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Sample records for bass strait

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2006-06-27 to 2006-12-09 (NCEI Accession 0144357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144357 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2006-06-27 to 2011-08-05 (NODC Accession 0081048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081048 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2012-01-16 to 2012-12-07 (NCEI Accession 0144347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144347 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), Inland Sea (Seto...

  5. Strait Stance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Despite rebukes against pro-independence Taiwan leader Chen Shui-bian's move to disrupt peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, the mainland remains active in pushing forward links with the island. Sun Shengliang, a research fellow at the Institute of Taiwan Studies under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, analyzes the mainland's stance and efforts in cross-strait relations. Following are excerpts of his article carried in the People's Daily Overseas Edition:

  6. STRAIT REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Relations across the Taiwan Strait got off the ground last year with direct flights between the mainland and Taipei, though interaction at an official level remained turbulent. The cross-strait relationship, which continues to be an unrelenting focus of government attention, has a complicated background and unclear future, a situation echoed in recent Chinese media reports on topics relating to Taiwan. While seemingly innocuous in subject matter-charter flights, cuddly pandas- the back-story to the headl...

  7. Hierarchical Bass model

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  8. Hierarchical Bass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  9. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contains high levels of bass sou...... has been developed. Measurements were made on a variable and mobile low-frequency absorber. The paper presents the results of prototype sound absorption measurements as well as elements of the design....

  10. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contain high levels of bass soun...... has been developed. Measurements were made on a variable and mobile low-frequency absorber. The paper presents the results of prototype sound absorption measurements as well as elements of the design....

  11. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  12. The Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum (BMP) is planning for further exclusive licences for exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Greenland off shore areas of Davis Strait. To support the decision process BMP has asked DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy and the Greenland...... with the existing licence blocks, the SEIA describes the physical and biological environment including protected areas and threatened species, contaminent levels, and natural resource use. This description of the existing situation then forms the basis for assessment of the potential impacts of oil activities....... If more licences are granted in the assessment area implementation of an environmental background study programme is planned to fi ll the data gaps that have been identifi ed and provide information required to support the environmental planning and regulation of the oil activities. The new information...

  13. Environmental quality for striped bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of environmental changes on the quality of life for striped bass populations can be evaluated objectively with modern procedures of environmental risk analysis. Such analysis requires knowledge of the sources of risk in the context of environmental requirements of the species. A prime environmental requirement of striped bass appears to be a suitable thermal structure that accommodates the hereditary thermal niche, which changes with age. Strong thermal preferences had promoted striped bass survival in the pristine natural estuaries of eastern North America, but they may increase risks to the species in some new environments and in native ones that are altered by man. The magnitude and likelihood of risks for striped bass from many pollutants and physical changes (structures or water flow, for example) depend upon the fish's thermally controlled distribution. The importance of a species' thermal niche and of the thermal structure of aquatic environments for population success is only beginning to be recognized and included in risk assessments.

  14. Taiwan strait dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastrati Bilbil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War resulted in a diffusion of the level of threat worldwide and concluded the system of bipolarity in the world. Beside the European continent, where the rivalries were at the highest level, the consequences of the end of the Cold War were especially visible in North-East Asia. A decrease of military activities of Russia and China, and the retreat of the USA from the region, give way for improvement of political and economical relations between the countries of the region. The end of hostilities produced by the Cold War no doubt have relaxed relations between countries in the region and opened ways for a new more peaceful co-existence. However, this does not mean that the region is not vulnerable to some of the hot spots such as North Korea, Spratly Parcels and especially Taiwan Strait. The latter is considered to be the most dangerous potential Asian zone of crisis in the twenty-first century.

  15. Intersex fish : Endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Intersex and abnormal vitellogenin in smallmouth bass from portions of the Potomac watershed pose a threat to fish resources. This fact sheet summarizes studies that...

  16. Toxicity of three oil spill remediation techniques to the Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D

    2000-10-01

    Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, dispersed crude oil, burnt crude oil, and 4-chlorophenol. The WAF of dispersed crude oil was the most toxic treatment with 96-h LC(50) values of 7. 15% (7.94% upper and 6.42% lower 95% CI) and 7.45% (8.26% upper and 6.71% lower 95% CI). The WAF of crude oil was less toxic, with 96-h LC(50) values of 43.72% (49.21% upper and 38.87% lower 95% CI) and 45.87% (51.51% upper and 40.97% lower 95% CI). The WAF of burnt crude oil was the least toxic treatment with 96-h LC(50) values of 49.81% (63.33% upper and 39.44% lower 95% CI) and 47.28% (59.72% upper and 37.62% lower 95% CI). Sublethal toxicity of the crude oil WAF and burnt crude oil WAF was observed at dilutions seven to eight times less than in the dispersed crude oil WAF.

  17. A MILESTONE IN CROSS-STRAITS RELATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG YUNGUANG; DING XING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chongqing, the southwestern municipality that served as China's capital during World War Ⅱ, will be remembered again for hosting a landmark event in the Chinese history on June 29. On that day, Chen Yunlin,President of the mainland's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits,and Chiang Pin-kung, Chairman of Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation,signed the long-awaited Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) in Chongqing, a move hailed by many as a milestone in cross-Straits relations.

  18. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  19. On Flow Variability in the Bosphorus Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-27

    Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Undersea Research Center ( NURC ) in collaboration with the Turkish Navy Office of Navigation, Hydrography, and...Oceanography deployed two mooring sections in the Bosphorus Strait (at the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara entrances) from the R/V Alliance (a NATO- NURC ...research vessel) as a part of TSS08 ( NURC project) and "Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits" (EPOS, NRL project) programs in September 2008 (Figure 1

  20. Effects of water velocity on activity of juvenile striped bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, R.R.; Griffith, J.S.; Coutant, C.C.

    1976-07-01

    The swimming activity of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) 8 to 80 mm long was investigated in a test chamber simulating, on a small scale, a fixed-screen cooling water intake structure. As water velocity increased from 0 to 30 cm/sec area and distance traveled by juvenile bass 10 to 80 mm long decreased. However, as water velocity increased from 0 to 3 cm/sec the area and distance covered by larval bass increased. The presence of food increased the activity of larval bass, but decreased the activity of juveniles. Area ranged by striped bass at test velocities ranging from 0 to 30 cm/sec increased in proportion to body length. Juvenile striped bass tested at acclimation temperatures between 20 and 5/sup 0/C experienced a 30% reduction of activity. Activity was also reduced as temperature increased from 20 to 30/sup 0/C.

  1. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  2. The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated in juvenile Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, following exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, chemically dispersed crude oil, and burnt crude oil. Each treatment was administered for 16 days either through the water column or through the diet (amphipod, Allorchestes compressa). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination was determined by measuring biliary benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and naphthalene-type metabolites. Biliary PAH-type metabolite concentrations varied with the type of oil spill remediation technique, route of exposure (food versus water), and exposure concentration. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil via the water exhibited the highest PAH-type biliary metabolite concentrations, relative to fish exposed to other treatments. In fish exposed via the diet, the highest concentration of both types of biliary metabolites also appeared in the dispersed oil-exposed individuals. The results suggest that chemically dispersing oil may have the greatest effect on bioavailability of hydrocarbons, both through waterborne and food chain exposures.

  3. The importance of bass clarity in pop and rock venues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert

    2008-01-01

    High levels of bass sound have been shown to stimulate the part of the brain that controls such basic instincts as sexual desire and hunger [Todd, 2000]. In rock and pop music, the bass frequencies from 40-125 Hz get amplified to very loud levels. Easily half of the electrical power of the PA and...

  4. 76 FR 14804 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... the Hall Whitaker Bridge at mile 0.6 across the Bass River ] at Beverly, Massachusetts. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hall Whitaker Bridge, across the Bass River at Beverly, Massachusetts, has a... this temporary deviation the Hall Whitaker Bridge may remain in the closed position from 6 p.m....

  5. Observed Volume Fluxes in the Bosphorus Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tugrul et al, 2002]. [4] The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the NATO Undersea Research Center ( NURC ) in col- laboration with the...Turkish Navy Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography deployed two mooring sections in the Bosphorus Strait as a part of the TSS08 ( NURC

  6. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, M A; Kubitza, F; Cyrino, J E

    2000-11-01

    The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m3 hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF). One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.). Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%a compared to 11.6%a (p GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00) using three diet sequences: 1) dry pellets; 2) moist pellets; and 3) dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%a, 23.6%a, and 24.7%a (p GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success.

  7. On the dynamics of strait flows: an ocean model study of the Aleutian passages and the Bering Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2013-03-01

    A high-resolution numerical ocean circulation model of the Bering Sea (BS) is used to study the natural variability of the BS straits. Three distinct categories of strait dynamics have been identified: (1) Shallow passages such as the Bering Strait and the Unimak Passage have northward, near barotropic flow with periodic pulses of larger transports; (2) wide passages such as Near Straits, Amukta Pass, and Buldir Pass have complex flow patterns driven by the passage of mesoscale eddies across the strait; and (3) deep passages such as Amchitka Pass and Kamchatka Strait have persistent deep return flows opposite in direction to major surface currents; the deep flows persist independent of the local wind. Empirical orthogonal function analyses reveal the spatial structure and the temporal variability of strait flows and demonstrate how mesoscale variations in the Aleutian passages influence the Bering Strait flow toward the Arctic Ocean. The study suggests a general relation between the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby radii of deformations in each strait, and the level of flow variability through the strait, independent of geographical location. The mesoscale variability in the BS seems to originate from two different sources: a remote origin from variability in the Alaskan Stream that enters the BS through the Aleutian passages and a local origin from the interaction of currents with the Bowers Ridge in the Aleutian Basin. Comparisons between the flow in the Aleutian passages and flow in other straits, such as the Yucatan Channel and the Faroe Bank Channel, suggest some universal topographically induced dynamics in strait flows.

  8. What processes control the net currents through shallow straits? A review with application to the Bohai Strait, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfang; Wolanski, Eric; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-01

    We review the key processes controlling the net water circulation in shallow straits. The circulation is mainly barotropic, driven by the difference in mean sea level and tides on either side of the strait, the wind, the meandering of the currents in the adjoining seas, the bathymetry including the shape and width of the mouths and the presence of narrows, shoals, sills, islands, and lateral embayments. As the oceanography forcing can be non-synchronised on either side of the strait, the resulting net currents through the strait may appear chaotic. We apply these findings to the net circulation through the Bohai Strait in China using local wind, remote-sensing data of currents and sea level, and a hydrodynamic model. The net currents through the Bohai Strait were episodic. They were largest during winter storms when the wind generated a cyclonic coastal current in the northern Yellow Sea that flowed across the width of the Bohai Strait. Like the Luzon Strait, this current meandered and a branch of the current intruded into the northern Bohai Strait along the deeper channel. The wind set-up in the Bohai Sea and the wind-driven longshore current in the southern Bohai Sea generated a seaward flow through the southern Bohai Strait, somewhat like in Irbe Strait. As with the straits of the Seto Inland Sea, stagnation occurred in some embayments. As in the Torres Strait, the islands in the southern Bohai Strait retarded the net flow and increased the width of the outflow zone. These flows were also modulated at very long periods (∼60 days) by long waves in the Yellow Sea, possibly generated by meandering of the Kuroshio Current that created an additional sea level slope through the strait. The transit time in the Bohai Strait was 60 and 10 days, respectively, during calm weather and winter storms. The residence time in the Bohai Sea was estimated to be about 1.68 years by the LOICZ model and 1.56 years by the hydrodynamic model, and the influence of the river runoff

  9. Rumble in the Jungle: City, Place and Uncanny Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Christodoulou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While bass powerfully resonates among the cultural discourses, lexicology and commercial marketing of a range of electronic dance music (EDM styles, little popular music scholarship has paid attention to the subjective, phenomenological and psycho-physiological significance of bass in its modulation of intense feelings of pleasure. This article examines the linking in jungle/drum 'n' bass culture of bass as a sonic space that produces a powerful sense of jouissance where identity can seem to unravel on the dance-floor and an articulation of contemporary urban space as a place of subjective loss and regression. Overlaying Freud's notion of the uncanny and Kristeva's signifying space of the chora, I discuss how this fetishisation of bass can be linked to the music's cultural formation from deindustrialised regions in London and the South-East of England during the early-1990s; its accelerated break-beats and 'dark' bass-lines can be seen to inscribe recent rapid social, cultural and environmental transformations in the urban metropolis.

  10. Assessment of endocrine disruption in Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Potomac River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Intersex, specifically testicular oocytes, has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River and forks...

  11. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-10-07

    Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

  12. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385 Section 80.1385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of...

  13. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  14. Survey of intersex largemouth bass from impoundments in Georgia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellock, Kristen A.; Trushel, Brittany E.; Ely, Patrick C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Intersex fish are increasingly being reported worldwide, primarily in rivers that receive treated wastewater, but few studies have investigated intersex in waters that do not receive wastewater. In a recent reconnaissance survey of intersex fish in North America, a high rate of intersex was reported for Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides in some southeastern U.S. rivers; however, the occurrence of intersex in impoundments has not been well described, especially on a statewide scale. Therefore, our objective for this project was to survey the occurrence of intersex Largemouth Bass in a variety of impoundment habitats across Georgia. Largemouth Bass were collected from 11 impoundments without direct municipal or agricultural wastewater inputs. Gonads from all male Largemouth Bass were evaluated for the incidence and severity of the intersex condition based on presence and arrangement of testicular oocytes. Overall 48% of male Largemouth Bass collected from impoundments were intersex, which was found in 9 of the 11 impoundments. Among impoundments, incidence of intersex ranged from 0 to 82% of the males sampled and surface area of the impoundment was a significant predictor of intersex incidence. Intersex fish were smaller than normal males, but population-level effects of intersex and causative factors of endocrine disruption in the impoundments remain unknown. The high incidence of intersex males in small impoundments demonstrates that the condition is not confined to rivers and suggests that factors other than those previously associated with intersex (i.e., municipal wastewater) may be involved.

  15. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  16. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  17. Comparative cost analysis of hybrid striped bass fingerling production in ponds and tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Year-round production of hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops×male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerlings would allow food fish growers to sell their product throughout the year, which would improve the consistency of market supply and cash flow for the farm. However, pond producti...

  18. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  19. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products

    CERN Document Server

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the SIR model, but rather by a novel model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from non-adopters to adopters is described by a non-standard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  20. V-moda bass freq低频耳塞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    V-moda bass freq是一款为喜好低频的用户专门打造的耳塞.外观较为简洁。耳塞的主体单元部分采用了球状设计,表面采用了釉光处理,整体给人以珠圆玉润的感觉。由于专门为配合随声听而设计,所以bass freq非常易于驱动。

  1. Strait of Juan de Fuca 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  2. Strait of Juan de Fuca 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  3. Strait of Juan de Fuca 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  4. Atmospheric forcing of salinity in the overflow of Denmark Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holfort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, the wind along Denmark Strait. At these time scales upstream changes in the characteristics of the different water masses involved in the formation of DSOW are only of minor importance. The main process responsible for the observed salinity changes in the DSOW is mixing in Denmark Strait. Triggered by the wind, different water masses contribute with changing amounts to the formation of DSOW, leading to the observed changes in the salinity of DSOW.

  5. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  6. Structure and Variability of Internal Tides in Luzon Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Executive Services and Communications Directorate (0704-0188). Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...suggest that remote sources of internal tides could account for these small decreases in coherence. To the west of the Luzon Strait (away from the... accounting for effects of the Kuroshio on wave propagation west of the strait improves the prediction of NLIW timing, but predicting the amplitude is

  7. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Doyon, René; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and AllWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 mas yr$^{-1}$, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-AllWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new $\\sim$ 13 M$_{Jup}$ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared s...

  8. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 masyr, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-ALLWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new ˜ 13 Mjup\\ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared spectrum for the companion, which reveals typical signs of youth and a spectral type L4γ.

  9. The Bass Parasites of Oneida Lake, 80 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    A survey of largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) parasite communities in Oneida Lake, New York, was conducted in the summer of 2012 and compared to an earlier survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller during the summers of 1929 to 1931. The component helminth communities between surveys were 31% similar in composition for largemouth and 28% similar for smallmouth bass. Between species, the component helminth communities were considerably more similar in the present survey (71%) than in the survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller (47%). Seven species reported by Van Cleave and Mueller were present in this survey and 21 species are new records for the bass of Oneida Lake. Van Cleave and Mueller did not report prevalence values for several taxa (Monogenea, Copepoda, Myxozoa, and a Trichodina sp.) that were important for separation of parasite infracommunities in species space for both bass species. These parasites represented 28% of all species found in the current survey and may be ecologically important. Several species of parasites exhibited differences in prevalence between surveys. Two species (Rhipidocotyle papillosa and Crepidostomum cornutum) were absent from this survey but were reported as common in the 1929-1931 survey and almost certainly represent extirpations that coincide with the loss of their native bivalve hosts from Oneida Lake. Other differences in the parasite communities may also be explained by the ecological disturbances in Oneida Lake over the past 81 yr. The changes in bass parasite communities between surveys emphasize the importance of recognizing the historical nature of parasite communities, especially in ecosystems with a history of large-scale changes. Most importantly our findings suggest that, similar to trends observed in free-living freshwater biotic communities, anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances may homogenize fish parasite communities.

  10. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (region close to the Galactic plane. Observations at many wavelengths from radio to infrared are needed to fully understand the foregrounds. At 5 GHz, C-BASS maps synchrotron polarization with minimal corruption by Faraday rotation, and complements the full-sky maps from WMAP and Planck. I will present the project status, show results of component separation in selected sky regions, and describe the northern survey data products.C-BASS (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/cbass/) is a collaborative project between the Universities of Oxford and Manchester in the UK, the California Institute of Technology (supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre Array project) in South Africa, and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  12. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  13. Peaceful development of cross-strait relations,"one country two systems"Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanDekuan

    2015-01-01

    " one country, peaceful reunification" policy put forward, which has existed for more than 30 set. People have proposed the development of cross-strait peace framework. It is necessary for the development of cross-strait peace framework related to cross-strait cultural environment factors, international factors, the development of cross-strait past and future context, strategic and realistic basis for cross-strait interaction were analyzed and discussed. Made more scientific framework for peaceful development of cross-strait on this basis. The paper carried a Taiwanese perspective Islanders psychological and related factors. Unified attitude on the mainland were scanned. For cross-strait peace development context briefly comb. On this basis a simple thinking related factors. Peaceful development of cross-strait relations proposed framework Opinion.

  14. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  15. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  16. Tide and tidal current observation in the Karimata Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Sulistiyo, Budi; Dwi Susanto, R.; Setiawan, Agus; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Qiao, Fangli; Fan, Bin; Li, Shujiang

    2013-04-01

    It is believed that the water exchanges between the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas are significant, and play an important role in the water mass formation and air-sea interactions of both the South China Sea and Indonesian Seas. It has also been found that the current in Sunda Strait has been obvious seasonal variation, which indicates the water exchange between West Indonesian Seas and India Ocean. In order to make quantitative evaluation of the magnitudes of the exchange, the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), China, the Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Indonesia, and the Lamont-Doheries Earth Observatory, USA established a collaborative program, "The South-China Sea-Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration" in 2006. And, they extend and expand the cooperation to Sunda Strait in 2008, the title of the collaborative program was changed to "The South China Sea - Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Dynamics of Sunda and Lombok Straits, and Their Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration". Till now, 12 joint cruises have been conducted since December, 2007. Ten Trawl-Resistant Bottom Mounts (TRBM) have been deployed in the Karimata and Sunda Straits. The TRBMs are equipped with ADCPs and tide gauges for measuring current profiles and sea levels, respectively. The temperature-salinity profiles were measured with ship-board CTD during the cruises. Data obtained in Karimata Strait revealed that a significant water mass transport. This indicates that the Karimata Strait throughflow can greatly impacts the circulation of both the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas. The data obtained at the 5 stations alone the two sections in the Karimata Strait were used to study the tide and tidal currents in the Karimata Strait. 2 TRBMs were deployed at Section A, as well as 3 at Section B, which lies at the southeast of Section A. Station B1 is in the Gaspar Strait between Bangka Island and Belitung Island, Stations

  17. Reading the Planetary Archipelago of the Torres Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McMahon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay makes use of the Western concept of the archipelago as a starting point for an examination of island to island relations in the Torres Strait, Australia, as they are rehearsed in the imaginary domain of story, in both its written and oral modes. The essay deploys Spivak’s notions of planetarity and Bloch’s concept of utopianism as ways of charting the relationship between two Torres Strait stories, one old, one new. In so doing, the essay seeks to identify the capacity of Torres Strait literature and storytelling to re-conceive relations of space and time and to acknowledge a spatial and temporal mobility running parallel to the circumscribed trajectories of late modernity.

