios I, II e III, 34% nos estádios IV, V e VI, 24,5% nos estádios VII e VIII e 49,5% das pupas. Já no grupo controle, 13,3% dos ovos estavam inviáveis, ocorrendo mortalidade de 10% das larvas nos estádios I, II e III, 4% nos estádios IV, V e VI e 0% de mortalidade nos estádios VII, VIII e em pupas. Sobre o cascudinho adulto, o fungo não teve efeito nocivo em nenhum grupo analisado. Com base nesses resultados, observou-se que o fungo nas concentrações testadas apresentou efeito nocivo às fases do ciclo biológico do cascudinho, com exceção do inseto adulto.The present research was carried out to verify the Beauveria bassiana fungus efficacy in all development phases of Alphitobius diaperinus and to know in which phase it is more susceptible for biologic control. The B. bassiana, 986-isolated fungus, was tested in two different concentrations (3.4 x 10(6 and 3.4 x 10(8 conidium ml-1 and a control group. Two readings were realized, one after 7 days of fungus application and the other after 14 days. At concentration of 3.4 x 10(6 conidium ml-1, 54% of treated eggs were infertile, with larva death of 54% at I, II and III

  5. Cuticle-degrading proteases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in the presence ofcoffee berry borer cuticle Proteases degradadoras de cutícula produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana em presença de cutícula de broca do café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Dias

    2008-06-01

    predominantemente no sobrenadante de cultivo. Os dados obtidos sugerem que Pr1 e Pr2 produzidas pelo isolado CG425 são induzidas por componentes da cutícula da broca do café (CBB, e que o pH da cultura influencia a expressão destas proteases, indicando a ocorrência de um mecanismo eficiente de secreção por este fungo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo aumentam o conhecimento a respeito da produção de proteases por B. bassiana CG425, abrindo novos caminhos para o estudo do papel de proteases na virulência contra a broca do café durante o processo de infecção.

  6. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  7. Differential distribution of glutamate- and GABA-gated chloride channels in the housefly Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Azuma, Masaaki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    l-Glutamic acid (glutamate) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by affecting glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in invertebrates. The molecular function and pharmacological properties of GluCls have been well studied, but not much is known about their physiological role and localization in the insect body. The distribution of GluCls in the housefly (Musca domestica L.) was thus compared with the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls). Quantitative PCR and ligand-binding experiments indicate that the GluCl and GABACl transcripts and proteins are predominantly expressed in the adult head. Intense GluCl immunostaining was detected in the lamina, leg motor neurons, and legs of adult houseflies. The GABACl (Rdl) immunostaining was more widely distributed, and was found in the medulla, lobula, lobula plate, mushroom body, antennal lobe, and ellipsoid body. The present findings suggest that GluCls have physiological roles in different tissues than GABACls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction in Musca domestica fecundity by dsRNA-mediated gene knockdown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Sanscrainte

    Full Text Available House flies (Musca domestica are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the U.S. Non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA has been suggested as a biopesticide for M. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the RNAi pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. In this study female house flies were injected with dsRNA targeting actin-5C or ribosomal protein (RP transcripts RPL26 and RPS6. Ovaries showed highly reduced provisioning and clutch reductions of 94-99% in RP dsRNA treated flies but not in actin-5C or GFP treated flies. Gene expression levels were significantly and specifically reduced in dsRNA injected groups but remained unchanged in the control dsGFP treated group. Furthermore, injections with an Aedes aegypti conspecific dsRNA designed against RPS6 did not impact fecundity, demonstrating species specificity of the RNAi response. Analysis of M. domestica tissues following RPS6 dsRNA injection showed significant reduction of transcript levels in the head, thorax, and abdomen but increased expression in ovarian tissues. This study demonstrates that exogenous dsRNA is specifically effective and has potential efficacy as a highly specific biocontrol intervention in adult house flies. Further work is required to develop effective methods for delivery of dsRNA to adult flies.

  9. Dividing the pie: differential dung pat size utilization by sympatric Haematobia irritans and Musca autumnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, F E; Mullens, B A

    2016-06-01

    Horn flies [Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) (L.)] and face flies [Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) De Geer] use the same larval resource, but their interactions are poorly studied. Dung pats (n = 350) were core sampled in the summers of 2012 and 2013 from irrigated pastures in Pomona, California, U.S.A. (34°03'N, 117°48'W) and held for face fly and horn fly emergence. Surface areas and estimated weights were recorded for each whole pat. Almost half (42.0%) of the pat cores yielded neither fly, 29.7% yielded horn flies only, 12.9% yielded face flies only and 15.4% yielded both flies. Of the fly-positive pats, surface area and mass were larger for face fly-occupied pats, whereas horn fly-occupied pats were smaller. Pats shared by the two species were intermediate. Horn flies per positive core were unaffected by the absence/presence of face flies, but half as many face flies emerged when pats were co-inhabited by horn flies. Face flies inhabited larger pats, which might better resist heating and drying, to which they are susceptible; horn flies inhabited a broad pat size range. Horn fly tolerance of lower dung moisture probably allows horn flies to colonize and survive in a wide range of pats in dry areas like southern California. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Effiacy of citronella and eucalyptus oils against Musca domestica, Cimex lectularius and Pediculus humanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential impacts of two indigenous plant oils: the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus for their insecticidal effect against Musca domestica (house fly, Cimex lectularius (bed bug and Pediculus humanus (louse. Methods: The oils of these two medicinal plants were applied separately at various concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mL/cup in cups lined with filter paper containing the target insects. Mortality was evaluated after fixed intervals (6, 12 and 24 h subsequent to the release of adult insects. Results: Results showed that both oils exhibited concentration and time dependent mortality against the tested insects. Data pertaining to present investigation clearly showed that percentage mortality owing to these botanicals against these medical pests was significantly high (98.33% at the rate of 3 mL for 24 h of exposure, followed by 2 and 1 mL concentrations with 12 and 6 h of exposure times. Conclusions: The results suggest that these plant oils possess good insecticidal properties against house fly, bed bug, and louse, and are safe to humans. Furthermore, the molecular (biochemical based study of these botanicals against diverse species of pests will be of much significance to control these pest insects.

  11. The Evolving Puzzle of Autosomal Versus Y-linked Male Determination in Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ronda L.; Meisel, Richard P.; Scott, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the most rapidly evolving developmental pathways, but the factors responsible for this fast evolution are not well resolved. The house fly, Musca domestica, is an ideal model for studying sex determination because house fly sex determination is polygenic and varies considerably between populations. Male house flies possess a male-determining locus, the M factor, which can be located on the Y or X chromosome or any of the five autosomes. There can be a single M or multiple M factors present in an individual male, in heterozygous or homozygous condition. Males with multiple copies of M skew the sex ratio toward the production of males. Potentially in response to these male-biased sex ratios, an allele of the gene transformer, Md-traD, promotes female development in the presence of one or multiple M factors. There have been many studies to determine the linkage and frequency of these male determining factors and the frequency of Md-traD chromosomes in populations from around the world. This review provides a summary of the information available to date regarding the patterns of distribution of autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked M factors, the relative frequencies of the linkage of M, the changes in frequencies found in field populations, and the fitness of males with autosomal M factors vs. Y-linked M. We evaluate this natural variation in the house fly sex determination pathway in light of models of the evolution of sex determination. PMID:25552607

  12. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Valério, A. A. [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa, J. A. R. G., E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress.

  13. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory."n"nMethods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae."n"nResults: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05."n"nConclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  14. Identification and testing of oviposition attractant chemical compounds for Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Kone, N'Golopé; Chen, Jing-Hua; Zhu, Fen; Han, Ri-Chou; Lei, Chao-Liang; Kenis, Marc; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-09-26

    Oviposition attractants for the house fly Musca domestica have been investigated using electrophysiological tests, behavioural assays and field tests. Volatiles were collected via head space absorption method from fermented wheat bran, fresh wheat bran, rearing substrate residue and house fly maggots. A Y-tube olfactometer assay showed that the odor of fermented wheat bran was a significant attractant for female house flies. Bioactive compounds from fermented wheat bran for house fly females were identified by electrophysiology and mass spectrophotometry and confirmed with standard chemicals. Four electrophysiologically active compounds including ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, methyl linoleate, and linoleic acid were found at a proportion of 10:24:6:0.2. Functional imaging in the female antennal lobes revealed an overlapped active pattern for all chemicals. Further multiple-choice behavioural bioassays showed that these chemicals, as well as a mixture that mimicked the naturally occurring combination, increased the attractiveness of non-preferred rearing substrates of cotton and maize powder. Finally, a field demonstration test revealed that, by adding this mimic blend into a rearing substrate used to attract and breed house flies in West Africa, egg numbers laid by females were increased. These chemicals could be utilized to improve house fly production systems or considered for lure traps.

  15. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  17. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C.; Valério, A. A.; Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R.; Barbosa, J. A. R. G.

    2006-01-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress

  18. Toxicity and resistance of field collected Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) against insect growth regulator insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Arshad, Muhammad; Hafeez, Faisal

    2016-04-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed.

  19. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby Schal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml-1, composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (~240 kD and apolipophorin II (~85 kD. Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985 that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues.

  20. Susceptibility of adults of the cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus to the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Purpureocillium lilacinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapovaloff, M. E.; Alves, L. F. A.; Fanti, A. L.; Alzogaray, R. A.; López Lastra, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) causes severe damage to yerba mate plants ( Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) (Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae)), which results in large losses of production. In this study, the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi of the species Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hywel-Jones, Houbraken and Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on yerba mate were evaluated. Fifteen isolates of B. bassiana , two of M. anisopliae , and seven of P. lilacinum on H. betulinus adults were analyzed under laboratory conditions. The raw mortality rate caused by B. bassiana isolates varied from 51.1 to 86.3%, and their LT 50 values varied between 8.7 and 13.6 d. The isolates of M. anisopliae caused 69.6‒81.8% mortality, and their LT 50 values varied between 7.4 and 7.9 d. In contrast, isolates of P. lilacinum were not pathogenic. M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic against H. betulinus adults, suggesting that they may be useful in biological control programs for insect pests of yerba mate. PMID:25368071

  1. A technique for the prevention of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana M130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Beam-Soo; Nam, Young-Ho; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. Among them is Beauveria bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. The objective of this study was to use B. bassiana M130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. M130 isolated from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly. Phylogenetic classification of M130 was determined according to its morphological features and 18S rRNA sequence analysis. M130 was identified as B. bassiana M130 and showed chitinase (342.28 units/ml) and protease (461.70 units/ml) activities, which were involved in the invasion of the host through the outer cuticle layer, thus killing them. The insecticidal activity was 55.2% in petri-dish test, 84.6% in pot test, and 45.3% in field test. The results of this study indicate that B. bassiana has potential as a biological agent for the control of greenhouse whitefly to replace chemical pesticides.

  2. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  3. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E.

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC 50 ), mean lethal time (LT 50 ), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC 50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10 7 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT 50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  5. Bioesai bioinsektisida Beauveria bassiana dari Sumatera Selatan terhadap kutu putih pepaya, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In fresh swamp areas of South Sumatra, papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae could cause severe damage to young papaya trees and decreased the fruit quality. The objective of this research was to bioassay test of the bioinsecticide Beauveria bassiana againts nymphs of P. marginatus. B. bassiana was conducted on rice medium. The bioinsecticide was formulated using dried compost, compost gram, paddy ash, paddy bran, woody powder, paddy bran mixed with woody powder, compost enriched with Trichoderma virens. Controls used were sterile water (control 1 and isolate of B. bassiana (control 2. Results showed that conidial viability of B. bassiana on control 2 was the highest (46.33%. The viability of control 2 was not significantly different from the formulations with carrier of the paddy bran, the paddy bran mixed with woody powder, and the compost enriched with T. virens. The highest nymph mortality (82.86% was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens and was significantly different from other treatments. The lowest visibly (73.48% occured on formulation of paddy ash, and was significantly different from other treatments. Mortality on control 1 on average was 29.52%, whereas control 2 averaged of 75.71%. The shortest median lethal time (LT50 (3.55 days was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens but the longest one (3.73 days occured on the formulation of paddy ash. Overall, the most effective bioinsecticide was the formulation of compost enriched with T. virens.

  6. Selection of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. for the control of the mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Rodrigo Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae, is considered to be one of the key pests in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crants, leading to considerable field losses. In this study, ten Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and ten Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. isolates were evaluated with regard to their potential as biological control agents against adult M. tanajoa females. The total mortality percentage of M. tanajoa caused by B. bassiana ranged from 13.0 to 97.0%, with confirmed mortality rates extending from 9.0 to 91.0% and LT50 varying from 4.2 to 17.0 days. The M. anisopliae isolates showed total mortality percentages ranging from 12.0 to 45.0% with confirmed mortality rates extending from 8.0 to 45.0%, and LT50 varying from 8.6 to 19.8 days. Lethal Concentrations (LC50 of 3.93 × 10(6 conidia mL-1 and 7.44 × 10(8 conidia mL-1 were determined for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively. B. bassiana isolate 645 was the most efficient, being an alternative for use in biological control programs against the cassava green mite.

  7. Feeding on Beauveria bassiana-treated Frankliniella occidentalis causes negative effects on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Dengjie; Li, Juan; Wang, Haihong; Wang, Endong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-07-08

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri are both potential biocontrol agents for their shared host/prey Frankliniella occidentalis. The combination of the two agents may enhance biological control of F. occidentalis if the fungus does not negatively affect N. barkeri. This study evaluated the indirect effects of B. bassiana strain SZ-26 on N. barkeri mediated by F. occidentalis using the age-stage, two-sex life table. When fed on the first instar larvae of F. occidentalis that had been exposed for 12 h to the SZ-26 suspension, the developmental time of preadult N. barkeri was significantly longer, and the longevity and fecundity were significantly lower than that of N. barkeri fed on untreated F. occidentalis. The mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (R0), finite rate of increase (λ), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and predation rates were correspondingly affected. The data showed that B. bassiana has indirect negative effects on N. barkeri population dynamics via influencing their prey F. occidentalis larvae, which indicates that there is a risk in combining B. bassiana with N. barkeri simultaneously for the biocontrol of F. occidentalis. The probable mechanism for the negative effects is discussed.

  8. Different toxic and hormetic responses of Bombus impatiens to Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus subtilis and spirotetramat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaidu, Krilen; Cutler, G Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Pollinator exposure to pesticides is a concern in agricultural systems that depend on pollinators for crop production. However, not all pesticides elicit toxic effects, and response to a pesticide will vary depending on dose and exposure route. The effects of biopesticide formulations of Bacillus subtilis and Beauveria bassiana and of the tetramic acid insecticide spirotetramat on the common eastern bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, were evaluated. Microcolonies of bees were exposed to field-rate or lower concentrations, and data were collected over 60 days. When ingested, field rates of spirotetramat caused high mortality after 10 days, and B. subtilis significantly reduced drone production, number of days to oviposition and number of days to drone emergence. Converse to effects observed following ingestion, topical applications of B. subtilis at concentrations less than the recommended field rate resulted in a hormetic response, with significantly increased drone production. Topical application of spirotetramat and oral or topical application of B. bassiana had no effects on bees. Spirotetramat and B. subtilis can induce adverse effects on B. impatiens, but hormetic effects following B. subtilis treatment can also occur, depending on exposure route. Additional experiments are required to determine whether similar toxic or hormetic effects occur under more realistic field conditions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Correlation of the aphicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana SFB-205 supernatant with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Roh, Jong Yul; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Je, Yeon Ho

    2010-01-01

    The supernatant of Beauveria bassiana SFB-205 reduced the population of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, with a dosage-dependent manner, which allowed a quality control (QC) factor to be determined for the evaluation of the supernatant as the first step of a development. Enzymes were assumed as possible QC factors based on 1) the comparable aphicidal activity of the supernatant protein pellet to the raw supernatant, 2) the supernatant-induced degradation of the insect cuticles, observed by transmission electron microscopy, and 3) the confirmation of enzymes related to the fungal penetration - chitinase, and the Pr1- and Pr2 proteases - in the supernatant. Finally, from the bioassay with the enzyme-inhibited supernatants processed by substrate inhibition one by one, decreased aphicidal activities were observed for all three enzyme-inhibited treatments. This phenomenon, furthermore, was more remarkable in the chitinase-inhibited supernatant. This finding provides that those enzymes (and most particularly the chitinase) in the supernatant were strongly involved in the aphicidal activity. Consequently, the amount of the chitinase may be used as one of the QC factors to determine the insecticidal activity of the supernatant of B. bassiana SFB-205 in the optimization of mass production. Copyright © 2009 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Vici

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (EC 3.1.1.3 comprise a biotechnologically important group of enzymes because they are able to catalyze both hydrolysis and synthesis reactions, depending on the amount of water in the system. One of the most interesting application of lipase is in the biofuel industry for biodiesel production by oil and ethanol (or methanol transesterification. Entomopathogenic fungi, which are potential source of lipases, are still poorly explored in biotechnological processes. The present work reports the heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a novel Beauveria bassiana lipase with potential for biodiesel production. The His-tagged B. bassiana lipase A (BbLA was produced in Komagataella pastoris in Buffered Methanol Medium (BMM induced with 1% methanol at 30 °C. Purified BbLA was activated with 0.05% Triton X-100 and presented optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. N-glycosylation of the recombinant BbLA accounts for 31.5% of its molecular weight. Circular dichroism and molecular modeling confirmed a structure composed of α-helix and β-sheet, similar to α/β hydrolases. Immobilized BbLA was able to promote transesterification reactions in fish oil, demonstrating potential for biodiesel production. BbLA was successfully produced in Komagataella pastoris and shows potential use for biodiesel production by the ethanolysis reaction.

  11. Proteins in the Cocoon of Silkworm Inhibit the Growth of Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoons are composed of fiber proteins (fibroins) and adhesive glue proteins (sericins), which provide a physical barrier to protect the inside pupa. Moreover, other proteins were identified in the cocoon silk, many of which are immune related proteins. In this study, we extracted proteins from the silkworm cocoon by Tris-HCl buffer (pH7.5), and found that they had a strong inhibitory activity against fungal proteases and they had higher abundance in the outer cocoon layers than in the inner cocoon layers. Moreover, we found that extracted cocoon proteins can inhibit the germination of Beauveria bassiana spores. Consistent with the distribution of protease inhibitors, we found that proteins from the outer cocoon layers showed better inhibitory effects against B. bassiana spores than proteins from the inner layers. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to reveal the extracted components in the scaffold silk, the outermost cocoon layer. A total of 129 proteins were identified, 30 of which were annotated as protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors accounted for 89.1% in abundance among extracted proteins. These protease inhibitors have many intramolecular disulfide bonds to maintain their stable structure, and remained active after being boiled. This study added a new understanding to the antimicrobial function of the cocoon. PMID:27032085

  12. A novel protease inhibitor in Bombyx mori is involved in defense against Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Shiping; Dong, Zhaoming; Chen, Jianping; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2012-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, penetrate the insect cuticle using a plethora of hydrolytic enzymes including cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, which are important virulence factors. The insect integument and hemolymph contains a relatively high concentration of protease inhibitors, which are closely involved with defense against pathogenic microorganisms. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying resistance against entomopathogenic fungi and to identify a new molecular target for improving fungal resistance in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor BmSPI38, which was very stable over a wide range of temperatures and pH values. An activity assay suggested that BmSPI38 potently inactivated the insecticidal cuticle-degrading enzyme (CDEP-1) produced by B. bassiana and subtilisin A produced by Bacillus licheniformis. The melanization of silkworm induced by CDEP-1 protease could also be blocked by BmSPI38. These results provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors provide resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting the possibility of using fungal biopesticides in sericulture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  14. Musca domestica como vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en mercados y basurales de Lima y Callao

    OpenAIRE

    Béjar C, Vilma; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Chumpitaz C, Jorge; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Pareja C, Elizabeth; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Valencia B, Esther; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Huamán R, Ana; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Sevilla A, Carlos; Tapia B, Mario; Saez F, Gloria; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Demostrar que la mosca doméstica (Musca domestica) es un vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en distritos de Lima y Callao. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo transversal. Unidad de estudio: Musca domestica. Entre mayo de 2004 y julio de 2005 se realizó un muestreo en diferentes distritos de las provincias de Lima y el Callao teniendo en cuenta el índice de infestación de cada zona elegida. Se recolectaron moscas de mercados, periferia y basurales aledaños. ...

  15. Analysis of whitefly transcriptional responses to Beauveria bassiana infection reveals new insights into insect-fungus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Shan; Li, Fang-Fang; Feng, Ming-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is an efficient biocontrol agent against a variety of agricultural pests. A thorough understanding of the basic principles of insect-fungus interactions may enable the genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana to enhance its virulence. However, the molecular mechanism of insect response to Beauveria bassiana infection is poorly understood, let alone the identification of fungal virulent factors involved in pathogenesis. Here, next generation sequencing technology was applied to examine the expression of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genes in response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana. Results showed that, compared to control, 654 and 1,681genes were differentially expressed at 48 hours and 72 hours post-infected whiteflies, respectively. Functional and enrichment analyses indicated that the DNA damage stimulus response and drug metabolism were important anti-fungi strategies of the whitefly. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was also likely involved in the whitefly defense responses. Furthermore, the notable suppression of general metabolism and ion transport genes observed in 72 hours post-infected B. tabaci might be manipulated by fungal secreted effectors. By mapping the sequencing tags to B. bassiana genome, we also identified a number of differentially expressed fungal genes between the early and late infection stages. These genes are generally associated with fungal cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism. The expression of fungal cell wall protein genes might play an important role in fungal pathogenesis and the dramatically up-regulated enzymes of carbon metabolism indicate the increasing usage of energy during the fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular mechanism of fungus-whitefly interactions. Our results provide a road map for future investigations on insect-pathogen interactions and genetically modifying the fungus to enhance its efficiency in whitefly

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, D.

    2013-07-01

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 10 6 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT 50 ) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 10 6 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x10 6 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea for control of Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Aountala, Maria M; Kontodimas, Demetrius C

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Isaria fumosorosea were tested against the stored-grain pest Sitophilus oryzae. The fungi were isolated from the soil (from three locations in Attica, Greece: B. bassiana from Tatoion, M. anisopliae from Marathon, and I. fumosorosea from Aghios Stefanos) using larvae of Galleria mellonella as bait. Suspensions of 2.11 × 10(7) and 2.11 × 10(8), 1.77 × 10(7) and 1.77 × 10(8), and 1.81 × 10(7) and 1.81 × 10(8) conidia per ml of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, and I. fumosorosea, respectively, were applied by three treatments: (i) sprayed on food and set in petri dishes with adults of S. oryzae, (ii) sprayed on adults of S. oryzae and set in petri dishes without food, and (iii) sprayed on adults of S. oryzae and set in petri dishes with food. The observed mortality of S. oryzae adults during the overall exposure period for the lowest, as well as for the highest, concentrations of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, and I. fumosorosea ranged from 0 to 100%. Concentration was, in most of the cases tested, a critical parameter that determined the "speed of kill" of the exposed insect species for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae. Conversely, concentration was not that critical for I. fumosorosea, and survival was high in some of the combinations tested, even after 14 days of exposure. Both in the highest and the lowest concentrations of fungi, the mortality of S. oryzae adults was higher when the fungi were applied on adults than when they were applied on food. Higher mortality was observed when food was absent than when food was present, in most of the cases tested. The high efficacy levels recorded in the current study indicate that the tested fungi could be effective biocontrol agents against S. oryzae.

  18. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  19. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra...... with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex-ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex-ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding...

  20. Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra, Eduardo B.; Zanuncio, Teresinha V.; Zanuncio, José C.; Santos, Germi P.

    1995-01-01

    Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860) were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV) in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil) at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viabil...

  1. Assessment of the suitability of Tinopal as an enhancing adjuvant in formulations of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narasimha P; A Khan, Pathan Akbar; Devi, Koduru Uma; Victor, John S; Sharma, Hari C

    2008-09-01

    Biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin hold great promise for the management of a wide range of insect pests. The conidia in the biopesticide formulation require an adjuvant to protect them from photoinactivation by sunlight. The suitability of Tinopal, an optical brightener used as sunscreen for baculovirus formulations, for use with B. bassiana was assessed. The aim was to study the effect of Tinopal on the growth and photoprotection of B. bassiana, and its effect on the susceptibility of insects to B. bassiana. Tinopal was found to have no adverse effect on the growth of B. bassiana. It was found to confer total protection (approximately 95% conidial germination at 10 g Tinopal L(-1)) from sunlight up to 3 h of exposure, and a better survival rate than controls even up to 4 h. Helicoverpa armigera Hübner larvae fed on diet with 5 g kg(-1) Tinopal were found to have reduced growth. The duration of the larval stage increased by 3-4 days in 1 and 5 g kg(-1) Tinopal treatments. Among the moths that emerged from larvae fed on diet with 5 g kg(-1) Tinopal, a significantly high number were malformed compared with controls. The larvae that were fed diet with Tinopal showed quicker and higher mortality and required a lower effective lethal dose (LC(50)) than the controls. Tinopal was found to have a synergistic effect with B. bassiana in causing insect mortality. Tinopal was found to be a suitable adjuvant for B. bassiana-based biopesticide formulations. It conferred tolerance to sunlight and caused stress in the insect, leading to a synergistic effect with B. bassiana.

  2. Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

    2014-06-01

    The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  3. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica l.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayduch, Dana; Joyner, Chester

    2013-07-01

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. This study aimed to determine the temporal expression of lysozyme in the life history of house flies (from egg through adults) on both the mRNA and protein level, and to determine the tissue-specific expression of lysozyme in adult flies induced by feeding Staphylococcus aureus. From 30-min postoviposition through adulthood, all life history stages of the house fly express lysozyme on the mRNA level. In adult flies, lysozyme is expressed both locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in the fat body. Interestingly, we found that during the normal life history of flies, lysozyme protein was only detected in larval stages and older adults, likely because of ingestion of immune-stimulating levels of bacteria, not experienced during egg, pupa, and teneral adult stages. Constitutive expression on the mRNA level implies that this effector is a primary defense molecule in all stages of the house fly life history, and that a mechanism for posttranscriptional control of mature lysozyme enzyme expression may be present. Lysozyme active enzyme primarily serves both a digestive and defensive function in larval and adult flies, and may be a key player in the ability of Musca domestica L. to thrive in microbe-rich environments.

  4. Primary characterization and basal promoter activity of two hexamerin genes of Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Moreira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexamerins are high molecular-weight proteins found in the hemolymph of insects and have been proposed to function as storage proteins. In previous studies, two Musca domestica hexamerins, designated Hex-L and Hex-F were characterized. Hex-L is synthesized exclusively by the larval fat bodies, is secreted into the hemolymph and likely provides a source of amino acids and energy during metamorphosis. Hex-F synthesis is induced by a proteinaceous meal and occurs only in the adult insect fat bodies. Hex-F also is secreted into the hemolymph and it has been suggested that in females it may be an amino acid reservoir to be used during the final stages of egg formation. Genomic clones containing full-length copies of the genes MdHexL1 and MdHexF1, encoding subunits of the larval and the adult female hexamerin, respectively, were isolated. Complete nucleotide sequences, including the 5'-end untranscribed regions, were determined and analyzed for each of the genes. Comparisons of the conceptual translation products of the cloned genes indicated that MdHexL1 and MdHexF1 are related to the larval serum proteins (LSP 1 and 2 of Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster. DNA fragments containing the putative promoters of the two hexamerin genes were compared and cloned into a plasmid vector so as to drive the expression of the GFP reporter gene. The constructs were assayed in vitro in transfected S2 Drosophila melanogaster cells demonstrating that the cloned M. domestica DNA fragments exhibit promoter activity.