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass. 2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river's water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales. 3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22%of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23 km (2009

  19. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  20. Teaching Fourier Analysis and Wave Physics with the Bass Guitar

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Michael; Althausen, Norm

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory or demonstration technique employing the bass guitar and a Vernier LabPro (or a PC soundcard) for teaching wave physics and introducing Fourier analysis. The Fourier transform of an open string provides a demonstration of oscillatory modes out to the 20th harmonic consistent with expectations containing a fundamental frequency and harmonics. The playing of "harmonics" (suppressing resonant modes by lightly touching the string to enforce nodes at desired locations) demonstrates oscillations made up (mostly) of individual modes. Students see that the complete set of Fourier components (fundamental and harmonics) present on the open string can be explicitly connected with individual resonant frequencies as described in typical textbook discussions of natural frequencies of waves on a string. The use of a bass guitar rather than the six string electric guitar allows higher harmonics to be individually excited, and it is also easier for students to play the harmonics themselves.

  1. Les génériques de Saul Bass

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nous proposons ici de faire connaître la conception du générique de Saul Bass, reconnu à juste titre comme l’inventeur du générique moderne dans les années 1950 aux États-Unis et comme l’auteur de 60 génériques dont l’époustouflant Vertigo. Bien que la notion de geste ne soit jamais utilisée par Saul Bass, nous proposons de montrer qu’elle est à la source des opérations de pensée (symbole) et d’affect de chaque générique. La notion de geste permet de rompre tout autant avec la notion de symbo...

  2. An updated examination of the Luzon Strait transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Yi-Chia; Wu, Chau-Ron; Chao, Shenn-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Despite numerous previous estimates of Luzon Strait transport (LST), we attempt an update using a fine-resolution model. With these improvements, the circulation in and around Luzon Strait shows up rather realistically. Intrusion of a Kuroshio meander into the South China Sea (SCS) is seasonally varying. The LST, especially in the upper ocean, caused by a small difference between the large meander inflow and outflow, is also seasonally varying and subject to large standard deviation. The annual mean LST is estimated to be westward (-4.0 ± 5.1 Sv) along 120.75°E. We have also conducted process of elimination experiments to assess the relative importance of open ocean inflow/outflow, wind stress, and surface heat flux in regulating LST and its seasonality. The East Asian monsoon winds stand out as the predominant forcing. Without it, the upper ocean LST changes from westward to eastward (ranging up to 4 Sv) and, with misaligned seasonality, triggering an inflow from the Mindoro Strait to the SCS to replenish the water mass loss. Discounting monsoon winds, sea level in the Sulu Sea is generally higher because it receives the Indonesian Throughflow before the SCS, which causes an inflow from the Sulu Sea to the SCS. On the other hand, the annual mean wind from the northeast invites outflow from the SCS to the Sulu Sea (or inflow from the Luzon Strait). Weighing the two competing factors together, we see the cessation of northeast monsoon as a condition favorable for the Luzon Strait outflow or the Mindoro Strait inflow.

  3. Noise Impact on European Sea Bass Behavior: Temporal Structure Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Seitz, Johanna; Kastelein, Ronald A; Winter, Hendrik V; Cate, Carel Ten; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sounds come in different forms, varying not only in amplitude and frequency spectrum but also in temporal structure. Although fish are sensitive to the temporal characteristics of sound, little is known about how their behavior is affected by anthropogenic sounds of different temporal patterns. We investigated this question using groups of Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in an outdoor basin. Our data revealed that the temporal pattern of sound exposure is important in noise impact assessments.

  4. Mixtures of Estrogenic Chemicals Enhance Vitellogenic Response in Sea Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, AD; Freitas, S.; Scholze, M; Gonçalves, J; Booij, P.; Lamoree, MH; Mañanós, E; Reis-Henriques, MA

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential impact of natural and synthetic estrogens on aquatic ecosystems has attracted considerable attention because it is currently accepted that their joint effects are more severe when they are present in mixtures. Although it is well-known that they occur as mixtures in the marine environment, there is little information about the combined effects of estrogenic chemicals on marine biota. OBJECTIVE: In 14-day tests with juvenile sea bass, we analyzed singly and in combina...

  5. NEW CAR DEMAND MODELING AND FORECASTING USING BASS DIFFUSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting model of new product demand has been developed and applied to forecast new vehicle demand in Malaysia. Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, innovation of new diffusion theory has sparked considerable research among marketing science scholars, operational researchers and mathematicians. The building of Bass diffusion model for forecasting new product within the Malaysian society is presented in this study. The proposed model represents the spread level of new Proton car among a given set of the society in terms of a simple mathematical function that elapsed since the introduction of the new car. With the limited amount of data available for the new car, a robust Bass model was developed to forecast the sales volume. A procedure of the proposed diffusion model was designed and the parameters were estimated. Results obtained by applying the proposed model and numerical calculation shows that the proposed diffusion model is robust and effective for forecasting demand of new Proton car. The proposed diffusion model is shown to forecast more effectively and accurately even with insufficient previous data on the new product.

  6. An Investigation into the Uptake of Contaminants in Largemouth Bass and Sediment from the Lower Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. Mercury was detected in all largemouth bass composite samples, with highest levels found in bass...

  7. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Lagrangian study of temporal changes of a surface flow through the Kamchatka Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu; Budyansky, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using Lagrangian methods we analyze a 20-year-long estimate of water flux through the Kamchatka Strait in the northern North Pacific based on AVISO velocity field. It sheds new light on the flux pattern and its variability on annual and monthly time scales. Strong seasonality in surface outflow through the strait could be explained by temporal changes in the wind stress over the northern and western Bering Sea slopes. Interannual changes in a surface outflow through the Kamchatka Strait correlate significantly with the Near Strait inflow and Bering Strait outflow. Enhanced westward surface flow of the Alaskan Stream across the $174^\\circ$ E section in the northern North Pacific is accompanied by an increased inflow into the Bering Sea through the Near Strait. In summer, the surface flow pattern in the Kamchatka Strait is determined by passage of anticyclonic and cyclonic mesoscale eddies. The wind stress over the Bering basin in winter - spring is responsible for eddy generation in the region.

  9. A Bibliography of the Physical Oceanography of Straits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Kelley (eds.), Univer- description of currents in the Glebinka Strait in Puck sity of Alaska, Fairbanks, pp. 3-37. Bay (Poland). Oceanografia , Gdansk 5...3742. Archivio di Oceanografia E Limnologia 19:65-82. Whitworth, T. and R. G. Peterson (1985). Volume Waldichuk, M. (1957). Physical oceanography of

  10. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Luu, Q.-H.; Babu, M.T.

    Sea level in the Singapore Strait (SS) exhibits response to various scale phenomena, from local to global. Longest tide gauge records in SS are analysed to derive local sea level trend and annual, inter-annual and multi-decadal sea level variability...

  11. Readjustments in U.S. Cross-Taiwan Strait Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Shengliang; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Washington had all along followed an ambiguity policy over its possible military intervention in a Taiwan contingency. However, recent years have witnessed readjustments towards "double clarity" of a possible military response in case of a Chinese-initiated use of force and potential inaction in the event of a conflict derived from Taiwanese provocations to change the status quo by seeking de jure independence. In other words, it spells a policy shift toward "dual deterrence," namely to deter the Chinese mainland from using force in seeking national reunification and to deter Taiwan from moving toward de jure independence. To prevent such eventuality, Washington made direct appeal to the Taiwan public to make clear its opposition to Taiwan independence.The reasons behind the readjustments are not far to seek. They reflect shifts in U.S. strategic focus, changes in its China policy, political developments on both sides of the Taiwan Strait and President Bush's personal disgust with former Taiwan leader Chen Shuibian's cunning tricks.However, resumption of Cross-Strait dialogue in the wake of the return to power of the Kuomintang (National Party) through the ballot in March may bring about new worries and possible further readjustments in U.S. cross-strait policy after the November presidential elections. Though uncertainties remain, in the pipeline may be an endeavor to prevent excessive cross-strait warmth and a possible tilt of Taiwan to the Chinese Mainland.

  12. Reproducción natural controlada del black bass Micropterus salmoides - Controlled natural reproduction of black bass Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Junior, Hilton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPara viabilizar la reproducción, larvicutura y alevinaje del Black bass, en la región sur de Brasil, se ha buscado adaptar una tecnología, desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Acuicultura Piscifactoría las Vegas del Guadiana Badajoz/España. Consiste en controlar el ambiente de desove, utilizando estanques con nidales, para el desove del Black bass. Optimizando esta tecnología, desarrollamos una técnica de adaptación del Black bass al cultivo intensivo durante el período de invierno, ofreciendo un pienso de un 40% de proteína cruda y zooplancton (Daphnia sp.. Se dejan los reproductores en un mismo estanque de engorda en sistema extensivo, y son adaptados para un sistema intensivo de cultivo, en estanques de hormigón con entrada y salida del agua. Se acondicionan reproductores machos y hembras, durante los meses de invierno. En la primavera, se abren sucesivamente las compuertas de comunicación del departamentocentral, con los estanques frezaderos. En estos estanques frezaderos,se colocan nidales de grava para la puesta de las hembras. Pasado elperíodo de ocupación cíclica de los estanques de desove, losreproductores vuelven al departamento central. Después de laeclosión, las larvas son alimentadas con pienso molido a un 48% deproteína cruda con una oferta de un 10% de su peso y zooplancton Daphina sp. Los alevines se quedan alojados en estanques de tierrapara el período de engorda.SummaryIn order to make reproduction, larval and fingerling rearing of BlackBass in the south region of Brazil, we try to adapt a technologydeveloped by Centro Nacional de Aquicultura Piscifactoria Las Vegasdel Guadiana, Badajoz, Espanha. The technique consists in controllingthe spawning environment with a tank containing nests. To optimizethis technology, we develop a technique to adapt the black bass in aintensive culture during winter, providing food with 40% proteine andzooplankton (Daphnia sp.. The spawners are manteined in the

  13. Influence of a narrow strait connecting a large ocean and a small sea on magnetotelluric data: Gibraltar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, Lourdes; Junge, Andreas; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Löwer, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Long period magnetotelluric (LMT) data are generally used as the prime tool to shed light on the conductivity of the deep crust and upper mantle structure. Naturally, LMT data are sensitive to the influence of highly conductive bodies even at far distances. Sea water constitutes the main widespread electrical conductor at shallow levels of the Earth's crust. Its low resistivity values, around 0.25 Ωm, contrast sharply with most geological structures of solid earth. Consequently, the presence of irregular continental borders and varying bathymetries significantly influences LMT parameter, such as phase tensor and tipper vectors. This effect is especially important in areas where large and small oceans are connected by narrow gateways. The Gibraltar Strait (southern Spain) connects the vast Atlantic Ocean with the irregular and relatively small Mediterranean Sea. Several 3D models have been developed in the region nearby the Strait, some featuring a roughly simplified geological structure, to show the influence of seawater on tipper and phase tensor. Here, detailed bathymetry (General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, GEBCO) including the coastline is considered in a model that enables us to analyze the influence of the Strait of Gibraltar on LMT data. We stress the significance of the Sea for LMT data interpretation and the development of 3D conductivity models, especially in regions involving complex coastline geometries and bathymetry near narrow straits. Forward modeling studies are essential to accurately appraise the sea influence, which may mask 3D geological structures.

  14. On M2 tidal amplitude enhancement in the Taiwan Strait and its asymmetry in the cross-strait direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced M2 tidal amplitude in the Taiwan Strait (TS) and asymmetric M2 tidal amplitude in the cross-strait direction have been found and reproduced in numerical simulations. In this study, Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) is applied to investigate the mechanisms behind these features. Model results show that the linear interaction of waves from the East China Sea (ECS) and the Luzon Strait (LS) can explain the formation of the co-amplitude and co-phase lines of the M2 tide in the nodal point area, while the waves from the ECS dominate the tidal motion in the TS according to a basic linear wave superposition. Model simulation also show that wave reflection and transition occur when the M2 tidal waves from the ECS propagate through the TS and encounter an sharply deepened topography. The interaction of these induced reflection waves and the incident waves from the ECS is the main cause for the enhanced M2 tidal amplitude in the TS. The distribution of the sharply deepened topography, rather than the Coriolis effect, is the main reason for the asymmetry of the M2 tidal amplitude in the cross-strait direction in the TS. These findings provide some references for tidal dynamics in other areas, especially where long waves propagate through the shallow water to the deep sea.

  15. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  17. Raynaud´s phenomenon in a slap bass player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon is a frequent condition related to occupational exposure to local vibration but has not been described in musicians. This study aims to describe cold-induced blanching of the right second and (in particular) third digits in a 67-year-old double bass player...... was immeasurable at the finger level, corresponding to a finger/brachial index of 0% of the second and third fingers. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of objectively verified, playing-related Raynaud’s phenomenon in a musician....

  18. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs) of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Methods:The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India). Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results:A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm) were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions:Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  19. Terra e terror em Phase IV, de Saul Bass

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Os anos 1970 foram palco de uma onda de filmes do gênero eco-horror, dos quais se destaca Phase IV (1974), único longa-metragem dirigido por Saul Bass. O filme é tomado no artigo como um experimento diante da interpelação de povos não-humanos, no caso, as formigas, à humanidade, representada pelo discurso científico. Tendo em vista a atual catástrofe ambiental, propõe-se que o cinema seja um lugar privilegiado para o desenvolvimento de um aparato mítico-real capaz de lidar com o fim do mundo ...

  20. Terra e terror em Phase IV, de Saul Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fausto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Os anos 1970 foram palco de uma onda de filmes do gênero eco-horror, dos quais se destaca Phase IV (1974, único longa-metragem dirigido por Saul Bass. O filme é tomado no artigo como um experimento diante da interpelação de povos não-humanos, no caso, as formigas, à humanidade, representada pelo discurso científico. Tendo em vista a atual catástrofe ambiental, propõe-se que o cinema seja um lugar privilegiado para o desenvolvimento de um aparato mítico-real capaz de lidar com o fim do mundo humano.

  1. Human genetic differentiation across the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Mazas Alicia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strait of Gibraltar is a crucial area in the settlement history of modern humans because it represents a possible connection between Africa and Europe. So far, genetic data were inconclusive about the fact that this strait constitutes a barrier to gene flow, as previous results were highly variable depending on the genetic locus studied. The present study evaluates the impact of the Gibraltar region in reducing gene flow between populations from North-Western Africa and South-Western Europe, by comparing formally various genetic loci. First, we compute several statistics of population differentiation. Then, we use an original simulation approach in order to infer the most probable evolutionary scenario for the settlement of the area, taking into account the effects of both demography and natural selection at some loci. Results We show that the genetic patterns observed today in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar may reflect an ancient population genetic structure which has not been completely erased by more recent events such as Neolithic migrations. Moreover, the differences observed among the loci (i.e. a strong genetic boundary revealed by the Y-chromosome polymorphism and, at the other extreme, no genetic differentiation revealed by HLA-DRB1 variation across the strait suggest specific evolutionary histories like sex-mediated migration and natural selection. By considering a model of balancing selection for HLA-DRB1, we here estimate a coefficient of selection of 2.2% for this locus (although weaker in Europe than in Africa, which is in line with what was estimated from synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates. Selection at this marker thus appears strong enough to leave a signature not only at the DNA level, but also at the population level where drift and migration processes were certainly relevant. Conclusions Our multi-loci approach using both descriptive analyses and Bayesian inferences lead to

  2. Testing the thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis for estuarine striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Secor, D.H.; Wingate, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many stratified coastal ecosystems, conceptual and bioenergetics models predict seasonal reduction in quality and quantity of fish habitat due to high temperatures and hypoxia. We tested these predictions using acoustic telemetry of 2 to 4 kg striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) and high-resolution spatial water quality sampling in the Patuxent River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, during 2008 and 2009. Striped bass avoided hypoxic (dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg·l−1) subpycnocline waters, but frequently occupied habitats with high temperatures (>25 °C) in the summer months, as cooler habitats were typically not available. Using traditional concepts of the seasonal thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze, most of the Patuxent estuary would beconsidered unsuitable habitat for adult striped bass during summer. Application of a bioenergetics model revealed that habitats selected by striped bass during summer would support positive growth rates assuming fish could feed at one-half ofmaximum consumption. Occupancy of the estuary during summer by striped bass in this study was likely facilitated by sufficient prey and innate tolerance of high temperatures by sub-adult fish of the size range that we tagged. Our results help extend the thermalniche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis to native populations of striped bass in semi-enclosed coastal systems. Tolerance of for supraoptimal temperatures in our study supports recent suggestions by others that the thermal-niche concept for striped bass should be revised to include warmer temperatures.

  3. Management and control of pollution in Inner Johore Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H L; Lim, P E; Midun, Z

    1991-10-01

    Coastal waters in South Johore, Malaysia are polluted to various degrees. The major pollution sources are domestric wastes from human settlements, agro-based wastes from palm oil mills and rubber processing factories, industrial effluents from industrial estates and discharges from animal farms. These pollution problems have adversely affected resources such as fisheries, recreational potential as well as the general aesthetic quality of the coastal environment particularly the Inner Johore Strait. Hence proper management and control measures are urgently needed to protect and further enhance the water quality to ensure environmentally sustainable development. This study examines various management options to control the pollution in the Inner Johore Strait. The options involve partial opening as well as complete removal of the Causeway to improve the tidal flow for more effective dilution and dispersion of pollutants. Computer simulation models are used to assess the impacts of the proposed options.

  4. Tidal and residual currents in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. López

    Full Text Available During the 1992-1993 oceanographic cruise of the Spanish R/V Hespérides, recording equipment was deployed in the Bransfield Strait. Six Aanderaa RCM7 current meters and three Aanderaa WLR7 tide gauges were successfully recovered after an operation period of 2.5 months. Relevant features of the time series obtained are presented and discussed in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the tidal character of the currents and the relative importance of tidal flow in the general hydrodynamics of the strait. For these purposes a dense grid of hydrographic stations, completed during the BIOANTAR 93 cruise, is used. Preliminary geostrophic calculations relative to a 400 m depth, yield current velocities of around 0.20 m s-1 in the study area, whereas the magnitude of tidal currents is seen to be 0.30-0.40 m s-1.

  5. The bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qingsong; ZHAO Jianru; ZHANG Junbiao; SHI Weiyong; LIU Chunqiu

    2014-01-01

    Combined conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and Argo profiles, 3 086 historical hydrocasts were used to quantify the water column characteristics in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent waters. Based on a two-dimensional“gravest empirical mode”(GEM), a gravitational potential (׋, a verti-cally integrated variable) was used as proxy for the vertical temperature profiles TG(p,׋).׋integrated from 8 MPa to the surface shows a close relationship with the temperature, except in the deep layer greater than 15 MPa, which was caused by the bimodal deep water in the region. The GEM temperature profiles successfully revealed the bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water, that disparate hydrophic vertical profiles can pro-duce distinct specific volume anomaly (į) in the SCS and the western Philippine Sea (WPS), but failed in the Luzon Strait, where different temperature profiles may produce a sameį. A significant temperature diver-gence between the SCS water and the WPS water confirmed that the bimodal structure is strong. The deep-water bifurcation starts at about 15 MPa, and gets stronger with increasing depth . As the only deep channel connecting the bimodal-structure waters, water column characteristics in the Luzon Strait is in between, but much closer to the SCS water because of its better connectivity with the SCS. A bimodal temperature structure below 15 MPa reveals that there was a persistent baroclinic pressure gradient driving flow through the Luzon Strait. A volume flux predicted through the Bashi Channel with the hydraulic theory yields a value of 5.62×106 m3/s using all available profiles upstream and downstream of the overflow region, and 4.03×106 and 2.70×106 m3/s by exclusively using the profiles collected during spring and summer, respectively. No volume flux was calculated during autumn and winter because profiles are only available for the upstream of the Bashi Channel during the corresponding period.

  6. Laboratory Modeling of Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Peacock 2010). 3. The suitability of the double ridge configuration of the Luzon Strait to give rise to resonant forcing of the semi-diurnal...Figure 6. 6 Figure 6: PIV visualization of the magnitude of the in-plane velocity of the 3D conical internal wave field generated by a...Visualization of the conical 3D internal wave field generated by an oscillating sphere using stereo-PIV, Experiments in Fluids, 54, 1454. Mathur

  7. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export......Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...

  8. On summer stratification and tidal mixing in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHU; Jianyu HU; Zhiyu LIU

    2013-01-01

    On continental shelves,a front that separates the sea into well-mixed and stratified zones is usually formed in warm seasons due to spatial variations of tidal mixing.In this paper,using eight years of in situ hydrographic observations,satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration,and results of a tidal model,we investigate summer stratification in the Taiwan Strait and its dependence on tidal mixing,upwelling,and river diluted water plumes.In most regions of the strait the dominant role of tidal mixing in determining the thermohaline structure is confirmed by the correlation between the two; there are some regions,however,where thermohaline structttre varies in different ways owing to significant influences ofupwelling and river diluted water plumes.The well-mixed regions are mainly distributed on the Taiwan Bank and in the offshore regions offthe Dongshan Island,Nanao Island,and Pingtan Island,while the northern and central Taiwan Strait and the region south of the Taiwan Bank are stratified.The critical Simpson-Hunter parameter for the region is estimated to be 1.78.