  5. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Multifactorial Sex Determination in the House Fly, Musca domestica (L.), Stable Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P; Davey, Taira; Son, Jae Hak; Gerry, Alec C; Shono, Toshio; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra D ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M. We found the frequency and linkage of M in house flies collected in Chino, CA (USA) was relatively unchanged between 1982 and 2014. The frequency of females with Md-tra D in the 2014 collection was 33.6% (n = 140). Analysis of these results, plus previously published data, revealed a strong correlation between the frequencies of Md-tra D and multiple M males, and we find that these populations are expected to have balanced sex ratios. We also find that fitness values that allow for the invasion and maintenance of multiple sex determining loci suggest that sexually antagonistic selection could be responsible for maintaining polygenic sex determination in house fly populations. The stability over time and equilibrium frequencies within populations suggest the house fly polygenic sex determination system is not in transition, and provide guidance for future investigations on the factors responsible for the polymorphism. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  8. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a chicken-type lysozyme gene from housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Zhao, Xiaofan; Wang, Jinxing

    2009-01-01

    Lysozymes can hydrolyze bacteria and play an important role in animal digestion and innate immunity. The cDNA of a chicken-type lysozyme gene (Mdlys) was cloned from housefly (Musca domestica). The 484 bp full-length cDNA contains a 426 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes MdLys of 141 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the MdLys was similar to chicken-type lysozymes. Spatio-temporal expression of Mdlys was analyzed by RT-PCR. The Mdlys transcript can be detected in both midgut and fat body and was expressed at a relatively lower level at the embryo stage. Mdlys mRNA was upregulated 2 h post bacterial challenge, maintained for 2 to 6 h, and slightly declined from 12 to 24 h post-injection. Western blot analysis showed that MdLys was highly expressed in midgut and was also detected in the hemolymph and fat body. MdLys expression was slightly increased in midgut after challenging with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. Its expression was also slightly increased in the fat body after challenging with S. aureus, but no obvious change occurred after E. coli challenge. MdLys expression in the hemolymph was not affected by bacterial challenge. In the developmental stages, MdLys expression levels had no obvious change from the first instar to the pupae stage. There was also no variation under 24 h starvation stress. Recombinant MdLys displayed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Together, these results suggest that MdLys may play an important role in the innate immunity of houseflies.

  10. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal.

  11. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  12. Effects of selected herbicides and fungicides on growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celar, Franci A; Kos, Katarina

    2016-11-01

    The in vitro fungicidal effects of six commonly used fungicides, namely fluazinam, propineb, copper(II) hydroxide, metiram, chlorothalonil and mancozeb, and herbicides, namely isoxaflutole, fluazifop-P-butyl, flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb, on mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 74040) were investigated. Mycelial growth rates and sporulation at 15 and 25 °C were evaluated on PDA plates containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 0% of the recommended application rate of each pesticide. The tested pesticides were classified in four scoring categories based on reduction in mycelial growth and sporulation. All pesticides, herbicides and fungicides tested had fungistatic effects of varying intensity, depending on their rate in the medium, on B. bassiana. The most inhibitory herbicides were flurochloridone and prosulfocarb, and fluazinam and copper(II) hydroxide were most inhibitory among the fungicides, while the least inhibitory were isoxaflutole and chlorothalonil. Sporulation and conidial germination of B. bassiana were significantly inhibited by all tested pesticides compared with the control treatment. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, prosulfocarb and copper(II) hydroxide inhibited sporulation entirely at 100% rate (99-100% inhibition), and the lowest inhibition was shown by fluazifop-P-butyl (22%) and metiram (33%). At 100% dosage, all herbicides in the test showed a high inhibitory effect on conidial germination. Conidial germination inhibition ranged from 82% with isoxaflutole to 100% with fluorochloridone, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb. At 200% dosage, inhibition rates even increased (96-100%). All 12 pesticides tested had a fungistatic effect on B. bassiana of varying intensity, depending on the pesticide and its concentration. B. bassiana is highly affected by some herbicides and fungicides even at very low rates. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron

  13. Transmission electron microscopic morphological study and flow cytometric viability assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible to Musca domestica cecropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Shuiqing; Li, Rongjiang; Feng, Yongwen; Wang, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the extremely limited armamentarium. Expectations about antimicrobial peptides' use as new powerful antibacterial agents have been raised on the basis of their unique mechanism of action. Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc), a novel antimicrobial peptide from the larvae of Housefly (Musca domestica), has potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. Here we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Mdc against clinical isolates of MDR-A. baumannii and elucidate the related antibacterial mechanisms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Mdc was 4 μg/mL. Bactericidal kinetics of Mdc revealed rapid killing of A. baumannii (30 min). Flow cytometry using viability stain demonstrated that Mdc causes A. baumannii membrane permeabilization in a concentration- and time-dependent process, which correlates with the bactericidal action. Moreover, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination showed that Mdc is capable of disrupting the membrane of bacterial cells, resulting in efflux of essential cytoplasmic components. Overall, Mdc could be a promising antibacterial agent for MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  14. Transmission Electron Microscopic Morphological Study and Flow Cytometric Viability Assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii Susceptible to Musca domestica cecropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the extremely limited armamentarium. Expectations about antimicrobial peptides' use as new powerful antibacterial agents have been raised on the basis of their unique mechanism of action. Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the larvae of Housefly (Musca domestica, has potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. Here we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Mdc against clinical isolates of MDR-A. baumannii and elucidate the related antibacterial mechanisms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Mdc was 4 μg/mL. Bactericidal kinetics of Mdc revealed rapid killing of A. baumannii (30 min. Flow cytometry using viability stain demonstrated that Mdc causes A. baumannii membrane permeabilization in a concentration- and time-dependent process, which correlates with the bactericidal action. Moreover, transmission electron microscopic (TEM examination showed that Mdc is capable of disrupting the membrane of bacterial cells, resulting in efflux of essential cytoplasmic components. Overall, Mdc could be a promising antibacterial agent for MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  15. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  16. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

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    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  17. Differentially expressed genes in the cuticle and hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, injected with the fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Qin, Guang-Xing; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xing-Lin; Li, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Xi-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The most important pathogenic fungus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli ) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which causes significant damage to sericulture production. Therefore, diagnosing fungal disease and developing new control measures are crucial to silk production. To better understand the responsive and interactive mechanisms between the host silkworm and this fungus, variations in silkworm gene expression were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method following the injection of B. bassiana conidia. Two cDNA libraries were constructed, and 140 cDNA clones were isolated. Of the 50 differentially expressed genes identified, 45 (112 clones) were identified in the forward library, and 5 (28 clones) were identified in the reverse library. Expression profiling of six of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) verified that they were induced by the fungal challenge. The present study provides insight into the interaction between lepidopteran insects and pathogenic fungi.

  18. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  19. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  20. The role of fungus Beauveria bassiana in reducing the number of Pissodes castaneus (Col., Curculionidae in young forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus is one of the most dangerous pests of Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets. The lack of effective and environmentally safe methods of limiting the number of the pest justified to undertake the studies aimed at the laboratory and field evaluation of biological activity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana used to reduce the numbers of small banded pine weevil.

  1. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Holderman, Christopher J.; Wood, Lois A.; Geden, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Phillip E.

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies....

  2. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  3. PENAMBAHAN BEBERAPA JENIS BAHAN NUTRISI PADA MEDIA PERBANYAKAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN VIRULENSI BEAUVERIA BASSIANA TERHADAP HAMA WALANG SANGIT

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    Ni Siluh Putu Nuryanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to increase the virulence of Beauvaria bassiana to the rice bug, L.  acuta, by adding four different substances (materials to the rice media to grow the fungus. The research was conducted from April to August 2011 at Polinela Laboratory, Bandar Lampung.  To do this a set of experimental unit consisting of five treatments and five replications were arranged in completely randomized design. The  four treatments were media made up of rice (rice based media each given or added with four different materials such as rice skin powder, corn sugar, grasshopper powder and chitosan powder. The result showed that B. bassiana grown on rice media added with grasshopper powder or rice skin powder were able of causing mortality to the L. acuta as high as 78% and 71%, respectively, meaning that both mortalities were much higher than that of other replication. The virulence values of Beauveria bassiana  grown on those both powder were also higher than that of three others.

  4. Keefektivan Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. isolat Indigenous pagaralam sumatera selatan pada media beras terhadap larva Plutella xylostella Linn. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

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    Yulia Pudjiastuti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana isolate cultured in half-ripe rice media against third-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella. The research used 10 isolates consisted of 4 isolates that were originnally collected from Pagaralam i.e. PD1 (isolated from P. xylostella cadaver, PD2, PD8, PD9B (from Crysodeixis chalcites cadaver, and 6 isolates from other areas as comparison, i.e. CCW3 (from Crysodeixis chalcites cadaver, BBL (from Hypothenemus hampei cadaver, CH (from Conomorpha cramerella cadaver, CPJW (from H. hampei cadavi, WC (from Nilaparvata lugens cadaver, and WSJT (from Leptocorixa acuta cadaver. The parameters that were measured were mortality of larvae, time of death and behaviour of larvae after application. Result of the test showed that B. bassiana isolated from L. acuta (WSJT isolate caused the highest mortality i.e. 73.34 %, with the highest spore density 5.6x107 spore ml-1 (in half-rice media and 3.0x107 spore ml-1 (GYA media. The lowest LT50 was 19.27 hours, and was obtained from the application of PD9B. After application of B. bassiana, the behaviour of larvae was slightly change from a healthy one to less in consuming of food and then die.

  5. A novel bioassay to evaluate the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain NI8 and the Insect growth regulator novaluron against Lygus lineolaris on a non-autoclaved solid artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the insect growth regulator novaluron are potential candidates for the control of Lygus lineolaris. Efforts are being made for their use in the Mississippi Delta. B. bassiana and novaluron highly affected TPB survival when they were applied directly...

  6. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

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    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  7. Interactome analysis of transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1 unveils a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor involved in oxidation tolerance of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Oxidation tolerance is an important determinant to predict the virulence and biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana, a well-known entomopathogenic fungus. As a transcriptional coactivator, multiprotein bridging factor 1 mediates the activity of transcription factor in diverse physiological processes, and its homolog in B. bassiana (BbMBF1) contributes to fungal oxidation tolerance. In this study, the BbMBF1-interactomes under oxidative stress and normal growth condition were deciphered by mass spectrometry integrated with the immunoprecipitation. BbMBF1p factor has a broad interaction with proteins that are involved in various cellular processes, and this interaction is dynamically regulated by oxidative stress. Importantly, a B. bassiana homolog of yeast AP-1-like transcription factor (BbAP-1) was specifically associated with the BbMBF1-interactome under oxidation and significantly contributed to fungal oxidation tolerance. In addition, qPCR analysis revealed that several antioxidant genes are jointly controlled by BbAP-1 and BbMBF1. Conclusively, it is proposed that BbMBF1p protein mediates BbAP-1p factor to transcribe the downstream antioxidant genes in B. bassiana under oxidative stress. This study demonstrates for the first time a proteomic view of the MBF1-interactome in fungi, and presents an initial framework to probe the transcriptional mechanism involved in fungal response to oxidation, which will provide a new strategy to improve the biocontrol efficacy of B. bassiana.

  8. Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. spores production in biphasic process utilizing different liquid media/ Produção de esporos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. num processo bifásico utilizando diferentes meios líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Zorzetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic production techniques are developed with the objective of increasing productivity and reducing costs of the process. The objective of this study was to evaluate Beauveria bassiana biomass production in liquid media and conidiogenesis in a biphasic process. The liquid media were: CF (crysalid flour, PD (potato dextrose and CFPD (crysalid flour+potato+dextrose. The evaluation periods for biomass production were: 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. For production by biphasic process different quantities of liquid media (5, 10, 15 and 20 mL with different incubation periods (24, 48 and 72 hours, were added on the pre-cooked rice (200 g with conidia production evaluation after 10 days. CFPD media was the most productive biomass in all evaluated periods. In the biphasic process, bigger conidia production were attained when it was utilized fungi biomass produced in CF and CFPD (2.7 x 1012 and 2.8 x 1012 conidia/g of rice for rice inoculation. The quantities of 5, 15, 20 mL of liquid media, inoculated on the rice were not statistically different. The incubation periods of 24 and 48 hours of the fungus in the liquid media, gave bigger cionidiogenesis then 72 hours. The data show the necessity of carbon and nitrogen for biomass production in the liquid media and for conidiogenesis in the solid media. Also with these informations it was possible to optimize the biphasic process, adding 5 mL of the liquid media CFPD on the rice (200 g with 24 hours of incubation.Técnicas de produção de fungos entomopatogênicos são desenvolvidas buscando aumentar a produtividade desses patógenos e reduzir custos do processo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa de Beauveria bassiana em meios líquidos e a conidiogênese no processo bifásico. Os meios líquidos testados foram: FC (farinha de crisálida, BD (batata+dextrose e FCBD (farinha de crisálida+batata+dextrose. Os períodos de avaliação da produção de biomassa foram

  9. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Reid, William R; Zhang, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that not only is insecticide resistance conferred via multiple gene up-regulation, but it is mediated through the interaction of regulatory factors. However, no regulatory factors in insecticide resistance have yet been identified, and there has been no examination...... of the regulatory interaction of resistance genes. Our current study generated the first reference transcriptome from the adult house fly and conducted a whole transcriptome analysis for the multiple insecticide resistant strain ALHF (wild-type) and two insecticide susceptible strains: aabys (with morphological...... recessive markers) and CS (wild type) to gain valuable insights into the gene interaction and complex regulation in insecticide resistance of house flies, Musca domestica. Results Over 56 million reads were used to assemble the adult female M. domestica transcriptome reference and 14488 contigs were...

  10. Housefly (Musca domestica) and Blow Fly (Protophormia terraenovae) as Vectors of Bacteria Carrying Colistin Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Li; Yassin, Afrah Kamal; Kelly, Patrick; Butaye, Patrick; Li, Jing; Gong, Jiansen; Cattley, Russell; Qi, Kezong; Wang, Chengming

    2018-01-01

    Flies have the capacity to transfer pathogens between different environments, acting as one of the most important vectors of human diseases worldwide. In this study, we trapped flies on a university campus and tested them for mobile resistance genes against colistin, a last-resort antibiotic in human medicine for treating clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Quantitative PCR assays we developed showed that 34.1% of Musca domestica (86/252) and 51.1% of Protophormia terraenovae (23/45) isolates were positive for the mcr-1 gene, 1.2% of M. domestica (3/252) and 2.2% of P. terraenovae (2.2%, 1/45) isolates were positive for mcr-2 , and 5.2% of M. domestica (13/252) and 44.4% of P. terraenovae (20/45) isolates were positive for mcr-3 Overall, 4.8% (9/189) of bacteria isolated from the flies were positive for the mcr-1 gene ( Escherichia coli : 8.3%, 4/48; Enterobacter cloacae : 12.5%, 1/8; Providencia alcalifaciens : 11.8%, 2/17; Providencia stuartii : 4.9%, 2/41), while none were positive for mcr-2 and mcr-3 Four mcr-1 -positive isolates (two P. stuartii and two P. alcalifaciens ) from blow flies trapped near a dumpster had a MIC for colistin above 4 mg/ml. This study reports mcr-1 carriage in Providencia spp. and detection of mcr-2 and mcr-3 after their initial identification in Belgium and China, respectively. This study suggests that flies might contribute significantly to the dissemination of bacteria, carrying these genes into a large variety of ecological niches. Further studies are warranted to explore the roles that flies might play in the spread of colistin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most serious global threats to human health. An option for treatment of the Gram-negative ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) bacteria with multiple drug resistance was

  11. Production of Beauveria bassiana Air Conidia by Means of Optimization of Biphasic System Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air conidia production of Beauveria bassiana, strain CA-603 was studied based on modified diphasic system. The biomass yield obtained in the first phase based on submerged cultivation of fungus was processed using methodology providing different contact with air space. Our study indicated that productivity of the second stage of diphasic system is had inversely proportional dependence on depth of liquid fungal biomass. Increase of biomass depth is significantly decreased production of air conidia. Two methodology of biomass processing extending contact biomass with air space including distribution of fungal material on surface of hygroscopic paper and starch packaging peanuts were investigated. The novel substrates provided optimal contact between the submerged fungal biomass and the air, and overall, conidial production was directly proportional to the total area of air-to-fungal surface. Technologies based on the starch peanuts and hygroscopic paper were the most productive in comparison to the common technology where the submerged culture was transferred to flat containers. The advantages and disadvantages of these different production methods are discussed.

  12. Mass production of aphicidal Beauveria bassiana SFB-205 supernatant with the parameter of chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Yu, Yong-Man

    2011-06-01

    Beauveria bassiana SFB-205 supernatant can effectively control cotton aphid populations, which is closely associated with its chitinase activity. The present work extends to optimizing a culture medium to produce more efficacious supernatant in flask conditions, followed by scale-up in 7 L, 300 L and 1.2 KL fermentors with the parameter of chitinase. In flask conditions, a combination of soluble starch and yeast extract produced the greatest amount of chitinase (5.1 units/ml) and its supernatant had the highest aphicidal activity. An optimal quantitative combination of the two substrates, estimated by a response surface method, enabled the supernatant to have 15.7 units/ml of chitinase activity and 3.7 ml/l of median lethal concentration (LC50) of toxicity against cotton aphid adults in laboratory conditions. In the scale-up conditions, overall supernatant had 25-28 units/ml of chitinase activity. Decrease in pH and limitation of dissolved oxygen (DO) during cultures were significantly related to the yield of chitinase. These results suggest that the substrate-dependent chitinase production can be background information for optimizing a culture medium, and pH and DO are critical factors in maximizing the production in scale-up conditions.

  13. Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Abul Fadl, H.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x10 10 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x10 8 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  15. Physiological and antioxidant response by Beauveria bassiana Bals (Vuill.) to different oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-López, Paul Misael; Konigsberg, Mina; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Loera, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three levels of oxygen (normal atmosphere (21% O(2)), low oxygen (16% O(2)) and enriched oxygen (26% O(2))) on the production and germination of conidia by Beauveria bassiana was evaluated using rice as a substrate. The maximum yield of conidia was achieved under hypoxia (16% O(2)) after 8 days of culture (1.51 × 10(9) conidia per gram of initial dry substrate), representing an increase of 32% compared to the normal atmosphere. However, germination was reduced by at least 27% due to atmospheric modifications. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutases and catalases) with the oxidation profiles of biomolecules (proteins and lipids) showed that a decrease in catalase activity in the final days of culture coincided with an increase in the amount of oxidized lipids, showing that oxidative stress was a consequence of pulses of different concentrations of O(2). This is the first study describing oxidative stress induction by atmospheric modification, with practical implications for conidia production.

  16. Effect of Disinfectants and Pesticides Used in Poultry Houses on Beauveria Bassiana (Bals. Vuill.fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LFA Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the use of disinfectants and insecticides recommended for the control of pathogens and insects in poultry houses on the biological parameters of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain Unioeste 4. Disinfectants and insecticides were used at recommended concentration (RC, half the recommended concentration (0.5 RC, and twice there commended concentration (2RC. All treatments were sprayed on the fungus previously inoculated on PDA culture media. Germination, colony forming unit (CFU, vegetative growth and conidial yield were evaluated. Germination was the most affected parameter by insecticides, with reduction of up to 25% using Couro Limpo and Cypermil products. Cypermil also reduced the vegetative growth in all tested concentrations. Conidial production was reduced when products were used at the highest concentration. On the other hand, the confirmed mortality of the lesser mealworm by the fungus was not affected by none of the tested products. All disinfectants at the highest concentration reduced germination and conidia production, but did not affect fungus vegetative growth. The confirmed mortality by the fungus was most influenced by the product TH4. All tested products tested were considered compatible with the fungus.

  17. Susceptibility of different life stages of Ornithodoros lahorensis to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mousa; Malekifard, Farnaz; Soleimanzadeh, Ali; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2012-10-01

    The use of chemicals for the control of arthropod pests can be problematic due to the potential for both environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is an increasing interest in nonchemical alternatives, such as biocontrol by entomopathogenic fungi. In the present study, three strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (V245, 3247, and 4456) and one strain of Beauveria bassiana (LM 3.2) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their virulence towards three life stages of Ornithodoros lahorensis. Groups of eggs, larvae, and adult ticks were treated by immersion in two different suspensions (10(5) and 10(7) conidia/ml) of each fungal strain. All treatment and control groups were observed during a 3-week period, and the hatchability of eggs and mortality percentage of larvae and adult ticks were assessed. The effect of fungal strains on egg hatchability and larva and adult mortality was significant and dose dependent compared to the control groups (P fungi potential biological control agents of O. lahorensis reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

  18. Removal of industrial dyes and heavy metals by Beauveria bassiana: FTIR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations with Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2017-10-01

    Presence of industrial dyes and heavy metal as a contaminant in environment poses a great risk to human health. In order to develop a potential technology for remediation of dyes (Reactive remazol red, Yellow 3RS, Indanthrene blue and Vat novatic grey) and heavy metal [Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI) and Pb(II)] contamination, present study was performed with entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (MTCC no. 4580). High dye removal (88-97%) was observed during the growth of B. bassiana while removal percentage for heavy metals ranged from 58 to 75%. Further, detailed investigations were performed with Pb(II) in terms of growth kinetics, effect of process parameters and mechanism of removal. Growth rate decreased from 0.118 h -1 (control) to 0.031 h -1 , showing 28% reduction in biomass at 30 mg L -1 Pb(II) with 58.4% metal removal. Maximum Pb(II) removal was observed at 30 °C, neutral pH and 30 mg L -1 initial metal concentration. FTIR analysis indicated the changes induced by Pb(II) in functional groups on biomass surface. Further, microscopic analysis (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) was performed to understand the changes in cell surface morphology of the fungal cell. SEM micrograph showed a clear deformation of fungal hyphae, whereas AFM studies proved the increase in surface roughness (RSM) in comparison to control cell. Homogenous bioaccumulation of Pb(II) inside the fungal cell was clearly depicted by TEM-high-angle annular dark field coupled with EDX. Present study provides an insight into the mechanism of Pb(II) bioremediation and strengthens the significance of using entomopathogenic fungus such as B. bassiana for metal and dye removal.

  19. Identification and sequence determination of a novel double-stranded RNA mycovirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Sipkova, Jana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2015-03-01

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was found to contain five double-stranded (ds) RNA elements ranging from 1.5 to more than 3 kbp. The complete sequence of the largest dsRNA element is described here. Analysis of the RdRp nucleotide sequence reveals its similarity to unclassified dsRNA elements, such as Alternaria longipes dsRNA virus 1, and its distant relationship to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of members of the family Partitiviridae.

  20. Estudo de proteases degradadoras de cutícula produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Augusto Dias

    2005-01-01

    Enzimas degradadoras de cutícula produzidas por fungos entomopatogênicos desempenham papel importante durante o parasitismo. O isolado brasileiro de Beauveria bassiana (CG425), o qual se mostrou virulento à broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei), foi analisado quanto à produção de proteases degradadoras de cutícula do tipo subtilisina (Pr1) e tipo tripsina (Pr2) na presença de cutícula da broca. O fungo foi cultivado em meio de sais (MM) ou meio contendo cutícula da broca em condições não tam...

  1. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  2. Explaining mycoinsecticide activity: poor performance of spray and bait formulations of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum against Mormon cricket in field cage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were threefold: (1) to evaluate B. bassiana GHA and M. anisopliae F52 for potential use against Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex Haldeman); (2) to compare spray and bait formulations of each fungus against immature and adult Mormon cricket; and (3) to understand the effect of optimal a...

  3. Toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against a field-collected strain of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S

    2015-09-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.

  4. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

  5. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  6. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings.

  7. OCORRÊNCIA ESPONTÂNEA DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Criv. Vuill. 1912 (ASCOMYCETES: CLAVICIPITACEAE SOBRE Thaumastocoris peregrinus (HEMIPTERA: THAUMASTOCORIDAE

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    Grasielle Adriane Toscan Lorencetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplars of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae, insect pest of the genus Eucalyptus , were found dead in the Eucalyptus grandis plantation in the city of Realeza, the southwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, with white mycelial growth on the surface of the body. Isolation procedures were performed (in Potato-Dextrose-Agar culture and identification of the pathogen, whereas the ratio between the microorganism and the insect has been established by Koch’s postulate. The fungus through standard procedures, was identified as Beauveria bassiana. In the laboratory testing pathogenicity were performed and caused mortality confirmed in 72.2% of the insects at the concentration of 1.0 x 10 8 conidia.mL -1 after six days inoculation. Studies on the selection of isolates should be performed and justified by the growing demand of the forest sector in search of control strategies for this insect pest. Thus, was verified that Beauveria bassiana naturally infects Thaumastocoris peregrinus, occurring spontaneously in the Paraná state.

  8. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in a resistant dairy population of Musca domestica L [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-"A" and LC50: LC50-"B" significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies.

  9. A study of the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H14 (subspecies israelensis) delta endotoxin on Musca larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Mohammad Reza; Zoghimofrad, Laya; Mazinani, Mahboubeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Rahimi, Amirabbas

    2015-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) are of major public health concern in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene conditions. Biological control through the use of parasitoids and pathogens is one of the alternatives to the use of chemical pesticides for control of insects of public health importance. The effects of the delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis on house fly larval mortality were studied. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE methods were used for separation and purification of proteins. Delta endotoxin was incubated with larvae in concentrations of 0.43 mg/mL and 0.27 mg/mL in bioassay tests. The results of this study indicated protein crystal toxicity against larvae of the house fly. A concentration of 0.43 mg/mL of this toxin caused 100% mortality in house fly larvae. The LD50 amount of these toxins was calculated as 125 µg/g. The results of this study suggest that the use of the protein crystal including delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H14 is an effective weapon in the biological fight against the house fly.

  10. Cycle-characteristic odour of cow urine can be detected by the female face fly (Musca autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordéus, K; Webster, B; Söderquist, L; Båge, R; Glinwood, R

    2014-12-01

    Due to declining dairy cow fertility rates, there is great interest in developing tools for oestrus detection. Compounds in the volatile profile of oestrous cows are suggested as oestrus-specific, but consistent results have not been presented. Certain haematophagous arthropods can discriminate stages of the mammalian reproductive cycle based on host volatiles. This study investigated whether the face fly, Musca autumnalis de Geer (Diptera: Muscidae), can discriminate between urine from cows in oestrus and urine collected during the luteal phase. Individual flies were tested in a two-choice behavioural assay with choice between odour of oestrous or luteal urine and water (control). Flies chose the control arm significantly more when exposed to oestrous urine than when exposed to luteal urine. Analysis of volatiles showed that 1-hexadecanol (cetyl alcohol) was released in greater amounts from oestrous urine than from urine collected during the luteal phase. In a dose response assay, flies were significantly attracted by 0.01 ng of 1-hexadecanol but significantly repelled by 0.1 ng, a pattern consistent with fly responses to urine. In conclusion, M. autumnalis can discriminate between oestrous and luteal urine, and this may be mediated by differences in 1-hexadecanol concentration. © 2014 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  12. Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly other bacteria on housefly eggs, help curtail the growth of fungal resource competitors and (2) that such fungi indeed adversely affect the development of housefly larvae. Bacteria washed from housefly eggs significantly reduced the growth of fungi in chicken manure. Nineteen bacterial strains and ten fungal strains were isolated from housefly eggs or chicken manure, respectively. Co-culturing each of all the possible bacterium-fungus pairs revealed that the bacteria as a group, but no single bacterium, significantly suppressed the growth of all fungal strains tested. The bacteria's adverse effect on fungi is due to resource nutrient depletion and/or the release of antifungal chemicals. Well-established fungi in resources significantly reduced the number of larval offspring that completed development to adult flies.

  13. The house fly (Musca domestica) as a potential vector of metazoan parasites caught in a pig-pen in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Maike; Klimpel, Sven; Sievert, Kai

    2009-03-09

    In the present study a total of 224 specimens of the synanthropic house fly (Musca domestica) were caught in a pig-pen of an organic farmer in Dormagen (Germany). The flies were examined for their potential as a carrier of metazoan parasites. On the exoskeletons and in the intestines of the flies the eggs and/or larvae of four endoparasite nematode species of domestic pigs (Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, Metastrongylus sp., undetermined Strongylida) were isolated. Also one ectoparasite species, the hog louse (Haematopinus suis), was detected on the exoskeleton of one fly. The analysis of the pig faeces as potential source revealed many eggs and larvae of nematodes. A high number of A. suum eggs (62.0% of all found nematode eggs), many eggs of strongylid nematodes (21.0%), some eggs of S. ransomi and few eggs of Trichuris suis were detected. However Metastrongylus sp. could not be identified in the faeces. Further laboratory experiments verified the potential of the house fly as a transmitter of the pig parasites A. suum and T. suis. In the intestines of 59 flies (49.2%) from 120 experimentally used house flies, nematode eggs of both nematode species were detected. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of the house fly as a vector of metazoan pig parasites.

  14. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  15. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity and relative abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids that attack puparia of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) on confined pig and cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, H; Jespersen, J B

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 84 pig and cattle farms in Denmark between August and October 1996 and 1997. The aim was to describe the activity and relative abundance of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Ichneumonidae) that attack puparia of Musca domestica Linnaeus and Stomoxys calcitrans...... calcitrans puparia. The overall rate of parasitism per farm was low: 12.9% of the total number of fly puparia collected. Direct ordination, used to assess the habitat distribution of the parasitoids, showed that Muscidifurax raptor mainly seeks fly puparia in outdoor manure heaps and especially in manure...

  17. Isolation of fungi in Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae captured at two natural breeding grounds in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Márcia de Senna Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify fungal species found in natural association with adults of Musca domestica. The adult insects were collected from two natural breeding grounds: hog pens and an urban sanitary landfill. The isolated fungi were identified as: Aspergillus flavus (23.8%, A. niger var. niger (14.4%, Penicillium corylophilum (21.4%, P. fellutanum (11.9%, Cladosporium cladosporoides (4.7%, Fusarium sp. (4.7%, Alternaria alternata (11.9%, Curvularia brachyspora (2.4%, Mycelia sterilia (2.4% and the Mucorales order (2.4%.

  18. Potential of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), as biological control agents against the June beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Fedai; Ates, A Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) strain PPRI 5339 [BroadBand, an emulsifiable spore concentrate (EC) formulation] and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain F52 [Met52, both EC and granular (GR) formulations] against the larvae of Polyphylla fullo (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Larvicidal bioassays were performed in foam boxes (100 by 75 by 50 cm; length by width by height), containing moist soil medium with some humus and potato tubers as food. Although the B. bassiana product (min. 4 × 10(9) conidia/ml) was applied at 100, 150, and 200 ml/100 l water; M. anisopliae strain F52 was applied at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 g/m(3) of moist soil medium for GR (9 × 10(8) cfu/g) and 75, 100, and 125 ml/100 l water for EC (5.5 × 10(9) conidia/ml) formulation. Both fungi were pathogenic to larvae of the pest; however, young larvae (1st and 2nd instars) were more susceptible to infection than older ones (3rd instar). Mortality rates of young and older larvae varied with conidial concentration of both fungi and elapsed time after application. The B. bassiana product was more effective than both of the formulations of the M. anisopliae product, causing mortalities up to 79.8 and 71.6% in young and older larvae, respectively. The highest mortality rates of young and older larvae caused by the M. anisopliae product were 74.1 and 67.6% for the GR formulation, 70.2 and 61.8% for the EC formulation, respectively. These results may suggest that both fungi have potential to be used for management of P. fullo. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new

  20. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control.

  1. Histological Observation and Expression Patterns of antimicrobial peptides during Fungal Infection in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae Larvae

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    Xiu Jiangfan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Housefly, Musca domestica, has a complicated immune system. However, its underlying operating mechanism remains elusive. Candida albicans is a major pathogen affecting humans by causing deep infection fungous disease, but it is non-symbiotic in houseflies. To investigate the C. albicans infection process in housefly, the changes in morphological and histological and expression patterns of antimicrobial peptide were monitored to indicate the insect's response to fungal infection. The results showed that scattered brown spots were comprising melanized encapsulation and encapsulated fungal cells were initially observed at the inner side of larvae's body wall 3 h post-infection (PI. Between 6 and 36 h PI, the whole body of larvae was densely covered with the brown spots, which then gradually disappeared. The majority had disappeared at 48 h PI. Some fungi colonized in the gaps between the body wall and the muscle layer, as well as among muscle fibers of the muscle layer at 12 h PI and hyphal was observed at 18 h PI. These fungi colonized distribution changed from a continuous line to scattered spots at 24 h PI and virtually disappeared at 48 h. The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that in coordination with the variation during the infection, the expression levels of four antimicrobial peptides were up-regulated. In conclusion, C. albicans infection in M. domestica larvae involved the following stages: injection, infection, immune response and elimination of the pathogen. The rapid response of antimicrobial peptides, melanized encapsulation and agglutination played a vital role against the pathogenic invasion.

  2. Chemical composition and insecticidal property of Myrsine stolonifera (Koidz.) walker (Family: Myrsinaceae) on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Wang, Xue Gui; Li, Qian; Jiang, Su Rong; Li, Pei; Yang, Ji Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC 50 values were 0.52mg/g sugar and 0.36mg/g sugar 24h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC 25 ) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Temperature on the Toxicity of Insecticides against Musca domestica L.: Implications for the Effective Management of Diarrhea

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    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality in developing countries like Pakistan because of unhygienic conditions, lack of awareness, and unwise use of preventive measures. Mechanical transmission of diarrheal pathogens by house flies, Musca domestica, is believed as the most effective route of diarrhea transmission. Although the use of insecticides as a preventive measure is common worldwide for the management of house flies, success of the measure could be compromised by the prevailing environmental temperature since it significantly affects toxicity of insecticides and thus their efficacy. Peaks of the house fly density and diarrheal cases are usually coincided and season specific, yet little is known about the season specific use of insecticides. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the temperature-toxicity relationship in house flies, the effect of post-bioassays temperature (range, 20–34°C) on the toxicity of seven insecticides from organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, profenofos), pyrethroid (cypermethrin, deltamethrin) and new chemical (emamectin benzoate, fipronil, spinosad) classes was evaluated by using a feeding bioassay method. From 20–34°C, the toxicities of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil increased 2.10, 2.93, 2.40 and 3.82 fold (i.e. positive temperature coefficient), respectively. Whereas, the toxicities of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and spinosad decreased 2.21, 2.42 and 3.16 fold (i.e. negative temperature coefficient), respectively. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that for the reduction in diarrheal cases, house flies should be controlled with insecticides according to the prevailing environmental temperature. Insecticides with a positive temperature coefficient may serve as potential candidates in controlling house flies and diarrhea epidemics in hot season and vice versa. PMID:24743188

  4. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

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    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai infesting papaya seedlings

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    Yayan Sanjaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.

  6. Diversity of Fungi Associated with Atta bisphaerica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: The Activity of Aspergillus ochraceus and Beauveria bassiana

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    Myriam M. R. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grass-cutting ant Atta bisphaerica is one of the most serious pests in several pastures and crops in Brazil. Fungal diseases are a constant threat to these large societies composed of millions of closely related individuals. We investigated the occurrence of filamentous fungi associated with the ant A. bisphaerica in a pasture area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Several fungi species were isolated from forager ants, and two of them, known as entomopathogenic, Beauveria bassiana and Aspergillus ochraceus, were tested against worker ants in the laboratory. The two species were highly virulent, achieving 50 percent worker mortality within 4-5 days. It is the first time A. ochraceus, a commonly found fungal species, is reported to infect Atta species at a high prevalence. Possible uses for the fungus within biological control are discussed.

  7. STUDY OF BORER PEST CONTROL POTATO TUBER IN WAREHOUSES SEEDLINGS (With fungus Beauveria bassiana and Leaf of Tagetes erecta

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    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of borer pest control potato tuber (Phthorimaea operculella Zell in warehouses seedlings with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo and leaf Tagetes erecta was conducted in Kutagadung village, district of Brand, Karo District, starting in October until December 2010. The draft that is in use is completely randomized (CRD comprised of seven treatments with three replications. Treatment at Kaji is: Control (no treatment, the density of conidia 106 per ml, 105 per ml, 104 per ml, leaf thickness Tegetes two cm, three cm, and four cm. Observations were P. operculella and intensity of attacks healthy seedlings. In the final analysis, the intensity of attacks in 100 percent control treatment, the density of conidia.

  8. Compatibility and survival of beneficial microorganisms for agricultural use (Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Bacillus thuringiensis in compost

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    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compatibility and survivorship of beneficial microorganism in compost were evaluated in order to provide new alternatives to clean production in agriculture. The study was conducted at the Ecological Farm belonging to the Consejo Provincial de Tungurahua, Ecuador. Four treatments were considered related to dose of several beneficial microorganisms (EMs. After an interval of 30 or 60 days after composting process, analysis of nutritional biological content showed compatibility and survivorship of the EMs, which live together and reproduce on the organic fertilizer. Concerning physic-chemical analysis higher organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and calcium were evidenced in T1: 100 cc Beauveria bassiana - 100 cc Bacillus thuringiensis - 100 cc Paecilomyces lilacinus. From the results obtained will offer the possibility of using beneficial microorganisms to optimize their performance in obtaining compost of better nutritional and biological quality, so that gradually reduce the use of agrochemicals.

  9. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

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    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  10. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

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    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  11. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  12. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. molitor larvae than on M. domestica larvae. Regardless of diet, S. cincticeps showed better reproduction and longevity in the second generation in laboratory conditions.Foram avaliadas, em duas gerações, a reprodução e a longevidade de Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ou Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae a 24,7 ± 1,1ºC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 12 h. O peso de adultos recém emergidos, o período de oviposição, o número de posturas, de ovos totais e a longevidade de fêmeas de S. cincticeps foram maiores com larvas de Z. confusa ou T. molitor que com M. domestica. Independentemente do tipo de presa, S. cincticeps mostrou melhor performance reprodutiva e longevidade na segunda geração.

  13. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of copper by the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. exposed to various copper-based fungicides.

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    Martins, Fátima; Soares, Maria Elisa; Oliveira, Ivo; Pereira, José Alberto; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Baptista, Paula

    2012-07-01

    This work evaluates for the first time the relationships between copper-tolerance, -solubilization and -bioaccumulation in the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana exposed to Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride or copper hydroxide. Bordeaux mixture was highly detrimental to fungus, by inhibiting the growth totally at the recommended dose (RD) and 2×RD. Copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride were found to be less toxic, reducing fungus growth, sporulation and conidial germination in an average of 29  %, 30 % and 58 %, respectively. These two copper forms were the easiest to solubilize, to precipitate and the most accumulated by B. bassiana, suggesting the involvement of all these processes on fungus copper-tolerance.

  14. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  15. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

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    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  16. Histopathology Caused by the Entomopathogenic Fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, in the Adult Planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, a Maize Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, A.V.; de Remes Lenicov, A.M.M.; López Lastra, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is an important vector of maize viruses in tropical and subtropical areas. Planthoppers are biologically controlled with several species of entomopathogenic fungi that have been isolated from these insect pests of rice in Asia. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) appear to be the most useful against planthoppers because of their ease of mass production, storage, virulence, and application. In the present study, adults of P. maidis infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were observed under light and scanning electron microscopy to characterize morphologically the process of infection and the development of these fungi, prior to and after the death of the host. The hydrophobic conidia of both fungal species were able to attach to all body regions, with a preference for surfaces containing hairs. Few germinated conidia were observed on the insect's body surface at 24, 48, and 72 hr post-inoculation. On the cuticular surface of P. maidis treated with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, bacillus-like bacteria were observed. These microorganisms could be interacting with fungal conidia, playing a role of antibiosis that will not allow the fungal pathogens to germinate and penetrate. In the colonization events observed in this study, the formation and multiplication of hyphal bodies by both fungal species inside the host's body was noted. The host's whole body was invaded by hyphae between five and six days post-inoculation, and body fat was the most affected tissue. PMID:20578956

  17. Transcriptomic insights into the alternative splicing-mediated adaptation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to host niches: autophagy-related gene 8 as an example.

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    Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Gao, Yang; Peng, Yue-Jin; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates various biological processes in fungi by extending the cellular proteome. However, comprehensive studies investigating AS in entomopathogenic fungi are lacking. Based on transcriptome data obtained via dual RNA-seq, the first overview of AS events was developed for Beauveria bassiana growing in an insect haemocoel. The AS was demonstrated for 556 of 8840 expressed genes, accounting for 5.4% of the total genes in B. bassiana. Intron retention was the most abundant type of AS, accounting for 87.1% of all splicing events and exon skipping events were rare, only accounting for 2.0% of all events. Functional distribution analysis indicated an association between alternatively spliced genes and several physiological processes. Notably, B. bassiana autophagy-related gene 8 (BbATG8), an indispensable gene for autophagy, was spliced at an alternative 5' splice site to generate two transcripts (BbATG8-α and BbATG8-β). The BbATG8-α transcript was necessary for fungal autophagy and oxidation tolerance, while the BbATG8-β transcript was not. These two transcripts differentially contributed to the formation of conidia or blastospores as well as fungal virulence. Thus, AS acts as a powerful post-transcriptional regulatory strategy in insect mycopathogens and significantly mediates fungal transcriptional adaption to host niches. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inheritance mode and mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid in the house fly Musca domestica (Diptera:Muscidae from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Ma

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly. There was incomplete dominant inheritance in the F1 and F1' progenies, based on dominance values of 0.77 and 0.75, respectively. A monogenic inheritance model revealed that imidacloprid resistance is governed by more than one factor. Compared to the field strain (CFD, the N-IRS strain developed more cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr and no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid, but showed negative cross-resistance to beta-cypermethrin and azamethiphos. Three synergists, diethyl malate (DEM, s,s,s-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, showed significant synergism against to imidacloprid (4.55-, 4.46- and 3.34-fold respectively in the N-IRS strain. However, both DEM and PBO had no synergism and DEF only exhibited slight synergism in the CSS strain. The activities of carboxylesterase (CarE, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs and cytochrome P450 in the N-IRS strain were significantly higher than in the CSS strain. But similar synergistic potential of DEF to imidacloprid between the CSS and N-IRS strain suggested that GSTs and cytochrome P450 played much more important role than esterase for the N-IRS strain resistance to imidacloprid. These results should be helpful for developing an improved management strategy to delay the development of imidacloprid

  20. Levels of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus Violaceous), Housefly (Musca Domestica) and dragon fly (Libellula luctosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, A.A.; Okedeyi, O.O.; Idowu, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical analyses of cadmium, chromium and lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus violaceous), housefly (Musca domestica) and in indigenous dragonfly (Libellula luctosa) were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry to estimate the degree of metal pollution in two Lagos dumpsites located at Iba Housing Estate (dumpsite A) and Soluos along LASU - Isheri road (dumpsite B). Soil pH and moisture content were also determined. Chromium was not detected (ND) in most of the samples except in the soil samples whose mean and standard deviation (SD) were 0.43 Plus minus 0.37 micro g/g and 0.23 plus minus 0.37 micro g/g, respectively for dumpsites A and B, and the earthworm samples harvested from dumpsite B (1.00 plus minus 1.41 micro g/g the cadmium levels were 4.00 plus minus 3.16 micro g/g and 7.50 plus minus 6.37 micro g/g for earthwarm; 2.86 plus minus 1.43 micro g/g and 4.29 plus minus 3.74 micro g/g for housefly, 0.75 plus minus 1.26 micro g/g and 1.25 plus minus 0.95 micro g/g for dragonfly, respectively for dumpsites A and B. However, the concentration of lead in the invertebrates were, 130.00 plus minus 112.58 micro g/g and 105.75 plus minus 94.44 micro g/g for earthworm; 145.71 plus minus 101.87 micro g/g and 225.71 plus minus 79.31 micro g/g for housefly; 165.00 plus minus 69.78 micro g/g and 85.00 plus minus 69.73 micro g/g for dragonfly respectively for dumpsites A and B. Cadmium and lead levels were found to be higher in the invertebrates harvested from the dumpsites than those collected from the non-dumpsites. The non-dumpsite values for cadmium were 1.24 plus minus 0,94 micro g/g, 0.45 plus minus 0.56 micro g/g and 0.38 plus minus 0.4 micro g/g for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly, respectively. Similarly, the non-dumpsite lead levels for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly were 23.12 plus minus 10.11 micro g/g, 20.75 plus minus 11.85 micro g/g and 33.62 plus minus 14.95 micro g/g, respectively.(author)

  1. Responses to abiotic environmental stresses among phylloplane and soil isolates of Beauveria bassiana from two holm oak ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bravo, María; Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Valverde-García, Pablo; Enkerli, Jürg; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    The response of entomopathogenic mitosporic ascomycete (EMAs) to abiotic stresses might be adapted to the microhabitats in which they inhabit. In phylloplane, these organisms are more exposed to such stresses than they are in soil, which may have led to adaptation to this environment. In the present work, we investigate whether Beauveria bassiana genotype or isolation habitat, i.e., soil or phylloplane, within the same geographic area influences their responses to key environmental stresses, such as temperature, moisture and ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which can affect their successful use in microbial control. Twenty isolates of B. bassiana obtained from the soil and phylloplane in two ecosystems from southern Spain (holm oak dehesa and a reforested area) were selected to study the population distribution of these isolates and evaluate their thermal, humidity and UV-B requirements. Molecular characterization was conducted by using elongation factor-1α (EF-1α), the intergenic nuclear region Bloc and 15 microsatellite primers. The cluster analysis based on concatenated EF-1α and Bloc sequences grouped the 20 isolates into five clades within B. basiana, with Clades a, b, d and e containing both soil and phylloplane isolates and Clade c including three phylloplane isolates. The dendrogram and the minimal spanning network generated from the genetic distances among multilocus genotypes showed four divergent groups corresponding to the five clades obtained based on the sequence data (Clades b and d were represented in the same group), with a high degree of shared alleles within groups and few alleles shared among groups. Although no relationship was found between MLG and the habitat (soil or phylloplane) of isolation, isolates grouped into Clade c, all of which were collected from phylloplane, formed a separate group of MLGs. To investigate our hypothesis, the responses to temperature (germination and colony growth evaluated in the range 15-35°C), water activity

  2. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Annabel F V; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2010-06-16

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 +/- 1 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER) and insecticide-susceptible (SKK) strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. The insecticide-resistant mosquito strain was susceptible to both species of fungus

  3. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  4. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  5. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S S

    2010-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus...... that inhibits egg production in infected females and is characterized by salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. MdSGHV has been detected in housefly samples from North America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and the southwestern Pacific. In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations......, and the polymorphism detected was correlated with geographic source. The virulence of the geographic MdSGHV isolates was evaluated by per os treatment of newly emerged and 24-h-old houseflies with homogenates of infected salivary glands. In all cases, 24-h-old flies displayed a resistance to oral infection...

  6. Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Carson; Bahrndorff, Simon; Lowenberger, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, has been implicated as a vector of Campylobacter spp., a major cause of human disease. Little is known whether house flies serve as biological amplifying hosts or mechanical vectors for Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated the period after C. jejuni had been...... after ingestion but no countable C. jejuni colonies were observed > 24 hours post-ingestion. We detected viable C. jejuni in house fly vomitus and excreta up to 4 hours after ingestion, but no viable bacteria were detected ≥ 8 hours. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified pathogen-induced gene...... quantitative real time PCR. Some house fly factor, or combination of factors, eliminates C. jejuni within 24 hours post-ingestion. Because C. jejuni is not amplified within the body of the housefly, this insect likely serves as a mechanical vector rather than as a true biological, amplifying vector for C...

  7. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, Christopher J; Wood, Lois A; Geden, Christopher J; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies. After seven passages through horn fly hosts, fly mortality was not significantly accelerated as evaluated through LT50 values, but conidia were readily produced from these killed flies. Although further development is needed to improve fungal efficacy, this fungal strain holds promise as a biological control agent for inclusion in horn fly integrated pest management programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  9. Ethanol production from chitosan by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Naranjo Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Abihssira García, Isabel Sofía; Zavala-Gonzalez, Ernesto A; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose and virtually unexplored as raw material for bioethanol production. In this paper, we investigate chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin which is the main component of shellfish waste, as substrate for bioethanol production by fungi. Fungal parasites of invertebrates such as the nematophagous Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc) or the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) are biocontrol agents of plant parasitic nematodes (eg. Meloidogyne spp.) or insect pests such as the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). These fungi degrade chitin-rich barriers for host penetration. We have therefore tested the chitin/chitosanolytic capabilities of Pc, Bb and Ma for generating reducing sugars using chitosan as only nutrient. Among the microorganisms used in this study, Pc is the best chitosan degrader, even under anaerobic conditions. These fungi have alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) encoding genes in their genomes. We have therefore analyzed their ethanol production under anaerobic conditions using chitosan as raw material. P. chlamydosporia is the largest ethanol producer from chitosan. Our studies are a starting point to develop chitin-chitosan based biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  11. Selection of improved Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. strains based on 2-deoxy-D-glucose resistance and physiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Monterrubio, M; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Viniegra-González, G; Loera, O

    2009-07-01

    A series of 2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant mutants was obtained from wild type Beauveria bassiana 88 (Bb 88) by UV irradiation. Five mutants were characterized on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and Chitin Agar for both radial extension rate (V(r)) and specific growth rate (micro). These values were obtained after adjusting morphometric data to a mathematical model used for filamentous fungi. Additionally, the protease and lipase potency index, conidial size, viability, and production levels were analyzed. The highest values for those physiological measurements were obtained by mutant 882.5 which, relative to Bb 88, showed a 30% reduction in half-life (LT(50)) on Sphenarium purpurascens, 70% on Acheta domesticus, and 71% on Tenebrio molitor larvae and adults. The half lethal concentration (LC(50)) on T. molitor larvae was 2.8 x 10(5)conidia/mL (con/mL) and 1.5 x 10(6)con/mL, respectively, for mutant 882.5 and Bb 88. This demonstrates that mutant 882.5 is more virulent, with up to an 80% reduction in LC(50). This work provides a convenient method for improving strains to be used in biocontrol as a suitable alternative to transgenic constructs.

  12. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1 from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available TATA-binding protein (TBP is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1 is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  13. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) Introduced as an Endophyte in Corn Plants and Its Effects on Consumption, Reproductive Capacity, and Food Preference of Dichroplus maculipennis (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Sebastian A; Mariottini, Yanina; Russo, Leticia M; Vianna, M Florencia; Scorsetti, Ana C; Lange, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of strain Beauveria bassiana (LPSC 1067) as an endophyte in corn plants on consumption, fecundity, and food preference of Dichroplus maculipennis were examined. We observed that the daily consumption by grasshoppers fed with control plants was almost twice that of those that were fed treated plants. Significant differences in fecundity of grasshoppers that were fed with treated plants compared with those that only fed on control plants were also observed. The number of eggs laid per female fed with control plants was 27.2, while the number of eggs laid per female that were fed during 15 d with treated plants was 17.7. Similar results were observed when the number of embryonated eggs was evaluated. The highest number of embryonated eggs were recorded in those females that only fed on control plants (96%) while fewer embryonated eggs were recorded in grasshoppers fed for 15 d with treated plants only (25%). In relation to food preference the average consumption rate for D. maculipennis females on control corn plants was 303.8 ± 24.5 mg while it was only 25 ± 2.1 mg on plants treated with B. bassiana as an endophyte. In summary, we observed that B. bassiana as a corn plant endophyte negatively affected the daily consumption rate, fecundity and food preference of D. maculipennis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Interaction between TATA-Binding Protein (TBP) and Multiprotein Bridging Factor-1 (MBF1) from the Filamentous Insect Pathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chi; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-01-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic transcription factors that acts to nucleate assembly and position pre-initiation complexes. Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is thought to interconnect TBP with gene specific transcriptional activators, modulating transcriptional networks in response to specific signal and developmental programs. The insect pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is a cosmopolitan fungus found in most ecosystems where it acts as an important regulator of insect populations and can form intimate associations with certain plants. In order to gain a better understanding of the function of MBF1 in filamentous fungi, its interaction with TBP was demonstrated. The MBF1 and TBP homologs in B. bassiana were cloned and purified from a heterologous E. coli expression system. Whereas purified BbTBP was shown to be able to bind oligonucleotide sequences containing the TATA-motif (Kd ≈ 1.3 nM) including sequences derived from the promoters of the B. bassiana chitinase and protease genes. In contrast, BbMBF1 was unable to bind to these same target sequences. However, the formation of a ternary complex between BbMBF1, BbTBP, and a TATA-containing target DNA sequence was seen in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). These data indicate that BbMBF1 forms direct interactions with BbTBP, and that the complex is capable of binding to DNA sequences containing TATA-motifs, confirming that BbTBP can link BbMBF1 to target sequences as part of the RNA transcriptional machinery in fungi.

  16. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4. Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart., guava (Psidium guajava (L., and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L., at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC, 1:200 (RC, 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions. For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential.

  17. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential.

  18. Selection, assessment of virulence to Alphitobius diaperinus, and Pr1 enzyme production of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. isolates cultured at stress temperatures

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    Kelly Christiane Constanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is a promising agent for use in insect control. Its pathogenic activity, as well as other factors such as temperature that can interfere with its development, should be assessed, thus, establishing the foundations for B. bassiana use in biological control programs. The objective of this study was to select and induce tolerance of B. bassiana isolates to high and low temperatures and to assess their virulence before and after exposure to those temperatures. A pre-selection test was performed, in which the tolerance of isolates to stress temperatures was tested and compared to the ideal growth temperature of 25 °C for this organism. For the isolates/temperature combinations resulting in growth, conidia germination and colony-forming units (CFUs were assessed. The isolates Unioeste 4 and Unioeste 40 exhibited >95% germinated conidia at 16 and 31 °C. Thereafter, they underwent four consecutive passages at maximum and minimum tolerated temperatures (10 and 37 °C. A significant difference in germination was observed between the two isolates at all temperatures tested. More CFUs were observed for Unioeste 4 compared to Unioeste 40 at all temperatures, and in the case of the latter, there was no difference in CFU formation at 10 and 25 °C. For both isolates, decreased vegetative growth was observed at 37 °C. Recovery of virulence was observed in both isolates, as determined by insect mortality. No relationship was observed between production of the enzyme Pr1 and the virulence of the isolates.