  9. Formation of wind-driven ice bridges in narrow straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    An ice bridge is a static arch made of tightly packed ice that can be formed when sea ice flows through a narrow strait between landmasses. The formation of a stable ice arch prevents the further flow of sea ice into warmer oceans, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of the local climate and ecology and to an extent, the mass balance of Arctic ice. While ice bridges are a seasonal phenomenon in many parts of the Canadian Archipelago, the process of their formation and breakup is poorly understood. Using thin-layer theory along with dynamic sea ice models widely used in climate modeling, we develop a reduced-order description of wind-driven ice bridge formation in long, narrow straits. Our theory predicts a critical static condition for arrested flow that involves the ice properties (thickness and compactness), the geometry of the channel, and the magnitude of the wind stress. Further, we show that in a channel of varying shape and under a constant wind stress, a spatially uniform ice field evolves towards a steady state with discontinuities in its properties, consistent with observed mechanisms of ice bridge formation. The reduced-order model thus provides a predictive tool for the flow and stoppage of sea ice in straits.

  10. Xenarcturus spinulosus Sheppard, 1957 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera): Redescription of a specimen from the Strait of Magellan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Ja-Yang

    1995-01-01

    A redescription of a primitive arcturid species, Xenarcturus spinulosus, from the Strait of Magellan is presented with discussion of the systematic position of the monotypical subfamily Xenarcturinae.

  11. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  12. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographic data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed. Applying conservation constraints on these boxes provides barotropic reference velocities. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss from the area between the sections averaged over the four years is about 10 TW. The net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer is derived from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait. In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to the south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  13. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographical data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed and conservation constraints applied on the boxes. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss averaged for the four boxes is about 10 TW and the net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer derives from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait.

    In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  14. A Strait Comparison: Lessons Learned from the 1915 Dardanelles Campaign in the Context of a Strait of Hormuz Closure Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the Dardanelles through the lens of such an event, distill a number of recommendations for the United States and its Coalition partners relevant to...knots going against the current of the Straits, were to steam past the minefields, turn, and sweep them coming back downstream. Seven trawlers set...principle, be increased to 11 MBD using drag -reducing agents [23]. 37 Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and Iran has a large, restive population that, in

  15. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea by the R.V. Samudera, April 16 to May 19, 1975 (NODC Accession 7700306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from the R.V. SAMUDERA in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea from 16...

  16. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  17. Contaminants in striped bass from the flint and Apalachicola Rivers 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five striped bass (Morone saxitilis), collected between April 1986 and May 1989 from the Flint River at Albany, Georgia, and the Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee,...

  18. Mercury in largemouth bass and other fishes of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 16 to 22, 1990, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), bowfin (Amia calva) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) were collected from selected...

  19. Mercury in largemouth bass of the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 24 to 28, 1990, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from selected locations at the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, Volusia...

  20. Mercury concentrations in largemouth bass of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From July 17 to 26, 1990, 20 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from four locations at the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge, Citrus County,...

  1. Mercury in largemouth bass and spotted gar of the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From June 21 to 25, 1990, 21 largemouth bass (Micropterussa salmoides) and five spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) were collected from selected locations at the...

  2. Siim Nestor soovitab : Back2Bass Helsinki. Teenage Kicks / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Soome trummi-ja-bassi klubi Back2Bass 28. septembril KuKu klubis Tallinnas. 28. sept. Von Krahlis toimuvast live-üritusest Teenage Kicks, kus ansambel Claire's Birthaday esitleb ka oma uut singlit "Do You Remember"

  3. Mercury concentrations in largemouth bass and other fishes of the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 17-21, 1990, 32 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and three other fish species were collected from eight locations at the Loxahatchee National...

  4. Automatic Phrase Continuation from Guitar and Bass guitar Melodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherla, Srikanth; Purwins, Hendrik; Marchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed for generating interesting, and musically similar variations of a givenmonophonicmelody. The focus is on rock/pop guitar and bass-guitarmelodies with the aim of eventual extensions to other instruments and musical styles. It is demonstrated here how learning musical style...... from segmented audio data can be formulated as an unsupervised learning problem to generate a symbolic representation. A melody is first segmented into a sequence of notes using onset detection and pitch estimation. A set of hierarchical, coarse-to-fine symbolic representations of the melody...... is generated by clustering pitch values at multiple similarity thresholds. The Variance Ratio Criterion is then used to select the appropriate clustering levels in the hierarchy. Note onsets are aligned with beats, considering the estimated meter of the melody, to create a sequence of symbols that represent...

  5. A Generalized Bass Model for Product Growth in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Manshadi, Vahideh H

    2016-01-01

    Many products and innovations become well-known and widely adopted through the social interactions of individuals in a population. The Bass diffusion model has been widely used to model the temporal evolution of adoption in such social systems. In the model, the likelihood of a new adoption is proportional to the number of previous adopters, implicitly assuming a global (or homogeneous) interaction among all individuals in the network. Such global interactions do not exist in many large social networks, however. Instead, individuals typically interact with a small part of the larger population. To quantify the growth rate (or equivalently the adoption timing) in networks with limited interactions, we study a stochastic adoption process where the likelihood that each individual adopts is proportional to the number of adopters among the small group of persons he/she interacts with (and not the entire population of adopters). When the underlying network of interactions is a random $k$-regular graph, we compute t...

  6. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis J. Dunning; Ross, Quentin E.; Munch, Stephan B.; Ginzburg, Lev R.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years). Measurement error, estimat...

  7. PIV Application to Fluid Dynamics of Bass Reflex Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Esposito, Enrico; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    A bass reflex (or vented or ported) loudspeaker system (BRS) is a particular type of loudspeaker enclosure that makes use of the combination of two second-order mechanic/acoustic devices, i.e., the driver and a Helmotz resonator, in order to create a new system with reinforced emission in the low frequency region. The resonator is composed by the box itself in which one or more ports are present with suitable shapes and dimensions. This category of loudspeaker presents several advantages compared to closed-box systems such as higher efficiency and power, smaller dimensions and reduced distortion at lower frequencies. Notwithstanding these advantages, they present some drawbacks like more complexity and unloading of the cone below the tuning frequency. Moreover, at high power levels the airflow in the port(s) may generate unwanted noises due to turbulence as well as distortion and acoustic compression. In this work we will present and compare a series of experiments conducted on two different bass reflex ports designs to assess their performance in terms of flow turbulence and sound-level compression at high input power levels. These issues are quite important in professional sound systems, where increasing power levels and sound clarity require exponentially growing cost and weight. For these reasons it is vital to optimize port design. To the knowledge of the authors there does not exist an accurate, nonintrusive experimental full-field study of air flows emitting from reflex ports in operating conditions. In this work, the experimental fluid dynamic investigation has been conducted by means of PIV and LDA techniques.

  8. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. 117.169 Section 117.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  10. Taiwan’s Security Calculus of Cross-­Strait Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration across the Taiwan Strait is relatively insignificant by its scale but it is indeed indisputably politically sensitive. Given the long-term political separation and military rivalry across the Taiwan Strait in the past six decades while both sides of the Taiwan Strait nevertheless intensively engaged each other economically, commercially and culturally, a social trend of cross-Strait migration inevitably results. There are various interpretations on such a demographic development which has raised security concerns, which are in turn creating a biased judiciary arrangement on the migration activities. What are the factors behind the security calculus of cross-Strait migration? How can the security calculus justify its arguments and subsequently maintain unequal treatments with respect to cross-Strait immigrants? Are the rationales for maintaining a tight grip on cross-Strait migration in line with the political ideal proclaimed by the political factions in Taiwan still sensible? What is the potential for the trend of cross-Strait migration affecting the security calculus in the future? On the other hand, for the migration from Taiwan to Mainland China, how influential can it be on the security decision-making process of the Beijing leadership? Is there any impact possibly caused by cross-Strait migration – and is it essentially overstated? Or alternatively, is the overstated influence potentially caused by cross-Strait migration an intentionally staged political myth? What are the substantial impacts actually ever achieved by cross-Strait migration on the security dimension? What is the self-fulfilled conviction of cross-Strait migration? For all the inquiries noted above, the author of this paper would like to scrutinize the truth and separate it from numerous myths ever advocated by the different factions in Taiwan politics. A sound and neutral judgment to tell the exact influences likely enacted by cross-Strait migration would

  11. Observed Volume Fluxes and Mixing in the Dardanelles Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Laboratory (NRL) and the NATO Undersea Research Center ( NURC ; cur- rently known as the NATO Center for Maritime Research and Experimentation, CMRE...Dardanelles Strait as a part of the TSS08 ( NURC project) and EPOS (NRL project) programs. The deployment began at the end of August 2008 and ended at...previously known as the NATO NURC ) who sup- ported and helped to organi/e and fund cruises to the TSS on the R.’V Alli- ance. We arc also grateful for

  12. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  13. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  14. On locating local earthquakes at the Messina Strait network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. NERI

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer program (HYPOSTRE has been elaborated to determine
    the hypocentral parameters of local earthquakes, even when they are recorded
    by a small number of stations. These are the most frequent conditions
    prevailing around the Strait of Messina.
    The program employs the first arrivals of P and S waves, a model of
    local crust consisting of four plane and parallel layers, and an algorithm
    based on that of Geiger.
    HYPOSTRE can determine simultaneously the four unknowns X, cp, h
    and H (HYPOSTRE 4 and can calculate the epicentral coordinate separately
    from focal depth (HYPOSTRE 2. In both cases the program follows
    an iterative process. In particular, HYPOSTRE 2 shows convergence towards
    a final solution, through a series of « damped » approximations.
    The application of HYPOSTRE to about twenty earthquakes, which
    have occured in the Strait of Messina and in the Gulf of Patti, demonstrates
    a good convergence and a general stability of results.
    Finally, comparison with analogous determinations — carried out by
    other programs, with different crustal models and using a greater number
    of recorded data — confirms the reliability of HYPOSTRE.

  15. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  16. Anomalous dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielski, A.; Badin, G.; Kaleschke, L.

    2015-03-01

    The single-particle dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region is investigated using ice drift buoys deployed from 2002 to 2009 within the Fram Strait Cyclones and the Arctic Climate System Study campaigns. A new method to estimate the direction of the mean flow, based on a satellite drift product, is introduced. As a result, the bias in the dispersion introduced by the mean flow is eliminated considering only the displacements of the buoys in the cross-stream direction. Results show an absolute dispersion growing quadratically in time for the first 3 days and an anomalous dispersion regime exhibiting a strongly self-similar scaling following a 5/4 power law for time scales larger than 6 days persisting over the whole time series of length 32 days. The non-Gaussian distribution of the velocity fluctuations with a skewness of -0.15 and a kurtosis of 7.33 as well as the slope of the Lagrangian frequency spectrum between -2 and -1 are in agreement with the anomalous diffusion regime. Comparison with data from the International Arctic Buoy Program yields similar results with an anomalous dispersion starting after 10 days and persisting over the whole time series of length 50 days. The results suggest the presence of deformation and shear acting on the sea ice dispersion. The high correlation between the cross-stream displacements and the cross-stream wind velocities shows the important role of the wind as a source for the anomalous dispersion.

  17. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  18. Cretaceous to Recent extension in the Bering Strait region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Miller, Elizabeth L.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Hannula, Kimberly A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Gans, Phillip B.

    1995-06-01

    A key issue presented by the geology of northern Alaska concerns the demise of the Brooks Range going west toward the Bering Strait region. The main Brookian tectonic and stratigraphic elements continue into the Russian Far East, but the thick crustal root and high elevations that define the modern physiographic Brooks Range die out approaching the Bering and Chukchi shelves, which form an unusually broad area of submerged continental crust. Structural, geochronologic, and apatite fission-track data indicate that at least three episodes of extension may have affected the crust beneath the Bering Strait region, in the middle to Late Cretaceous, Eocene-early Oligocene, and Pliocene(?)-Recent. This extension may explain the present thinner crust of the region, the formation of extensive continental shelves, and the dismemberment and southward translation of tectonic elements as they are traced from the Brooks Range toward Russia. Evidence for these events is recorded within a gently tilted 10- to 15-km thick crustal section exposed on the western Seward Peninsula. The earliest episode is documented at high structural levels by the postcollision exhumation history of blueschists. Structural data indicate exhumation was accomplished in part by thinning of the crust during north-south extension bracketed between 120 and 90 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages. The Kigluaik Mountains gneiss dome rose through the crust during the later stages of this extension at 91 Ma. Similar gneiss domes occur within a broad, discontinuous belt of Cretaceous magmatism linking interior Alaska with northeast Russia; mantle-derived melts within this belt likely heated the crust and facilitated extension. Apatite fission-track ages indicate cooling below ≈120-85°C occurred sometime between 100 and 70 Ma, and the area subsequently resided at shallow crustal depths (<3-4 km) until the present. This suggests that denudation of deep levels of the crust by erosion and/or tectonism was mostly

  19. A STUDY ON NEW PRODUCT DEMAND FORECASTING BASED ON BASS DIFFUSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecasting model of new product demand has been developed and applied to forecast new vehicle demand in Malaysia. Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, innovation of new diffusion theory has sparked considerable research among marketing science scholars, operational researchers and mathematicians. This study considers the Bass Model for forecasting the diffusion of new products or an innovation in the Malaysian society. The objective of the proposed model is to represent the level of spread on new products among a given set of society in terms of a simple mathematical function that elapsed since the introduction of new products. With limited amount of data available for new products, a robust Bass model was developed to forecast the sales volume. A procedure of the proposed diffusion model was designed and the parameters were estimated. Results obtained by applying the proposed model and numerical calculation show that the proposed Bass diffusion model is robust and effective for forecasting demand of new products. This study concludes that the newly developed bass diffusion of demand function has significantly contributed for forecasting the diffusion of new products.

  20. Mercury levels in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from regulated and unregulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharampal, Prarthana S; Findlay, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Within areas of comparable atmospheric mercury deposition rates methylmercury burden in largemouth bass populations vary significantly between regulated and unregulated rivers. To investigate if trophic dynamics strongly influenced pollutant body load, we sampled largemouth bass from two adjacent rivers, one regulated and one unregulated, and applied a suite of biochemical and stable isotope assays to compare their trophic dynamics. Total mercury burden in the bass from the unregulated Sipsey River (Elrod, AL, USA) and the regulated Black Warrior River (Demopolis, AL, USA) averaged 0.87 mg kg(-1) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. For both populations, age, weight, and length were positively correlated with muscle mercury concentration. Compound specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids showed the trophic position of both populations was just under four. Quantitative and isotopic analysis of neutral lipid fatty acid of Sipsey River bass indicated a greater reliance upon the detrital component of the food web compared to Demopolis Reservoir bass which fed within the autochthonous, pelagic component of the food web. Since the close proximity of the rivers makes differences in atmospheric deposition unlikely and both populations had similar trophic position, our findings indicate that food web dynamics should be included among the factors that can strongly influence mercury concentration in fish.

  1. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  2. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes.

  3. US Atlantic coast striped bass: Issues with a recovered population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), is an anadromous species naturally occurring along the US Atlantic coast, which historically supported valuable commercial and recreational fisheries. In response to a near order-of-magnitude decline in landings, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission enacted a management plan in 1981 protecting fish until they could spawn at least once. By 1989, recruitment increased in natal rivers and regulations were relaxed, permitting limited fisheries by 1990. By 1995, the stock was declared fully recovered. Since the recovery, concern has increased over the health of the stocks. In the 1990s, fish in poor physical condition with dermal lesions became common in Chesapeake Bay. Pathogens of most concern in cultures from fish include the genus Mycobacterium. Coincident with declines in fish health were changes in diets, declines of preferred prey, and reduced growth and condition. Theories were suggested linking declines in condition to reductions in forage base or pathogens. Diets have changed since the 1950s and while many Chesapeake fish are infected with mycobacteria, it is still not known how or if these factors are linked. The highest priorities for research were considered to be: linking numerous local and regional studies to provide a coast-wide perspective; continuation of investigations linking population health to the prey-base; determination of the cause-effect of mycobacteria infections; and formulation of management options.

  4. Population structure and dynamics of northern pike and smallmouth bass in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous species have been introduced to Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho over the last century, but minimal research has been completed to understand their population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe the population demographics and dynamics of northern pike (Esox lucius) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), two important nonnative sport fishes in the system to provide information that will assist with guiding management decisions. The oldest northern pike was age 7 and the oldest smallmouth bass was age 11. Populations of both species exhibited very stable recruitment with a recruitment coefficient of determination of 0.99 for northern pike and 0.98 for smallmouth bass. Total annual mortality was estimated as 66% for northern pike and 42% for smallmouth bass. Growth of northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake was comparable to the 50–75th percentiles of growth exhibited by lentic northern pike populations across North America. Northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake were most similar to populations in the north-central and northeast United States with fast growth rates and short life spans. In contrast, smallmouth bass grew slowly and generally fell within the 5th percentile of lentic smallmouth bass populations in North America. Smallmouth bass in Coeur d'Alene Lake were similar to other populations in northern regions of the United States displaying slow growth rates with high longevity. Results of this study provide important insight on nonnative northern pike and smallmouth bass population dynamics.

  5. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  6. DIET AND REPRODUCTION OF LARGEMOUTH BASS IN A RECENTLY INTRODUCED POPULATION, LAKE BRACCIANO (CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINELLI A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a study of some aspects of largemouth bass ecology in an Italian lake (Lake Bracciano. We assessed the success and possible impact of its recent introduction (1998 upon the fish community. From October 2001 to September 2002, 162 individuals were caught, measured, aged and submitted to biopsy (stomach and gonads were removed. Four age classes, from 0 + to 3 +, were observed in the population. Largemouth bass feeding activity was high in June, mostly eating fish (55.7%, crustaceans (in particular Palaemonetes antennarius, 37.5%, insects (4.5% and molluscs (2.3%. The G.S.I. values showed an autumnal breeding period (from December to February rather than the spring-summer one frequently described in North America. Moreover, bass attained sexual maturity during the second year of life (1 +. These differences could be related to its recent introduction and the apparent success could represent a problem for other species in the Lake.

  7. Hierarchical Bass model: a product diffusion model considering a diversity of sensitivity to fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new product diffusion model including the number of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met until he/she adopts the product, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing it. By this effect not considered in the Bass model, we can depict a diversity of sensitivity to fashion. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod and the iPhone unit sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model for the iPod data. We also present a new method to estimate the number of advertisements in a society from fitting parameters of the Bass model and this new model.

  8. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  9. Saul Bass et Alfred Hitchcock : trois mariages et un enterrement

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Hitchcock n’a collaboré avec le fameux créateur de génériques Saul Bass que pour trois films seulement, mais cette brève association marque un sommet incontesté de l’art du générique. Après avoir étudié la contribution de Bass aux génériques de Vertigo (1958) et de North by Northwest (1959), l’article examine en détail le cas de Psycho (1960) et particulièrement la polémique concernant la possible responsabilité de Bass dans les scènes essentielles du meurtre sous la douche et de la mo...

  10. Hooking mortality and physiological responses of striped bass angled in freshwater and held in live-release tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, J.M.; Tomasso, J.R.; Isely, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis angled from Lake Murray, South Carolina, and held in live-release tubes were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2003. To estimate mortality, we attached external ultrasonic transmitters to 59 striped bass (mean total length [TL] = 585 mm). Striped bass were caught with angling gear, tagged, and immediately released or held in live-release tubes for 2, 4, or 6 h prior to release. No mortality of striped bass was observed during spring. Overall mortality during summer was 83%. Mortality of summer-caught striped bass was not related to tube residence time, fish TL, depth of capture, or surface water temperature. To characterize physiological stress, we measured the plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels of 62 additional striped bass (mean TL = 563 mm) that were angled and immediately released or angled and held in live-release tubes. Plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality were positively related to tube residence time. When the hematological characteristics were considered only in relation to tube residence time, responses indicative of physiological stress continued for about 150 min, after which blood chemistry began to return to normal. Live-release tubes appear to be useful for keeping striped bass alive when they are angled from cool water, but they are not effective for striped bass angled from warm water. The high summer mortality of striped bass suggests a need for restrictive fishing regulations during the summer for the Lake Murray striped bass fishery. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  11. Tidal propagation and dissipation in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang; Wang, Hui; Ding, Yang; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lawen, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on tides and tidal dynamics in the Taiwan Strait (TS) is reviewed in this paper. Tidal dynamics, which is the basic and dominant hydrodynamics in this area, attracts much interest in the last 30 years and till now its physical mechanism is still in debate. In this study, the major research methods and findings of previous works on barotropic tides in the TS are summarized. Based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1) are well simulated with the mean root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 4.7, 2.0, 1.3 and 0.7 cm between the observed and simulated tidal constants, respectively. It has been proved that semi-diurnal tidal movement is mainly determined by the waves from the East China Sea (ECS), while waves from the ECS and the Luzon Strait (LS) play comparable roles in diurnal tidal movement in the TS by linear superposition and the interaction of these two waves is the main cause for the progressive diurnal tidal waves in the TS. Furthermore, energy analysis revealed that the M2 tidal wave system in the TS and its adjacent area south to the shoal is an standing wave system and the anti-node appears in the central TS while the wave node locates in the shoal area, which can be contributed to the interaction of the incident waves from the ECS and the topography step south to Taiwan island, while the shoal also has an impact on the whole semi-diurnal tidal wave system in the TS. This standing wave system is consistent with the little energy dissipation in the central TS and much energy dissipation in the southern TS, where the shallow water effect also contributes to the local dissipation to some extent.