  19. Relationship between expression level of hygromycin B-resistant gene and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Y S; Lee, M R; Kim, S; Lee, S J; Kim, J C; Yang, Y T; Kim, J S

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) is an effective method for generation of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana transformants. However, some strains grow on the selective medium containing hygromycin B (HygB), which reduces the selection efficiency of the putative transformants. In this work, a relationship between HygB resistance gene promoter and AtMT efficiency was investigated to improve the transformant selection. Ten B. bassiana isolates were grown on 800 μg ml -1 HygB medium, but only JEF-006, -007 and -013 showed susceptibility to the antibiotics. Particularly, JEF-007 showed the most dose-dependent susceptibility. Two different Ti-Plasmids, pCeg (gpdA promoter based) and pCambia-egfp (CaMV 35S promoter based), were constructed to evaluate the promoters on the expression of HygB resistance gene (hph) at 100, 150 and 200 μg ml -1 HygB medium. Eight days after the transformation, wild type, AtMT/pCeg and AtMT/pCambia-egfp colonies were observed on 100 μg ml -1 HygB, but significantly larger numbers of colonies were counted on AtMT/pCeg plates. At higher HygB concentration (150 μg ml -1 ), only AtMT/pCeg colonies were further observed, but very few colonies were observed on the wild type and AtMT/pCambia-egfp plates. Putative transformants were subjected to PCR, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR to investigate the T-DNA insertion rate and gene expression level. Consequently, >80% of colonies showed successful AtMT transformation, and the hph expression level in AtMT/pCeg colonies was higher than that of AtMT/pCambia-egfp colonies. In the HygB-susceptible B. bassianaJEF-007, gpdA promoter works better than CaMV 35S promoter in the expression of HygB resistance gene at 150 μg ml -1 HygB, consequently improving the selection efficiency of putative transformants. These results provide useful information for determining AtMT effectiveness in B. bassiana isolates, particularly antibiotic susceptibility and the role of promoters. © 2017 The

  20. Effects of mode of inoculation on efficacy of wettable powder and oil dispersion formulations of Beauveria bassiana applied against Colorado potato beetle larvae under low-humidity greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of inoculation method on efficacy of two formulations of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA against Colorado potato beetle larvae were investigated. Under low-humidity greenhouse conditions, 57% mortality was observed among groups of second-instar larvae exposed directly to sprays of B. bass...

  1. The effect of temperature and exposure to Beauveria bassiana on tarnished plant bugs Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae) population dynamics and the broader implications of treating insects with entomopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera, Miridae) are a major pest of cotton in most of the cotton growing regions of the Southern US. Studies were conducted to investigate how temperature and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuilllemin infection impacted L. lineolaris...

  2. A Laboratory Assessment of Two Local Strains of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. against the Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and Their Potential as a Mycopesticide

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    Serkan Ortucu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae, were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures. Finally, identification of the selected isolate was performed by using ITS rDNA analysis. Both tested fungal isolates were pathogenic to the T. urticae. Mycelial growths of isolate AT076 at 20°C and 30°C were found to be greater than isolate AT007. It was observed that isolate AT076 had more spore production with 1.61 × 107 spore/disc at 30°C and 44.33% germination after UV radiation for 15 min. The numbers of spores per 5 mm disk area for isolates AT076 and AT007 were found to be 1.2 × 106 and 1.0 × 106. These results show that isolate AT076 was more virulent and more UV-tolerant and had higher tendency to mass production compared to isolate AT007 against T. urticae. As a result of this study, isolate AT076 can be used in the biocontrol as mycopesticide.

  3. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-01-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana

  4. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com [Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati - ITB, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  5. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (Pbiopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  6. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

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    Ji Hye Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom.

  7. A Laboratory Assessment of Two Local Strains of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. against the Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Their Potential as a Mycopesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortucu, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess highly pathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolates to be used in biocontrol and to determine their potentials as mycopesticide. For this purpose, two B. bassiana isolates, which were locally isolated from T. urticae , were chosen. Firstly, three suspensions were investigated at the degree of humidity of 65 ± 5% and 100% RH. Secondly, these strains were selected according to their tendency to mass production, tolerance to UV radiation, and capability of producing spore at the different temperatures. Finally, identification of the selected isolate was performed by using ITS rDNA analysis. Both tested fungal isolates were pathogenic to the T. urticae . Mycelial growths of isolate AT076 at 20°C and 30°C were found to be greater than isolate AT007. It was observed that isolate AT076 had more spore production with 1.61 × 10 7 spore/disc at 30°C and 44.33% germination after UV radiation for 15 min. The numbers of spores per 5 mm disk area for isolates AT076 and AT007 were found to be 1.2 × 10 6 and 1.0 × 10 6 . These results show that isolate AT076 was more virulent and more UV-tolerant and had higher tendency to mass production compared to isolate AT007 against T. urticae . As a result of this study, isolate AT076 can be used in the biocontrol as mycopesticide.

  8. RAPD, MICROSATÉLITES MARCADORES EN LA CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE AISLADOS DE Beauveria bassiana (BALS. VUILL.

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    Marcelo da Costa Mendonca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana has been used for the control of agricultural pests. However, the genetic diversity of these fungi in the State of Sergipe, Brazil has been poorly studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic diversity of B. bassiana isolates by means of RAPD markers, microsatellites, and rDNA-ITS regions, relating their origins and different geographic hosts. Nineteen primers were used in the RAPD analysis, and four primer pairs were used as microsatellite markers. The rDNA-ITS of 18S rDNA region were evaluated using primers ITS 1 and ITS 4. The RAPD analysis showed genetic similarities from 2% to 77%. Isolates 057.99 and 053.96 had the highest similarity (77%, followed by 064.99 and 053.96, with 73% similarity. With regard to microsatellites, isolates BC.05 and 032.91 showed the highest genetic similarity (82%, followed by 064.99 and 057.99 isolates, with 80% genetic similarity. The analysis of the rDNA-ITS region showed an intense fragment with 550pb for all isolates. PCR products were digested with EcoRI and HaeIII, but no restrictions were found for such products.

  9. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  10. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

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    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  11. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7) mL(-1)conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7) conidia mL(-1) of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  12. Effects of Piperonyl Butoxide and Tetramethrin Combinations on Biological Activities of Selected Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticides against Different Housefly (Musca domestica L., Diptera: Muscidae Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cakir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a methylenedioxyphenyl compound, is primarily used as a synergist in combination with space spray, residual and admixture products for the control of insect pests in or around domestic and commercial premises, especially food preparation areas. Also, tetramethrin is known as a knockdown agent on target organism and it is generally used with piperonyl butoxide. In this study, effects of piperonyl butoxide and tetramethrin combinations on biological activities of synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin against different housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 populations were evaluated. In addition, the biological efficiency of the insecticides used in the study, insecticide + PBO and insecticide + PBO + tetramethrin combinations, against the WHO standard sensitive housefly population and housefly populations collected from different parts of Turkey were compared. Results showed that PBO extensively promoted the ratio of knockdown and killing effect values of the insecticides. The results also indicated that PBO and PBO + tetramethrin combinations moderately reduced the knockdown effect times of all formulation in all housefly populations. The knockdown effect times were more decreased by insecticide + PBO + tetramethrin combinations than insecticides that are used alone and insecticide + PBO combinations.

  13. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael M.; Itepan, Sara E.D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10 13 Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  14. Efficacy of the Volatile Oil from Water Celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) against the Filariasis Vector Culex quinquefasciatus, the Housefly Musca domestica, and the African Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydrodistilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. The essential oil, which was characterized by the insecticidal limonene (39.8%) and myristicin (35.3%), exerted important toxic effects on 3rd instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis and on adults of M. domestica, with LD 50 of 50.4 μl l -1 , 116.7 μg larva -1 , and 45.1 (male) and 70.1 (female) μg adult -1 , respectively. The oil did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Our findings add scientific evidences highlighting water celery as an important biomass source to be used for the control of insect pests and vectors of high economic importance. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Qualitative Sybr Green real-time detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for target-site resistance in insect pests: the example of Myzus persicae and Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, V; Chiesa, O; Panini, M; Mazzoni, E

    2017-02-01

    Chemical insecticides have been widely used to control insect pests, leading to the selection of resistant populations. To date, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have already been associated with insecticide resistance, causing reduced sensitivity to many classes of products. Monitoring and detection of target-site resistance is currently one of the most important factors for insect pest management strategies. Several methods are available for this purpose: automated and high-throughput techniques (i.e. TaqMan or pyrosequencing) are very costly; cheaper alternatives (i.e. RFLP or PASA-PCRs) are time-consuming and limited by the necessity of a final visualization step. This work presents a new approach (QSGG, Qualitative Sybr Green Genotyping) which combines the specificity of PASA-PCR with the rapidity of real-time PCR analysis. The specific real-time detection of Cq values of wild-type or mutant alleles (amplified used allele-specific primers) allows the calculation of ΔCqW-M values and the consequent identification of the genotypes of unknown samples, on the basis of ranges previously defined with reference clones. The methodology is applied here to characterize mutations described in Myzus persicae and Musca domestica and we demonstrate it represents a valid, rapid and cost-effective technique that can be adopted for monitoring target-site resistance in field populations of these and other insect species.

  16. THE EFFECT OF VARIATIONS IN THE COLOUR OF LIGHT EQUIPMENT ADHESIVE FLIES TO THE NUMBER OF HOUSE FLIES (Musca domestica TRAPPED A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Dita Prasetya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lalat mempunyai peran penting dalam kesehatan masyarakat, terutama dalam permasalahan sampah. Spesies lalat yangmampu berkembangbiak dengan cepat adalah lalat rumah Musca domestica. Lalat mempunyai sistem penglihatan yangsangat baik, dapat mengenal dan membedakan jenis warna. Letak tempat pemotongan ayam Sayap Mekar berdekatandengan pemukiman penduduk, kondisinya terbuka dan kurang bersih. Kepadatan lalat di tempat tersebut tinggi. Tujuanpenelitian mengetahui pengaruh variasi warna lampu pada alat perekat lalat terhadap jumlah lalat rumah yang terperangkap,dan warna lampu yang paling efektif untuk memerangkap lalat rumah. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan desain post testonly with control group. Lokasi penelitian di tempat pemotongan ayam Desa Margoagung, Kecamatan Seyegan, KabupatenSleman. Variabel bebas adalah variasi warna lampu pada alat perekat lalat, variabel terikatnya jumlah lalat yangterperangkap. Analisis data secara deskriptif dan analitik menggunakan uji Kolmogorov Smirnov dan one-way ANOVAdengan taraf signifikan 0,05 dilanjutkan uji Post Hoc Test. Jumlah lalat terperangkap lebih banyak pada perangkap denganpenambahan lampu warna biru rata-rata sebanyak 30 ekor. Hasil analisis menunjukkan ada pengaruh variasi warna lampubiru, ungu dan hijau pada alat perekat lalat terhadap jumlah lalat yang terperangkap (p= 0,000. Kesimpulan hasil penelitianini yaitu alat perekat lalat dengan lampu biru paling efektif untuk memerangkap lalat.Kata kunci: warna lampu, alat perekat lalat, lalat rumah

  17. The effects of temperature and innate immunity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) between life stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, S; Gill, C; Lowenberger, C; Skovgård, H; Hald, B

    2014-05-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained at 25 degrees C had mean bacterial numbers of 6.5 +/- 0.2 SE log10 (colony forming units [CFU]/g) that subsequently dropped to 3.6 +/- 0.3 SE log10 (CFU/g) 8 h after infection. Pupae originating from infected larvae contained mean bacterial numbers of 5.3 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak in older pupae (4 or 48 h). Conversely, there was a reduced expression of the digestive enzyme, lysozyme, in pupae and adults compared with larvae.

  18. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  19. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  20. Towards the development of an autocontamination trap system to manage populations of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with the native entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D Barry; Iavallée, Robert; Kyei-Poku, George; Van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Johny, Shajahan; Guertin, Claude; Francese, Joseph A; Jones, Gene C; Blais, Martine

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive species from Asia that was discovered in North America Canada, in 2002. Herein, we describe studies to develop an autocontamination trapping system to disseminate Beauveria bassiana to control beetle populations. The standard trap for emerald ash borer in Canada is a light green prism trap covered in an insect adhesive and baited with (Z)-3-hexenol. We compared of green multifunnel traps, green intercept panel traps (both with and without fluon coating) and green prism traps for capturing emerald ash borer in a green ash plantation. The coated green multifunnel traps captured significantly more males and more females than any other trap design. We examined the efficacy of two native B. bassiana isolates, INRS-CFL and L49-1AA. In a field experiment the INRS-CFL isolate attached to multifunnel traps in autocontamination chambers retained its pathogenicity to emerald ash borer adults for up to 43 d of outdoor exposure. Conidia germination of the INRS-CFL isolate was >69% after outdoor exposure in the traps for up to 57 d. The L49-1AA isolate was not pathogenic in simulated trap exposures and the germination rate was extremely low (<5.3%). Mean (+/- SEM) conidia loads on ash borer adults after being autocontaminated in the laboratory using pouches that had been exposed in traps out of doors for 29 d were 579,200 (+/- 86,181) and 2,400 (+/- 681) for the INRS-CFL and the LA9-1AA isolates, respectively. We also examined the fungal dissemination process under field conditions using the L49-1AA isolate in a green ash plantation. Beetles were lured to baited green multifunnel traps with attached autocontamination chambers. Beetles acquired fungal conidia from cultures growing on pouches in the chambers and were recaptured on Pestick-coated traps. In total, 2,532 beetles were captured of which 165 (6.5%) had fungal growth that resembled B. bassiana. Of these 25 beetles were positive for

  1. [Molecular evaluation on the efficacy of sustainable control of Monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric fungal bands impregnated with Beauveria bassiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, De-Gui; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Meng, Yan-Qiong; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Xia, Cheng-Run

    2007-03-01

    By using molecular marker of group I intron, a field evaluation was made on the efficacy of sustainable control of Monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric bands impregnated with Beauveria bassiana. The results showed that the control efficacy in two treated plots was 19.5% and 10.8%, and 14.2% and 11% when evaluated with conventional and molecular evaluation methods, respectively, suggesting that the conventional method which evaluated the control efficacy in terms of microbes mortality or infection rate couldn't distinguish the efficacies caused by released biocontrol agents and indigenous pathogens, while molecular method could avoid the interference of indigenous pathogens and give an objective and reasonable evaluation on the efficacy of microbial control.

  2. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  3. Characterization of the synergistic interaction between Beauveria bassiana strain GHA and Bacillus thuringiensis morrisoni strain tenebrionis applied against Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraight, S P; Ramos, M E

    2017-03-01

    Studies were undertaken to further characterize the previously identified synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis- and Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticides against Colorado potato beetle (CPB). A flowable concentrate of B. thuringiensis morrisoni strain tenebrionis (Bt) (Novodor® FC) and a wettable powder of B. bassiana strain GHA (Bb) (Mycotrol® 22WP) were applied against CPB larval populations infesting potato in field plots. Novodor FC and an oil-dispersion formulation of Bb (Mycotrol ES) were applied against second-instar CPB larvae on potted potato plants in greenhouse tests under low relative humidity (RH), variable-temperature conditions. Each pathogen was applied alone and in combination (tank-mixed) with the other pathogen. In the field tests, each biopesticide was also combined with the spray-carrier (formulation without active ingredient) of the other pathogen. Results from the greenhouse tests showed that under warm, dry conditions, low activity of Mycotrol was counterbalanced by high activity of the Novodor, and under cool, somewhat more humid conditions, low Novodor activity was balanced by high activity of Mycotrol, with the result being a constant level of synergism (CPB mortality ca. 20 percentage points higher than predicted by independent action). Similar levels of synergism were observed under the markedly different conditions of the field and greenhouse environments, and the synergism was confirmed as arising from interaction of the two micobes, as the Bt spray carrier had no significant effect on efficacy of the Mycotrol product and the Bb spray carrier had no effect on the efficacy of Novodor. The great capacity of these two control agents to act in concert to control CPB is well documented (the fast-acting, toxic Bt acting to protect potato crops from defoliation and the slow-acting Bb reducing survival to the adult stage). These finding further underscore the strong complementary action of these agents applied jointly against CPB

  4. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  5. Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Zhang, Shizhu; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2013-01-01

    Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP), a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and four CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1) out of six genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular hydrocarbon

  6. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible, the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF and piperonyl butoxide (PBO produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively. In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE and mixed function oxidase (MFO in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  7. Further assessment of houseflies (Musca domestica) as vectors for the mechanical transport and transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Andrea; Deen, John; Otake, Satoshi; Moon, Roger; Dee, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for houseflies (Musca domestica) to mechanically transport and transmit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) between pig populations under controlled field conditions. The study employed swine housed in commercial livestock facilities and a release-recapture protocol involving marked (ochre-eyed) houseflies. To assess whether transport of PRRSV by insects occurred, ochre-eyed houseflies were released and collected from a facility housing an experimentally PRRSV-inoculated population of pigs (facility A) and collected from a neighboring facility located 120 m to the northwest that housed a naïve pig population (facility B). All samples were tested for PRRSV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To assess transmission between the 2 populations, blood samples were collected from naïve pigs in facility B at designated intervals and tested by PCR. A total of 7 replicates were conducted. During 2 of 7 replicates (1 and 5), PCR-positive ochre-eyed houseflies were recovered in facility B and pigs in this facility became infected with PRRSV. Chi-squared analysis indicated that the presence of PRRSV in an insect sample was significantly (P = 0.0004) associated with infection of facility B pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was not recovered from other reported routes of transmission during the study period, including air, fomites, and personnel. In conclusion, while an insufficient number of replicates were conducted to predict the frequency of the event, houseflies may pose some level of risk for the transport and transmission of PRRSV between pig populations under field conditions. PMID:19436589

  8. Properties of Dense Cores Embedded in Musca Derived from Extinction Maps and {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O, and NH{sub 3} Emission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaieie, Dinelsa A.; Vilas-Boas, José W.; Wuensche, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1.758—Jardim da Granja, CEP-12227-010, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Racca, Germán A. [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Naturais/Depto. de Física, Campus Universitário Central, Setor II BR 110, KM 48, Rua Prof. António Campos, Costa e Silva 59610-090—Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Myers, Philip C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hickel, Gabriel R., E-mail: dinelsa.machaieie@inpe.br [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Departamento de Física, Av. BPS, 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    Using near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and the Near Infrared Color Excess method, we studied the extinction distribution in five dense cores of Musca, which show visual extinction greater than 10 mag and are potential sites of star formation. We analyzed the stability in four of them, fitting their radial extinction profiles with Bonnor–Ebert isothermal spheres, and explored their properties using the J = 1–0 transition of {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O and the J = K = 1 transition of NH{sub 3}. One core is not well described by the model. The stability parameter of the fitted cores ranges from 4.5 to 5.7 and suggests that all cores are stable, including Mu13, which harbors one young stellar object (YSO), the IRAS 12322-7023 source. However, the analysis of the physical parameters shows that Mu13 tends to have larger A {sub V}, n {sub c}, and P {sub ext} than the remaining starless cores. The other physical parameters do not show any trend. It is possible that those are the main parameters to explore in active star-forming cores. Mu13 also shows the most intense emission of NH{sub 3}. Its {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O lines have double peaks, whose integrated intensity maps suggest that they are due to the superposition of clouds with different radial velocities seen in the line of sight. It is not possible to state whether these clouds are colliding and inducing star formation or are related to a physical process associated with the formation of the YSO.

  9. Stability of Field-Selected Resistance to Conventional and Newer Chemistry Insecticides in the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, N; Ijaz, M; Shad, S A; Khan, H

    2015-08-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a pest of livestock and has the ability to develop resistance to different insecticides. We assessed the fluctuations in seasonal stability of house fly resistance to insecticides from poultry facility populations in Pakistan. House fly populations were collected from poultry facilities located at Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan in three seasons (July, November, and March) to investigate the fluctuations in their resistance to conventional (organophosphate, pyrethroid) and novel chemistry (spinosyn, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid) insecticides. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions, and cotton pads dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results showed that all house fly populations had varying degrees of susceptibility to tested insecticides. Comparisons between populations at different seasons showed a significant fluctuation in susceptibility to organophosphate, pyrethroid, spinosyn, oxadiazine, and neonicotinoid insecticides. Highest resistant levels were found for organophosphate when compared with other tested insecticides. The resistance to conventional insecticides decreased significantly in March compared with July and November, while resistance to oxadiazine and avermectins decreased significantly in November. However, resistance to spinosad and imidacloprid remained stable throughout the seasons. All conventional and novel chemistry insecticides were significantly correlated with each other in all tested seasons except nitenpyram/lambda-cyhalothrin and nitenpyram/imidacloprid. Our data suggests that the variation in house fly resistance among seasons could be due to fitness costs or to the cessation of selection pressure in the off-season. These results have significant implications for the use of insecticides in house fly management.

  10. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael M.; Itepan, Sara E.D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10 13 Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  11. Seasonality and Diapause of Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) at its Southern Limits in North America, With Observations on Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Fallon E; Chirico, Jan; Sandelin, Broc A; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-11-01

    The face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans ([L.])) were studied at the southern edge of the face fly's North American range, examining southern California geographic distribution, seasonal activity on cattle and in dung, and diapause. Face flies were common only at Pomona (34°03'N, 117°48'W). Other irrigated pastures, even those only slightly inland from Pomona, were probably too warm for face flies, due to a steep west (cooler) to east (warmer) temperature gradient. Horn flies were abundant at all sites. Adult densities on cattle, adults emerging from dung pats, and prevalence of fly-positive pats were assessed for both fly species throughout a year at Pomona. Summer adult horn fly densities of 500-2,000 flies per cow, or face fly densities of 3-10 flies per face, were common. Summer prevalence of face fly-positive pats and horn fly-positive pats was about 20-40% and 30-70%, respectively. Face fly adults diapaused from late October until late March and early April. Horn flies probably diapaused as pupae from late October or early November to early-mid March, although some emerged in winter. Experimental cohorts of October-emerging adult face flies were held in a representative overwintering site. They exhibited hypertrophied fat body and undeveloped oocytes, which are characteristics of diapause, and survived until the following spring. The dominant diapause cues in face and horn flies are probably photoperiod and temperature. Despite warm winter temperatures that would permit activity of both species, and despite relatively long winter day lengths, face flies and most horn flies still diapaused at this latitude. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  13. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiations as host of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae); Aumento do periodo de aceitabilidade de pupas de Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae), irradiadas com raios gama, como hospedeiras de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    1995-04-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization of Musca domestica, L.; 1758 pupae, with gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoids, Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875) e Muscidifurax uniraptor, (Kogan and Legner, 1970). A dose rate of 1500 Gy/h was used to inhibit the adult emergence from 1, 2, 3 and 4 days-old house fly pupae. At these age intervals, the LD50 was 14.8, 128.04, 243.09 and 353.57 Gy, while the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy, respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days-old pupae were irradiated (dose ratio: 1510 Gy/hour) and exposed to the parasitoids S. endius, P. vindemiae and M. uniraptor, at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five house fly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow to conclude that the irradiation increase the acceptability period of the house fly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiated the house fly pupae was one day. (author). 40 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Desenvolvimento de Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larvae

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    Eduardo B. Beserra

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860 were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viability of this predator was found when the preys were Z. confusa and T. molitor, 74.46% and 80.91 %, than in M. domestica, 57.02%, but incubation period showed no differences between preys. Shorter nymphal development and higher nymphal viability were found with Z. confusa and T. molitor than with M. domestica. Higher weight increase was found for nymphs which originated males and females in the second generation specialy with the first two preys.

  15. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  16. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  17. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-11-01

    Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays. The repellent activity was correlated with efficacy, which was found to depend on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when admixed with a low dose of the desiccant dust Diamol. The pick-up of desiccant dust particles and fungus conidia from treated surfaces by mites did not differ depending on RH, whereas the overall efficacy of the two control agents were significantly higher at 75 than at 85 % RH. In addition, the combined effect of the two substances was synergistic when tested in a bioassay where mites could choose whether to cross a treated surface. This is the first time a member of Acari has been shown to be repelled by desiccant dusts and by conidia of an entomopathogenic fungus.

  18. Inhibition of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by topical application of the butanol extract of Cordyceps bassiana in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Li, Lan; Sung, Gi Ho; Kim, Tae Woong; Byeon, Se Eun; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Chun Wook; Park, Hyoung Jin

    2011-03-24

    The Cordyceps species are insect-borne mushrooms that have been ethnopharmacologically used for skin diseases such as eczema and dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the curative effects of the butanol fraction (CBBF) of Cordyceps bassiana on atopic dermatitis. Dermatitis was induced by repeated application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) in NC/Nga mice. After a topical application of CBBF on the skin lesions, the dermatitis score, epidermal thickness, mast cell number, and interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the levels of histamine and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum, were measured. Moreover, effect of CBBF on histamine release was examined using RBL-2H3 under stimulation with 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA). CBBF inhibited atopic dermatitis symptoms and signs in the DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice. The suppressive activity of topically applied CBBF may be due to the dose-dependent blockade of a series of immunopathological events, including the release of histamine, the production of IgE, and the secretion of IL-4 and IFN-γ. However, this extract did not directly suppress the degranulation process, assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release. Our results suggest that CBBF can be applied as an effective herbal remedy to treat atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the rheological properties of a fermentation broth of the fungus Beauveria bassiana in a bioreactor under different hydrodynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Medina-Torres, Luis; Valencia-López, José Javier; Calderas, Fausto; López Miranda, Javier; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram; Solís-Soto, Aquiles

    2012-11-01

    Fermentation with filamentous fungi in a bioreactor is a complex dynamic process that is affected by flow conditions and the evolution of the rheological properties of the medium. These properties are mainly affected by the biomass concentration and the morphology of the fungus. In this work, the rheological properties of a fermentation with the fungus Beauveria bassiana under different hydrodynamic conditions were studied and the rheological behavior of this broth was simulated through a mixture of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium and cellulose fibers (CMCNa-SF). The bioreactor was a 10 L CSTR tank operated at different stir velocities. Rheological results were similar at 100 and 300 rpm for both systems. However, there was a significant increase in the viscosity accompanied by a change in the consistence index, calculated according to the power law model, for both systems at 800 rpm. The systems exhibited shear-thinning behavior at all stir velocities, which was determined with the power law model. The mixing time was observed to increase as the cellulose content in the system increased and, consequently, the efficiency of mixing diminished. These results are thought to be due to the rheological and morphological similarities of the two fungal systems. These results will help in the optimization of scale-up production of these fungi.

  20. Effect of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves on the growth and development of ovary and histological structure of the mid gut in the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera : Muscidae

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    N. S. Gorgees

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four sub lethal concentrations 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5% of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. were used against the second instars larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L.. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis have shown that this aqueous extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development on the ovaries and ovarian follicles of the adult flies obtained from previously treated larvae with four stage of age, 24, 48, 72, 96 hour after birth. The extract also led decreased in the numbers of ovarian follicles and their degradation. In some instances the microscopically preparations of the mid gut of the housefly have also shown that this aqueous extract has seriously affected the histological structure of the alimentary canal particularly the mid gut. It has led to the separation of the muscular layer from the epithelial lining.

  1. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

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    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  2. Tenebrio molitor Gram-negative-binding protein 3 (TmGNBP3) is essential for inducing downstream antifungal Tenecin 1 gene expression against infection with Beauveria bassiana JEF-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Mi Rong; Lee, Se Jin; Kim, Sihyeon; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Jae Su

    2017-05-23

    The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR. TmGNBP3, Tenecin 1, and Tenecin 2 were significantly upregulated after fungal infection. To better understand the roles of the Toll signaling pathway in the mealworm immune system, TmGNBP3 and TmMyD88 were knocked down by RNAi silencing. Target gene expression levels decreased at 2 d postknockdown and were dramatically reduced at 6 d post-dsRNA injection. Therefore, mealworms were compromised by B. bassiana JEF-007 at 6 d post-dsRNA injection. Silencing of TmMyD88 and TmGNBP3 resulted in reduced resistance of the host to fungal infection. Particularly, reducing TmGNBP3 levels obviously downregulated Tenecin 1 and Tenecin 2 expression levels, whereas silencing TmMyD88 expression resulted in decreased Tenecin 2 expression. These results indicate that TmGNBP3 is essential to induce downstream antifungal peptide Tenecin 1 expression against B. bassiana JEF-007. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. CYP52X1, Representing New Cytochrome P450 Subfamily, Displays Fatty Acid Hydroxylase Activity and Contributes to Virulence and Growth on Insect Cuticular Substrates in Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhu; Widemann, Emilie; Bernard, Grausem; Lesot, Agnes; Pinot, Franck; Pedrini, Nicolas; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2012-01-01

    Infection of insects by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana proceeds via attachment and penetration of the host cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer or waxy layer of the insect represents a structure rich in lipids including abundant amounts of hydrocarbons and fatty acids. A member of a novel cytochrome P450 subfamily, CYP52X1, implicated in fatty acid assimilation by B. bassiana was characterized. B. bassiana targeted gene knockouts lacking Bbcyp52x1 displayed reduced virulence when topically applied to Galleria mellonella, but no reduction in virulence was noted when the insect cuticle was bypassed using an intrahemoceol injection assay. No significant growth defects were noted in the mutant as compared with the wild-type parent on any lipids substrates tested including alkanes and fatty acids. Insect epicuticle germination assays, however, showed reduced germination of ΔBbcyp52x1 conidia on grasshopper wings as compared with the wild-type parent. Complementation of the gene-knock with the full-length gene restored virulence and insect epicuticle germination to wild-type levels. Heterologous expression of CYP52X1 in yeast was used to characterize the substrate specificity of the enzyme. CYP52X1 displayed the highest activity against midrange fatty acids (C12:0 and C14:0) and epoxy stearic acid, 4–8-fold lower activity against C16:0, C18:1, and C18:2, and little to no activity against C9:0 and C18:0. Analyses of the products of the C12:0 and C18:1 reactions confirmed NADPH-dependent regioselective addition of a terminal hydroxyl to the substrates (ω-hydroxylase). These data implicate CYP52X1 as contributing to the penetration of the host cuticle via facilitating the assimilation of insect epicuticle lipids. PMID:22393051

  4. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

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    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  5. Proteases degradadoras de cutícula produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana em presença de cutícula de broca do café

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, B.A.; Neves, P.M.O.J.; Furlaneto-Maia, L.; Furlaneto, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    A Brazilian isolate of Beauveria bassiana (CG425) that shows high virulence against the coffee berry borer (CBB) was examined for the production of subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) cuticle-degrading proteases. Fungal growth was either in nitrate-medium or in CBB cuticle-containing medium under both buffered and unbuffered conditions. In unbuffered medium supplemented with cuticle, the pH of cultures dropped and Pr1 and Pr2 activities were detected in high amounts only at a pH of 5...

  6. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

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    Woo Seok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, KTH-13 with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylaniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1, with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP- treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop.

  7. Progeny of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) non-viable pupae irradiated by gamma Cobalt-60 and cold stored; Progenie de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) que foram inviabilizadas com a radiacao gama do cobalto 60 e resfriadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Sara Eloiza Zen

    1992-06-01

    This study was designed to test acceptability of cold stored irradiated and non-irradiated pupae of Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) by the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The work was carried out in the laboratory of the Entomology Section of the Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP) and in the laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto of Entomology Department of the College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The gamma radiation source used was a Cobalt-60 irradiator, Gamma bean-650, with an initial activity of 1,6265 x 10{sup 4} Bq (6,746 Ci). The radiation LD{sup 50} e LD{sup 100}, using a dose ratio of 1457 Gy/h, for 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours old pupae and resulted in 15.35; 15.69; 11.30; 49.4; 142.78 and 175 Gy for LD{sup 50} and 20, 22.5; 32.5; 175; 225 and 300 Gy for LD`1{sup 00} respectively. Following exposure, the pupae were kept in climate chamber at 27 {+-} 3{sup 0} C and 75 {+-} % of relative humidity, until all adults had emerged. In succession, 24, 48 and 72 hour-old pupae were exposed to gamma irradiation with a dose of 1440 Gy/hour, in their respective lethal doses. Following the exposure the pupae were stored at cool temperature (10 {+-} 2{sup 0} C) for different periods of time (5, 15, 20 and 30 days). The same treatment was given for non-irradiated pupae. After the storage period the pupae were expose for 24 h to S. endius in a ratio of 1:10 parasitoid-host. It was not observed any statistical difference (Turkey 5%) in progeny of males and females emerged from irradiated and non-irradiated pupae. There was a preference of the parasitoid to pupae of 48 hours old followed by 24 and 72 hours old for storage period more than 5 days and shorter than 20 days. (author). 50 refs., 6 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Ação do fungo Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre a fase parasitária do carrapato Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937 (Acari: ixodidae Action of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the parasitic phase of the tick Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937 (Acari: ixodidae

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    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do fungo Beauveria bassiana (isolado 986 foi avaliada no desenvolvimento da fase parasitária do Anocentor nitens, acompanhando o desenvolvimento de larvas não alimentadas até o estágio adulto. Foram utilizados dois tratamentos e um grupo controle com cinco repetições cada. No tratamento 1 (T1, as orelhas dos bovinos foram banhadas com a suspensão fúngica de 10(8 conídios ml-1; no tratamento 2 (T2, as orelhas foram banhadas com água destilada e espalhante adesivo. No grupo controle (C, as orelhas foram banhadas com água destilada. Após 24 horas dos tratamentos, as orelhas de cada animal foram infestadas com 100mg de larvas. Os parâmetros analisados, em cada tratamento, foram: número e peso de fêmeas recuperadas; períodos de pré-postura, postura, incubação, eclosão e longevidade; percentual de eclosão; peso da massa de ovos e da quenógina; índices de eficiência reprodutiva e nutricional. Verificou-se que, no T1 e T2, o número de fêmeas recuperadas, após 35 dias, foi significantemente menor (PThis study evaluated the pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Isolate 986 on the development of the parasitic phase of Anocentor nitens by accompanying the development of unfed larvae until the adult stage. Two treated and one control group were used with five repetitions each. In the first treated group (T1, cattle ears were bathed with a fungal suspension of 10(8 conidia ml-1, second treated group (T2, the ears were bathed with distilled water and Tween 80 1% and the control group (C, the ears were bathed with distilled water. One day after treatment, the ears of each animal were infested with 100 mg of larvae. The parameters analyzed in each treatment were: number and weight of females recovered; periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, incubation, eclosion and longevity; percentage of eggs hatched; weight of the egg mass and of females after oviposition. We found that in the two treated groups the

  9. Evaluacion del efecto de Beauveria bassiana en el control biológico de Varroa destructor, parasito de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera en la finca Felisa en el municipio de los Patios, Norte de Santander - Evaluacion del efecto de Beauveria bassiana en el control biológico de Varroa destructor, parasito de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera en la finca Felisa en el municipio de los Patios, Norte de Santander

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    Francy Liliana Duarte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is an activity that produces significant benefits to agriculture and the environment; Through the pollination action of bees helps to increase productivity as well as biodiversity in the ecosystem. In recent years, has significantly increased prevalence of parasites in this species, particularly the Varroasis, a disease caused by the mite Varroa destructor. The causal agent produces losses between 30% and 50% of total production and in turn can cause damage to the quality of honey by the excessive use of chemicals for disease control and the slow and progressive deterioration health of producers. Noting this, we evaluated the incidence of fungus Beauveria bassiana in natural populations of Varroa destructor in acarofauna associated, and the remains of the hive by pathogenicity tests in laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of the biocontrol entomopathogenic then enter in apiaries infected with the disease. According to the results obtained in the adult infestation of V. destructor in Apis mellifera Africanized sampling Felisa made on the farm in the municipality of Los Patios, recorded rates of infestation in hives from 3.4% to 8.3% on the infection status of breeding was 4.5% to 13.7%. In laboratory tests it was possible to observe thatthe fungus B. bassiana attacked by an effective control mites without harming bees, propolis and honey allowing the insect to continue their normal activities, controlling the disease in a biological, not chemical.

  10. Associação de pós inertes com fungo entomopatogênico para o controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus Association of inert powders with the entomopathogenic fungi for darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de Beauveria bassiana (Bb, da terra diatomácea (TD e dos pós de rocha Protesyl e Rocksil, isoladamente ou em associações, para o controle de Alphitobius diaperinus. Os agentes de controle foram aplicados na forma sólida misturados à cama de frango. A concentração de conídios de Bb foi de 0,08% e, para os pós inertes, as concentrações foram de 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5%. Testaram-se 20 tratamentos, com cinco repetições de 200 insetos, por 10 dias. Os tratamentos que apresentaram maior eficiência foram TD 1,5% e Bb 0,08% + TD 1,5%, com 60,2 e 57,8% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Protesyl e Rocksil, nas três concentrações, e TD 0,5% não diferiram da testemunha. Na interação entre os agentes de controle, ocorreu efeito aditivo para Bb + TD e Bb + Rocksil, nas três concentrações, e para Bb + Protesyl a 1,5%. A eficiência do fungo foi reduzida na associação com Protesyl, com efeito não aditivo antagônico nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1,0%. A terra diatomácea, isolada ou associada à B. bassiana, apresenta-se como boa alternativa para controle de A. diaperinus. Já os pós de rocha Protesyl e Rocksil não foram eficientes para o controle da praga.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Bb of diatomaceous earth (TD and the dust of rock Protesyl and Rocksil, alone or in combinations, for Alphitobius diaperinus to control. The control agents were applied in dried by mixing with the poultry liter. The concentration of Bb conidia was 0.08% on the weight of the substrate, and for the dust inert were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%. Twenty treatments with five repetitions of 200 insects were tested for 10 days. The treatments with highest efficiency were TD 1.5% and Bb 0.08% + TD 1.5%, with 60.2 and 57.8%, respectively. Protesyl and Rocksil in the three concentrations and TD 0.5% did not differ from control. For the interaction between control agents no advantage

  11. Selection of three strains creole Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin as an alternative for biological control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choquetarqui Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world there is great demand for coffee (Coffea arabica across Europe and America, and coffee producing countries like Brazil, Colombia, and low producers. Bolivia is a country that produces coffee, produces 90% instead of the Yungas of La Paz department. One of the biggest problem for producers is to attack the coffee berry borer that will affect the performance to drop, and producers are seeing thus applying chemicals to eliminate this pest, but the taste is no longer the same and now there is now demand for organic coffee as producers seek to eliminate the scourge of environmentally friendly manner. Thus he found one of the ways you can remove it with an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana that is killing the fruit contact the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, is present in the form of a creamy yellow cotton that does not affects the environment and is wicked for warm-blooded animals. But how to play this fungus is not known at what temperature can be reproduced only has information that germinate at 23 °C to 25 ºC but in a different area, that is why research is done. That's why were submitted to different temperatures (15ºC, 18ºC, 21ºC, 24ºC, 27ºC, 30ºC. In three different places (Carmen Pampa, Irupana, Asunta at different temperatures and altitudes. The results were that a thickened first all well but after time passed were changing the behavior and the best result was at 24ºC, initially in the germination started badly but the results of growth rate was 2.21mm/day the concentration of conidia was 2.0 conidia / ml, followed by the temperature of 18º, 21º, 27º, the growth rate ranging from 1.43 to 1.85 mm/day, and the concentration is 1.50 to 1.70 conidia/mL. The place was better behaved Asunta fungus followed by Carmen Pampa.

  12. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngumbi, Philip M; Irungu, Lucy W; Ndegwa, Paul N; Maniania, Nguya K

    2011-03-01

    Biological control of sandflies using entomopathogenic fungi is a possible alternative to the expensive synthetic chemical control. It is potentially sustainable, less hazardous, and relatively inexpensive and merits further investigations. The objective of this study was to identify the most pathogenic fungal isolate(s) to sandflies in the laboratory. Isolates of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were screened for their pathogenicity against Phlebotomus duboscqi. Adult flies were contaminated using the technique described by Migiro et al (2010). Briefly, flies were exposed to 0.1 g of dry conidia evenly spread on a cotton velvet cloth covering the inner side of a cylindrical plastic tube (95 mm long × 48 mm diam). In all 25 sandflies were transferred into the cylindrical tube and allowed to walk on the velvet for one minute, after which they were transferred from the velvet into the cages in Perplex. Insects in the control treatments were exposed to fungusfree velvet cloth before being transferred into similar cages. The treatments were maintained at 25 ± 2°C, 60-70% RH and 12L: 12D photoperiod. The experiment was replicated 5 times. The most pathogenic isolates were selected for further studies. A total of 19 isolates were screened against adult sandflies in the laboratory. Mortality in the controls was approximately 16.8 ± 1.7 %. All the isolates were found to be pathogenic to P. duboscqi. Mortality ranged between 76.8 and 100% on all the fungal isolates tested. The lethal time taken to 50% (LT50) and 90% (LT90) mortality ranged from 3.0-7.8 days and from 5.3-16.2 days, respectively. The virulent isolates, causing mortalities of 97.5-100%, were selected for further studies. The high susceptibility of sandflies to entomopathogenic fungi suggests that fungi are potential alternatives to chemical control methods. We conclude that application of entomopathogenic fungi could result in acute mortalities of sandflies and reduction

  13. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  14. Caracterización molecular de 15 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana asociados con Cosmopolites y Metamasius en plátano y banano en tres regiones de Colombia Molecular characterization of 15 isolations of Beauveria bassiana related to Cosmopolites and Metamasius in plantain and banana in three regions of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Marmolejo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron picudos de Cosmopolites y Metamasius en municipios del Valle del Cauca, Caldas y Quindío. Se obtuvieron cultivos monospóricos con diluciones de 10-10 y 10-11. Los aislamientos fueron almacenados a -80°C con glicerol al 10% y el ADN a -20°C. Los marcadores moleculares RAM generaron 82 fragmentos de los cuales 67% fueron polimórficos con una heterocigocidad de 0.24, que indica diversidad media a alta. A un índice de similitud 0.84 se formaron 5 grupos: uno con 11 aislamientos y 4 con un solo aislamiento. En el gran grupo se detectó un duplicado y se encontró diversidad del hongo en los sitios muestreados. No se encontró relación entre aislamientos sobre Cosmopolites y Metamasius o zona geográfica en la formación de grupos genéticos.Weevils Cosmopolites and Metamasius in municipalities of the Valle del Cauca, Caldas and Quindío departaments of Colombia were collected. Monosporic cultures were obtained from10-10 and 10-11 dilutions of Beauveria bassiana. Isolates were kept at -80°C with 10% glycerol and DNA stored at -20°C. RAMs molecular markers generated a total of 82 fragments of which 67% were polymorphic. A heterozygosity value of 0.24 indicated a medium - high diversity. Five groups were formed which have a similarity value of 0.84 and one big group with 11 isolates and four groups with only one isolate. In the big group was detected a duplicate and fungi genetic diversity in the sampled places. Neither relationship among isolates of Cosmopolites and Metamasius nor geographical zone related to the formation of genetic groups.

  15. LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF A CYPERMETHRIN-BASED INSECTICIDE FOR THE CONTROL OF ALPHITOBIUS DIAPERINUS PANZER (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE AND ITS IN-VITRO EFFECTS ON BEAUVERIA BASSIANA BALS. VUILL. (HYPOCREALES: CORDYCIPITACEAE

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    DGP Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The control of Alphitobius diaperinus is based mainly on chemical insecticides, and the indiscriminate and incorrect use of these products has led to failures in insect control. Thus, it is important to monitor the efficiency of the products available on the market and to develop alternative insect control strategies. The present study evaluated the effect of a new product (cypermethrin-6% under laboratory and field conditions and assessed its in-vitro compatibility with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Unioeste 4 isolate. Its efficiency in dry powder and wettable powder formulations was also assessed in the laboratory through comparison with a similar insecticide (cypermethrin-5% at five different concentrations. The field assays were conducted in two commercial broiler breeder houses (Treated and Control, applying the new product on the litter at the manufacturer's recommended concentration (RC. Germination, vegetative growth, conidial production, number of colony forming units (CFUs and insecticidal activity of the fungus were used to evaluate the compatibility of the insecticide. The effects of the cypermethrin-6% product and cypermethrin-5% were equivalent in the laboratory, and the new product exhibited better performance at lower concentrations (1/4RC, ⅛RC. The strategy applied in the field reduced the insect population in up to 96% after 75 days. Additionally, all concentrations of cypermethrin-6% were compatible with the fungus under the evaluated in-vitro conditions. Therefore, the new product is considered selective for B. bassiana. Further studies are necessary to assess its compatibility under field conditions, consolidating this strategy as a viable alternative for managing this pest.

  16. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  17. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Population Management of Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), in Felled Trees and Factors Limiting Pathogen Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Mann, Andrew J; Malesky, Danielle; Jankowski, Egan; Bradley, Clifford

    2018-03-24

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3-4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only. In the field, conidial suspension was applied to the surface of felled and pheromone-baited Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees using a backpack sprayer. Mortality of colonizing parent beetles (F0), reproduction (abundance of F1 offspring in logs), and emergence of F1 beetles from logs was compared between treated and nontreated logs. Application of spore suspension increased mortality of F0 adults by 36% on average. Total F1 reproduction was reduced by 17% and emergence from logs was reduced by 13% in treated logs, but considerable variability in reproduction and emergence was observed. Viable spores were re-isolated from treated logs up to 90 d after application, indicating that spores are capable of long-term persistence on the tree bole microhabitat. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that temperatures below 15°C and exposure to spruce monoterpenes likely limit performance of B. bassiana under field conditions, but exposure to low-intensity light or interactions with spruce beetle symbiotic fungi were not strongly inhibitory. It is concluded that matching environmental tolerances of biocontrol fungi to field conditions can likely improve their usefulness for control of spruce beetle in windthrown trees.

  18. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  19. Fluorescence technique application of X-ray in labeling with Mn, Sr and Cu, of the parasitoid and host: Muscidifuax uniraptor Kogan and Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop the methodology of the labeling adult of Musca domestica and Muscidifurax uniraptor using the elements Mn, Sr and Cu with the use of x-ray fluorescence. This work was carried out in the Laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies, 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto', of the 'Entomology, Phytopatology and Zoology Department of the College of Agriculture 'Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP), and the Division of Methods the Development and Nuclear Analytics Techniques, of CENA/USP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The larvae was removed to the labeled diet with increasing level of the elements Mn, Sr and Cu. The levels tested for all element were: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; 2,00; 4,00; 8,00; 16,00; 32,00 and 64,00 mg/gr of diet. Labeled pupae with 1,00 to 4,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg/gr of diet were tested for the pupal parasitoid M. uniraptor. The concentration quantity of the chemical elements was realized by the Analytical Technique denominated (EDXRF) energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Concentrations of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr) supplemented to the diet of M. domestica were sufficient for the adult insect labeled, however, not affecting its life expectancy. Pupae originated from the larvae of M. domestica treated with dose of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg supplemented to the diet, and used as hosts of the parasitoid M. uniraptor, affected the viability of the immature phase and did not label the adults. (author)

  20. Fluorescence technique application of X-ray in labeling with Mn, Sr and Cu, of the parasitoid and host: Muscidifuax uniraptor Kogan and Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae); Aplicacao com tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X na marcacao com Mn, Sr e Cu, do parasitoide e hospedeiro: Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan and Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) e Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop the methodology of the labeling adult of Musca domestica and Muscidifurax uniraptor using the elements Mn, Sr and Cu with the use of x-ray fluorescence. This work was carried out in the Laboratory of Biological Control of House Flies, 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto', of the 'Entomology, Phytopatology and Zoology Department of the College of Agriculture 'Luiz de Queiroz' ESALQ/USP), and the Division of Methods the Development and Nuclear Analytics Techniques, of CENA/USP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The larvae was removed to the labeled diet with increasing level of the elements Mn, Sr and Cu. The levels tested for all element were: 0 (control); 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; 2,00; 4,00; 8,00; 16,00; 32,00 and 64,00 mg/gr of diet. Labeled pupae with 1,00 to 4,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg/gr of diet were tested for the pupal parasitoid M. uniraptor. The concentration quantity of the chemical elements was realized by the Analytical Technique denominated (EDXRF) energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Concentrations of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr) supplemented to the diet of M. domestica were sufficient for the adult insect labeled, however, not affecting its life expectancy. Pupae originated from the larvae of M. domestica treated with dose of 2,00 (Mn) and 1,00 (Sr and Cu) mg supplemented to the diet, and used as hosts of the parasitoid M. uniraptor, affected the viability of the immature phase and did not label the adults. (author)

  1. Efficacy of mepolizumab add-on therapy on health-related quality of life and markers of asthma control in severe eosinophilic asthma (MUSCA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Geoffrey L; Bradford, Eric S; Albers, Frank C; Bratton, Daniel J; Wang-Jairaj, Jie; Nelsen, Linda M; Trevor, Jennifer L; Magnan, Antoine; Ten Brinke, Anneke

    2017-05-01

    Mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody approved as add-on therapy to standard of care for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, has been shown in previous studies to reduce exacerbations and dependency on oral corticosteroids compared with placebo. We aimed to further assess mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma by examining its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3b trial (MUSCA) in 146 hospitals or research centres in 19 countries worldwide. Eligible participants were patients aged 12 years or older with severe eosinophilic asthma and a history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment in the previous 12 months before screening despite regular use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus other controller medicines. Exclusion criteria included current smokers or former smokers with a history of at least ten pack-years. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) by country to receive a subcutaneous injection of either mepolizumab 100 mg or placebo, plus standard of care, every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (the final dose was given at week 20). We did the randomisation using an interactive voice response system and a centralised, computer-generated, permuted-block design of block size six. The two treatments were identical in appearance and administered in a masked manner; patients, investigators, other site staff and the entire study team including those assessing outcomes data were also masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score at week 24 in the modified intention-to-treat (modified ITT) population (analysed according to their randomly assigned treatment). Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of trial medication (analysed according to the actual treatment received). This trial is registered

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  3. Subvenciones para instituciones

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Subvenciones para instituciones Directrices para gastos de proyectos aceptables. GFAPE-09-2015. 2 ... más de 5.000 CAD. Los costos pueden incluir el precio base de compra, costos de transporte y otros ... personas que recogen datos e información o que trabajan de manera eventual, el mantenimiento y la operación de ...

  4. Attraction of the housefly (Musca domestica L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, RC; den Otter, CJ; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1998-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light attracts more houseflies compared to green and white light. The attractiveness of UV light is not effected by its spectral composition. The number of flies attracted does not seem to change when a UV lamp is combined with moving elements, although the time spend on the lamp

  5. Oro para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Forero, María Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Las mujeres han debido atravesar un largo camino partiendo de la discriminación hasta empezar un proceso de equidad en la sociedad y en el deporte, de esta manera llegar a ser parte de un evento como los Juegos Olímpicos. Esta tesis toma el caso de tres atletas colombianas y describe su proceso de formación para lograr dos medallas de oro para el país.

  6. Estrategias para negociaciones exitosas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Parra V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de negociación son herramientas para disminuir conflictos o para intercambiar bienes y servicios. Una negociación exitosa crea relaciones de solidaridad y propicia reciprocidad, cooperación y confianza para quienes tendrán relaciones permanentes de negociación con beneficios para ambas partes. Una estrategia de negociación exitosa requiere manejar el desarrollo del ambiente social del grupo de personas, con la finalidad de tener presente las fronteras que no pueden irrumpirse. Otro aspecto importante, es el lenguaje corporal utilizado por las personas y las tácticas que se practican. El manejo de esta información permite diseñar diferentes modelos de negociaciones para cada caso específico. Este documento propone la utilización de la herramienta MONACO, diseñada por los autores, que es un software útil para encontrar los mejores tácticas posibles dentro de una negociación; basándose en el lenguaje corporal que muestra el negociante oponente durante cada oferta monetaria. El uso de este software da al negociador la oportunidad de manejar las negociaciones con mayor control, el negociador que usa el software puede elegir una estrategia de acuerdo a las relaciones que espera mantener con el negociador oponente.

  7. Tiempo para un cambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  8. Instrucciones para autores

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Instrucciones para autoresNota preliminar: ¡Es de suma importancia que antesde enviar cualquier documento a la Revista GeologíaColombiana, lea y cumpla cuidadosamente cada uno delos subíndices de las Normas para autores!A partir del Volumen 35 (2010) recibimos artículosprincipalmente a través del sistema digital enhttp://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/geocol/index.Si quiere enviar un artículo, por favor regístrese comoAutor en el menú INGRESAR (aquí pueden registrarsetambién evaluadores u...

  9. Master Plan para UNIMAK

    OpenAIRE

    Llorente Moreno, Francisco; Navarrete Mancebo, Gonzalo; Cruz Pinilla, Javier de la; García Méndez, María; Lacastagneratte de Figueiredo, Laura

    2012-01-01

    El Master Plan de UNIMAK se presenta como una apuesta a futuro, no solo para la Universidad de Makeni, sino también para la propia ciudad de Makeni. Se pretende potencias la Universidad como una referencia a nivel regional y como desencadenante de la estructura de trazado de la ciudad. El proyecto plantea potencial la dualidad que existe entre la infraestructura viaria y la red verde , existente en la ciudad, introduciéndola en el nuevo desarrollo del campus universitario y dotándola de la i...

  10. alternativas para promoverla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Izquierdo

    2006-01-01

    Finalmente, se analizan las políticas que han sido aplicadas con el fin de combatir ese problema, y se sugieren algunos cursos de acción que se consideran potencialmente más eficaces para lograr ese propósito.

  11. Silo para cereales. Bandholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available El silo de Bandholm, para cereales, construido en la isla de Lolland, tiene una capacidad de 13 a 14.000 toneladas. Esta estructura se ha subdividido en células individuales de unas 400 toneladas de capacidad cada una. La obra ha sido proyectada y construida por Christiani & Nielsen.

  12. Instrucciones para autores y autoras

    OpenAIRE

    Casa de la Mujer, Revista

    2015-01-01

    Le recomendamos leer este documento a profundidad para queconozca las políticas y normas para postular a consideración su escrito.Estas instrucciones se organizan en tres apartados: I. Datos básicos,II. Políticas y III. Lineamientos para presentar el escrito; para la citacióny referenciación con APA se ofrece el documento titulado Guía dereferenciación y citación con APA.

  13. ParaChoice Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoice trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.