  12. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically, with the entire width of the array (70 km freshening between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. We show that the OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase of southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated spin-up of the Greenland Sea Gyre.

  13. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  14. The vulnerability of the Strait of Georgia (Canada) to future hypoxia and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianson, Debby; Allen, Susan; Moore-Maley, Ben; Haigh, Rowan; Johannessen, Sophia; Macdonald, Robie; Krogh, Jeremy; Simpson, Eleanor; Kohfeld, Karen; Hamme, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Pacific coast is filled with fjords and islands. Circulation in the region is dynamic, so that large changes in acidity (pH) and oxygen may occur both in space and time. The Strait of Georgia (Canada) is a large (200 X 30 km) semi-enclosed basin, that has relatively low pH with respect to the adjacent outer coast and yet hosts a lucrative aquaculture industry. On the other hand this region is relatively well oxygenated due to gas exchange in the turbulent (tidal) flow in the narrow Straits with sills connecting it with the outer coast. We investigate the role that this intense gas exchange plays in protecting the Strait of Georgia from future hypoxia and ocean acidification. Finally, we contrast surface water properties (including dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity) measured on large ships with those measured nearshore and at shore-based aquaculture sites within the Strait.

  15. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea...... the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean...... and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice...

  16. Stable isotope signatures reveal small-scale spatial separation in populations of European sea bass

    OpenAIRE

    Cambiè, Giulia; Kaiser, Michel J.; Marriott, Andrew L.; Fox, Jennifer; Lambert, Gwladys; Hiddink, Jan G.; Overy, Thomas; Bennett, Sarah A.; Leng, Melanie J.; McCarthy, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Scientific information about European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax stocks in the NE Atlantic is limited and a more accurate definition of the stock boundaries in the area is required to improve assessment and management advice. We investigated the connectivity and movement patterns of D. labrax in Wales (UK) using the stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) composition of their scales. Analysis of δ13C and δ15N values in the last growing season was performed on 189 adult sea bass caught at 9 coastal ...

  17. Formation for Bass-Relief Microprofiles Based on an Analytic Formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-Fang; DONG Xiao-Chun; DENG Qi-Ling; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2007-01-01

    A method of fast design and fabrication for bass-relief micro-profiles is developed by using an analytic formulation to determine the exposure distribution. Based on an equivalent exposure threshold model, the formulation is simplified for the case of bass-relief profile corresponding to the smaller exposure dose. The mask function for a microlens array is designed without iteration involved by the analytic formulation. The experiment is performed to validate the method, and the fabrication result is obtained with the profile error less than 30 nm (rms).

  18. Growth, dispersal, mortality, and contribution of largemouth bass stocked into Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K.J.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Marked fingerling largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (both northern M. s. salmoides and Florida subspecies M. s. floridanus and their hybrid) were stocked into Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee, to enhance angling and introgress the Florida subspecies into the local gene pool. We evaluated mass marking and stocking success by sampling the stocked fish for 1 year poststocking. More than 128,000 fingerlings (35-64 mm total length) were immersed in a solution of 500 mg/L oxytetracycline (OTC) for 6 h and stocked into four embayments in the lake in spring 2002; two additional embayments served as controls and were not stocked (these embayments contained only wild, indigenous fish). In a blind test, 97% of sagittal otoliths were correctly scored as marked or unmarked. In a subsequent test, the OTC marks were clearly visible on every otolith removed from 240 OTC-treated bass held for 30 d. Age-0 largemouth bass were sampled with DC electrofishing gear at 7-19, 44-61, and 119-139 d after stocking, and sampling was conducted along 100-m transects within 1 km of the stocking sites in each embayment. Of all recaptures in the first sample, 31% occurred more than 600 m from the nearest stocking site, indicating rapid dispersal by some fish. Survival of stocked and wild age-0 largemouth bass was similar and low (4.5-6.9%) in two embayments; in the other two embayments, stocked fish survived at lower rates (0-4.3%) than wild fish (33.7-49.9%). Mean catches of all age-0 largemouth bass in the first sample were positively related to the number of fish stocked. By October 2002, the mean catch of all age-0 largemouth bass was similar among embayments. Contribution of stocked fish declined to approximately 2% (2 of 91 fish) the following spring. Cost per fingerling increased from US$0.35 at stocking to $12.00 at 140 d poststocking. Increasing the abundance of largemouth bass was not the primary objective of this stocking effort, but stocked fish will have to survive much better if

  19. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  20. Seasonal and interannual variability of the water exchange in the Turkish Straits System estimated by modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MADERICH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A chain of simple linked models is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of the Turkish Straits System. This chain includes two-layer hydraulic models of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits simulating the exchange in terms of level and density difference along each strait, and a one-dimensional area averaged layered model of the Marmara Sea. The chain of models is complemented also by the similar layered model of the Black Sea proper and by a one-layer Azov Sea model with the Kerch Strait. This linked chain of models is used to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the system in the period 1970-2009. The salinity of the Black Sea water flowing into the Aegean Sea increases by approximately 1.7 times through entrainment from the lower layer. The flow entering into the lower layer of the Dardanelles Strait from the Aegean Sea is reduced by nearly 80% when it reaches the Black Sea. In the seasonal scale, a maximal transport in the upper layer and minimal transport in the bottom layer are during winter/spring for the Bosphorus and in spring for the Dardanelles Strait, whereas minimal transport in upper layer and maximal undercurrent are during the summer for the Bosphorus Strait and autumn for the Dardanelles Strait. The increase of freshwater flux into the Black Sea in interannual time scales (41 m3s-1 per year is accompanied by a more than twofold growth of the Dardanelles outflow to the North Aegean (102 m3s-1 per year.

  1. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  2. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  3. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  4. QTL for body weight, morphometric traits and stress response in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massault, C.; Hellemans, J.; Louro, B.; Batargias, C.; Houdt, van I.S.; Canario, A.; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Haley, C.S.; Koning, de D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural mating and mass spawning in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., Moronidae, Teleostei) complicate genetic studies and the implementation of selective breeding schemes. We utilized a two-step experimental design for detecting QTL in mass-spawning species: 2122 offspring from natura

  5. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Khan, A; Mayya, Y S; Narayanan, K P; Purwar, R C; Sapra, B K; Sunny, F

    2002-01-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 mu m to 10 mu m and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the desig...

  6. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-01-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt...

  7. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency l...

  8. Movements and behavior of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) determined by radio telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.D.

    1976-08-01

    The organization of this thesis reflects the development of underwater radio tracking methodology for monitoring movements of freshwater fish. Equipment and techniques developed during this research are described in Part I and represent a cooperative effort between the author and the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek engineering staff. In 1970, the equipment and techniques were tested and perfected during a study of largemouth bass movements in Mary Lake. The bass project provided an ideal situation to test the system. Since Mary Lake was small and the bass exhibited localized movements, the fish could be found easily; consequently, the performance of the system could be continually analyzed and problems could be quickly solved. The home range movements of the bass are described in Part II. After establishing the reliability and usefulness of the system, a much more difficult project was attempted. In 1971, a program was initiated to study the movements and behavior of steelhead in western Lake Superior. Results of this project (1971 to 1974) are presented in Part III.

  9. Water, heat and salt transport through the Strait of Otranto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Sadegh; Gačić, Miroslav; Kovačević, Vedrana; Cardin, Vanessa

    2010-05-01

    The water, heat and salt transports through the Strait of Otranto are estimated applying direct method to historical current and hydrographical data (from December 94 through November 95). A variational inverse method based on a variational principle and a finite element solver is used to reconstruct the current, temperature and salinity fields across the Strait section from sparse measurements. The mean annual inflow and outflow water transport rates are estimated as 0.901±0.039 Sv and -0.939±0.315 Sv, respectively, and the net transport for the period of study is equal to -0.032±0.208 Sv. Thus, on a yearly time interval, the inflow and the outflow are practically compensated. The heat and salt transports due to advection process are estimated for five monthly periods, namely December 1994, February, May, August and November 1995. Considering these five periods representative of the seasonal cycle during the year, their average values show that there is a net heat advection into the Adriatic Sea on a yearly basis. The estimated value of advected heat and the corresponding error are 2.408±0.490 TW, which is equivalent to a heat gain of 17.37±3.53 W m-2 for the whole basin. This value is compared to the heat loss of -36±152 (std) W m-2 through the air-sea interface calculated by means of bulk formulas over the Adriatic Sea. The two values are expected to be balance each other in order to close the heat budget of the basin. The possible reasons for this difference to occur are discussed. On a yearly basis, the salt transport is estimated as an input of salt equal to 0.05×106 Kg s-1. The average annual fresh water budget is estimated as -0.002 Sv, equivalent to the mass of fresh water of 2.00×106Kg s-1 or to the level of 0.45 m yr-1 for the entire Adriatic Sea. The import of salt that is less than the gain of fresh water is in agreement with the fact that the Adriatic Sea is a dilution basin.

  10. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  11. Kortfilmen i filmen : En studie i Saul Bass anpassning av förtexter till det individuella verket.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I have examined if and how Saul Bass adapts his title sequences to the respective film in the matter of genre, plot, milieu, feeling and appearance. Saul Bass was really a graphic artist who has made himself a long career in film production, foremost as a creator of title sequences. Of all the films Bass has created title sequences to, I’ve chosen six films, whose title sequences I analyse more thoroughly. I do this to point out the differences between them and thus also show h...

  12. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  13. Oxidative ecology of paternal care in wild smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Laura K; O'Connor, Constance M; Philipp, David P; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Willmore, William G; Barthel, Brandon L; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-03-16

    Physiologically, oxidative stress is considered a homeostatic imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and absorption. From an ecological perspective, oxidative stress may serve as an important constraint to life history traits such as lifespan, reproduction, and the immune system, and is gaining interest as a potential mechanism underlying life history trade-offs. Of late, there has been much interest in understanding the role of oxidative stress in the ecology of wild animals, particularly during challenging periods such as reproduction. Here, we used a long-term study population of a fish with sole-male parental care, the smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, to examine the associations among oxidative stress indicators and life history variables in nest-guarding males. In addition, we investigated the potential role of oxidative stress as a physiological mediator of the life history trade-off decision of paternal smallmouth bass to stay with or abandon their brood. We found that oxidative stress was significantly related to the life history of paternal smallmouth bass, such that older, larger fish with greater reproductive experience and larger broods nesting in cooler water temperatures had lower levels of oxidative stress. However, we found no significant correlation between oxidative stress and nesting success, suggesting that oxidative stress may not be involved in the decision of male smallmouth bass to abandon their brood. Wild fish have been relatively understudied in the emerging field of oxidative ecology, and the study presented here makes noteworthy contributions by revealing interesting connections between the life histories of paternal smallmouth bass and their oxidative status.

  14. Measurement error affects risk estimates for recruitment to the Hudson River stock of striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Dennis J; Ross, Quentin E; Munch, Stephan B; Ginzburg, Lev R

    2002-06-07

    We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years). Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%). However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032) if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009) and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006)--an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  15. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  16. Tide at the eastern section of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús Garcia; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek; Candela, Julio; Bascheck, Burkard

    2000-06-01

    From October 1995 to April 1996, three mooring lines were deployed at the eastern entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar. The spatial coverage of the mooring array allows for a good description of the tides. They exhibit a dominant semidiurnal nature and a noticeable baroclinic structure that matches the one of the mean exchange. Tidal currents in the upper layer are irregular and usually too weak to reverse the mean upper layer flow that keeps on flowing east. Lower layer flow reverses with semidiurnal periodicity because of the smallness of the mean flow and the appreciable amplitude of the regular semidiurnal oscillation of tidal currents in this layer. Tidal transports can be satisfactorily compared with previous estimates of Bryden et al. [1994] if we allow for strong internal divergences associated with the internal tide. No significant eddy flux of water transport (tidal rectification) is observed at the eastern section, contrary to the almost 50% of the total layer transport found by Bryden et al. [1994] in Camarinal Sill section. Time-dependent hydraulic theory provides a good scenario for interpreting these two independent sets of observations despite the fact that the composite Froude number does not reach the critical values predicted in the hydraulic models most of the time.

  17. Eddies spatial variability at Makassar Strait – Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzula, F.; Syamsudin, M. L.; Yuliadi, L. P. S.; Purba, N. P.; Martono

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The study area extends from 115º–125º E to 2.5º–8º S. The datasets were consisted of monthly geostrophic currents, sea surface heights, sea surface temperatures, and chlorophyll-a from 2008 – 2012. The results showed that eddies which found at Makassar Strait (MS) has the highest diameter and speed of 255.3 km and 21.4 cm/s respectively, while at the southern MW has 266.4 km and 15.6 cm/s, and at FS has 182.04 km and 11.4 cm/s. From a total of 51 eddies found, the majority of eddies type was anticyclonic. At MS and FS, eddies formed along the year, whereas at southern MW were found missing in West Season. Moreover, the chlorophyll-a concentration was consistently higher at the eddies area. Even though, the correlation among eddies and the upwelling downwelling phenomena was not significantly as shown by sea surface temperatures value.

  18. Analysis of turbulent mixing in Dewakang Sill, Southern Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Jaya, I.; Sudjono, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Dewakang Sill is located in southern Makassar Strait, conveying major path of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), as a confluence region of different water masses, such as salty Pacific water and fresh Java Sea water. Its depth is about 680 m which blocks the ITF flow below this depth into Flores Sea. This research aimed to estimate turbulent mixing in the Dewakang Sill by applying Thorpe analysis using 24 hours “yoyo” CTD data sets, acquired from MAJAFLOX Cruise in August 2015. The results showed that stratification of water masses is dominated by Pacific water origin. Those are North Pacific Subtropical thermocline and Intermediate water masses. Mean dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) and turbulent vertical diffusivity (Kρ ) value in the Dewakang Sill are of O(1.08 × 10‑6)Wkg‑1, and O(2.84 × 10‑4) m2s‑1 respectively. High correlation between epsilon and internal waves oscillation suggested that internal tidal waves activities are the major forcing for turbulent mixing in the study area.

  19. Species composition and distribution of marine nematode community in the North Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Marine free-living nematodes were investigated at 13 sampling stations divided into three transects in the northern Taiwan Strait in February 1998. One hundred species of marine nematodes belonging to 91 Genera 28 Families 3 Orders were identified and were first recorded in the northern Taiwan Strait. The dominant species were Vasostoma sp., Sabatieria sp. 1, Linhystera sp. 1, Spilophorella sp., Daptonema sp., Halalaimus sp. and Dorylaimopsis variabilis. Their mean densities were all over 4 950 ind./m2. According to mean density at transects, marine nematode density decreased from coastal Weitou to off Minjiang Estuary, which was similar to polychaete distribution in the northern Taiwan Strait. The selective deposit feeder (1A) was the dominant food type of marine nematodes in the northern Taiwan Strait, but non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and epigrowth feeders (2A) occupied high proportion, indicating diverse feeding types of marine nematodes in the northern Taiwan Strait.Some environmental factors such as currents are discussed.

  20. Moho Depth Derived from Gravity Data in the Taiwan Strait Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hsiang Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed are gional Bouguer gravity anomaly map using marine and land data from Tai wan and the Chinese province of Fuchien, as well as SEASAT altimetry-de rived gravity data for the Tai wan Strait and its surrounding area. The map shows isogals trending generally in a NE-SW direction, conforming with the over all shallower geo logical strike of the strait. Removing gravity effects generated by the water layer and seafloor to pography, the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly is obtained, reflecting the subsurface structure. Moho depth is then computed by the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method from the regional Bouguer gravity data set. Over the strait area, the geometry of the Moho relief is smooth with an average depth of about 30 km, except for the Penghu up lift. Moho depth is shallower in the Taiwan Strait and thickens to ward both sides of the strait. The relatively shallower Moho depth, reaching up to 28 km, is convex up ward underneath the Penghu uplift.

  1. Study on respiratory electron transport system (ETS) of phytoplankton in Taiwan Strait and Xiamen Harbour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bangqin; HONG Huasheng; XU Xiangzhong; LIU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton respiratory electron transport system (P-ETS) activities were studied in two cruises in Taiwan Strait (Aug. 1997 and Feb. -Mar. 1998) and two cruises in Xiamen Harbour (Oct., 1997 and Apr.,1998). Results showed that P-ETS activity in the surface water of southern Taiwan Strait in summer was homogeneous [mean value of 0.106 μlO2/(L.h)], inhomogeneous in northern Taiwan Strait in winter. Variation of P-ETS activity in middle part of the Strait was not obvious between summer and winter. Mean P-ETS activity of Xiamen Harbour in autumn was 0.255 μlO2/(L.h) with a little higher value in Jiulong River estuary areas. In spring, P-ETS activity was more homogeneously distributed and the mean value was 1.076 μlO2/(L.h). P-ETS activity in spring was obviously higher than in autumn in Xiamen Harbour. Vertical distribution of P-ETS in Taiwan Strait was homogeneous at some stations in winter and in summer. An obvious daily variation of P-ETS activity was recorded at Stn 9837, high at midnight and low in the early morning. Significant correlation between P-ETS activity and Chl-a was observed. Results also showed that the ratio of estimated respiratory rate to photosynthetic rate varied seasonally, high in winter (0.41) and low in summer (0.12).

  2. Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal inverse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, Burkard; Send, Uwe; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia; Candela, Julio

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the volume transport through the Strait of Gibraltar and to study the spatial structure of the time-variable flow, a varying number of current meter moorings were maintained at the eastern entrance of the strait between October 1994 and April 1998, and was complemented with intensive shipboard measurements during the European Union project Canary Island Azores Gibraltar Experiment (CANIGO). A tidal inverse model is used to merge these data sets in order to investigate the flow at the eastern entrance of the strait. The two-dimensional structure of the tidal flow was described by simple analytical functions. Harmonics with the seven most important tidal frequencies were used as temporal functions. With this model, the tidal currents can be predicted for any time and location at the eastern entrance of the strait, and more than 92% of the variance of the lower layer flow is explained. It was used to remove the tidal currents from the individual measurements and to calculate the mean flow through the strait from the residuals. Combined with a similar inverse model for determining the depth of the interface between Mediterranean and Atlantic water, the volume transport was estimated to be 0.81±0.07 Sv for the upper layer and -0.76±0.07 Sv for the lower layer. The correlation of the tidal currents and the fluctuations of the interface accounts for ˜7% of the transport at the eastern entrance.

  3. Is the Gibraltar strait a barrier to gene flow for the bat Myotis myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, V; Ruedi, M; Excoffier, L; Ibáñez, C; Arlettaz, R; Hausser, J

    2000-11-01

    Because of their role in limiting gene flow, geographical barriers like mountains or seas often coincide with intraspecific genetic discontinuities. Although the Strait of Gibraltar represents such a potential barrier for both plants and animals, few studies have been conducted on its impact on gene flow. Here we test this effect on a bat species (Myotis myotis) which is apparently distributed on both sides of the strait. Six colonies of 20 Myotis myotis each were sampled in southern Spain and northern Morocco along a linear transect of 1350 km. Results based on six nuclear microsatellite loci reveal no significant population structure within regions, but a complete isolation between bats sampled on each side of the strait. Variability at 600 bp of a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) confirms the existence of two genetically distinct and perfectly segregating clades, which diverged several million years ago. Despite the narrowness of the Gibraltar Strait (14 km), these molecular data suggest that neither males, nor females from either region have ever reproduced on the opposite side of the strait. Comparisons of molecular divergence with bats from a closely related species (M. blythii) suggest that the North African clade is possibly a distinct taxon warranting full species rank. We provisionally refer to it as Myotis cf punicus Felten 1977, but a definitive systematic understanding of the whole Mouse-eared bat species complex awaits further genetic sampling, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean areas.

  4. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  5. 231Pa/230Th records of Arctic/Atlantic interchange in Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S. S.; McDermott, K. J.; McManus, J. F.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Fram Strait, the Arctic Ocean's only deep passage for exchange with lower latitude oceans, today serves as a conduit for waters flowing north into the Arctic Ocean and south into the Atlantic. Reconstruction of circulation patterns and strength at depth in the strait can help to clarify the history of Arctic/Atlantic deep water exchange and Arctic contributions to global meridional overturning circulation. We will present new sedimentary measurements of radioisotopes 231Pa and 230Th to provide information on this exchange in the past and its relationship to sedimentation and climatic events. Coretop and downcore 231Pa/230Th ratios from Arctic sediments indicate that 231Pa has been exported from the central Arctic basin throughout the Holocene and deglaciation. Fram Strait represents a possible sink for this "missing" 231Pa. Preliminary results from ODP Holes 908A and 909A, at 1274 m and 2519 m water depths respectively in the central strait, suggest that ratios in this region during the Holocene have varied between ~0.106 (above the 231Pa/230Th production ratio of 0.093 in seawater, indicating net import of 231Pa)and ~0.055 (well below the production ratio, indicating net export of 231Pa). Further measurements in cores from the Greenland and Svalbard continental slopes will give a fuller regional picture of 231Pa deposition and transport across the strait.