  14. Resina pet para recipientes

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Ricardo Sá Peixoto; Monteiro Filha, Dulce Corrêa; Pan, Simon Shi Koo

    1996-01-01

    O mercado potencial de resina PET para recipientes é grande, com ampla expectativa de expansão. A nível mundial, esta ocorrendo um ciclo de expansão que deverá levar a uma sobrecapacidade, pressionando os preços para baixo. No Brasil, a escassez de resina PET tem retardado sua maior utilização em recipientes, notadamente de bebidas carbonatadas e em mercados em desenvolvimento, como o de óleo comestível e água mineral. Com a entrada em operação da fábrica da Nitrocarbono e da expansão da Rhod...

  15. Educando para la ignorancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Más que describir una situación particular, los autores buscan con este escrito motivar al estudiante para que asuma posiciones críticas; así como dar un campanazo de alerta a los profesores, en relación a los conocimientos que transmiten a sus alumnos y la forma en que lo hacen; todo con el ánimo de generar verdaderos espacios de reflexión en la universidad.

  16. INICIATIVAS PARA EL CAMBIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alfonso Defrancisco-Larrañaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El planeta no atraviesa por su mejor momento en materia de conservación y renovación de sus recursos naturales. Claramente en los últimos tiempos los recursos hídricos han venido haciéndose cada vez menores; el hombre ha notado con preocupación y vivido en carne propia este fenómeno, que de no ser tratado a tiempo, podría atentar contra la existencia misma. Esto lo ha alentado a buscar métodos que sirvan como solución para contrarrestar éste mal y crear conciencia entre sus iguales, para así poder garantizar su permanencia y la de su entorno durante muchas generaciones. En países desarrollados del continente europeo y en algunos lugares de América del norte, el uso de sistemas de reutilización y tratamiento de aguas grises y aprovechamiento de las aguas lluvias se ha convertido en una constante y nos están dando las pautas para poder seguir el ejemplo y así de esta manera poder aportar a la causa ambiental y a su vez crear un ahorro en nuestros gastos mensuales de consumo.

  17. Bullying: Conhecer para Prevenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O bullying é um fenómeno que suscita a apreensão de toda a sociedade. Deste modo, enquanto pais, educadores e profissionais, devemos reconhecer que a violência entre pares em meio escolar afeta gravemente o desenvolvimento saudável das crianças. Conhecer e identificar as causas que estão na origem do bullying, bem como as consequências que este comportamento acarreta no desenvolvimento psicossocial dos seus alvos, é fundamental para melhor intervir. Proteger as crianças e jovens de hoje contribui para potenciar um futuro sem violência, através da existência de adultos equilibrados. Assim, a criação e implementação de estratégias de prevenção do bullying em contexto escolar constitui-se como dever social, porquanto só através de diversificadas conjugações de esforços será possível contribuir para um amanhã mais seguro.

  18. para mejorar el %R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Díaz Mata

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan dos indicadores técnicos bursátiles que están estrechamente relacionados, el oscilador estocástico %K de Lane y el oscilador %R de Williams; asimismo, se evalúa el uso de dos mecanismos asociados con el primero y que no suelen utilizarse con el %R: el proceso de frenado (slowing y el uso de un promedio móvil del propio oscilador estocástico como disparadores de señales de compra y de venta. Realizando simulaciones con 27 acciones y el Índice de Precios y Cotizaciones de la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores se verifica la hipótesis principal y se comprueba que, efectivamente, en muchos casos, el uso del proceso de frenado con el oscilador %R de Williams permite tomar mejores decisiones. Por otro lado, se concluye que de los dos disparadores de señales el que mejor funciona, tanto para %K como para %R es el uso de cotas inferior y superior. Este artículo surgió en el curso de una investigación sobre el análisis técnico bursátil de acciones que se puede realizar en su totalidad por computadora y que, esencialmente, excluye el análisis gráfico. Uno de los propósitos del estudio es determinar si es posible, y bajo qué mecanismos, establecer un sistema de análisis bursátil que le permita al inversionista tomar decisiones de inversión en acciones en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores sin tener que emplear la considerable cantidad de tiempo que es necesario para el análisis gráfico tradicional. Durante este estudio se realizó un análisis preliminar de unos 120 indicadores técnicos para, por un lado, conocerlos con cierto detalle y, por otra parte, aislar aquellos que prometían ser de utilidad para el objetivo de la investigación. Fue en este proceso cuando se detectó que existen dos indicadores que están relacionados y que permiten un análisis por separado que tiene, cuando menos, dos ventajas. En primer lugar está el placer que da a quien gusta de estos temas encontrarse con indicadores que, de acuerdo

  19. Inmunopotenciadores para la acuicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocmira Pérez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La acuicultura es una de las actividades económicas de mayor crecimiento para la producción de alimentos. Uno de sus principales retos es la obtención de grandes volúmenes de producción con la mayor calidad posible. Esto conlleva a una reducción de la aplicación de antibióticos y productos quimioterapéuticos. Una de las estrategias más prometedoras es la aplicación de inmunopotenciadores, principalmente en los cultivos intensivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los principales inmunopotenciadores, así como las tendencias y retos de su uso mundial. Se resumen las particularidades moleculares y funcionales de los mismos y se hace énfasis en los más estudiados: levamisol, ß-glucanos, lipopolisacárido, vitamina C, extractos de plantas y hormonas. Todos estos compuestos de naturaleza heterogénea inciden mayoritariamente en los componentes de la inmunidad innata de los peces, fortaleciendo y potenciando la resistencia a enfermedades; adicionalmente algunos de ellos tienen funciones antiestrés y favorecen su crecimiento. Se concluye que los inmunopotenciadores constituyen una estrategia viable para reducir las pérdidas por problemas sanitarios en el sector de la acuicultura; pero aún quedan por solucionar aspectos como la vía de administración y la etapa de inmunización adecuada para cada especie y tipo de cultivo.

  20. Democracia para ciudadanos ciborgs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Varela

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Enumera los instrumentos imprescindibles de la ciberpolítica para campañas electorales en España, cuando se renovaron los cargos municipales. La política vuelve a ser personal cuando ciudadanos y políticos se hablan cara a cara y cita varios ejemplos, reconociendo la recuperación de la comunicación directa. La ciberdemocracia es muy exigente. Los políticos prefieren la magia de la imagen. La sociedad no sabe como detener la propaganda viral que bombardea a los buscadores de red.

  1. Para pensar o afeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio Pereira de Menezes

    Full Text Available Apresentação de um conjunto de formulações relativas ao “afeto” anteriores ao surgimento da psicanálise. Dificuldade da psicanálise em construir uma concepção propriamente psicanalítica. Contribuição da fenomenologia de Husserl para o estudo do afeto. Atualidade das concepções do afeto marcadas pelas neurociências. As maneiras principais de ver o problema da conceituação do afeto no pensamento psicanalítico.

  2. Nombrados para el mal

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Claudio; Sanchez, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se encuentra inscripto en la investigación Las vicisitudes del lazo amoroso en la época actual en el Gran La Plata. En ella, nuestro rasgo de investigación fue establecer algunas coordenadas para pensar que los signos de la Declinación del Nombre del Padre deben leerse en la transformación del registro del amor, dejando por fuera el registro que más desarrollos ha tenido dentro del campo del psicoanálisis: el de los ideales y el de la autoridad. La propuesta es que si El n...

  3. Bullying: Conhecer para Prevenir

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete Fernandes; Sónia Henriques; Susana Mendes; Esperança Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    O bullying é um fenómeno que suscita a apreensão de toda a sociedade. Deste modo, enquanto pais, educadores e profissionais, devemos reconhecer que a violência entre pares em meio escolar afeta gravemente o desenvolvimento saudável das crianças. Conhecer e identificar as causas que estão na origem do bullying, bem como as consequências que este comportamento acarreta no desenvolvimento psicossocial dos seus alvos, é fundamental para melhor intervir. Proteger as crianças e jovens de hoje contr...

  4. Paisajismo para La Reserva

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández,Teodoro

    2004-01-01

    El paisaje de Santiago está fuertemente determinado por el ejercicio de una voluntad. En un secano, con cuatro meses lluviosos y una sequía larga, los santiaguinos han construido a través de los años un jardín de riego soportado por múltiples dispositivos: acequias, canales, pozos y estanques. Es posible inaugurar para la ciudad otra manera de ejercer esa voluntad de paisaje: no una transformación impositiva, sino la comprensión de los procesos y relaciones naturales entre lluvia, torrentes, ...

  5. Cristalizadores para soro concentrado

    OpenAIRE

    TULER PERRONE, Italo; Simeão, Moise; Schuck, Pierre; Stephani, Rodrigo; De Carvahlo, Antonio Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Na industria de secagem de lacteos observa-se que a secagem do soro é mais complicada do que a secagem do leite. São frequentes as adesões dentro do spray dryer, ciclones e tubulações, assim como o empedramento do produto durante o processamento ou durante a estocagem e o transporte. Ao buscarmos mecanismos para maior controle e padronização da tecnologia de produção do soro em pó nos deparamos com diversos requisitos de qualidade como: acidez e pH do soro, microbiota contaminante, teor de sa...

  6. Efficacy of Ethiopian Beauveria bassiana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ferdu

    These factors, combined with concerns over environmental and human safety, have provided major techniques to minimize negative ecological impacts and other significant problems that can arise from extensive pesticide use. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach, where biological control agents play a major ...

  7. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become a big challenge to maintain quality of products and compete in international market .... Application was using a small hand held sprayer until run off as described by Cote. (2001). After treatment ... 2= 40%; 3= 60%; 4= 80% and 5= 100% and data on the leaf damage was taken at 10, 15 ad 20 days after ...

  8. "Colaborar para Competir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Hijuelos-Cárdenas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con Michael Porter, los Clusters se definen como “Una agrupación de empresas e instituciones relacionadas entre sí, pertenecientes a un mismo sector o segmento de mercado, que se encuentran próximas geográficamente y que colaboran para ser más competitivas”. Los Clusters son en última instancia una herramienta de competitividad basada en la cooperación de sus miembros, y es una de las estrategias recientes, en el país, para incrementar la productividad y competitividad y las apuestas productivas desde el nivel local. Y es precisamente esta cercanía geográfica de las empresas de un mismo sector, lo que a la vez que genera la competencia entre ellas, también les facilita el acceso a insumos y a conocimientos específicos y en última instancia les permite promover la innovación.

  9. Principios teatrales para docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Irene Arroyo Zúñiga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende dar herramientas a los docentes para que puedan utilizarlas como parte de las actividades dentro de un plan de elección, en cualquier disciplina. Además encontrará una exposición de los elementos que componen el arte de la representación escénica, como son: 1. Expresión corporal; es la capacidad de expresar emociones partiendo únicamente de nuestro cuerpo. 2. Impostación; es la habilidad de proyectar la voz sin lastimar las cuerdas vocales. 3. Dicción; es la pronunciación correcta de las palabras. 4. Actuación; es la posibilidad de crear un personaje partiendo de los recursos expresivos y de la forma natural en que el alumno acostumbra a reaccionar. Técnica de improvisación, en éste artículo propongo una serie de seis pasos que pueden ser de gran ayuda a la hora de usar el teatro como recurso didáctico. El teatro a lo largo de la historia ha sido usado para transmitir conocimientos, valores, creencias y todo aspecto inherente a los individuos y su entorno social. Por lo tanto debemos aprovechar al máximo los beneficios que nos ofrece el teatro como educadores

  10. para las lenguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tost Planet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicación del Marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas, del Consejo de Europa –aún poco conocido en nuestro país– está teniendo ya una notable influencia en todos los ámbitos de la enseñanza de las lenguas y de un modo particular en la elaboración de materiales de nueva generación para el aprendizaje de las lenguas extranjeras. Tras presentar elementos contextuales de la situación del FLE en nuestro país, que tienen, pensamos, una cierta relevancia, en esta contribución se describen precisamente algunos aspectos fragmentarios de dicho Marco y se evocan, por último, los principales ejes en torno a los cuales se mueve la actual innovación didáctica, en lo que se refiere más concretamente a las actividades de aprendizaje en el aula de idiomas.

  11. Serie: Madera para construcción Acabados para madera

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Muñoz, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Durante mucho tiempo, la madera ha sido utilizada como material de construcción para resolver principalmente objetivos estructurales; sin embargo, actualmente, el uso de la madera ha tomado mucho auge en la estética de las construcciones, para brindar apariencia y calidez. En la actualidad, el mercado ofrece una amplia gama productos para dar diversos “acabados” a la madera, los cuales sirven para resaltar la belleza de algunas de ellas, realzar características como el color y la veta, o bien...

  12. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  13. Sustantivos para definir homofobia

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Árias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Introducción. El término ‘homofobia’ es un concepto que se introdujo en el contexto académico hace más de 40 años. Sin embargo, la acepción ha tenido reparos y cambios en el tiempo. Objetivo. Revisar los sustantivos usados en los últimos doce años para definir homofobia. Metodología. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en Medline a través de Pubmed de publicaciones tipo editorial, cartas al editor, comentarios y entrevista en español o inglés. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo (teoría fundam...

  14. Bases para proyectiles dirigidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque actualmente no se ha llegado a una línea general de métodos o sistemas que gobiernen un tipo característico de rampa y servicios auxiliares necesarios para el lanzamiento al espacio de proyectiles dirigidos a grandes alturas y distancias, las experiencias obtenidas en diferentes ensayos, utilizando distintos tipos de proyectiles y trayectorias balísticas, han sentado toda una serie de procedimientos, datos y conclusiones de gran valor balístico que, aun teniendo en cuenta la continua evolución del proyectil, sus formas, combustibles y alcances, se conocen ya, con bastante aproximación, las condiciones mínimas que ha de reunir una base dedicada a este tipo de lanzamientos.

  15. Registrar para avanzar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Matarranz Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El farmacéutico comunitario es un profesional sanitario con un enorme potencial para mejorar no solo el uso de los medicamentos (detectando, por ejemplo, resultados negativos de la medicación, sino también la prevención de enfermedades y la promoción de la salud pública. Sin duda, el desarrollo y el impulso que están teniendo los servicios profesionales farmacéuticos (SPF desde hace años pueden contribuir decisivamente a que este potencial se consolide de una forma definitiva, obteniendo el reconocimiento del conjunto del sistema sanitario, incluyendo tanto a otros profesionales de la salud (médicos, enfermería, medicina especializada… como a la Administración y, por supuesto, a los propios pacientes beneficiarios de estos servicios. Es cierto que la figura del farmacéutico y su ejercicio sanitario han estado tradicionalmente bien considerados por la población, pero no es menos verdad que la integración de la actividad asistencial de la farmacia comunitaria en el Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS es, cuanto menos mejorable, y que, incluso, algunas manifestaciones ponen en entredicho de vez en cuando la labor científico-asistencial de las farmacias o generan dudas sobre su capacidad para formar parte de pleno derecho de los equipos de salud que deben trabajar de forma coordinado en la mejora de la atención sanitaria de los pacientes.

  16. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. para promover la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Consuelo Chapela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de educación a distancia sustentada en el desarrollo de la cibernética obliga a reflexionar sobre sus definiciones, objetivos y medios, especialmente si pensamos en las necesidades de la fracción de población que no tiene acceso a las posibilidades que ofrece el desarrollo tecnológico. En este trabajo se presenta e ilustra con un ejemplo práctico, una perspectiva sobre las posibilidades de la educación a distancia desde las necesidades de la promoción de la salud entre grupos de población marginada en el mundo virtual. Se propone la creación de bibliotecas itinerantes regionales que pongan a disposición de la población con acceso limitado a la información, la tecnología comunicativa necesaria para apoyar los trabajos de promoción de la salud.

  18. Para-bosons and Para-fermions in Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.; Fernandes, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of the ordinary quantum mechanics, a detailed study of the energy eigenfunctions of N identical particles using the irreducible representations of the permutation group in the Hilbert space is performed. It is shown that the para-states, as occurs with the boson and fermion states, are compatible with the postulates of quantum mechanics and with the principle of indistinguishability. A mathematical support for the existence of para-bosons and para-fermions is given. Gentile's quantum statistics is, in a certain sense, justified. (Author) [pt

  19. Marcadores para la Realidad Aumentada para fines educativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reina Zarate Nava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Realidad Aumentada (AR es considerada por algunos expertos como la tecnología en crecimiento para el 2014, en diferentes sectores: ingeniería, educación, juegos y negocios, siendo este último el más usado en él 2013. Sin embargo en el sector educativo la AR se presenta en algunos proyectos que se han desarrollado para diferentes áreas de las ciencias, como Química, Física y Matemáticas, lo anterior con el objetivo de facilitar el proceso de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje. En el presente artículo se presenta el modelo de patrones utilizado para un Proyecto AR enfocado en Química, el cual presenta un conjunto de patrones que fueron valorados para facilitar el rastreo de los objetos y a su vez el entendimiento de algunos materiales de los laboratorios de Química I.

  20. Una agenda para educadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. McClintock

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las instituciones educativas constituyen los principales factores en la construcción social de un nuevo sistema educativo. Las escuelas y los educadores controlan y producen propiedad intelectual de una extraordinaria profundidad y amplitud. Los cambios producidos por las tecnologías digitales están consiguiendo que el acceso y la producción de conocimiento sea más accesible y universal. Lo que es, a la vez, un gran logro de apertura curricular, pero también un grave peligro de perder la perspectiva eminentemente “educativa” de la transmisión del conocimiento en la escuela. Los nuevos recursos permiten a los educadores romper el ciclo de reproducción en los logros educativos, acercarse al medio y a la familia y transformar la escuela. Los educadores y las escuelas deben asumir el reto de constituir comunidades de aprendizaje. Así como de atreverse a producir y difundir ese conocimiento con soporte digital. Lo contrario sería una terrible abdicación. El artículo traza un recorrido histórico sobre esta función de la escuela y su adaptación a los medios y recursos de cada época. Tras lo cual, aboga por asumir el desafío actual de las TICs, para renovar el vínculo progresista con la posteridad y construir un mejor futuro. Los nuevos recursos permiten a los educadores romper el ciclo de reproducción en los logros educativos, acercarse al medio y a la familia y transformar la escuela.

  1. Uma ferramenta para planejamento de estudos para concursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a constituição brasileira, a única forma de se tornar um empregado do governo é passar em um concurso público. O exame de conhecimento do cargo é um dos componentes mais importantes de um concurso. Estudar para esse exame é uma tarefa que requer planejamento. Um meio de obter um bom planejamento é construir uma grade de horários que relacione as matérias a serem estudadas com os respectivos horários disponíveis para o estudo. Esse tipo de problema se assemelha bastante à gerência de projetos, em que se procura estabelecer a distribuição das atividades ao longo do tempo disponível. Assim, torna-se interessante explorar a dinâmica de estudos para concursos como um projeto. O presente trabalho apresenta a ferramenta de apoio ao estudos - Passe-me, baseada no ciclo PDCA (do inglês, Plan-Do-Check-Act. Por se tratar de uma ferramenta web, o tempo de resposta para produzir uma grade de estudos é fundamental. A ferramenta faz uso de algoritmo genético para calcular a grade de horários priorizando a velocidade de resposta. A ferramenta foi avaliada em diferentes cenários de uso e obteve desempenho satisfatório durante a produção da grade de estudos.

  2. Masterplan para UNIMAK y Estrategias para la ciudad de Makeni

    OpenAIRE

    Bacete Cebrian, Laura

    2012-01-01

    El proyecto se desarrolla en tres escalas. Por un lado están las propuestas a nivel ciudad muy relacionadas con la siguiente escala, la de la universidad, y por último hay una escala de detalle, tanto para ciudad como para universidad. Se plantea la creación de unos nodos interconectados por los corredores verdes de la ciudad que den servicios básicos a la ciudad tales gestión de residuos, equipamientos públicos, puntos de agua, saneamiento...)

  3. Taller para desarrollar la creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ GUEROLA, BEATRIZ

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Partimos de la base de que la creatividad es una capacidad realmente valiosa, no solo para el ámbito artístico, si no para cualquier aspecto de la vida. Este proyecto está enfocado a un taller diseñado para que a partir de técnicas de expresión gráfico-plásticas podamos estimular y desarrollar la creatividad, principalmente en niños de tercer ciclo de primaria. Con este proyecto relacionamos el arte y la creatividad que se asocia a esté con la educación. Martínez Guerola, B. (2015). T...

  4. Estrategias Digitales Para Los Negocios

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Nicolás David; Porras, María Paula

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo es para fines institucionales de la Universidad del Rosario. A lo largo del segundo semestre del año 2016 entendimos la importancia de los medios digitales para las empresas, por lo cual el profesor Juan Manuel Méndez nos dio el caso de las bicicletas de Nairo Quintana con el cual teníamos que desarrollar un plan de estrategias digitales acorde con el contexto actual del sector de las bicicletas, en donde se creara y desarrollara la marca de la agencia digital creada por los estu...

  5. CODIFEXA - Colecciones Digitales para Exactas

    OpenAIRE

    Olguín, Luis Alberto; Klenzi, Raúl O.

    2013-01-01

    La construcción de repositorios institucionales (RI) por parte de facultades de universidades argentinas es cada vez más significativa, pero para que este tipo de emprendimientos – generalmente con presupuestos ajustados – tenga sustentabilidad en el tiempo es necesario “mostrar que es útil” para la institución - los docentes en particular - en el sentido que permite aumentar la visibilidad de la producción científica local y por ende el impacto entre sus pares. El proyecto que aquí descri...

  6. Dramatizar: levantarse para jugar, sentarse para escuchar un cuento

    OpenAIRE

    Gorria Serrano, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo abordaremos la educación infantil, de una manera ambiciosa a través del movimiento y de la dramatización. Lo que proponemos es una educación basada en la naturaleza del niño como animal y apoyada con palabras de Rudolf Steiner, basándonos en cómo juegan todos los animales al ser educados, en cómo se imitan los unos a otros, entre mayores y pequeños. Es la base para un modelo pedagógico basado en el juego, el movimiento y la dramatización, para que los niños dejen un bue...

  7. MODELO PARA ESTABLECER SANCIONES PECUNIARIAS PARA DELITOS AMBIENTALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS DIEGO VÉLEZ GÓMEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende exponer el modelo básico que sustenta el desarrollo de multas óptimas; en él se muestra la forma de desincentivar los intereses del violador de la normatividad ambiental, e igualmente el método para alcanzar efectos compensatorios sobre los daños cometidos al medio ambiente. El desarrollo del tema sobre sanciones pecuniarias (multas y penalidades (encarcelamiento toma la relación contractual entre el agente (la empresa y el principal (La entidad reguladora para, a través de esta relación, entrar en la determinación de un diseño eficaz de sanciones. Se utilizara el modelo de agente-principal para examinar los efectos de las sanciones corporativas e individuales sobre los incentivos de cumplimiento en el contexto ambiental; además se emplearán los conceptos de bienes públicos, bienes comunes y externalidades como categorías de análisis que permiten la identificación y valoración de daños ambientales.

  8. MODELO PARA LA CREACIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO PARA PYMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Valencia Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La creciente importancia del conocimiento, como nuevo factor de producción, hace que la creación y transferencia se convierta en una de las principales prioridades de las organizaciones. El presente artículo describe tanto los fundamentos de la teoría de los recursos y capacidades de la empresa como el enfoque de la gestión del conocimiento, con sus procesos de generación y transferencia del conocimiento. Estos sirven de guía básica teórica para alcanzar el siguiente objetivo: Diseñar un modelo de generación y transferencia de conocimiento para los procesos de dirección, gestión humana y del conocimiento para PyMES, con el fin de que éstas alcancen mayores niveles de competitividad. El modelo se diseña, a partir del direccionamiento estratégico de la organización. Está conformado por tres etapas, articuladas con elementos y actividades. Las acciones se enfocan en dos factores clave de éxito: la cultura organizacional y la formación. La utilización del modelo permitirá a las PyMES optimizar los recursos y capacidades disponibles, lo cual se refleja en el desempeño del trabajador y en el fortalecimiento de la cultura organizacional.

  9. FRANQUICIAS. Una Alternativa para Emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Silva Duarte

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las ventajas de las franquicias como alternativa de negocios. Para un emprendedor exitoso ya establecido es más rentable permitir el uso de su conocimiento explícito mediante el formato de negocio de su firma y recibir regalías mensuales sobre las ventas brutas, que invertir en la apertura de cada nuevo punto. Igualmente, para quien desee iniciarse como empresario, la modalidad de franquicia es muy interesante: en primer lugar, porque empieza con un negocio ya probado, utiliza la imagen extendida de la franquicia y recibe un apoyo corporativo del franquiciador; adicionalmente, detrás del formato de negocio que contrata, está el capital relacional, en otras palabras, la experticia del franquiciador, el conocimiento del mercado, la base de clientes y de proveedores y el capital humano.

  10. Bacteria and fungi isolated from housefly ( Musca domestica L.) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of microorganisms, which includes the pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerruginosa, Aspergillus tamarii and Bacullus cereus were found. Also, nonpathogenic microbes werer recovered including Bacillus subtilis and Stroplococcus faecalis. Keywords: Microorganism, isolation, housefly larvae.

  11. Mosquito-larvicidal efficacy of the extract of Musca domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intolerably high burdens of mosquito-borne diseases will be reduced sustainably through the development of integral eco-friendly alternative insecticides of natural products origin. The need to broaden the global search for such insecticidal lead-agents, especially , those that will be less vulnerable to resistance, was ...

  12. Fatal attraction. Control of the housefly (Musca domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Despite its long association with man, the housefly (Musea domestica Linnaeus) remains one of the most difficult pests to control. It is a ubiquitous insect that can be found in houses, stables, food processing factories and other domesticated areas and buildings. Reliance on insecticides for fly

  13. Observations of Nova Muscae with the WATCH Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapshov, I. Yu.; Dremin, V. V.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A new bright transient x-ray source was discovered by WATCH instrument on board GRANAT spacecraft on January 8, 1991. Maximum flux from the newly discovered source was 2 Crab units in 8-20 keV spectral band. During January 16-21 WATCH detected the dip in the light curve of the x-ray Nova...

  14. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house fly baits for management of this pest species.

  15. Dispersal, behavioral responses and thermal adaptation in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    Behavioral traits can have great impact on an organism’s ability to cope with or avoidance of thermal stress, and are therefore of evolutionary importance for thermal adaptation. We compared the morphology, heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity and flight performance of three...

  16. Circadian rhythm gene regulation in the housefly, Musca domestica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Codd, V.; Doležel, David; Stehlík, Jan; Piccin, A.; Garner, K. J.; Racey, S. N.; Straatman, K. R.; Louis, E. J.; Costa, R.; Šauman, Ivo; Kyriacou, C. P.; Rosato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 177, č. 3 (2007), s. 1539-1551 ISSN 0016-6731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/04/0862; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : circadian * evolution * Diptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2007

  17. Exuberant oral myiasis caused by Musca domestica (Housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar N Parwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissues of oral cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the condition is called as oral myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with conditions leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant oral myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including oral hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions.

  18. The 1984 eclipse of the symbiotic binary SY Muscae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Michalitisianos, A. G.; Lutz, J. H.; Kafatos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from IUE spectra obtained with the 10 x 20-arcsec aperture on May 13, 1984, and optical spectrophotometry obtained with an SIT vidicon on the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO on April 29-May 1, 1984, are reported for the symbiotic binary SY Mus. The data are found to be consistent with a model of a red-giant secondary of 60 solar radii which completely eclipses the hot primary every 627 d but only partially eclipses the 75-solar-radius He(+) region surrounding the primary. The distance to SY Mus is estimated as 1.3 kpc. It is suggested that the large Balmer decrement in eclipse, with (H-alpha)/(H-beta) = 8.3 and (H-beta)/(H-gamma) = 1.5, is associated with an electron density of about 10 to the 10th/cu cm.

  19. Encuestas para llegar al poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las encuestas son parte fundamental de los procesos políticos. Pero en América Latina apenas se utilizan. Además, la mayoría de la población las considera sospechosas. Un director de campaña moderno, necesita datos precisos para que su candidato tenga posibilidades ciertas de ganar. Con las encuestas sí se puede.

  20. Argumentos para repensar el "desarrollo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Eschenhagen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo se quiere hacer una aproximación al problema desde una perspectiva diferente, considerando nuevos argumentos que hasta hace muy poco tiempo no se habían tenido en cuenta y que se vienen formulando de una manera muy interesante en los últimos años. El objetivo del artículo es presentar tres argumentos para señalar la necesidad de repensar, desde sus fundamentos, el concepto de desarrollo.

  1. Diagramas de Bianchi para Susy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cruz y Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el origen de los solitones como soluciones de la ecuación de Korteweg-de Vries y su presencia en la formulación supersimétrica de la Mecánica Cuántica. Se introducen los diagramas de Bianchi como una herramienta simbólica para construir socios supersimétricos de un Hamiltoniano dado.

  2. Financiamiento para construir la finca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túpac Barahona.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Las instituciones financieras convencionales y no convencionales tienden a excluir de los servicios de crédito a los sectores más frágiles del campesinado, por considerarlos clientes altamente riesgosos. En este artículo, se discute el sentido económico y social que tendrían que desarrollar esquemas de financiamiento para campesinos con economías débiles, pero con un potencial de desarrollo latente.

  3. requisito para pensar la paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaidivi Núñez Varón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento señala puntos de discusión para reflexionar sobre cómo la justicia basada en la construcción social tiene la posibilidad de convertirse en un requisito para pensar la paz. El análisis inicia desde algunos horizontes planteados por la sociología jurídica, la antropología jurídica, la psicología social y el derecho. El objetivo es permitir que el lector tenga preguntas que contribuyan para pensar la paz en un país que tiene la coyuntura del conflicto armado y que cuestiona la justicia desde el escalamiento de la violencia en el espacio cotidiano. Se señalan algunos puntos de la relación entre la justicia y la paz desde la construcción del Estado, identificando los momentos y características de la conexión de estos dos conceptos en el curso de los acontecimientos históricos. Se presenta la concepción de la justicia a través de la óptica del pensamiento complejo y se plantea una discusión de cómo pensar la paz desde la construcción social.

  4. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  5. para asegurar un hijo sano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Amarilis Guerra de Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación etnográfica focalizada exploró las creencias, los valores, los hábitos y los padrones comportamentales de las embarazadas diabéticas atendidas en el Hospital Doctor Enrique Tejera, quienes residen en tres comunidades urbanas pobres de la ciudad de Valencia - Venezuela, con el objetivo de encontrar el significado del cuidado de si para dichas grávidas. Se utilizó como referencial teórico el Modelo del Análisis de la Salud y la Teoría Antropológica de la Salud, siendo fundamentales para revelar aquello que estaba implícito en el comportamiento de las mujeres con relación a su cuidado. Surgieron tres temas: la salud y la enfermedad - valores culturales del cuidado de si; las prácticas del cuidado de la salud y cuidándose en el embarazo garantiza tener un hijo más saludable. Los temas culturales revelaron que las creencias, los valores, los hábitos y los patrones culturales comportamentales, conforme las tres maneras de acción identificadas, pueden ser preservadas, acomodadas y re-estructuradas para proporcionar un cuidado culturalmente congruente.

  6. Nueva Sede para la Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Una nueva sede adecuadamente dotada siempre estuvo en la mente de nuestros expresidentes Académicos César Augusto Pantoja, Hernando Groot, Pablo Gómez Martínez, Jorge Cavelier Gaviria y Efraim Otero-Ruiz, con quienes me tocó en suerte trabajar 12 años consecutivos, cerca de ellos a través de mi cargo de Coordinardor de la Comisión Permanente de Biblioteca y Publicaciones y de la Revista MEDICINA que se ha venido publicando sin interrupciones dentro de un compañerismo ejemplar; además de otras distinciones operativas que me inducen a expresar gratitud.

    Ahora, además, como Secretario de la Coporación por elección unánime de la Asamblea hace dos años, he sido testigo ático de una intensa, inteligente e inagotable actividad que nuestro Presidente Académico Juan Jacobo Muñoz Delgado quien siempre con el visto bueno de la Junta Directiva, mediante un acelerado ritmo de trabajo se impuso la tarea de convertir en realidad inmediata tan anhelada y necesaria idea.

    En efecto, la nueva sede fue inaugurada oficialmente el día 2 de septiembre de 1993.

    Este Editorial es la constancia escrita de tal febril actividad que para proporcionar evidencia a los lectores de “MEDICINA” resumo en breves incisos que muestran el tránsito a un estado con superávit de excepción para esta clase de instituciones:

    1. Terminación de la obra ya iniciada de la remodelación arquitectónica, tanto exterior de seguridad y aspecto como interior con suficientes y modernas instalaciones.

    2. Cerramiento total con altas y elegantes rejas metálicas y doble portería por la calle 69 y la carrera 7a.

    3. Aparcadero lujosamente adoquinado, amplio y seguro para 30 automóviles.

    4. Decoración interior estéticamente consultada, bien lograda en cortinas y clásicas lámparas de cristal obsequiadas por conocidos académicos. Un par de originales urnas precolombianas en el hall de entrada.

    5. Zona social doble, amplia

  7. PLATAFORMA PARA LA VENTA DE VIDEOJUEGOS DIGITALES PARA PC

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Eguílar, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A lo largo del trabajo vamos a exponer nuestra propia idea de negocio de una nueva empresa, llamada GAMERINET, que se dedique a la venta de videojuegos de ordenador en descarga digital a través de nuestra web. Para ello vamos a ver una breve introducción a este sector de negocio y su historia, haremos un análisis de las condiciones actuales del sector, a través del análisis del entorno específico (5 Fuerzas de Porter) y del análisis del entorno general (Análisis PEST). Posterio...

  8. NUEVOS MODELOS PARA PREDECIR EL PUNTO FLASH PARA ALCANOS PUROS

    OpenAIRE

    Richart Vázquez-Román; Edna M. Valenzuela-Acosta; Florianne Castillo-Borja

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se desarrollan dos modelos predictivos de la temperatura normal de punto de inflamación. Los modelos propuestos consideran términos adimensionales en su expresión, los cuales han reducido el error en la predicción de la temperatura del punto de inflamación para alcanos. Se observó que la relación entre la temperatura en el punto de inflamación y la de ebullición aparentemente tienen poca variabilidad por lo cual se puede deducir una regla heurística. La dispersión del error co...

  9. TRABALHAR PARA ESTUDAR / ESTUDAR PARA TRABALHAR: REALIDADE E POSSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes Siqueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho que apresentamos é parte da pesquisa com os estudantes das licenciaturas e da pedagogia da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul-UNISC-RS-Brasil. Este está inserido na linha de pesquisa: educação, trabalho e emancipação. Queremos compreender, à luz do materialismo histórico e dialético e das categorias da crítica da economia política, os significados atribuídos pelos estudantes universitários ao fenômeno trabalho e estudo. É uma pesquisa preferentemente qualitativa de natureza dialética. Para Marx, a essência da realidade humana reside no trabalho, mas a fonte de toda a riqueza está na natureza. Logo, trabalho, natureza e sociedade estão em relação dialética. Trabalho, portanto, é a ideia central articuladora, e natureza e sociedade devem ser estudadas em conexão com o trabalho. Marx trata o trabalho, no modo de produção capitalista, como impedimento ao desenvolvimento humano. Propõe o mesmo como um ato de criação e auto-expressão humana que não deve ter um valor. A compreensão dessa premissa é necessária para que os trabalhadores possam significar e ressignificar o trabalho para além da ideologia dominante. Algumas categorias aparecem como relevantes para a análise: condições de trabalho e de estudo, necessidade de formação, predominância do trabalho sobre o estudo, dificuldade de conciliar tempo de estudo e de trabalho. Na relação com o objeto de estudo, ressaltaremos a crise estrutural do capital, a desregulamentação das leis do trabalho e sua flexibilização e as contradições entre trabalho e estudo bem como quais possibilidades emancipatórias são visualizadas ou sonhadas pelos trabalhadores-estudantes. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: contradições entre trabalho e educação, condições e significados, realidade e possibilidades.

  10. NUEVOS MODELOS PARA PREDECIR EL PUNTO FLASH PARA ALCANOS PUROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richart Vázquez-Román

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se desarrollan dos modelos predictivos de la temperatura normal de punto de inflamación. Los modelos propuestos consideran términos adimensionales en su expresión, los cuales han reducido el error en la predicción de la temperatura del punto de inflamación para alcanos. Se observó que la relación entre la temperatura en el punto de inflamación y la de ebullición aparentemente tienen poca variabilidad por lo cual se puede deducir una regla heurística. La dispersión del error con la regla heurística se reduce al incorporar las energías de evaporación y reacción en la correlación. Se desarrolló un método basado en contribución de grupos combinada con los grupos adimensionales propuestos para reducir aún más el error en la predicción de la temperatura del punto de inflamación, incluyendo la capacidad de distinguir la diferencia entre los isómeros. Los resultados obtenidos de los modelos propuestos son aceptables y mejoran a las correlaciones de uso actual.

  11. Agenda para la Reforma Monetaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane D'Arista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El papel de la política monetaria en la creación de las condiciones que culminaron en la crisis actual y el fracaso de los esfuerzos de la Fed para descongelar el crédito en 2008 y 2009 son componentes críticos en el análisis que se requiere como fundamento para el contexto de reforma. Esta colaboración argumenta que la conexión entre la liquidez excedente, el crecimiento de la deuda, las burbujas de activos creadas por la deuda y la crisis financiera que se generó, son desenlaces de los fracasos en la política monetaria y regulatoria, que reflejan un debilitamiento substancial en la habilidad de la Fed de instrumentar iniciativas contra cíclicas. Se argumenta que el grado de efectividad de la política monetaria puede -y debe- ser restaurada y se propone un nuevo sistema de manejo de reservas que puede acceder a reservas contra activos y no contra depósitos y que aplica requerimientos de reservas a todos segmentos del sector financiero. Se concluye que un cambio en el sistema actual de implementación de la política monetaria es necesario para terminar con la contracción crediticia, confrontar el impacto de la crisis actual sobre el sector financiero y la economía y asegurar el éxito de cualquier estímulo fiscal que se emprenda.

  12. Nuevo nombre para antiguos conceptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ayala Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo cívico, público o comunitario son tres denominaciones para un mismo fenómeno surgido en los E.U. y que va difundiéndose por América Latina, precisamente donde su esencia (el protagonismo y la participación real del perceptor en los procesos comunicacionales surgió y se desarrolló hace décadas. La autora al entrevistar a Carlos Alvares Teijeiro, uno de los estudiosos del tema, ofrece algunos aspectos de esta (nueva? práctica periodística que tiene que ver con la democracia

  13. Turismo accesible, turismo para todos

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Bello, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El sector turístico representa el 10,2 por ciento del Producto Interior Bruto (PIB) y el 11,5 por ciento del empleo en España. La actividad turística y sus grandes beneficios han posibilitado que nuestro país sea destino y referencia en este sector. ¿Lo es también en turismo accesible? El turismo para todos no puede ser excluyente bajo ninguna razón o circunstancia. Amparado en el derecho y la Constitución, la sensibilidad que se percibe no puede quedar solo en buenas palabras sino en actuaci...

  14. Mandevilla (Apocynaceae, Mesechiteae para Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies de Mandevilla (Apocynoideae, Mesechiteae subgénero Exothostemon, endémicas de Brasil. Mandevilla abortiva se encuentra relacionada con un grupo de especies conformado por M. huberi, M. obtusifolia y M. pachyphylla, discutiéndose sus afinidades con esos taxones. Mandevilla clandestina ha sido confundida por largo tiempo con M. scabra, diferenciándose por sus flores más pequeñas. Se incluyen descripciones completas, ilustraciones y el listado de especímenes examinados para ambos taxones.

  15. Entre velos: Maya para contrabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Maya para contrabajo se materializa a partir de una imagen de Pepe Romero, cuyo texto interpreta a La decadencia de la mentira de Oscar Wilde. La estructura de Maya es binaria, especular y asimétrica; su poética obedece al juego verdad/mentira que subyace en la obra artística y en la vivencia del artista. Maya trae a la memoria las voces de los Upanishad, Schopenhauer, Shakespeare y Beethoven, influencias éstas en la obra de Wagner y, todas ellas, en la de Eliot. Los aspectos gestuales y visu...

  16. Pequenos para idade gestacional: fator de risco para mortalidade neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Márcia Furquim de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as variáveis contempladas na Declaração de Nascimento (DN como possíveis fatores de risco para nascimentos pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG e o retardo de crescimento intra-uterino como fator de risco para a mortalidade neonatal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As variáveis existentes na DN foram obtidas diretamente de prontuários hospitalares. Os dados referem-se a uma coorte de nascimentos obtida por meio da vinculação das declarações de nascimento e óbito, correspondendo a 2.251 nascimentos vivos hospitalares, de mães residentes, ocorridos no Município de Santo André, Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, no período de l/1 a 30/6/1992, e aos óbitos neonatais verificados nessa coorte. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se a proporção de 4,3% de nascimentos PIG, significativamente maior entre os recém-nascidos de pré-termo e pós-termo, entre os nascimentos cujas mães tinham mais de 35 anos de idade e grau de instrução inferior ao primeiro grau completo. Os recém-nascidos PIG apresentam maior risco de morte neonatal que aqueles que não apresentavam sinais de retardo de crescimento intra-uterino. CONCLUSÕES: Em áreas com menor freqüência de baixo peso ao nascer, é importante investigar a presença de retardo de crescimento intra-uterino entre os nascimentos prematuros e não apenas nos nascimentos de termo. O registro da data da última menstruação (ou da idade gestacional em semanas não agregadas na DN facilitaria a detecção de PIGs na população de recém-nascidos.

  17. Edificio para viviendas, en Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba Corsini, F.

    1967-05-01

    Full Text Available This building has a garage basement, a ground floor with a communed playing zone for all the children of the block, and the entrance vestibule. The rest of the building is occupied with apartments, of about 200 m2 each, which are functionally designed, and are suitable for medium sized average income families. Special attention has been given to the external facades, which, among other things, are of extremely simple design.El edificio contiene: en el sótano, un guardacoches; en la planta baja, una zona de juegos común para los niños de todas las viviendas, además de los vestíbulos. El resto de la superficie edificada está destinado a viviendas, de unos 200 m2, construidos con distribución funcional y adecuada para familias medias ya constituidas. Fue dedicada una especial atención a la composición de las fachadas, que ofrecen, entre otros atractivos, el de su elegante sencillez.

  18. Para onde vai a Geografia?

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    Angélica Karina Dillenburg Horii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a evolução da Geografia enquanto pensamento científico, analisando seu objeto de estudo e suas categorias de análise durante todo o percurso da criação desse saber. Observa primeiramente a formação da Geografia Clássica, que teve seus princípios já instituídos na Antiguidade com Ptolomeu e Estrabão, desdobrando-se no período Iluminista com Ritter e Humboldt que fornecerão uma nova temporalidade a essa ciência. Atinge seu ápice na Modernidade Industrial com a racionalidade de Kant, onde Ratzel e La Blache utilizarão o determinismo e o possibilismo para constituir um discurso científico para a Geografia. Finaliza apontando a nova compreensão do mundo, conhecida como pós-modernismo por David Harvey (1992 ou por Milton Santos (1996 como Globalização, que junto a outros geógrafos e pesquisadores, indicam caminhos de análise dessa ciência na compreensão do seu objeto de estudo. Um diálogo entre os autores na construção do pensamento geográfico.

  19. Aprender para la vida o para el placer

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    Diobaldo César Heredia Gutiérrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El proceso enseñanza aprendizaje, se corresponde con un sistema comunicativo por excelenciaque requiere una alta dosis de amor que garantice el disfrute o goce de los participantes, enun interactuar de búsqueda y descubrimiento satisfactorio. Para imprimirle un alto grado de calidad, esdeseable la participación de estudiantes y docentes más emprendedores y críticos y menos académicoso dependientes, por ello el aprendizaje autónomo es clave, el logro u objetivo, entonces, es estudiantesque aprendan como si fueran a enseñar y docentes investigadores, proactivos y expertos en las materiasque enseñan.

  20. Internet como instrumento para la Yihad

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    Alfonso Merlos García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las extraordinarias ventajas que ofrece Internet lo han convertido en un instrumento clave y dinámico en la estrategia de los yihadistas. Los medios de comunicación, la clase política y las agencias de seguridad e información han tendido a concentrar sus esfuerzos en la neutralización del ciberterrorismo sin prestar suficiente atención a los múltiples usos de Internet que están haciendo los neosalafistas: para la propaganda y para la guerra psicológica, para el reclutamiento y para la financiación, para la documentación y para la planificación de atentados. Las democracias deberían considerar el coste que tendrá la derrota frente al movimiento yihadista globalizado en la batalla por el ciberespacio

  1. Inteligencia Emocional para tiempos de crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    La Inteligencia Emocional se concibe como un conjunto de habilidades, tanto básicas como complejas, dirigidas a “unificar las emociones y el razonamiento”, esto es, usar las emociones para facilitar el razonamiento y los procesos de pensamiento, y usar nuestro razonamiento para pensar de forma inteligente acerca de nuestras emociones (Mayer y Salovey, 1997). En concreto, la IE se define como una habilidad mental que incluye “la capacidad para percibir, valorar y expresar las emociones con...

  2. Software hipermedia para apoyo de evaluaciones automatizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Grosclaude, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Las organizaciones educativas requieren adecuado soporte informático para la optimización de procesos colaborativos en la enseñanza. Se necesita definir una arquitectura de desarrollo de estas aplicaciones sobre sistemas distribuidos. Se presentan los objetivos de un proyecto de investigación sobre Software para Procesos Colaborativos, en el marco del cual se han desarrollado dos aplicaciones experimentales para apoyar la evaluación automatizada. Se describen estas aplicaciones, sus resultado...

  3. Sistema de realidad aumentada para aplicaciones Android

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, Natalia Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es la creación de un sistema de realidad aumentada para el sistema operativo Android con idea de que sea utilizado para la creación de un videojuego, pero que a su vez sea lo suficientemente versátil como para poder utilizarse en otro tipo de aplicaciones. De este objetivo principal podemos obtener los objetivos secundarios: - Conocer las características que ofrecen los teléfonos móviles y como éstas pueden ser aprovechadas para la crea...

  4. Adesao ao guia alimentar para populacao brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Verly Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a adesão ao Guia Alimentar para População Brasileira. MÉTODOS : Amostra composta por participantes do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (n = 1.661 que preencheram dois recordatórios de 24 horas. Foi utilizado modelo bivariado de efeito misto para a razão entre o consumo de energia do grupo de alimentos e o consumo calórico total. A razão estimada foi utilizada para calcular o percentual de indivíduos com consumo abaixo ou acima da recomendação. RESULTADOS : Pelo menos 80,0% da população consome abaixo do recomendado para: leite e derivados; frutas e sucos de frutas; e cereais, tubérculos e raízes; aproximadamente 60,0% para legumes e verduras; 30,0% para feijões; e 8,0% para carnes e ovos. Adolescentes apresentaram a maior inadequação para legumes e verduras (90,0%, e o estrato de maior renda foi associado à menor inadequação para óleos, gorduras e sementes oleaginosas (57,0%. CONCLUSÕES : Foi observado consumo inadequado dos grupos de alimentos relacionados com aumento do risco de doenças crônicas.

  5. Paisajes para un desarrollo sustentable y participativo

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    Rafael Mata Olmo

    2014-11-01

    Para terminar, el texto recoge una experiencia de proyecto territorial de paisaje, la del Plan Insular de Menorca (Islas Baleares, España, aprobado en 2003. Se sintetizan sus determinaciones sobre la protección de determinados terrenos por sus altos valores paisajísticos, sus directrices para que las políticas sectoriales (turismo, agricultura, infraestructuras, etc. incorporen criterios paisajísticos, y sus iniciativas para la gestión y mejora del paisaje y para el fomento del acceso público a su contemplación y disfrute.

  6. Programa de Seguridad y Desalojo para Instituciones

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    1999-01-01

    El siguiente Programa de Seguridad y Desalojo ha sido adaptado de uno similar, desarrollado en Venezuela, para instituciones educativas. Se trata de una metodología desarrollada por del FUNDARIS útil para proceder a desarrollar simulacros con base en tres (3) actividades: la planeación, la ejecución y la evaluación. Esta propuesta adaptada para el programa de gestión del riesgo sísmico en el Eje Cafetero, adelantado por la UN y el CINEP, hace parte del curriculum para el Curso Internacional d...

  7. Profesiones emergentes para los comunicadores

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    Manuel Ortiz Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Señala el autor que en México se ha iniciado una lenta pero segura transformación del campo profesional de la comunicación. La carrera de Comunicación ocupa el octavo lugar entre las carreras más demandadas en la Educación Superior de México, que con la fuerte avalancha tecnológica y el surgimiento de la apertura de nuevos espacios sociales y político-económicos han impulsado otras formas de hacer comunicación. Dos son los campos más opcionados: medios de comunicación masiva, y lo organizacional y la publicidad, aunadas al surgimiento del marketing político. Hoy se demanda del profesional nuevas y dinámicas competencias para enfrentar escenarios laborales antes no explorados.

  8. para su puesta en marcha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Franco Maass

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG tienen una gran aplicación en la gestión municipal; permiten cumplir con dos objetivos fundamentales: el registro de información territorial y el análisis de problemas territoriales específicos. Con el fin de determinar la viabilidad de este tipo de tecnologías en el ámbito municipal, se enfrentó el problema de la localización de instalaciones para la disposición final de residuos sólidos urbanos en el municipio de Toluca, Estado de México. Se identifican ciertos aspectos que limitan la práctica de los SIG: la diversidad entre los municipios, los problemas administrativos, las deficiencias de la información y la carencia de recursos humanos, técnicos y financieros.

  9. Comunicadores para la informaclon ambiental

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    Luz Marina Cabrera Morillo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La Red Colombiana de Formación Ambiental en convenio con la Corporación Autónoma de los Valles del Sinú y del San Jorge y con el apoyo del Politécnico Grancolombiano, desarrolló un diplomado en Periodismo Ambiental en la ciudad de Montería, Departamento de Córdoba. La experiencia que ha contribuido a fortalecer la construcción de la cultura ambiental en la región; le ha permitido mayor visibilidad a los proyectos de la Corporación y facilitado la participación ciudadana. Este documento presenta el contexto de la formación de los comunicadores para la información ambiental, las características del diplomado y establece algunos de los logros alcanzados.

  10. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  11. Una minga para el posdesarrollo

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    Arturo Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sintetiza algunas conclusiones a las que han llegado movimientos sociales y académicos en las últimas dos décadas al reflexionar sobre la globalización y sus implicaciones; el modelo dominante, basado en las nociones de "desarrollo" y "modernidad", ha entrado en crisis. Por lo tanto, se hace necesario avanzar en una transición cultural que se pueda comprender como un cambio de época y no sólo como una época de cambios. Para llevar a cabo esta transformación, se deben resolver las con-tradicciones existentes entre el neodesarrollismo y el postdesarrollo, por supuesto, a favor de éste último.

  12. Olhar para "Talco de vidro"

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    Lielson Zeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqui se busca uma forma de olhar para as histórias em quadrinhos emprestando as lentes e olhares de Maurice Merleau-Ponty. O objeto em estudo é a obra de Marcello Quintanilha, mais especificamente o álbum Talco de Vidro. Através das ideias propostas por Merleau-Ponty, tentou-se entender os mecanismos de corte, interrupção típica das HQs como um espaço entre, um lugar onde a imaginação do leitor possa ser ativada e as significações surjam. Tudo isso é levado em conta tendo por fundo a história de Rosângela, personagem de Talco de Vidro que enxerga o mundo de uma maneira bastante particular.

  13. Entre velos: Maya para contrabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maya para contrabajo se materializa a partir de una imagen de Pepe Romero, cuyo texto interpreta a La decadencia de la mentira de Oscar Wilde. La estructura de Maya es binaria, especular y asimétrica; su poética obedece al juego verdad/mentira que subyace en la obra artística y en la vivencia del artista. Maya trae a la memoria las voces de los Upanishad, Schopenhauer, Shakespeare y Beethoven, influencias éstas en la obra de Wagner y, todas ellas, en la de Eliot. Los aspectos gestuales y visuales de Maya entrelazan con la danza de Pina Bausch y con la retórica (hypotiposis.

  14. MERCADEO SOCIAL PARA LA SALUD

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    Renata Seidel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece un amplio análisis sobre la industria electoral, recordando que un candidato a presidente es "un producto para la venta". Se Desmenuzan las estrategias utilizadas en el plebiscito chileno,las elecciones norteamericanas con el NO a BUSH. El Mercadeo Social es una nueva metodología utilizada en proyectos de desarrollo a nivel de campo por ello se hace un esclarecimiento y clarifica el vínculo con la comunicación. Se agrega temas como: Los modelos de recepción de mensajes cuyos marcos conceptuales y metodologías aún no se han adaptado al potencial de esta línea de trabajo.Se analiza la agonía de las radios mineras en Bolivia en la que 42 años de historia y heroísmo se desmoronan.

  15. Trabalhar para estudar/estudar para trabalhar: realidade e possibilidades

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    Janes Teresinha fraga Siqueira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho que apresentamos é parte da pesquisa, ainda não concluída, com os estudantes das licenciaturas e da pedagogia da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul- UNISC-RS-Brasil. Este está inserido na linha de pesquisa: educação, trabalho e emancipação do mestrado em educação desta Universidade. Queremos compreender, à luz do materialismo histórico e dialético e das categorias da crítica da economia política, os significados atribuídos pelos estudantes universitários ao fenômeno trabalho e estudo. É uma pesquisa preferentemente qualitativa de natureza dialética. Para Marx, a essência da realidade humana reside no trabalho, mas a fonte de toda a riqueza está na natureza. Logo trabalho, natureza e sociedade estão em relação dialética. Trabalho, portanto, é a ideia central articuladora, e natureza e sociedade devem ser estudadas em conexão com o trabalho. Marx trata o trabalho, no modo de produção capitalista, como um impedimento ao desenvolvimento humano. Propõe omesmo como um ato de criação e auto-expressão humana que não deve ter um valor. A compreensão dessa premissa é necessária para que os trabalhadores possam significar e ressignificar o trabalho para além da ideologia dominante. Algumas categorias aparecem como relevantes para a análise: condições de trabalho e de estudo, necessidade de formação, predominância do trabalho sobre o estudo, dificuldade deconciliar tempo de estudo e de trabalho. Na relação com o objeto de estudo, ressaltaremos a crise estrutural do capital, a desregulamentação das leis do trabalho e sua flexibilização e as contradições entre trabalho e estudo bem como quais possibilidades emancipatórias são visualizadas ou sonhadas pelos trabalhadores estudantes.Resume Ce travail constitue une partie de la recherche entreprise avec les étudiants du cours de pédagogie de l´Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul – UNISC – RS – Brésil. Il est intégré dans le champ de

  16. Riesgos y oportunidades para el periodismo audiovisual

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    Alberto García Avilés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas empresas informativas han puesto en marcha diversas fórmulas para que las redacciones de distintos medios compartan recursos, trabajen conjuntamente en las coberturas y produzcan noticias para diversos soportes. Refiere lo que debe ser el periodista polivalente y su formación

  17. Cubierta de madera para una nave industrial

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    Hossdorf, Heinz

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available Para la ampliación de los talleres de Hans Schmidlin, de Basilea, Suiza, dedicados a la prefabricación de elementos de construcción de madera y metales ligeros para fachadas, se ha construido una nueva nave, rectangular, de 49x55,4 m en planta.