  6. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  7. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  8. Mercury and selenium concentrations in largemouth bass and other fishes of the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From March 22 to April 7, 1990, 71 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and four other fish species (total of seven fish) were collected from ten locations on or...

  9. Widespread occurrence of intersex in black basses (Micropterus spp.) from U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Schmitt, C.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Intersex occurrence in freshwater fishes was evaluated for nine river basins in the United States. Testicular oocytes (predominantly male testes containing female germ cells) were the most pervasive form of intersex observed, even though similar numbers of male (n = 1477) and female (n = 1633) fish were examined. Intersex was found in 3% of the fish collected. The intersex condition was observed in four of the 16 species examined (25%) and in fish from 34 of 111 sites (31%). Intersex was not found in multiple species from the same site but was most prevalent in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; 18% of males) and smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu; 33% of males). The percentage of intersex fish per site was 8-91% for largemouth bass and 14-73% for smallmouth bass. The incidence of intersex was greatest in the southeastern United States, with intersex largemouth bass present at all sites in the Apalachicola, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins. Total mercury, trans-nonachlor, p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, and total PCBs were the most commonly detected chemical contaminants at all sites, regardless of whether intersex was observed. Although the genotype of the intersex fish was not determined, the microscopic appearance of the gonads, the presence of mature sperm, and the concentrations of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin indicate the intersex bass were males. Few reproductive endpoints differed significantly among male and intersex bass; plasma vitellogenin concentration in males was not a good indicator of intersex presence. Hierarchical linkages of the intersex condition to reproductive function will require a more quantitative measure of intersex (e.g. severity index) rather than presence or absence of the condition. The baseline incidence of intersex gonadal tissue in black basses and other freshwater fishes is unknown, but intersex prevalence may be related to collection season, age, and endocrine active compounds in the environment. Intersex was not found in

  10. Study on the Tidal Wave System and Formation Mechanism of M2 Tide in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-sheng; SONG Zhi-yao; ZHANG Jin-shan; ZHANG Hong-gui; KONG Jun; WANG Yan-hong

    2008-01-01

    To study the Taiwan Strait (TS), an unusual sea area, the numerical model in marginal seas of China is used to simulate and analyze the tidal wave motion in the strait. The numerical modeling experiments reproduce the amphidromic system of the M2 tide in the south end of the Taiwan strait, and consequently confirm the existence of the degenerate amphidromic system. On this basis, further discussion is conducted on the M2 system and its formation mechanism. It can be concluded that the tidal waves of the TS is consisted of the progressing wave from the north entrance and the degenerate amphidromic system from the south entrance, in which the progressing wave from the north entrance dominates the tidal wave motion in the strait. Except for the convergent effect caused by the landform and boundary, the degenerate amphidromic system produced in the south of the strait is another important factor for the following phenomena: the large tidal range in the middle of the strait, the concentrative zone of co-amplitude and co-phase line in the south of the strait. The degenerate amphidromic system is mainly produced by the incident Pacific Ocean tidal wave from the Luzon strait and the action by the shoreline and landform. The position of the amphidromic point is compelled to move toward southwest until degenerating by the powerful progressing wave from the north entrance.

  11. Multi-model ensemble estimation of volume transport through the straits of the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sooyeon; Hirose, Naoki; Usui, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The volume transports measured at the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya/La Perouse Straits remain quantitatively inconsistent. However, data assimilation models at least provide a self-consistent budget despite subtle differences among the models. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate more accurately transport at these straits by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.43 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  12. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de...

  13. Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by enrofloxacin in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, E; Giorgi, M; Longo, V; Mengozzi, G; Gervasi, P G

    2003-01-10

    Currently, there are no reports on the effects of enrofloxacin (EF), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, on the cytochrome p450 enzymes in fish, although its use as antimicrobial agent in aquaculture has been put forward. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro effects of EF on hepatic p450 enzymes of sea bass, a widespread food-producing fish, have been evaluated. Sea bass pretreated with a single dose of EF (3 mg/kg i.p.) or with three daily doses of EF (1 mg/kg i.p.) markedly depressed the microsomal N-demethylation of aminopyrine, erythromycin, the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin, ethoxyresorufin and the 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase. In vitro experiments showed that EF at 10 microM inhibited the above-mentioned activities and, in particular, the erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and 6beta-testosterone-hydroxylase, likely dependant on a p450 3A isoform. When the nature of ERND inhibition by EF was specifically studied with sea bass liver microsomes, it was found that EF is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor, with K(i) of 3.7 microM and a K(inact) of 0.045 min(-1). An immunoblot analysis with anti p450 3A27 of trout showed that the p450 3A isoform, constitutively expressed in sea bass, is particularly susceptible to inactivation by EF. In vitro experiments with sea bass microsomes have also demonstrated that EF is oxidative deethylated by the p450 system to ciprofloxacin (CF) and that this compound maintains the ability to inactivate the p450 enzymes. The mechanism by which EF or CF inactivate the p450 enzymes has not been studied but an attack of p450 on the cyclopropan ring, present, both in EF and CF structure, with the formation of electrophilic intermediates (i.e. radicals) has been postulated. In conclusion, the EF seems to be a powerful inhibitor of p450s in the sea bass. Therefore, the clinical use of this antibiotic in aquaculture has to be considered with caution.

  14. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF DEMERSAL FISH STOCK IN THE MALACCA STRAIT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malacca Strait is one of the main fishing areas for demersal fishery in Indonesia. To support the management of that fishery, an assessment of the demersal fish stock was conducted. This study estimated that the maximum sustainable yield and the optimal catch per unit effortof demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait were about 106.8 thousand tons/year and 28.5 tons per unit of Danish seine, respectively, resulting from the operation of 3,752 Danish seines. Unfortunately, fishing effort was higher than its optimum level and the fish stock was over-exploited since 2003. To recover the demersal fish stock to its optimum level and to ensure the optimal fish production from demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait, it was necessary to reduce fishing effort at about 67% from its level in 2011.

  15. Preliminary crustal model from seismological observations at the Messina Straits network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. FEDERICO

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a general tectonic description of the Strait of Messina,
    what follows is an explanation of the criteria adopted in choosing
    sites for seismic stations of the Straits network.
    The main lithological and mechanical characteristics of the terrains
    where the stations are been located, together with the equipment used,
    are mentioned, are looked at in relation to the positions of the main
    centres of seismic activity both actual and in recent past, and to the
    microseismic energy threshold.
    A number of observations regarding the seismic crisis in the Gulf
    of Patti (1978 are analized, with the aim of suggesting a crustal model
    compatible with the area of the Messina Straits.

  16. The freshwater composition of the Fram Strait outflow derived from a decade of tracer measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Paul A.; Rabe, Benjamin; Hansen, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009–2011 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface...... meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting......The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, δ18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2011. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2009–2011 sections...

  17. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  18. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tkalich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea level in the Singapore Strait (SS exhibits response to various scale phenomena, from local to global. Longest tide gauge records in SS are analysed to derive local sea level trend and annual, inter-annual and multi-decadal sea level variability, which then are attributed to regional and global phenomena. Annual data gaps are reconstructed using functions correlating sea level variability with ENSO. At annual scale, sea level anomalies in SS are (quasi-periodic monsoon-driven, of the order of ±20 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±5 cm. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea levels in SS are varying with global mean sea level, rising at the rate 1.2–1.7 mm yr−1 for 1975–2009, 1.8–2.3 mm yr−1 for 1984–2009 and 1.9–4.6 mm yr−1 for 1993–2009. When SS rates are compared with the global trends (2.0, 2.4 and 2.8 mm yr−1, respectively derived from tide gauge measurements for the same periods, they are smaller in the earlier era and considerably larger in the recent one. Taking into account the first estimate of land subsidence rate, 1–1.5 mm yr−1 in Singapore, the recent trend of absolute sea level rise in SS follows regional tendency.

  19. Performance assessment for an operational ocean model of the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinyou; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Zhang, Zhenchang

    2016-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait Nowcast/Forecast System (TFOR), which is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System, may be the first operational ocean model to include both tide and circulation processes in the Taiwan Strait. In this study, we assessed the performance of TFOR by investigating the differences between observational data and the results obtained by TFOR, thereby illustrating the ability of TFOR to reproduce significant physical processes. We also evaluated the utility and reliability of TFOR products for successful applications in maritime search and rescue. The mean bias, root mean-squared difference, correlation coefficient (CC), and Willmott skill for the differences in temperature between the cruise observations and the TFOR results were -0.01°C, 1.2°C, 0.87, and 0.92, respectively, and those for the corresponding salinity results were 0.06 PSU, 0.4 PSU, 0.74, and 0.83, respectively. The distributions of the TFOR M2 harmonic constants indicated that TFOR simulates the tidal characteristics well in the Taiwan Strait. The CC between the Taiwan Strait volume transport based on the TFOR results and the along-strait wind stress was 0.77, thereby indicating that monsoon winds exert an important influence on the variability in volume transport through the Taiwan Strait. Statistical analyses of the TFOR results showed that the annual, spring, summer, autumn, and winter mean transport volumes were 1.16, 1.28, 2.52, 0.80, and 0.04 Sv, respectively. In conclusion, the TFOR is robust and it can simulate the temperature, salinity, and velocity in a reasonable and stable manner.

  20. Flow, waves and water exchange in the Suur Strait, Gulf of Riga, in 2008:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Kõuts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind, flow and wave measurements were performed in November-December in 2008 in the relatively narrowand shallow Suur Strait connecting the waters of the Väinameri and the Gulf of Riga.During the measurement period wind conditions were extremely variable, including a severe storm on 23 November. The flow speedalong the strait varied between ±0.2 m s-1, except for the 0.4 m s-1 that occurred after the storm as a result of the sealevel gradient. The mean and maximum significant wave heights were 0.53 m and 1.6 m respectively. Because of their longer fetch, southerlywinds generated higher waves in the strait than winds from the north. All wave events caused by the stronger southerly windsinduced sediment resuspension, whereas the current-induced shear velocity slightly exceeded the critical value for resuspensiononly when the current speed was 0.4 m s-1. A triple-nested two-dimensional high resolution (100 m in the Suur Strait circulation model and the SWANwave model were used to simulate water exchange in 2008 and the wave-induced shear velocity field in the Suur Strait respectively. Circulation model simulations demonstrated that water exchange was highly variable, that cumulative transport followed an evident seasonal cycle, and that there was an grossannual outflow of 23 km3 from the Gulf of Riga. The horizontal distribution of wave-induced shear velocityduring the strong southerly wind event indicated large shear velocities and substantial horizontal variability. The shearvelocities were less than the critical value for resuspension in the deep area of the Suur Strait.

  1. Satellite estimate of freshwater exchange between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potemra, James T.; Hacker, Peter W.; Melnichenko, Oleg; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    The straits in Indonesia allow for low-latitude exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Collectively known as the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), this exchange is thought to occur primarily via the Makassar Strait and downstream via Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. The Sunda Strait, between the islands of Sumatra and Java, is a very narrow (≈10 km) and shallow (≈20 m) gap, but it connects the Java Sea directly to the Indian Ocean. Flow through this strait is presumed to be small, given the size of the passage; however, recent observations from the Aquarius satellite indicate periods of significant freshwater transport, suggesting the Sunda Strait may play a more important role in Pacific to Indian Ocean exchange. The nature of this exchange is short-duration (several days) bursts of freshwater injected into the eastern Indian Ocean superimposed on a mean seasonal cycle. The mean volume transport is small averaging about 0.1 Sv toward the Indian Ocean, but the freshwater transport is nonnegligible (estimated at 5.8 mSv). Transport through the strait is hydraulically controlled and directly correlates to the along-strait pressure difference. The episodic low-salinity plumes observed by Aquarius do not, however, appear to be forced by this same mechanism but are instead controlled by convergence of flow at the exit of the Strait in the Indian Ocean. Numerical model results show the fate of this freshwater plume varies with season and is either advected to the northwest along the coast of Sumatra or southerly into the ITF pathway.

  2. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  3. Interplay Between Amphioxus Complement with Sea Bass Macrophages: Opsonic Activity of Amphioxus Humoral Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junli; LIU Min; ZHANG Shicui

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the existence of a complement system in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum.However,whether it has an opsonic activity similar to that of vertebrates remains unknown.We demonstrated that the humoral fluid (HF)of amphioxus promoted the phagocytosis of yeast cells with sea bass (Lateolabraxjaponicus) macrophages,whereas the C3-depleted and heated HF significantly lost the phagocytosis-promoting capacity.In addition,the precipitation of factor B (Bf) led to a marked loss of opsonic activity.Moreover,C3 fragments in the HF were found to bind to yeast cell surfaces.The results indicate that the amphioxus complement system is an important element involved in the opsonic activity,which promotes the sea bass macrophage phagocytosis by tagging yeast cells with C3 fragments via the activation of alternative complement pathway.

  4. Biometry traits and geometric morphometrics in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Tibaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the farming system on biometry traits and dressing out yield were inves- tigated in market-size European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax cultured extensively or intensively in sea cages or land-based basins. Fish external appearences and shapes were studies with geometric morphometrics in order to assess the potential of combined methodologies in the assessment of finfish quality. Both standard biometry and geometric morphometrics were able to discriminate between sea bass farmed extensively from those cultured under intensive conditions. Geometric morphometrics has been shown to be a valuable tool for describing changes in shape features and could result a useful technique to be associated to biometry traits in the context of fish quality assessment.

  5. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède: results of farming trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicenzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years in the United States, the demand of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides larger than the size usually produced for sport fishing purposes has increased. The growth phase is carried on in ponds, after having evaluated different strains (Williamson and Carmichael, 1990 using feeds for salmonids (Tidwell et al., 1996 supplemented with amino acids (Coyle et al., 2000. Also in Italy, the market currently requires largemouth bass of 300-500 g. This situation has induced one farmer to cooperate with our research centre and carried out trials to verify the possibility of rearing this fish, from the fingerling stage up to the size suitable for food, using the same farming techniques as those currently being applied in the United States (Davis and Lock, 1997.

  6. Intersex (Testicular Oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Smith, D.R.; Young, J.A.; Hedrick, J.D.; Foster, S.W.; Reeser, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  7. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Striped Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    the sides (Werner 1980). Osteological vomer and paiatines (Hardy 1978). differences are also evident in the three species (Woolcott 1957; Harrell 1984...Percichthyidae) by means of osteological patterns, meristics and Holland, B.F., Jr., and G.F. Yelverton. 1973. morphometrics. Ph.D. Dissertation. Uni...1957. Comparative osteology Striped Bass Subcommittee of the House of of serranid fishes of the genus Roccus Representatives. 9 pp. (Mitchill). Copeia

  8. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  9. Influence of temperature, oxygen and salinity on the metabolism of the European sea bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claireaux, G.; Lagardère, J.-P.

    1999-09-01

    Standard (SMR) and routine (RMR) metabolic rates of groups (4 to 5 individuals) of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) were measured at combinations of the following factors: temperature (10, 15, 20 and 25°C), oxygenation level (air saturation to 1.5 mg dm -3) and salinity (30, 20, 10 and 5‰). The influence of these environmental conditions on fish metabolic demand was then analysed through ANOVA. At 10, 15, 20 and 25°C, standard metabolic rates were 36, 65, 89, and 91 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively, while routine oxygen consumptions covered most of the metabolic range accessible. Osmoregulatory costs are linked to metabolic activity through ventilation. This relationship was highlighted by the observed interaction between environmental salinity and temperature. We were, however, unable to detect interactions between salinity and routine metabolic rate, or between salinity and oxygenation level. In order to delineate more precisely the restrictions imposed by water oxygenation on fish metabolic performance we determined the limiting oxygen concentration curves at each experimental temperature. We followed up by modelling the bass active metabolic rate (AMR) and metabolic scope (MS) as functions of both ambient temperature and oxygenation. These mathematical models allowed the characterisation of the controlling and limiting effects of water temperature and oxygen content on the metabolic capacity of the species. Thus, AMR at 10, 15 and 20°C were estimated at 65, 160 and 360 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1, respectively. However, at higher temperature (25°C) AMR dropped slightly (to 340 mg O 2 kg -1 h -1). Bass MS increased by a factor of 9 between 10 and 20°C, but diminished at higher temperatures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influences of environmental factors on the metabolism of sea bass and provides a bioenergetic basis for a study of how environmental constraints govern the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of this

  10. Dissolved oxygen regimen (PO2 may affect osmorespiratory compromise in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genciana Terova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, in land based mediterranean aquaculture, two techniques are applied to supply water with oxygen: paddling water aeration and application of pure oxygen. The two oxygenation techniques result in quite different PO2 regimens and, consequently, different fish growth performance and gill morphology. Data exist showing a reduction in total respiratory surface (RSA and increasing gas diffusion distance (GDD in gills of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. farmed under elevated PO2 regimens. That such a modification might have an effect on the ion regulation has been defined elsewhere as osmorespiratory compromise. In this study, European sea bass previously acclimatized to two PO2 regimens, mild hypoxia and mild hyperoxia (70-80% and 130-140% of the saturation value, respectively, were challenged for 1 hour with hypo-osmotic plus manipulation stress in two separate trials. During the first trial, when only Na+ loss was determined, the ion efflux during the first 5 min resulted in a rate of 163.72±31 and 112.23±87 nmol g-1min-1 from hypoxia and hyperoxia sea bass groups, respectively, and, if sustained, would approach 15.3 and 11.2% per hour of the total body Na+, respectively. During the second trial, in which both Na+ and Cl- loss were determined, after 60 min the Na+ loss was shown to be 76.86±12 and 179.28±32 nmol g-1 min-1 for the fish previously acclimatized to hyperoxia and hypoxia regimens, respectively, whereas for Cl- this loss was 62.02±11 and 157.28±28 nmol g-1min-1, respectively. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis of an osmotic advantage of sea bass exposed to an elevated PO2 regimen, achievable with application of pure oxygen, instead of simple water aeration.

  11. Residues of benzocaine in rainbow trout, largemouth bass, and fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of the anesthetic benzocaine in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides ) were determined after exposure of the fish to 50 mg benzocaine/L for 15 min and withdrawal times of 0-24 h. The mean concentration of benzocaine residues in fish sampled immediately after exposure was 14.0 mu g/g in rainbow trout and 10.6 mu g/g in largemouth bass. Residues were below the control value after 8 h of withdrawal in largemouth bass and near the control value after 4 h of withdrawal in rainbow trout. Although residues of benzocaine were high in fish immediately after exposure, the concentration declined rapidly when the fish were held in flowing fresh water. Fish meal prepared from Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) that had been anesthetized with benzocaine or tricaine (MS-222) contained residues of 45.1 mu g benzocaine/g or 47.7 mu g tricaine/g.

  12. Summer habitat selection by striped bass, Morone Saxatilis, in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, H.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Wilson, J.L.

    1980-02-01

    Summer habitat selection patterns of 18 adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Cherokee Reservoir were monitored with externally attached temperature-sensing acoustic or radio transmitters from June through September 1977. Mortalities of adult striped bass in this reservoir were hypothesized to be related to high summer temperatures and low dissolved oxygen (DO). The inhabited areas or refuges differed from noninhabited areas by maintaining temperatures less than or equal to 22 C and DO concentrations greater than 5 mg/liter. Total water hardness, pH, and water transparency were not significantly different among refuges and noninhabited areas. Movement of fish outside refuges occurred more frequently and for longer periods during June when the summer pattern of high temperatures and low DO was less severe. Fish experienced temperatures between 15 and 27 C with mean temperatures of individuals ranging from 18.5 to 22.0 C. Several tagged fish migrated outside the refuges and selected the lowest available temperature, generally near 21 C, even though DO concentrations at these temperatures were 3 mg/liter or less. Long-term survival of tagged and nontagged fish outside refuges was undetermined because no fish were tracked outside a refuge for more than 12 days without being lost. This study indicates that temperature strongly influences the behavior of striped bass and that adults of this species may have a thermal preferendum of approximately 21 C.

  13. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  14. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  15. A simple model for predicting survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, G.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a controlled experiment in the laboratory to assess the influence of anatomical hooking location and water temperature on survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Survival was 98% (58 of 59 fish) among fish that were hand-hooked within the oral cavity (including the gills), whereas survival was 66% (33 of 50 fish) among fish that were hand-hooked in the esophagus. Survival of hooked fish was not significantly influenced by water temperature (7-27??C) or the hooking location X water temperature interaction. We combined our results with prior research to develop a predictive model of largemouth bass survival, which was 98.3% (SD = 1.87%) for fish hooked in the oral cavity and 55.0% (SD = 9.70%) for fish hooked in the esophagus. The model is valid for water temperatures ranging from 7??C to 27??C and allows one to estimate, with known precision, the survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass without the need for controlled studies or for holding fish in pens or cages to assess delayed mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  17. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  18. Abundance and Distribution of Walleye, Northern Squawfish, and Smallmouth Bass in John Day Reservoir, 1984-1985 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.

    1985-12-01

    Sampling was conducted in John Day Reservoir to collect walleye, northern squawfish and smallmouth bass. Changes in distributions during sampling were characterized from changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) in sampling areas. Observed movements of marked and radiotagged fish were examined and used to define discrete populations. Abundances were estimated using a modified Schnabel multiple mark and recapture estimator. Abundance estimates were corrected for angler harvest, size specific vulnerability to gear, recruitment due to growth and tag loss during sampling. Age composition of catch was determined to characterize relative contributions of various year classes to the populations. Ages at which fish were fully recruited to gear were defined by catch curves. Survival of fully recruited year classes was calculated from differences in CPUE's between 1984 and 1985. Mean length at age was estimated and used to determine age specific incremental growth. Eighty-eight percent of walleye were caught in McNary tailrace or Irrigon-Paterson, whereas 95% of smallmouth bass were caught from Irrigon-Paterson to the John Day forebay. Abundances of walleye and northern squawfish with fork lengths greater than 250 mm and smallmouth bass with fork lengths greater than 200 mm were estimated to be 16,219, 95,407, and 11,259. Anglers harvested an estimated 235 walleye, 2004 northern squawfish and 4383 smallmouth bass during the sampling season. Six-year-old walleye, 4-year-old northern squawfish and 3-year-old smallmouth bass were most abundant in catches. Walleye and smallmouth bass were fully recruited to sampling gear by age 3. Age at which northern squawfish were fully recruited was uncertain. Mean survival was 46.1% for walleye and 46.5% for northern squawfish. Mean smallmouth bass survival was 46.5% in the lower and 43.7% in the upper reservoir.

  19. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volckaert Filip AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690 were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.

  20. Single-ping ADCP measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, Simone; García Lafuente, Jesús; Naranjo, Cristina; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos; Sánchez Leal, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    In most Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) user manuals, it is widely recommended to apply ensemble averaging of the single-pings measurements, in order to obtain reliable observations of the current speed. The random error related to the single-ping measurement is typically too high to be used directly, while the averaging operation reduces the ensemble error of a factor of approximately √N, with N the number of averaged pings. A 75 kHz ADCP moored in the western exit of the Strait of Gibraltar, included in the long-term monitoring of the Mediterranean outflow, has recently served as test setup for a different approach to current measurements. The ensemble averaging has been disabled, while maintaining the internal coordinate conversion made by the instrument, and a series of single-ping measurements has been collected every 36 seconds during a period of approximately 5 months. The huge amount of data has been fluently handled by the instrument, and no abnormal battery consumption has been recorded. On the other hand a long and unique series of very high frequency current measurements has been collected. Results of this novel approach have been exploited in a dual way: from a statistical point of view, the availability of single-ping measurements allows a real estimate of the (a posteriori) ensemble average error of both current and ancillary variables. While the theoretical random error for horizontal velocity is estimated a priori as ˜2 cm s-1 for a 50 pings ensemble, the value obtained by the a posteriori averaging is ˜15 cm s-1, with an asymptotical behavior starting from an averaging size of 10 pings per ensemble. This result suggests the presence of external sources of random error (e.g.: turbulence), of higher magnitude than the internal sources (ADCP intrinsic precision), which cannot be reduced by the ensemble averaging. On the other hand, although the instrumental configuration is clearly not suitable for a precise estimation of turbulent

  1. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  2. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  3. Gibraltar Experiment: A Plan for Dynamic and Kinematic Investigations of Strait Mixing, Exchange and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Mediterranean outflow entrains ambient Atlantic Water as it follows the Iberian continental slope and sinks toward an ultimate depth near 1000 m in the...A r03 30000. ALONG - STRAIT" F ..,, I I I I I II 59 0 56 OCEANOGRAFIA QUIMICA Jose M. Cabanas, Jose’ G. Braun, M. Deya Objet ivos. - Se plantea el

  4. The Competition of Tidal Mixing and Freshwater Forcing in Shaping the Outflow from Hudson Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Strait outflow. Journal of Marine Systems , special issue on Hudson Bay, in press. St. Laurent, P., F. Straneo, J.F. Dumais, D.G. Barber, 2011 What...is the fate of the river waters of Hudson Bay? Journal of Marine Systems , special issue on Hudson Bay, in press. Straneo, F., D. Sutherland, D

  5. Carbon flows in the benthic food web at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Bergmann, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Bauerfeind, E.; Hasemann, C.; Klages, M.; Schewe, I.; Soltwedel, T.; Budaeva, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The HAUSGARTEN observatory is located in the eastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and used as long-term monitoring site to follow changes in the Arctic benthic ecosystem. Linear inverse modelling was applied to decipher carbon flows among the compartments of the benthic food web at the central HAUSGAR

  6. Too Distant Shores: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Space of Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovic, Milija

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on "The Sheep and the Whale" ("Le mouton et la baleine," 2001) by Moroccan-Canadian playwright Ahmed Ghazali, this essay examines political and ethical issues concerning human migration from Africa to Europe. The play's representation of human rights abuses in the Strait of Gibraltar and the dilemmas facing illegal migrants, refugees and…

  7. Report on the Hydroida collected by the "BALGIM" expedition in and around the Strait of Gibraltar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Vervoort, W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 102 species and varieties of hydroids and three unidentifiable species are described or mentioned in the present report, which deals principally with hydroids collected in the IberoMoroccan Bay (and adjacent Atlantic), the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Alboran Sea; for revisionary purposes

  8. 76 FR 21330 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Juneau, Alaska, April 25, 2011. The purpose of this meeting is to orient the new appointees as to the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2008, provide operational guidelines, discuss and adopt specific bylaws for the RAC, and elect a RAC...

  9. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas... located near Port Angeles, Washington: Point 1: 48°07′24″ N, 123°25′32″ W; Point 2: 48°07′26″ N,...

  10. Too Distant Shores: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Space of Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovic, Milija

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on "The Sheep and the Whale" ("Le mouton et la baleine," 2001) by Moroccan-Canadian playwright Ahmed Ghazali, this essay examines political and ethical issues concerning human migration from Africa to Europe. The play's representation of human rights abuses in the Strait of Gibraltar and the dilemmas facing illegal…

  11. Plumularian hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; Vervoort, W.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four species of plumularian hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Strait of Gibraltar area are described and figured, including material from the coasts of southern Spain (between El Portil near the Spanish-Portuguese border and Adra, Mediterranean coast of Granada, c. 3°W) and from Ceuta in

  12. A particle-tracking model for simulating pollutant dispersion in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R

    2004-10-01

    A particle-tracking model to simulate the dispersion of contaminants in the Strait of Gibraltar has been developed. The model solves the hydrodynamic equations off-line and tidal analysis is carried out to determine tidal constants for the two main constituents. Tidal constants and residuals are stored in files that are read by the dispersion model. A lagrangian approach is used to solve dispersion; diffusion and decay are simulated by a Monte Carlo method. A method for assessing the areas of the Strait with higher probability of being affected by contamination occurring after an accident in the shipping routes is given. Generally speaking, the fate of a pollutant discharge strongly depends on wind conditions. Winds from the east tend to retain contamination into the Strait. As a consequence, transverse mixing occurs and both Spain and Morocco coasts are affected by contamination. Under calm conditions and west winds, contaminants are flushed out of the Strait faster and transverse mixing does not occur. Thus, only part of Morocco coast has a higher probability of being affected by contamination.

  13. The family Haleciidae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; García, F.G.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    A faunistic study of the family Haleciidae from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas has been made; seven species are described, figured and discussed. Information about the zoogeographical distribution, and conditions of substrates are contributed. A key to distinguish the species of this famil

  14. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  15. Managing Stability in the Taiwan Strait: Non-Military Policy towards Taiwan under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ueh Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach with coercion (the “carrot” approach, a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, under Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.

  16. Hydraulic theory of sea straits applied to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Theory for the dynamics of flow in sea straits holds promise to provide, in addition to geological evidence, insight into the configuration of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This paper, for the first time, systematic

  17. Water mass of the northward throughflow in the Bering Strait in the summer of 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jinping; SHI Jiuxin; GAO Guoping; JIAO Yutian; ZHANG Hongxin

    2006-01-01

    The temperature and salinity data obtained by the Chinese national arctic research expedition (CHINARE2003) are used to study the water structure in the Bering Strait and ambient regions. Four water masses appeared in the research region: the intermediate Bering Sea water mass (IBWM), the Alaska coastal water (ACW), the Anadyr water (AW) and the Bering shelf water (BSW). The AW originates from the IBWM, but the upper layer water has been greatly altered. In the cruise on 28/29 July 2003, there were only the BSW and ACW in a section across the Bering Strait (BS section), but in the September 12/13 cruise, the AW, BSW and ACW flowed parallelly into the Bering Strait. The upper waters of these water masses were all altered due to ice melting, runoff, solar radiation, and wind mixing. The waters in the central and northern parts of Bering Strait stratified by two uniform layers,were expressed as the typical feature of the water masses originating from the pacific. A two-layer structure also dominated the vertical stratification in most part of the Chukchi Sea. An obvious subseasonal variation was observed in the BS section, which caused varying transportation of fresh water,heat, and substance, and produced a long-term and extensive impact on the Arctic Ocean.

  18. Last Glacial - Holocene stratigraphic development at the Marmara Sea exit of the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köprülü, Kerem; Alpar, Bedri; Vardar, Denizhan

    2016-03-01

    High resolution Chirp and Sparker data allowed definition and mapping of distinct seismic units in the shallow sediment record (~100 ms) acquired from the southern exit of the Bosphorus Strait; a dynamic depositional environment. The bottommost unit observed in the Chirp data (unit-3) is made up of marine-lacustrine sediments thinning seaward and onlaps the basement rocks which are represented by folded strata in the Sparker data, possibly lower to middle Pleistocene age. It is overlain by a series of prograding deposits along the shelf (unit-2) referring to sediment input from the northern sector depending on the water levels of the paleo Marmara lake's during MIS 3. The uppermost deposits (unit-1) close to the Bosphorus Strait were represented by three separate subunits, unlike to relatively thin drape of sediments observed at the other places in the surrounding regions. The detailed definition of these subunits deduced from the closely-spaced reflection profiles and available radiocarbon ages helped to explain the history of the latest stratigraphic development depending on the connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In addition to the previously proposed major conduits, which controlled the sedimentary deposition at the southern exit of the Bosphorus, namely the Bosphorus Strait and Kurbağalıdere River, another submarine sedimentary pathway at the eastern bank of the strait's channel seems to have delivered sediments directly into the basin.

  19. Interactions between walleyes and smallmouth bass in a Missouri River reservoir with consideration of the influence of temperature and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Chipps, Steven R.; Willis, David W.; Adams, Wells E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced to provide new angling opportunities. Some walleye anglers have reported reductions in the quality of walleye fisheries since the introduction of smallmouth bass and attribute this to the consumption of young walleyes by smallmouth bass and competition for shared prey resources. We quantified the diets of walleyes and smallmouth bass in the lower reaches of Lake Sharpe (a Missouri River reservoir), calculated the diet overlap between the two predators, and determined whether they partitioned shared prey based on size. We also quantified walleye diets in the upper reach of the reservoir, which has a different prey base and allowed us to compare the growth rates of walleyes within Lake Sharpe. Age-0 gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum composed a substantial proportion of the diets of both predators, regardless of location, for most of the growing season; the patterns in shad vulnerability appeared to drive the observed patterns in diet overlap. Smallmouth bass appeared to consume a smaller size range of gizzard shad than did walleyes, which consumed a wide range. Smallmouth bass consumed Sander spp. in some months, but in very low quantities. Given that global climate change is expected to alter the population and community dynamics in Great Plains reservoirs, we also used a bioenergetics approach to predict the potential effects of limiting prey availability (specifically, the absence of gizzard shad and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax) and increased water temperatures (as projected from global climate change models) on walleye and smallmouth bass growth. The models indicated that the absence of rainbow smelt from the diets of walleyes in upper Lake Sharpe would reduce growth but that the absence of gizzard shad would have a more marked negative effect on both predators at both locations. The models also indicated that higher

  20. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily) tidal upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, F.; Decembrini, F.; Raffa, F.; Crisafi, E.

    2007-10-01

    In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements onboard dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during high tide and northward during low tide. During the low water slack tide, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were found, while at the high water slack tide, a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn due to a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they were inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones during winter, while in summer it was found in the middle of the Straits and in the southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, the maximum chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 μg-Chla l-1); in summer, when back and forth tidal movements between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas intensify, decreased values were observed throughout the study area. The data set obtained through continuous and repeatable samplings has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong and dynamic environment. The Straits system could be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, initially enriches itself and subsequently provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  1. The Two Branches of the Recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Schauer, Ursula; Hattermann, Tore; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard is one of the two gateways by which warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean providing oceanic heat. The West Spitsbergen Current advects the warm water northward in the eastern Fram Strait. However, only some of this water stays in the boundary current and enters the Arctic Ocean. Another part leaves the boundary current and flows westward across Fram Strait before turning southward in the East Greenland Current. This recirculation of Atlantic Water corresponds with the ice edge in Fram Strait and the two likely depend on each other. Here we present results from a high resolution regional numerical model that shows the recirculation to consist of two branches. The northern branch depends on eddy fluxes while the southern branch exhibits less high frequency variability. We also present a compilation of different observational data in the center of Fram Strait around 0°EW that give insight into the structure of the southern recirculation branch near the ice edge. A glider section resolves the small horizontal scale over which the geostrophic flow occurs. Several meridional CTD sections capture the differences and similarities between different summers. Moorings and Argo floats provide information in winter as well. These observations are compared to the representation of the recirculation in the numerical model. We show that the southern recirculation occurs over a small horizontal distance of about 20km in the vicinity of 79°N and is significantly stronger in winter than in summer. While there is cold freshwater at the surface north of the front, the temperature down to 500m is much higher in the recirculation than further south.

  2. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  3. Multidecadal freshening and lightening in the deep waters of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Tiago S.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Mata, Mauricio M.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The deep waters of the Bransfield Strait receive considerable amounts of water from the Weddell Sea continental shelf. The restricted connections to the surrounding ocean and relatively easier access makes the Bransfield Strait an important proxy region for monitoring changes in the dense Weddell Sea shelf water masses, which are an important precursor of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Long-term hydrographic data from the period 1960s-2010s showed freshening and lightening of the deep water masses of the Bransfield Strait, which was likely caused by large freshwater inputs originating from the western shelf of the Weddell Sea. The rates of freshening and lightening were -0.0010 ± 0.0005 yr-1 and -0.0016 ± 0.0014 kg m-3 yr-1 for the central basin, respectively, and -0.0010 ± 0.0006 yr-1 and -0.0029 ± 0.0013 kg m-3 yr-1 for the eastern basin, respectively. The deep waters showed a high degree of interannual thermohaline variability, which appeared to be caused by changes in the proportions of source water mass mixing between the years. Statistically significant negative correlations between salinity/neutral density fields and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) were observed (-0.56 and -0.62 for the central basin, respectively, and -0.58 and -0.68 for the eastern basin, respectively) between 1980 and 2014. During SAM positive phases, communication between the Weddell Sea and the Bransfield Strait is reduced, which leads to less saline and lighter water masses in the Bransfield Strait; however, the opposite trends are observed during SAM negative phases.

  4. Mediterranean waters along and across the Strait of Gibraltar, characterization and zonal modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; García-Lafuente, Jesús; Bellanco, María J.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Hydrological data collected in the Strait of Gibraltar have been used to examine the distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of the water masses in the area. The spatial variability has been addressed by means of a clustering method that determines the affinity of a collection of temperature-salinity samples to one of the water masses involved in the exchange. The method, which has been applied to a nearly-synoptic data set, highlights the clear evolution of the Mediterranean Waters as they flow westward through the Strait. While up to four different Mediterranean Waters are spatially distinguishable east of the main sill of Camarinal in the Strait, most of their differentiating characteristics are eroded after flowing over this restrictive topography due to mixing. West of the sill, therefore, speaking of a unique Mediterranean Water seems more appropriate. The same applies to the North Atlantic Central Water flowing in the opposite direction, which is noticeably modified along its path to the Mediterranean Sea, most of its transformation taking place in the Camarinal sill surroundings. A series of repeated transects carried out in the eastern and western sides of the Strait, provided a temporal analysis of the water masses evolution: the temporal variability manifests seasonality in the surface waters, while interannual signal is mainly detected in the deeper water masses. It is worth remarking the statistically significant positive trend of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (0.009 °C/year) and Winter Intermediate Water (0.03 °C/year), with the latter showing also intermittent occurrence in the Strait.

  5. Geological Features Inferred from Local Seismic Tomography in the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly

  6. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily tidal upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azzaro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements on board dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during the high tide and northward during the low tide.

    During the low water slack, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were mainly found, while in the high water slack a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn, in coincidence of a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they are inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, during winter, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones, while in summer it involved the middle of the Straits and southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, maximum of chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 µg-Chla l-1; in summer, when back and forth tidal movements become intense between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas, values was everywhere lower.

    The data set from continuous and repeatable acquisition has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong dynamic environment.

    The Straits system can be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, before enriched itself and then it provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  7. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using the transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 0.025 Pg C yr−1. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.2 Tg C yr−1. A carbon balance through the Strait was assessed and fluxes are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area. This work unequivocally confirms the relevant role of the Strait of Gibraltar as a controlling point for the biogeochemical exchanges occurring between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and emphasizes the influence of the Mediterranean basin in the carbon inventories of the North Atlantic.

  8. Continuous Tidal Streamflow and Gage-Height Data for Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Erbland, John W.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of Bass and Cinder Creeks on Kiawah Island, South Carolina, was developed to evaluate methodologies for determining fecal coliform total maximum daily loads for shellfish waters. To calibrate the model, two index-velocity sites on the creeks were instrumented with continuous acoustic velocity meters and water-level sensors to compute a 21-day continuous record of tidal streamflows. In addition to monitoring tidal cycles, streamflow measurements were made at the index-velocity sites, and tidal-cycle streamflow measurements were made at the mouth of Bass Creek and on the Stono River to characterize the streamflow dynamics near the ocean boundary of the three-dimensional model at the beginning, September 6, 2007, and end, September 26, 2007, of the index-velocity meter deployment. The maximum floodtide and ebbtide measured on the Stono River by the mouth of Bass Creek for the two measurements were -155,000 and 170,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). At the mouth of Bass Creek, the maximum floodtide and ebbtide measurements during the 2 measurement days were +/-10,200 ft3/s. Tidal streamflows for the 21-day deployment on Bass Creek ranged from -2,510 ft3/s for an incoming tide to 4,360 ft3/s for an outgoing tide. On Cinder Creek, the incoming and outgoing tide varied from -2,180 to 2,400 ft3/s during the same period.

  9. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yueh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE, which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata, Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi, and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus. Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL, showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALLMOUTH BASS QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY TO MEASURE VTG GENE INDUCTION IN MALE FISH FROM THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE POTOMAC RIVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high incidence of intersex bass, primarily male smallmouth bass with previtellogenic oocytes, exists in the south branch of the Potomac River. Exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be the cause of these abnormalities. Potential sources of EDCs to the river are ...

  11. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  12. Changes in concentrations of selenium and mercury in largemouth bass following elimination of fly ash discharge to a quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, G R; Peterson, M J; Turner, R R

    1994-07-01

    Elimination of slurried fly ash discharges to a water-filled quarry was followed by a steady increase in concentrations of mercury in the axial muscle of resident largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Average mercury concentrations in bass (adjusted for covariance with fish weight) increased from 0.02 micrograms/g to 0.17 micrograms/g in three years. Aqueous selenium concentrations in the quarry decreased from 25 micrograms/L to < 2 micrograms/L after elimination of fly ash discharges, but selenium concentrations in bass remained about three times background levels. Previous studies have shown selenium addition to be a viable means of ameliorating mercury contamination in fish in low alkalinity, low pH waters of northern Europe and Canada. These results suggest that selenium may also be effective at blocking the accumulation of methylmercury in harder, more alkaline waters.

  13. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 1982 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0087879)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in the Florida Strait...

  14. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NCEI Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  15. Optimal estimation of absolute geostrophic velocity field in vicinity of the Luzon Strait using variational data assimilation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰健; 王东晓

    2002-01-01

    A P - vector method is opt'inized using the variational data assimilation technique (VDAT). The absolute geostrophic velocity fields in the vicinity of the Luzon Strait (LS) are calculated, the spatial structures and seasonal variations o{ the absolute geostrophic velocity field are investigated. Our results show that the Kuroshio enters the South China Sea (SCS) in the south and middle of the Luzon Strait and flows out in the north, so the Kuroshio makes a slight clockwise curve in the Luzon Strait, and the curve is strong in winter and weak in summer. During the winter, a westward current appears in the surface, and locates at the west of the Luzon Strait. It is the north part of a cyclonic gyre which exits in the northeast of the SCS; an anti-cyclonic gyre occurs on the intermediate level, and it exits in the northeast of the SCS, and an eastward current exits in the southeast of the anti-cyclonic gyre.