  18. McPhone para iPhone

    OpenAIRE

    Beristain Villar, Iker

    2013-01-01

    Diseño e implementación de una aplicación "McPhone" para dispositivos móviles, que mejora y evoluciona el sistema de realizar pedidos en un restaurante de comida rápida. Un desarrollo para dispositivos Apple, es decir, Iphone bajo iOS. Idioma Español.

  19. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  20. Criterios para seleccionar proveedor de servicios gestionados

    OpenAIRE

    IBM

    2013-01-01

    Los servicios gestionados abarcan una gama de capacidades , creando opcionespara las organizaciones de TI que buscan beneficiarse de forma externa prestado servicios que les permiten centrarse en más negocios temas y funciones estratégicas y actividades. el Cloud Computing aumenta esta gama de opciones, que proporciona un mayor potencial que nunca para las organizaciones de TI para transformar .

  1. Recursos para un aprendizaje significativo

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    Juan LARA GUERRERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partimos del supuesto de que una de las cuestiones que más preocupa al profesorado en su práctica educativa radica en que el aprendizaje de sus alumnos sea significativo. Somos conscientes de que, para conseguir este tipo de aprendizaje, es necesario introducir una serie de cambios en la dinámica de la clase. Comenzamos diferenciando el aprendizaje maquinal del significativo. Continuamos aclarando una confusión muy extendida entre muchos educadores, que creen que el aprendizaje por recepción es repetitivo y que el efectuado por descubrimiento es forzosamente significativo. Posteriormente, planteamos una serie de interrogantes para aclarar algunas cuestiones que le pueden ser útiles a los educadores en su práctica cotidiana. Terminamos presentando la estrategia de organización, que cuenta con dos instrumentos, a nuestro juicio muy eficaces, para ayudar a los estudiantes, a aprender de manera significativa: los mapas conceptuales y la técnica heurística V.ABSTRACT: We start from the assumption that one of the questions that most worry the teaching staff in its educational practice consists in that its pupils' learning is significant. We are aware that, to obtain this kind of learning, it is necessary to introduce a series of changes in the classroom dynamics. We begin by making a distinction between mechanical and significant learning. We continué making clear a very extended confusión amongst many teachers, who believe that learning by reception is repetitive and that the one done by serendipity is necessarily significant. Afterwards, we créate a series of questions to clarify with some answers that can be useful to teachers in their everyday practice. We finish showing the organization strategy, which has two instruments, that in our opinión are very effective, to help students learning in a significant way: conceptual maps and the V heuristic technique.RÉSUMÉ: Nous partons de la supposition de qu'une des questions que

  2. El Ensayo, Para Formar Profesionales Reflexivos

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    Nestor Perico-Granados

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de investigación, como resultado de la reflexión hecha a lo largo de muchos años de experiencia profesional y docente en diferentes universidades estudiando, redactando y evaluando ensayos. Presenta la importancia del ensayo como instrumento y dispositivo de la formación en la educación y especialmente se hace hincapié en la incidencia que tiene cuando se trabaja de manera apropiada, para prestar un servicio en la formación reflexiva. Se dan unas pautas para una aproximación a su definición y precisa los elementos fundamentales y otros complementarios para su elaboración. Desarrolla un primer proceso para escribir un ensayo, a través de la jerarquización de las ideas. Finalmente, se proponen unas conclusiones que pueden ser útiles para quienes quieran escribir ensayos.

  3. Modelos para estimar as exigências de energia metabolizável para poedeiras

    OpenAIRE

    Sakomura,Nilva Kazue; Basaglia,Roberta; Sá-Fortes,Cristina M. L.; Fernandes,João Batista K.

    2005-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de energia metabolizável (EM) para poedeiras leves da linhagem Lohmann LSL, utilizando-se o método fatorial. Para determinar o efeito da temperatura sobre as exigências de EM para mantença, foram conduzidos experimentos em câmaras climáticas com temperaturas constantes de 12, 22 e 31ºC, utilizando a técnica do abate comparativo. A exigência de energia líquida para o ganho de peso foi determinada por meio da regress...

  4. Una red para la gente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Trejo Delarbre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La próxima Cumbre Mundial de la Sociedad de la Información ha revitalizado, en numerosos países, el debate acerca de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación y los usos que pueden tener. Lamentablemente en México hemos estado casi del todo ajenos a esa intensa, extensa y en otras latitudes fructífera discusión. Ni los especialistas interesados en estos temas, ni la sociedad que es a la postre beneficiaria o damnificada según sea el empleo de tales tecnologías, ni los organismos del Estado a cargo de tales asuntos, han propiciado la reflexión colectiva que nos podría permitir tanto afinar las posiciones de nuestro país rumbo a la cumbre de Ginebra y Túnez como deliberar, en ese contexto, acerca de lo mucho que nos falta para tener un país auténticamente imbricado en la construcción de una auténtica Sociedad de la Información.

  5. Periodistas para la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villalobos G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación de los periodistas del siglo XXI en la era digital se concibe como un reto y el mayor desafío. Los medios digitales demandan especialización y dominio de las nuevas tecnologías. Las universidades, principales gestores de este cambio, en la sociedad del conocimiento, requieren trabajar en la reformulación de nuevos pensum y en tres terrenos fundamentales: el perfil del egresado, el estilo pedagógico y el nuevo modo de relacionarse con el mundo exterior. Se necesita de una oferta académica referida al ciberperiodismo y a la cibercomunicación. La profesión periodística, y específicamente la formación de los comunicadores registra cambios importantes debido a las nuevas tecnologías, ahora el aula es el mundo globalizado e interconectado por la gran autopista de la información, por ello, la formación del comunicador social, demanda renovadas prácticas educativas. Las universidades deben repensar el papel que están obligadas a desempeñar, reformular los pensum académicos y ofertar la cibercomunicación y el ciberperiodismo para estar al día de las grandes transformaciones.

  6. Residencia para familias - Anglet (Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébrard, J. R.

    1971-11-01

    Full Text Available This residential hotel has 806 beds, which can be increased to 1,100 by adding some double beds. Its size and colour blends well with the picturesque surrounding, known as «Chambre d'Amour». The hotel involves 120 large apartments, and 50 smaller one, as well as 25 rooms for the staff, and flats for the manager and other senior officials. There is a hall, large living room, bar, rooms for playing games, nursery, and an additional hostel with 40 flats and staff rooms. The design is of a linear, continuous style, emphasizing its horizontal extension, though contrast is provided by a higher block, housing the vertical circulation facilities.Con un total de 806 plazas hoteleras, ampliables a 1.100 (si se utilizan literas, este conjunto, por su volumen y color se integra en el pintoresco paisaje del paraje conocido por «Chambre d'Amour». Comprende: 120 apartamentos; 50 más pequeños; 25 habitaciones para empleados; los apartamentos del director, gobernanta y recepcionistas; las zonas de vida en común: hall, salón, bar, sala de juegos y guardería; un albergue con 40 apartamentos; y las dependencias de la administración. Presenta un volumen lineal y continuo, modelando una composición de ritmo horizontal predominante, a la que le imprime gran variedad el cuerpo vertical de hormigón visto que contiene las circulaciones verticales.

  7. Um lugar para a Filosofia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dessbesel Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available De que modo pode a Filosofia integrar-se às demais disciplinas da grade curricular dos cursos técnicos do IFSul? E como se insere uma disciplina como essa em instituições de ensino que têm tradicionalmente como foco o ensino tecnológico e profissionalizante, como são os Institutos Federais? Primeiramente, a Filosofia poderia contribuir na formação do profissional egresso, desenvolvendo-lhe competências relacionadas ao filosofar, em especial as relacionadas ao raciocínio abstrato e à comunicação, o que poderia vir a fazer a diferença no mercado de trabalho. Assim, os Institutos Federais ofereceriam um ensino de excelência com o objetivo de formar o técnico mais bem qualificado possível ao mercado de trabalho. Todavia, o aparelhamento técnico de nossos jovens, embora essencial para o desenvolvimento do País, não pode apresentar-se como a preocupação prioritária dos educadores, pois é fundamental considerar-se a formação integral da pessoa humana. Qual educação, afinal, queremos? E qual o papel da escola pública em nossa sociedade? O direcionamento unilateral à qualificação profissional pode levar-nos à formação de uma espécie de “superpeão”. A escola não pode ser serva do mercado. Ela tem o papel maior de agente de questionamento e transformação da sociedade. A concepção de Ensino Médio Técnico-Integrado nos parece orientar-se antes para a formação “integral” do cidadão, da pessoa em sua totalidade. O trabalho não é apenas uma relação econômica, mas também ética, política e estética. Deve ser uma forma de realização, de humanização do mundo, e não de coisificação do homem. É sempre possível pensar nossos espaços de educação formal como um compartilhar humano de sentidos, de afetos, de vivências, de posturas, de identidades. A esses espaços deverá a qualificação técnica sempre agregar-se, jamais sobrepor-se.

  8. pipetas usadas para I. A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castañeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La vagina y cerviz de las cerdas son estimuladas físicamente durante la inseminación. Este contacto puede afectar características reproductivas tales como el transporte espermático y el proceso de ovulación. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron desde el punto de vista económico y reproductivo, tres tipos de pipetas utilizadas para I. A. de cerdas de diferente material y forma. Se utilizaron 120 animales multíparos asignados de acuerdo a su orden de entrada al celo, en forma sucesiva a uno de tres grupos experimentales: 1 I. A. mediante pipeta reusable de hule tipo Melrose ( Medata, 2 I. A. con pipeta desechable de punta plástica en espiral y 3 I. A. con pipeta desechable con punta de poliestireno redonda (Medi chimica. No se encontró diferencia (P>0.05 entre los porcentajes de gestación, parición y promedio de lechones nacidos vivos por parto, en el tiempo de aplicación del semen, ni en el volumen del mismo, arrojado por las cerdas en los 10 min. posteriores a la I. A. Los valores promedio fueron de: 91.7%, 86.7%, 10.4 ± 2.8, 7.8 ± 2.6 min. y 10.4 ± 11.3 ml, respectivamente. El análisis de regresión, no mostró significancia en cuanto a paridad en ninguna de las variables estudiadas (P>0.05. Se concluye que las pipetas evaluadas no difieren en su efecto sobre el desarrollo reproductivo de la piara. Sin embargo, la pipeta reusable tipo Melrose ofrece ventaja económica bajo las condiciones del presente estudio

  9. Guión informativo para radio

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Bonilla, Jhonatan Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo investigativo bibliográfico y práctico, sobre el tema "GUION INFORMATIVO PARA RADIO" tiene como objetivo principal crear una guía tanto para los alumnos de comunicación social como para los comunicadores en la práctica. Después de varias entrevistas realizadas a diferentes comunicadores de las radios, se ha tomado en cuenta que en la ciudad de Cuenca se desconoce la necesidad de trabajar con guiones. Por tal motivo es importante realizar y profundizar en esta tesis sobr...

  10. Modelo computacional para projeto de compressores axiais

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Oliveira Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um programa computacional para modelagem inicial de compressores axiais de vários estágios pertencentes ao conjunto de turbinas a gás. O desenvolvimento do programa se baseia na metodologia adotada por Saravanamutto et al. (2001), faz uso da Primeira Lei da Termodinâmica para cálculo de potência consumida pelo compressor e da Segunda Lei da Termodinâmica para determinar o grau de irreversibilidade do sistema. O programa calcula a quantidade...

  11. Desafios e Tecnologias para Cidades do Futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mendes Silva Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata questões apresentadas em palestra deste autor onde foi discutido os atuais desafios das cidades urbanas e é feito prospecto destacando tecnologias que podem prover suporte a essa demanda. Nesse sentido, apresenta-se um diagnóstico da situação atual das cidades em função do processo de urbanização e apontam-se desafios a serem enfrentados pela sociedade para dotarem as cidades de infra-estrutura adequada para (possíveis cenários futuros de modo a torná-las prontas para atender esta demanda.

  12. Un reto para adolescentes, confrontando imposiciones.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    a) Título, b) párrafo de apertura, c) desarrollo o redacción del caso, d) párrafo de cierre, e) notas de enseñanza: resumen del caso, objetivos temas relacionados, actividades previas para el alumno, actividades para el profesor, actividades durante la sesión para el alumno, uso de pizarrón, distribución del tiempo, análisis del caso, epílogo del caso, f) anexos y g) referencias.

  13. Plan de marketing para BMW Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Cuadra, Mónica; Rodríguez Bandach, Hurr; Rubatto García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Perú representa para BMW la tercera plaza más importante de la región, liderando por 14 años consecutivos las ventas del segmento de autos de lujo (para ser considerados en el segmento de lujo, premium o gama alta, cualquier marca debe cumplir con prestaciones y beneficios exclusivos para el usuario, precio alto y no de fácil acceso). En los últimos años este segmento viene creciendo pese a las fluctuaciones de la coyuntura económica. Aprovechando este posicionamiento, BMW es la primera ...

  14. Educación para la sostenibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Educadores por la sostenibilidad

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La importancia dada por los expertos en sostenibilidad al papel de la educación queda reflejada en el lanzamiento mismo de la Década de la Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible o, mejor, para un futuro sostenible (2005-2014 a cuyo impulso y desarrollo esta destinado este artículo, así como la página web que la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos ha habilitado dentro de su portal digital, para la celebración de la Década.

  15. COGNITIO: UM PROCESSO PARA REUSO DE REQUISITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Germanna Braga Morais

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um processo de reuso de requisitos, denominado Cognitio, o qual busca fornecer ganhos na produtividade e qualidade dos softwares gerados, de forma que os stakeholders se sintam motivados tanto para desenvolver software com reuso quanto para o reuso. Para a formação do repositório, organizamos as informações relacionadas aos requisitos através da linguagem Q7, e apresentamos através do framework NFR como o nosso processo pode ser aplicado.

  16. Oxitocina: nuevas perspectivas para una droga antigua

    OpenAIRE

    Steven L. CLARK; Kathleen Rice SIMPSON; G. Eric KNOX; Thomas J. GARITE

    2010-01-01

    La oxitocina es el medicamento más comúnmente asociada con la prevención de complicaciones perinatales y recientemente fue incluida por el Instituto para la Administración Medicamentosa Segura (Institute for Safe Medication Practices - ISMP) en una pequeña lista de medicamentos “con alto grado de riesgos”, lo que puede “necesitar salvaguardas especiales para reducir el riesgo de error”. Las recomendaciones actuales para administrar este medicamento son vagas en relación a la indicación, tiemp...

  17. Conferencia educación para todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available América Latina tiene 42 millones de analfabetos. La crisis creada por la deuda externa produce fuertes restricciones presupuestarias en todos los sectores. En Tailandia (1990 se realizó la Conferencia Mundial sobre "Educación para Todos" se presentó la nueva visión de encontrar un camino para lograr una educación por todos y para todos.La autora, trata de sintetizar los documentos que circularon en la reunión.

  18. Modelo de requisitos para sistemas embebidos

    OpenAIRE

    González Palacio, Liliana; Urrego Giraldo, Germán

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta un modelo de requisitos como apoyo para la construcción de sistemas embebidos. En la actualidad, las metodologías de Ingeniería de Requisitos propuestas para este dominio no establecen continuidad en su proceso de desarrollo, ya que poseen una fuerte orientación a la etapa de diseño y un énfasis más débil en la etapa de análisis. Además, dichas metodologías ofrecen pautas para tratar los requisitos luego de que han sido obtenidos, pero no proponen herramient...

  19. Actitud Positiva: la base para la competitividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Anderson Espinoza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Una estrategia empresarial enfocado en el mejoramiento continuo de la productividad para la competitividad, depende significativamente del manejo inteligente de tres variables visibles:Calidad, Entrega oportuna y Costo. No obstante, estas tres variables no suelen sersuficientes. La estrategia debe ser complementada con el manejo adecuado de variables intangibles como la Motivación y las Condiciones de Trabajo, con la aplicación de Tecnología Ambientalmente Amigable, en un marco de Actitud Positiva.A final de cuentas, la Actitud Positiva es fundamental para el recurso humano de cualquier organización, a fin de construir una plataforma sólida y estable que sirva de base para soportar un proceso sostenible de mejoramiento de la productividad, para aumentar la competitividad como estrategia empresarial exitosa.

  20. Quitovac : Olla para hacer le tepache

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Loubet , François

    1985-01-01

    Quitovac, Municipio General Plutarco Elías Calles, Sonora. Quitovac IV. Don Luciano unto a la Olla de Cachito. Olla para hacer el Tepache de Pitoya en la piesta del "Queso", siglo pasado y principios de Este.

  1. Competencias del profesorado universitario para la interculturalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Shestakova, Nataliya; Domínguez Garrido, María Concepción; Cacheiro González, María Luz

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación está dedicada a las competencias del profesorado universitario para la interculturalidad. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio con un enfoque mixto, cualitativo y cuantitativo, cuyo objetivo es conocer las competencias intercu

  2. Regulaciones para el transporte de sustancias infecciosas

    OpenAIRE

    Casquero, José

    2005-01-01

    Para el propósito de transporte, se define como sustancia infecciosa, aquellas que son conocidas o razonablemente esperadas que contengan patógenos (bacterias, virus, rickettsias, parásitos, hongos, y priones)

  3. Using ParaPost Tenax fiberglass and ParaCore build-up material to restore severely damaged teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Ricardo; Castellon, Paulino

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a technique using ParaPost Tenax Fiber White, ParaPost Cement, and ParaPost ParaCore build-up material to restore a tooth with a significant loss of tooth structure. After successful root canal therapy, the posts were bonded in the canals and the core was built using ParaPost ParaCore build-up material. At that point, the tooth was prepared to receive a conventional porcelain-fused-to-metal crown.

  4. Páginas web para el aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel ÁLVAREZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea la construcción de paginas web como vehículo para facilitar la integracion de las tecnologias de la informacion y la comunicacion en el aula para futuros maestros. El término Página Web Coherente enfatiza la utilización de páginas cuyo objetivo principal es promover el aprendizaje siguiendo un proceso colaborativo, una estructura integradora y un contenido educativo.

  5. Entrenamiento de fuerza para la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Cervera, Vicente

    1996-01-01

    Este artículo describe de manera breve y clara los efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre la salud, al mismo tiempo da pautas para la realización y programación de los entrenamientos de fuerza para la salud en distintas edades. Se muestran las diferentes variables del entrenamiento de la fuerza junto con ejemplos de entrenamientos, basándose en las pautas marcadas en la revisión bibliográfica descrita.

  6. Un almuerzo para llevar saludable (Packing Smart)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics hablan sobre almuerzos creativos para llevarse a la escuela, que ayuden a mantenerse con energía el resto del día.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  7. Amendoins silvestres para uso ornamental.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferraz de Arruda Veiga

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies silvestres de amendoim (Arachis spp. gênero Arachis L. (Fabaceae, vêm sendo utilizadas como forração em jardins no Brasil, porém todas com pouca variabilidade já que a distribuição do germoplasma é feita sempre pelos mesmos acessos4. Por outro lado, inúmeras coletas têm sido realizadas, particularmente pela Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen, disponibilizando acessos até então inacessíveis à pesquisa científica. Em virtude dessa nova disponibilidade e igualmente de híbridos resultantes de pesquisas do Cenargen, organizou-se este trabalho. Foram objeto desta pesquisa cinco espécies: A. glabrata Benth., A. helodes Mart. ex Krapov.& Rigoni, A. pintoi‘Krapov.& W.C.Gregory, A. repens Handro e A. kempff-mercadoi Krapov.,W.C.Gregory & C.E.Simpson, e seis híbridos originados dos paternais: A. appressipila Krapov.&W.C.Gregory, A. paraguariensis Chodat & Hassl., A. pintoi, A. repens e A. vallsi Krapov.& W.C.Gregoryi. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período dos anos agrícolas de 1998 a 2000, na Fazenda Santa Elisa do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em Campinas (SP, anotando-se o número de flores por planta, a velocidade de desenvolvimento, a capacidade de cobertura do solo, aspectos ornamentais como exuberância das flores e folíolos, coloração e, ainda, sanidade e vigor dos acessos. Os híbridos apresentaram um bom comportamento, porém com ciclo anual, ao passo que os acessos de Arachis kempffmercadoi, A.helodes, A. repens e A. glabrata mostraram-se mais recomendáveis para o uso em jardins por serem perenes. Todos os acessos ficam mais bonitos no verão em razão do período de floração e graças ao verde de sua massa foliar.

  8. UM TRATADO PARA O AMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Caldeira do Amaral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No Tratado do Amor Cortês - Tractatus de Amore - André Capelão deseja oferecer ao leitor a arte cortês de amar, a beleza do desejo erótico e a disciplina da paixão constitutiva dessa arte que é amar. O maior argumento dessa obra é efetivar o suspiro fundo que a dimensão amorosa infunde na alma do homem e da mulher aos quais foi concedida a virtude. Para esse autor, escriba da chancelaria real e talvez, não se sabe com certeza, um Ordo Sacratus, o amor é a raiz de toda cortesia, a fonte de todo bem. Nosso objetivo, então, é encontrar nessa suma amorosa construída nos enlaces da Literatura de Cavalaria Medieval, os desdobramentos essenciais dessa vida afetiva bela e virtuosa no enredo profundo do qual emerge o afeto, a fé e a contradição da experiência humana do sofrimento amoroso. Palavras Chave: Literatura Medieval. Amor Cortês, André Capelão, virtude, desejo. Abstract: With the treaty toward the love - Tractatus de Amore – André Capelão offers to the reader the courteous’ art for love, the erotic desire’s beauty and the  suffering discipline belong this love’s art  is. The best reason of this literary composition is to achieve the depth sigh that the loving dimension infuses into the lovers’s soul, the man and the woman wich this virtue was conceded. For this author, the royal chancery scribe and perhaps, no one knows for sure, a Sacratus Ordo, love is the root of all free, the source of all good. Our goal, then, is to find this sum loving built in interlacing of Medieval Knights literature, the essential developments of this beautiful and virtuous love life in the deep storyline which emerges affection, faith and the contradiction of the human experience of love suffering. Key words: Medieval Literature. Courteous Love. André Capelão. Virtue.

  9. Agricultura familiar para el desarrollo rural incluyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Reddiar Krishnamurthy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las comunidades indígenas Mayas de la península de Yucatán han practicado la antigua tradición de agricultura familiar, en particular los huertos caseros, para garantizar su seguridad alimentaria. Con el objetivo de mejorar la práctica tradicional considerando paradigmas de la ciencia moderna, por una parte, se colectaron datos para definir la complejidad estructural y diversidad funcional a partir de 20 huertos familiares en cinco comunidades: X - Maben, X - Pichil, X - Yatil, San José II y Melchor Ocampo; y por otra, se organizaron grupos de discusión para dilucidar la estrategia de gestión practicada por las comunidades nativas. Los resultados mostraron que los huertos son manejados principalmente por las mujeres. También mostraron que el propósito principal del crecimiento y mantenimiento de los huertos familiares es garantizar la producción de alimentos nutritivos durante todo el año. Y, por último que los huertos caseros también sirven para propósitos secundarios tales como la provisión de productos y servicios para la medicina tradicional. El estudio sugiere que se debe de promover e invertir en huertos caseros para mejorar las estrategias de desarrollo incluyente en ambientes socio-culturales y biofísicos similares.

  10. Estrategia para elevar la motivación laboral; factor imprescindible para mejorar nuestra productividad.

    OpenAIRE

    Reina de los Ángeles Carballé Piñón

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo "Estrategia para elevar la motivación laboral; factor imprescindible para mejorar nuestra productividad" resulta de la investigación realizada para tesis de maestría; se realizó el estudio de 2 entidades, nos permitió conocer las principales posiciones que sobre motivación existen, factores que la influencian, cómo incide en el desempeño laboral y que acciones diseñar para elevarla. Las 2 entidades seleccionadas, claves en el desempeño empresarial son un centro de interfase y un...

  11. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A.; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Kan, van Jan A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid

  12. evaluation naturelle de l'impact de beauveria bassiana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    December, 2.6% in January, 1.4% in February and 0% in March. From these observations, it was possible to carry out a research on the pathogenicity tests through its natural presence and on artificial-infection trials of the borer beetle with this fungus in order to protect better the coffee grains with a biological product.

  13. Kairomone trapping system for delivery of Beauveria bassiana to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    /trap, with no significant differences ... integration with other weevil trapping strategies (e.g. use of pheromones) should focus on placement of the tissues at the soil surface .... growing susceptible and resistant cultivars, which concurs with the ...

  14. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana substrates and formulations for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    evaluated for conidial yield were: cracked maize, maize bran, “machicha” bagasse, cotton husks, maize bran + bagasse, maize bran + cotton husks, ... Cracked maize grains and maize bran were the best substrates with 3.2 x109 conidia per gram and. 3.1 x109 ..... Studdert J.P., Kaya , H.K., and Duniway J. M., 1990. Effect.

  15. evaluation naturelle de l'impact de beauveria bassiana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    des plus sérieux ravageurs du café robusta commercialisé et est présent dans tous les vergers de production de café Robusta du pays (Mbondji,. 1974). Au Cameroun, ses pertes sur les cerises ont été estimées à 10% dans un échantillon de. 100 cerises de café récolté (Mbondji, 1988). Le scolyte femelle entre dans la ...

  16. Study of Beauveria bassiana growth, blastospore yield, desiccation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Mabelle Julie Chong-Rodríguez1, María Guadalupe Maldonado-Blanco1*, Jesús Jaime. Hernández-Escareño2, Luis Jesús Galán-Wong1 and Carlos Francisco Sandoval-Coronado1. 1Instituto de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Av. Pedro de Alba.

  17. Evaluation naturelle de l'impact de Beauveria bassiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of finding out natural enemies of the coffee cherry borer beetle Coffea canephora, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) was carried out at two ecologically different sites of Cameroon: Nkoemvone in the South region of the country and Nkolbisson around Yaoundé in the central region. For six ...

  18. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  19. Studies on Bis(Para Anisidine Acetylacetonato) Nickel (II) Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Bis(Para Anisidine Acetylacetonato) Nickel (II) Complex. HN Aliyu, UL Bilyamin. Abstract. Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of para anisidine and acetylacetone. Bis(para anisidineacetylacetonato)nickel(II) complex was synthesized by the reaction of the prepared para anisidineacetylacetone ligand and ...

  20. Cross-elicitation responses to 2-methoxymethyl-para-phenylenediamine in para-phenylenediamine-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.-L.; Coenraads, P.-J.; Blömeke, B.; Goebel, C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain into para-phenylenediamine (PPD) resulted in the development of a new hair dye molecule: 2-methoxymethyl-para-phenylenediamine (Me-PPD). Besides having excellent hair colouring properties, this PPD derivate has significantly lower skin-sensitizing