  16. Derelict Gear - Impacts of derelict fishing gear on marine fauna in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits have experienced a long history of commercial fishing activity. Although much of this fishing activity no longer takes place,...

  17. There's More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won't Dance to Techno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C; Hofmann, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM) and raters' perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec.) representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a) the high-frequency band, (b) the mid-frequency band, and (c) the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d) dynamics, and (e) timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a) isochronous bass and static timbres, (b) isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c) non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d) non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99) were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9), affective (n = 9), and psychomotor (n = 3) domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of "non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies" demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of "isochronous bass with static timbres" demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters' responses for those with a musical preference for "contemporary" music, "sophisticated" music, and "intense" music.

  18. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  19. An overview of the theta - S correlations in Fram Strait based on the MIZEX 84 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Schlichtholz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The water masses in Fram Strait have been analyzed on the basis of hydrographic casts taken in summer 1984 during the MIZEX 84 experiment. In particular, theta-S diagrams for 16 areas, each 5o in longitude and 1o in latitude, covering the strait from 77oN to 81oN are used to characterize the water masses and discuss their possible origin. Near the surface, the East Greenland Polar Front clearly separates the lighter, cold and fresh Polar Water (PW from the heavier, warm and saline Atlantic Water (AW. In the upper ocean, the data show a large spreading of the temperature maximum in the theta-S space associated with different modes of the AW recirculating southward below the PW. Two geographically distinct salinity minima are found in the intermediate layer below the AW. The denser one, in the Boreas Basin, is a feature typical of the Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW formed by winter convection to the south of the strait, while the lighter one is sandwiched in the Arctic Ocean outflow between the AW layer and the Upper Polar Deep Water (UPDW characterized by a downward salinity increase. In the deep layer, two salinity maxima are present. The shallower (and warmer one, associated with the Canadian Basin Deep Water (CBDW, appears all along the East Greenland Slope. A similar but weaker maximum is also found in the southeastern part of the strait. This maximum is perhaps a remnant of the maximum in the East Greenland Current after it has been recirculated back to the strait around the cyclonic gyres of the Nordic Seas. The deeper one appears typically as a near-bottom salinity jump characteristic of the Eurasian Basin Deep Water (EBDW. The jump is found in two distinct areas of the strait, to the north-west in the Lena Trough and to the south-east in the rift valley of the Knipovich Ridge. The maximum in the former area should have been advected from the Arctic Ocean below the CBDW, while the maximum in the latter area might have originated from

  20. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed using two methods, the ΔC* and the TrOCA approach. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using a value of −0.85 Sv for the average transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 25±0.6 Tg C yr−1. A net alkalinity output of 16±0.6 Tg C yr−1 was also observed to occur through the Strait. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.20±0.04 Tg C yr−1 by using the ΔC* method, which constituted the most adequate approach for this environment. A carbon balance in the Mediterranean was assessed and fluxes through the Strait are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area and the different approaches

  1. Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, A; López-Pérez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernández, F; Rubio, C; Hernández-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population.

  2. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) switch feeding modalities in response to sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Jayne M; Motta, Philip J

    2012-04-01

    Animals use a suite of sensory modalities to precisely locate and capture prey. While numerous studies have examined the effects of sensory deprivation on the behaviors leading to prey capture and while it is generally believed that information in the pre-strike period determines the way fish capture prey, this study is the first to examine the contribution of sensory information to jaw kinematics during capture. Largemouth bass were filmed using high-speed videography while capturing live mosquitofish. Bass were examined intact, with visual deprivation under infrared light, and with lateral line deprivation following treatment with cobalt chloride. Deprived of visual cues, this visual ram-feeding predator switches towards suction-based feeding to successfully capture prey. They approach prey slowly but open their mouths more rapidly, which has been shown to result in greater buccal pressure, causing their prey to move a greater distance at a more rapid velocity as they are being drawn into the predators' mouths. Deprived of lateral line cues, bass have higher forward velocities during capture and capture prey earlier in the gape cycle. This study demonstrates that sensory pre-strike information directly affects the capture modality employed by fishes and that fish can modulate between ram and suction not only by adjusting the amount of ram by increasing or decreasing their movements, but also by actively increasing the amount of suction used. These results suggest that the ability to modulate feeding behavior may allow animals to not only exploit a broader breadth of prey items, but also to be capable of doing so in a wider variety of environments.

  3. Quand les morts reviennent… Réflexion sur l’ancestralité chez les Mayas des Basses Terres

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guen, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Quand les morts reviennent… Réflexion sur l’ancestralité chez les Mayas des Basses Terres. Le culte des ancêtres est souvent évoqué dans la littérature ethnologique amérindienne, sans que soit pourtant établie son existence. Cet article s’attache à montrer que certains groupes mayas des Basses Terres pratiquent un culte familial des ancêtres, dont le jour des morts, ou hanal pixan, apparaît comme la manifestation la plus prégnante. Nous fonderons notre raisonnement sur des critères précis emp...

  4. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  5. Dietary TAG source and level affect performance and lipase expression in larval sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The influence of dietary TAG source (fish oil, triolein, and coconut oil) and level (7.5 and 15% of the diet) on growth, lipase activity, and mRNA level was studied in sea bass larvae, from mouth opening until day 24 and from day 37 to 52. Fish oil and triolein induced better growth in both experiments, this being significant at a higher dietary level. Coconut oil significantly decreased growth at the higher level, possibly as the result of an excessive supply of medium-chain TAG. Growth was ...

  6. Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scapigliati, G.; Buonocore, F.; Randelli, E.;

    2010-01-01

    Naïve sea bass juveniles (38.4 ± 4.5 g) were intramuscularly infected with a sublethal dose of betanodavirus isolate 378/I03, followed after 43 days by a similar boosting. This infection resulted in an overall mortality of 7.6%. At various intervals, sampling of fish tissues was performed to inve...... was also observed, while the other tested genes did not show any significant variations with respect to mock-treated fish. Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus....

  7. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  8. IGF-I and branchial IGF receptor expression and localization during salinity acclimation in striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Luckenbach, John Adam; Madsen, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of the IGF-I system and the expression and cellular localization of IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR) were studied in the gill of a euryhaline teleost during salinity acclimation. Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic challenges induced small...... in either plasma IGF-I, liver, or gill IGF-I mRNA, or gill IGF-IR mRNA levels. In a separate experiment, FW-acclimated fish were injected with saline or IGF-I prior to a 24-h SW challenge. Rapid regain of osmotic balance following SW transfer was hindered by IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry revealed...

  9. Biochemical and nutritional traits of sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax from different rearing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Santulli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, sampled from three different culture systems (intensive in sea-cages, intensive in land-based basins and extensive in lagoon and storage basins of salt-work, of the Northern, Central and Southern Italy, were analyzed with the aim to employ nutritional trait to describe and to distinguish the “origin” of the product. Lipid and fatty acid profile, strongly affected by the feeding history and environmental factors, responsible of the nu- tritional and perceived quality of fish product, are proposed as marker of origin.

  10. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  11. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  12. An operative lagrangian model for simulating radioactivity dispersion in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R

    2005-01-01

    GISPART (GIbraltar Strait PARticle Tracking model) is a three-dimensional particle tracking code to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the Strait of Gibraltar. It consists of a hydrodynamic module that is run off-line to determine tidal constants and residuals in the domain. This information is stored in several files that are read by the dispersion module to reconstruct water movements. The dispersion module uses a lagrangian approach. Thus, a radionuclide release is simulated by a number of particles, whose paths are computed individually. Radionuclide concentrations are obtained from the density of particles per water volume unit. Some examples of results are shown. The model is also available on-line.

  13. Spatial and temporal variations of Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes in the Taiwan Strait, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bangqin; LIN Xueju; HONG Huasheng

    2009-01-01

    The size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass, and the spatial and temporal variations in abundance of Synechococcus (SYN) and picoeukaryotes (PEUK) were measured in the Taiwan Strait during three cruises (August 1997, February-March 1998, and August 1998). The results show that picophytoplankton and nanophytoplankton dominate the phytoplankton biomass, in average of 38% and 40%, respectively. SYN and PEUK varied over time in abundance and carbon biomass, greater in summer than in winter, in range of (7.70-209.2)×106 and (0.75-15.4)×106 cells/cm2 in the abundance, and 1.93-52.3 and 1.57-32.4 mgC/cm2 in the carbon biomass, for SYN and PEUK, respectively. The horizontal distributions of both groups were diurnal but heterogeneous in abundance, depending on the groups and layer of depths. Temperature is the key controlling factor for picophytoplankton distribution (especially in winter) in the Strait.

  14. Prospect for Petroleum Industry Exchange & Cooperation Between Bath Sides of Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xunyue; HUO Fu

    1996-01-01

    @@ With the First Conference of the Petroleum Science and Technology between both sides of the Taiwan Straits successfully held in Taiwan last year, the exchange and cooperation in the petroleum industry between both sides has made the first step forward. The Chinese nation is an outstanding nation. To gain a floor for China in the world,both sides of the Straits must, on the premise of mutual complement and mutual benefit, strengthen their mutual exchange and cooperation as well as the trade contacts so as to promote their common prosperity. This point was a common understanding in the discussion of Mr. Chang Tzu-yuan, Chairman of Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).This belief is further strengthened, when Mr. Chang Tzuyuan came to the mainland as a return visit in midNovember 1995.

  15. Zooplankton distribution across Fram Strait in autumn: Are small copepods and protozooplankton important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Camilla; Seuthe, Lena; Vasilyeva, Yulia; Pasternak, Anna; Hansen, Edmond

    2011-12-01

    We investigated zooplankton distribution in September 2006/2007 at eight stations across Fram Strait in contrasting water masses ranging from cold Polar water to warm Atlantic water. Our main objectives were: (1) to describe the plankton community in the upper 200 m during autumn, and (2) to investigate the importance of small-sized copepods and protozooplankton in an arctic ecosystem when the majority of the large Calanus species had entered diapause. We sampled both with a WP-2 net and Go-Flo bottle and show that small copepods food. Heterotrophic protozooplankton, on the other hand, were most likely bottom-up regulated by the availability of phytoplankton food and conclude that there was a strong link between the zooplankton community and the microbial food web in Fram Strait.

  16. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; von Appen, W.-J.

    2015-09-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian - Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 μmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 μmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10-35 μmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  17. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai Wang; Juin-Fu Chai; Yu-Wen Chang; Ti-Ying Huang; Yu-Shu Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first un...

  18. Observations on the Characteristics of the Exchange Flow in the Daranelles Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Under- sea Research Center ( NURC ) in collaboration with the Turkish Navy Office of Navigation, Hydrography...from the R/V Alliance (a NATO NURC research vessel) as a part of TSS08 ( NURC project) and “Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits” (EPOS, NRL project...research project “Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits (EPOS)” under Program Element 61153N. We would like to thank everyone from the NATO NURC and the

  19. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  20. Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Manongko, J. D. I.

    2016-04-01

    This study intended for the generation of hydroelectric power at suitable area of the strait in order to provide electric current to a close environment. The project uses a three-dimensional model of taking flow into account the variation of hydrostatic pressure in the liquid vertical layers. We brought back to a two-dimensional calculation using the shallow water equations. The objectives of the study are getting simultaneous obtaining the velocities of currents by the component of velocities and distributions of the kinetic energy from the numerical results. The Bunaken strait is 5280 m width for an average depth of 130 m. Numerical calculation is simulated using horizontal meshes of 60 side meters. The numerical solutions obtained by using a time step of one second. It found that there was no great difference between 2D and 3D numerical simulations because the effect of flow velocity in the vertical direction is very small. The numerical results have shown that the average current velocities when low and high tide currents are 1.46 m/s and 0.85 m/s respectively. The kinetic energy ranged from 0.01 to 2.54 kW/m2 when low and high tide in the Bunaken strait area at discharge of 1 Sv, whereas at discharge 2 Sv, 0.11-17.40 kW/m2 and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when low and high tide currents). These results can used in the design of turbines for power generation marine currents in the Bunaken strait at depths below 60 meters.

  1. Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits - ESR Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits – ESR Component Amy Ffield Earth & Space Research , 290...N0001406C0578 http://www.esr.org LONG-TERM GOALS To determine the impact of the regional oceanographic and atmospheric mean and variable ...Surface Temperature: Analysis of the OI Infrared Satellite SST reveals that the SST in the Philippine Archipelago region has significant variability

  2. 77 FR 55452 - Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...The Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee (LC-IS RAC) will meet in Juneau, AK. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 112- 141) (the Act) and operates in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations......

  3. The Application of Fucus vesiculosus as a Bioindicator of 60Co Concentrations in the Danish Straits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of 60Co in the Danish Straits is investigated by applying the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator. In order to describe different dispersion situations, three areas have been studied separately: the North Sea, where it is possible to measure 60Co from sources in France and...... of distance from Barsebäck. Problems of uncertainty related to differences in environmental parameters are discussed and new investigations to improve the use of Fucus as a bioindicator are suggested....

  4. Deep Mediterranean Water footprint measured in the Strait of Gibraltar during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Rosa, Cristina; García Lafuente, Jesús; Sammartino, Simone; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Deep Mediterranean Water is formed during winter in the Mediterranean Sea due to atmospheric cooling of salty Mediterranean waters. When it reaches the Strait of Gibraltar it finally flows westward into the Atlantic, from where it begins to descend the continental slope by gravity while it mixes with the overlying waters and becomes lighter. Far beyond the strait itself it maintains a recognizable signal and so affects the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, the Strait of Gibraltar is the perfect site to monitor the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean Sea just before Mediterranean Waters incorporate to the Atlantic circulation. From October 2004 until today the Temperature and Salinity of the Mediterranean outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar have been monitored, resulting in a long-term temporal series with more than 11 years of measurements. A Conductivity-Temperature sensor is placed around 12 meters above the seafloor in the Espartel Sill (35°56'N 5°45'W), the last constriction the Mediterranean deep water finds before leaving the Mediterranean, and is configured to take measurements every 30 minutes. The instrument has been collecting data almost continuously from 2004, except for a 2.5 month gap in 2009 and a 5 months gap during 2011. This record allows the study of the long-term trend and the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean during the last 11 years. First results show a mean temperature of the deep Mediterranean waters of 13.20±0.06 °C and a mean salinity of 38.39±0.02. It is noteworthy the cold signals registered in 2006 and 2013, which could be the result of the severe winters of 2005 and 2012 in Europe, and the positive trend in 2015 toward warmer values. No significant trends have been found for the whole period. On the other hand, the time series exhibits a noticeable interannual variability that merits a deeper analysis.

  5. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stöven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA data set along 78°50′ N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian – Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5–0.8 fmol kg−1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500–1600 m. The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50–55 μmol kg−1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40–45 μmol kg−1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10–35 μmol kg−1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  6. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  7. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  8. "Dancing with the stars" - astronomy and music in the Torres Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2016-01-01

    Song and dance are a traditional means of strengthening culture and passing knowledge to successive generations in the Torres Strait of northeastern Australia. Dances incorporate a range of apparatuses to enhance the performance, such as dance machines (Zamiyakal) and headdresses (Dhari). The dances, songs, headdresses and dance machines work together to transfer important knowledge about subsistence survival, social structure, and cultural continuity. This paper explores how celestial phenomena inspire and inform music and dance.

  9. Options for managing the sustainable use of green turtles: Perceptions of Hammond Islanders in Torres Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Jillian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest populations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas in the world spends at least part of its life cycle in the remote Torres Strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea. This population is subjected to traditional harvests from geographically dispersed communities including along the northern and eastern coasts of Australia, Indonesia and south-western Pacific nations. In Torres Strait, green turtle hunting is classed as a traditional fishery and is guaranteed by Australian legislation (Native Title Act 1993 and the Torres Strait Treaty between Australia and Papua New Guinea that aims to protect the traditional lifestyle of the region′s indigenous peoples. To investigate the Islanders′ thoughts and aspirations regarding marine turtle management, we interviewed hunters and Islander Elders from the Hammond Island community in the Kaurareg nation of Kaiwalagal. Although not the Traditional Owners of the Kaiwalagal sea country in which they live and hunt, Hammond Islanders wish to be involved in the management of resources on which they depend, including marine turtles. They considered community-based processes to be important, especially the application of (1 cultural norms to the development of tools to achieve compliance and enforcement within the community, and (2 consensus-based decision-making amongst hunters and elders within the community, with regard to the use of more formal rules. However, the need for co-operation with other communities and stakeholders across scales was also recognised, particularly with regard to enforcement. Our results suggest that co-management is likely to be a more appropriate approach for managing green turtles in Torres Strait than either community-based management or government-driven management.

  10. Enforcing Ship-Based Marine Pollution for Cleaner Sea in the Strait of Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarji Kasmin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Strait of Malacca is most susceptible to ship-based marine pollution such as oil and grease due to the heavy volume of shipping in the Strait. By nature, oil is toxic to marine life, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, one of the main components in crude oil that is very difficult to clean up, and could remain for years in the sediment and marine environment. Marine species that are constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems and are more susceptible to diseases. The number of ships passing through the Strait in 2000 was 55,957 and increased to 62,621 ships 5 years later. In 2007, the traffic volume increased to 70,718 ships. During the five-year period from 2000 to 2005, there were 144 cases of oil spills into the sea. One hundred eight cases were due to illegal discharge of dirty oil. However, only 32 ships were charged and subsequently, 14 ships were found guilty. This paper analyses the challenges faced by the Malaysian maritime enforcement agencies in enforcing the Environmental Quality Act 1974 in the Strait of Malacca. Some of these challenges relate to the maritime enforcement agencies’ short-comings, nature of the Strait’s users and the legal processes to bring offenders to court. Based on the analyses, it was revealed that the responsible agencies are inadequately equipped and trained to deal with the illegal discharge of dirty oil into the sea. In order to overcome these weaknesses, several new initiatives are suggested.

  11. Port and Waterway Safety Assessment: Haro Strait/Boundary Pass USA - Canada Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-26

    Strait. Small vessel operator certifications are highly regulated by Transport Canada. USA tug operators are certified. Crew is STCW certificated...Deep-sea fleet is regulated by PSC. For Alaskan fishing vessels, 90% have STCW certificates on vessels of 200 gross tons and larger. All...Canadian tugboat deck officers are certified in accordance with STCW . In some cases, there are two pilots on 40,000 DWT tankers when transiting (Canada

  12. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof

    2016-12-01

    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  13. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  14. Optimal estimation of zonal velocity and transport through Luzon Strait using variational data assimilation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Jian; BAO Xianwen; GAO Guoping

    2004-01-01

    A P-vector method was optimized using variational data assimilation technique, with which the vertical structures and seasonal variations of zonal velocities and transports were investigated. The results showed that westward and eastward flowes occur in the Luzon Strait in the same period in a year. However the net volume transport is westward. In the upper level (0m - -500m),the westward flow exits in the middle and south of the Luzon Strait, and the eastward flow exits in the north. There are two centers of westward flow and one center of eastward flow. In the middle of the Luzon Strait, westward and eastward flowes appear alternately in vertical direction. The westward flow strengthens in winter and weakens in summer. The net volume transport is strong in winter (5.53 Sv) but weak in summer (0.29 Sv). Except in summer, the volume transport in the upper level accounts for more than half of the total volume transport (0m - bottom). In summer, the net volume transport in the upper level is eastward (1.01 Sv), but westward underneath.

  15. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-12-10

    The hydrodynamic model used in this study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) developed by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. The unstructured grid and finite volume framework, as well as the capability of wetting/drying simulation and baroclinic simulation, makes FVCOM a good fit to the modeling needs for nearshore restoration in Puget Sound. The model domain covers the entire Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Passages, and Georgia Strait at the United States-Canada Border. The model is driven by tide, freshwater discharge, and surface wind. Preliminary model validation was conducted for tides at various locations in the straits and Puget Sound using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide data. The hydrodynamic model was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model (GNOME) to predict particle trajectories at various locations in Puget Sound. Model results demonstrated that the Puget Sound GNOME model is a useful tool to obtain first-hand information for emergency response such as oil spill and fish migration pathways.

  16. Potential polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under two tidal regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-03-13

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell⁻¹. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  17. Domesticating Hybridity: Straits Chinese Cultural Heritage Projects in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Teoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literal and figurative domestication of Straits Chinese, or Peranakan, history in selected heritage projects in late twentieth-century Malaysia and Singapore. These projects simultaneously foreground Straits Chinese history as a symbol of interracial harmony and marginalize it as a cultural artifact. Over the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the ethnoculturally hybrid Straits Chinese positioned themselves as “the King’s Chinese,” champions of a Confucian-values renaissance, and citizens of independent Malaysia and Singapore. Their adaptability helped them survive the upheaval of imperialism, decolonization, and nation building, but it was also controversial for its suggestion of political flexibility. Today, Southeast Asian governments and the Peranakan themselves depict the community as a uniquely local model of ethnic integration. Museums and historic homes emphasize portrayals and consumption of supposedly feminine aspects of Peranakan culture (e.g., fashion and cuisine, while downplaying purportedly masculine elements (e.g., the possession of multiple nationalities. By conflating femininity, tradition, and racial hybridity, this approach reifies stereotypes about gender and cultural identity, and replaces transgressive potential with politically anodyne nostalgia and commercialization. As anxieties about race, national history, and belonging continue to undergird the modern polity, transnationalism and transculturalism are acceptable as long as they are confined to the past.

  18. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion.

  19. Synthetic hepcidin from fish: Uptake and protection against Vibrio anguillarum in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Acosta, Félix; Montero, Daniel; Guzmán, Fanny; Torres, Elisa; Vega, Belinda; Mercado, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The generation of a variety of new therapeutic agents to control and reduce the effects of pathogen in aquaculture is urgently needed. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the major components of the innate defenses and typically have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, absorption and distributions of exogenous AMPs for therapeutics application on farmed fish species need to be studied. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown the properties of hepcidin as an effective antimicrobial peptide produced in fish in response to LPS and iron. Therefore, we decided to investigate the antimicrobial activity of four synthetic variants of hepcidin against Vibrio anguillarum in vitro, and using the more effective peptide we demonstrated the pathogen's ability to protect against the infection in European Sea bass. Additionally the uptake of this peptide after ip injection was demonstrated, reaching its distribution organs such as intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The synthetic peptide did not show cytotoxic effects and significantly reduced the accumulated mortalities percentage (23.5%) compared to the European Sea bass control (72.5%) at day 21. In conclusion, synthetic hepcidin shows antimicrobial activity against V. anguillarum and the in vivo experiments suggest that synthetic hepcidin was distributed trough the different organs in the fish. Thus, synthetic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide could have high potential for therapeutic application in farmed fish species.

  20. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Spade, Daniel J; Blum, Jason L; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2011-02-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver.

  1. Competitive interactions between walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) under various controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, M.R.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Willis, D.W.; Galster, B.J.; Selch, T.M.; Chipps, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The range of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is expanding northward, creating new interactions with native predators, including walleye (Sander vitreus). We used a series of experiments to investigate competition between walleye (WAE) and smallmouth bass (SMB) at different life stages and light conditions, identified behaviors that allowed one fish to outcompete another, and evaluated whether prey switching mitigated competitive interactions. Juvenile and adult SMB appeared to outcompete WAE when fed during the daytime; neither species dominated when fed near dusk. Attack rates and capture efficiencies of both species were similar with an intra- or interspecific competitor, but SMB often exploited prey before the competitor had a chance to feed (exploitative competition) or displayed agonistic behaviors toward a potential competitor (interference competition). Prey selectivity of WAE or SMB did not differ when by themselves or with a potential competitor. These results indicate that SMB could outcompete WAE under limiting prey conditions due to the aggressive nature of SMB, but resources may be partitioned at least along a temporal scale. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.

    1988-05-01

    Dworshak Dam and Reservoir is a Corps of Engineers facility located on the North Fork Clearwater River 3.2 km upstream from the Mainstem Clearwater confluence. Since initial filling in 1971, conversion of 87 km of river habitat to a 6644 hectare impoundment has had a profound influence on resident fisheries. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative effort to study these impacts. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka assessment is included in the IDFG agreement, and is not addressed in this report. This project pertains primarily to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and forage species. For the period November 1987 through February 1988, an estimated 4339 angler-hours were expended to catch 430 rainbow trout. An estimated 20 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, 4 smallmouth bass, and 4 suckers Catostomus spp. were also caught. Catch rates were generally poor through the period, at .091 fish per hour for all species combined (excluding kokanee). Shasta strain hatchery rainbow trout were dominant in the creel, comprising 53.9 percent of the catch, although this strain was last planted in the reservoir in June 1986. Bank anglers caught a higher percentage (93.5 percent) of the total catch of Shasta strain rainbows than Kamloops strain rainbows (33.3 percent). 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Bertotti, M L; Modanese, G

    2016-01-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with a...

  4. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S.T.; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M.; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

  5. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with assortative and disassortative correlations and a case of inhomogeneous advertising where the publicity terms are "targeted" on the hubs while maintaining their total cost constant.

  6. Cloning and Characterization of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) Myostatin Encoding Gene and Its Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shengjie; BAI Junjie; WANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    Myostatin or GDF-8, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. In the present study, we obtained a 5.64kb sequence of myostatin encoding gene and its promoter from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The myostatin encoding gene consisted of three exons (488bp, 371 bp and 1779bp, respectively) and two introns (390bp and 855 bp, respectively). The intron-exon boundaries were conservative in comparison with those of mammalian myostatin encoding genes, whereas the size of introns was smaller than that of mammals. Se- quence analysis of 1.569kb of the largemouth bass myostatin gene promoter region revealed that it contained two TATA boxes, one CAAT box and nine putative E-boxes. Putative muscle growth response elements for myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), serum response factor (SRF), activator protein 1 (API), etc.. and muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF) were also detected. Some of the transcription factor binding sites were conserved among five teleost species. This information will be useful for studying the tran- scriptional regulation of myostatin in fish.

  7. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  8. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  9. The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Bailey, Sean W.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.

  10. Synthesizing Evidence to Assess the Causes of Smallmouth Bass Declines at the Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusual mortality events of smallmouth bass (SMB) have been observed in the Susquehanna River Basin annually since 2005 and have coincided with a decline in recruitment of young-of-year fish into the adult SMB population. In 2014, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Pro...

  11. The dietary branched chain amino acid requirements of hybrid striped bass(Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The requirements for branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are unknown in hybrid striped bass and necessary for formulating efficient and nutritious diets. Moreover, the dietary balance among these three amino acids can substantially influence the performance of meat animals fed those diets. The diet...

  12. Arctic Outflow West Of Greenland: Nine Years Of Volume And Freshwater Transports From Observations In Davis Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B.; Lee, C.; Petrie, B.; Moritz, R. E.; Kwok, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Arctic changes suggest alterations in the export of freshwater from the Arctic to the North Atlantic, with conceivable impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation. Approximately 50% of the Arctic outflow exits west of Greenland, traveling through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and into Baffin Bay before crossing Davis Strait. The CAA outflow contributes over 50% of the net southward freshwater outflow through Davis Strait. The remainder is deeper outflow from Baffin Bay, flow from the West Greenland Current and runoff from West Greenland and CAA glaciers. Since September 2004, an observational program in Davis Strait has quantified volume and freshwater transport variability. The year-round program includes velocity, temperature and salinity measurements from 15 moorings spanning the full width (330 km) of the strait accompanied by autonomous Seagliders surveys (average profile separation = 4 km) and autumn ship-based hydrographic sections. Over the shallow Baffin Island and West Greenland shelves, moored instrumentation provides temperature and salinity measurements near the ice-ocean interface. From 2004-2013, the average net volume and liquid freshwater transports are -1.6 ± 0.2 Sv, -94 ± 7 mSv, respectively (salinity referenced to 34.8 and negative indicates southward transport); sea ice contributes an additional -10 ± 1 mSv. Over this period, volume and liquid freshwater transports show significant interannual variability and no clear trends, but a comparison with reanalyzed 1987-90 data indicate a roughly 40% decrease in net southward liquid volume transport and a corresponding an almost 30% decrease in freshwater transport. Connections between the Arctic are also captured, e.g., a unique yearlong Davis Strait freshening event starting September 2009 that was likely driven by an earlier freshening (January 2009 - April/May 2010) in the Canadian Arctic. The Davis Strait autumn 2009 salinity minimum was fresher (by about 0

  13. Rates of cortisol increase and decrease in channel catfish and sunshine bass exposed to an acute confinement stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth B; Small, Brian C

    2006-05-01

    Channel catfish and sunshine bass were exposed to a low-water stress event and allowed to recover in fresh water or a solution of metomidate (dl-1-(1-phenylethyl)-5-(metoxycarbonyl) imidazole hydrochloride), which inhibits the synthesis of cortisol. Change in time of plasma cortisol was used as an index of cortisol secretion and clearance. Plasma cortisol and glucose increased during the exposure to low-water stress in both fish, but the changes of both plasma components were more dramatic in sunshine bass. Exposure to metomidate during recovery resulted in a short-term increase in plasma glucose but differences between controls and metomidate-exposed fish were relatively minor thereafter. Cortisol began to decrease in catfish immediately after the removal of the stress but continued to increase for 15 min in sunshine bass recovering in fresh water and for 5 min in bass recovering in metomidate. Catfish recovering in fresh water had a cortisol elimination rate of -1.28 ng/mL/min compared with -2.45 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05) while sunshine bass recovering in fresh water had an elimination rate of -6.96 ng/mL/min compared with -4.50 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05). These data indicate that the rapid decrease of plasma cortisol after removal of the stressor is due to an almost immediate decrease of secretion, tissue uptake and a rapid renal loss due to the absence of a plasma binding protein.

  14. Transcriptome assembly and identification of genes and SNPs associated with growth traits in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Liu, Hao; Bai, Junjie; Zhu, Xinping

    2017-04-01

    Growth is one of the most crucial economic traits of all aquaculture species, but the molecular mechanisms involved in growth of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to screen growth-related genes of M. salmoides by RNA sequencing and identify growth-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers through a growth association study. The muscle transcriptomes of fast- and slow-growing largemouth bass were obtained using the RNA-Seq technique. A total of 54,058,178 and 54,742,444 qualified Illumina read pairs were obtained for the fast-growing and slow-growing groups, respectively, giving rise to 4,865,236,020 and 4,926,819,960 total clean bases, respectively. Gene expression profiling showed that 3,530 unigenes were differentially expressed between the fast-growing and slow-growing phenotypes (false discovery rate ≤0.001, the absolute value of log2 (fold change) ≥1), including 1,441 up-regulated and 2,889 down-regulated unigenes in the fast-growing largemouth bass. Analysis of these genes revealed that several signalling pathways, including the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis and signalling pathway, the glycolysis pathway, and the myostatin/transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway, as well as heat shock protein, cytoskeleton, and myofibril component genes might be associated with muscle growth. From these genes, 10 genes with putative SNPs were selected, and 17 SNPs were genotyped successfully. Marker-trait analysis in 340 individuals of Youlu No. 1 largemouth bass revealed three SNPs associated with growth in key genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, FOXO3b, and heat shock protein beta-1). This research provides information about key genes and SNPs related to growth, providing new clues to understanding the molecular basis of largemouth bass growth.

  15. Striped bass annual site fidelity and habitat utilization in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, South Carolina-Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-eight adult striped bass Morone saxatilis (3.2-19.1 kg) were captured by electrofishing in the tailrace of Richard B. Russell Dam and in the upper reaches of two major tributaries; they were implanted with temperature-sensitive radio transmitters and tracked approximately bimonthly for 20 months. As J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir downstream from the dam became thermally stratified in May, fish vacated the tributaries. From June to October, all striped bass were found within the reservoir's historical Savannah River channel. By August, most of the instrumented fish were found in the upper section of the reservoir, where optimal habitat was available throughout the summer owing to cool, artificially oxygenated hypolimnetic discharges from Richard B. Russell Dam. In mid-October the reservoir destratified, and fish dispersed from their up-reservoir summering areas and redistributed themselves throughout the reservoir. During early winter, the striped bass returned to tributary habitat or down-reservoir areas and generally used these locations throughout the winter. The fish exhibited a high degree of site fidelity to their summering areas, source tributaries (after fall dispersal and throughout the winter), and spring spawning areas. Mean movement rates were highest in the spring and fall, corresponding to the migration from tributaries in May and the return migration after fall dispersal. Mean movement rates were lowest in summer and winter, corresponding to the periods of high fidelity to summering and wintering areas. The average monthly temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations in areas used by striped bass were 19.0-20.4??C and 4.86-6.44 mg/L during May-October, which corresponded to average monthly habitat suitability index values of 0.76-0.98. Striped bass avoided temperatures above 25.1??C and dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2.3 mg/L.

  16. The Forest Pattern and Its Variation Characteristics in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; TAN; Qing; WANG; Min; WANG; Chenyan; SHA; Junjie; RUAN; Shenfa; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Taking Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits as the study area,we use GIS,remote sensing,mathematical statistics and other methods,to analyze the forest pattern and its variation characteristics in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits during the period 1992-2008;use canonical correspondence analysis(CCA)to examine the effects of environmental factors on changes in forest pattern.The results show that the forest resources are rich in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits,accounting for 61.40% of the total area,but the geographical distribution is very uneven,with obvious regional and elevation gradient difference;since1992,the forest has been dwindling in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits,from 89 300 km2 in 1992 to 88 300 km2 in 2008;in terms of changes in region and elevation gradient,there is obvious difference in the forest,and the central and western forest of Wuyi Mountain tends to decline obviously;the main environmental factors influencing changes in forest pattern in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits include temperature,sunshine hours,GDP per capita and precipitation;evaporation,evaporation and population density have weak effects on changes in forest pattern.

  17. STUDY OF CHLOROPHYLL-A DISTRIBUTIONS IN LOMBOK STRAIT USING BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL BASED ON REGIONAL OCEAN MODELLING SYSTEM (ROMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KADEK ARY ANGGRAENI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS has been intended to be a multi-purpose, multi-disciplinary oceanic modeling tool. The Biogeochemical model have coupled to ROMS consists of a system of seven coupled partial differential equations that include: nitrate, ammonium, small and large detritus, phytoplanJ..'ton, zooplankton, and a dynamic phytoplanJ..-ton carbon to chlorophyll ratio. The study of distribution patterns of chlorophyll-a in Lombok Strait (-7 °N - ·10 •sand 114 "E - 117 °E in 2006 was analyzed using the Biogeochemical model based on ROMS. The results show that low chlorophyll-a distributions (0.20 mgChl-a/m3 observed in Lombok Strait in ,January. Chlorophyll-a estimated around the southern part of Bali Strait and low chlorophyll-a distribution in upper layer of the Lomhok Strait. Chlorophyll-a of the booming (0.32 mgChl-a/m3 observed in August. The northeast current direction moves to the west and southern part of research area through Lombok Strait. The highest chlorophyll-a concentration estimated in the northern and southwestern part of Bali Tsland and also in the southern part of Lombok Island. During dry monsoon, southeasterly wind blow from Australia generates upwelling process (low temperature and nutrient-rich water near the surface also estimated from ROMS.

  18. Study on Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome b Gene of Chinese sea bass,%Study on Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome b Gene of Chinese sea bass, Lateolabrax sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天翔; 张秀梅; 陈大刚; 张美昭; 任一平; 张亚平

    2001-01-01

    参考鳗鲡等鱼类线粒体DNA序列进行了中国花鲈线粒体DNA细胞色素b基因片断的引物设计、PCR扩增及其序列测定。得到中国花鲈的碱基序列为410bp,其A、T、G、C含量分别为101bp(24.63%)、112bp(27.32%)、72bp(17.56%)、125bp(30.49%),与鳗鲡等其他鱼类相同基因片断序列碱基含量相似。%The primers of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene of C hinesesea bass were designed by referencing the sequences of Anguilla speci es. We successfully amplified and sequenced the 410 base pairs that encode the c ytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. The A, T, G and C contents of the sequenc e were 101bp (24.63%), 112bp (27.32%), 72bp (17.56%) and 125bp (30 .49%) respectively, similar to the sequences of other species.

  19. C-SCAMP Cruise Report #3 - C-BASS Cruise Report - 2016-04-CS04-C02 - RV Weatherbird II - April 07-12, 2016 (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Camera-Based Assessment Survey System (C-BASS) was used to image new areas around Madison-Swanson Marine Protected Area (MPA) located in the northeastern Gulf of...

  20. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  1. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern Snakehead inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L; Densmore, C; Hahn, C; McAllister, P; Odenkirk, J

    2013-09-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  2. Meralgia paresthetica: a result of tight new trendy low cut trousers ('taille basse').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucharafieh, Ramzi; Wehbe, Joseph; Maalouf, Ghassan

    2008-04-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is an entrapment neuropathy involving the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. Patients complain of a persistent burning sensation, tingling and aching pain, and hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh. Numerous direct and indirect causes for the disease have been suggested in the literature. We present 12 cases that were diagnosed to have meralgia paresthetica due to tight new fashion low cut trousers ('taille basse'). The diagnosis was confirmed by injecting a small amount of a short acting local anesthetic around the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve which alleviated the symptoms for several hours. Electrophysiologic studies were sensitive in 83.3% of the cases. All cases were treated successfully using conservative methods, namely avoiding tight trousers, local steroid infiltration and weight reduction.

  3. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web.

  4. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  5. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    loudspeakers well positioned at the end of the room a virtual array is formed propagating plane waves along the length of the room in one direction. This will correct the sound field distribution in the room. When plane wave arrives to the end wall two more loudspeakers have to be placed connected......Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency...... with the same signal in counter phase and with a delay corresponding to approximately the length of the room. This is to cancel the reflection and maintain the plane wave propagating along the room. Real life rooms are not necessary rectangular and can be of different shapes. In this paper simulations...

  6. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...

  7. LAS CLAVES DE LA INNOVACIÓN DE SAUL BASS EN LA SECUENCIA DE TÍTULOS DE CRÉDITO DE VÉRTIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Pagán, Mª De Las Nieves

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Saul Bass is considered as the father of contemporary title sequences. The main contribution of this work consists in verifying the close correspondences between Bass' deviced iconography, figures and visual motifs to summarize and synthesise the profound sense of the story told by the film, preceded by their sequences, since it is this idea that is found as the base of what has been established as the turning point and conceptual axis around his innovation. This is something until nowad...

  8. Liquid export of Arctic freshwater components through the Fram Strait 1998–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kattner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the magnitude and composition of southward liquid freshwater transports in the East Greenland Current near 79° N in the Western Fram Strait between 1998 and 2011. Previous studies have found this region to be an important pathway for liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Our transport estimates are based on six hydrographic surveys between June and September and concurrent data from moored current meters. We combined concentrations of liquid freshwater, meteoric water (river water and precipitation, sea ice melt and brine from sea ice formation, and Pacific Water, presented in Dodd et al. (2012, with volume transport estimates from an inverse model. The average of the monthly snapshots of southward liquid freshwater transports between 10.6° W and 4° E is 100 ± 23 mSv (3160 ± 730 km3 yr−1, relative to a salinity of 34.9. This liquid freshwater transport consists of about 130% water from rivers and precipitation (meteoric water, 30% freshwater from the Pacific, and −60% (freshwater deficit due to a mixture of sea ice melt and brine from sea ice formation. Pacific Water transports showed the highest variation in time, effectively vanishing in some of the surveys. Comparison of our results to the literature indicates that this was due to atmospherically driven variability in the advection of Pacific Water along different pathways through the Arctic Ocean. Variations in most liquid freshwater component transports appear to have been most strongly influenced by changes in the advection of these water masses to the Fram Strait. However, the local dynamics represented by the volume transports influenced the liquid freshwater component transports in individual years, in particular those of sea ice melt and brine from sea ice formation. Our results show a similar ratio of the transports of meteoric water and net sea ice melt as previous studies. However, we observed a

  9. Effects of carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): study of biomarkers and behaviour alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the pesticide carbofuran on the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) using parameters at different levels of biological organisation (swimming behaviour and several biomarkers) and possible relationships between alterations found in different effect criteria. In a bioassay, sea bass juveniles were individually exposed to different doses of carbofuran (31, 63, 125 and 250 μg/L) for 96 h. At the end of the bioassay, the swimming performance and 11 biomarkers were determined. Biomarkers were: hepatosomatic index (HSI), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione and the activities of the enzymes ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferases, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and muscle cholinesterases (ChE). After 96 h of exposure, carbofuran induced a decrease of the swimming velocity and inhibition of EROD activity at all concentrations tested, and inhibition of muscle ChE and brain AChE activities at 250 μg/L. No relevant alterations in any of the other tested parameters were found. These results show that carbofuran induced adverse effects on fish by interfering with neurofunction, capability of detoxication and swimming velocity. In addition, positive and significant correlations between the swimming velocity and (i) brain AChE activity, (ii) muscle ChE activity and (iii) EROD activity suggest that the inhibition of these enzymes may somehow be related to the behavioural changes observed. Since these functions are determinant for the survival and performance of the fish in the wild, the findings of the present study suggest that adverse effects may occur in populations exposed to carbofuran if a sufficient number of animals is affected.

  10. Role of axial muscles in powering mouth expansion during suction feeding in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-04-15

    Suction-feeding fishes capture food by fast and forceful expansion of the mouth cavity, and axial muscles probably provide substantial power for this feeding behavior. Dorsal expansion of the mouth cavity can only be powered by the epaxial muscles, but both the sternohyoid, shortening against an immobile pectoral girdle to retract the hyoid, and the hypaxial muscles, shortening to retract both the pectoral girdle and hyoid, could contribute ventral expansion power. To determine whether hypaxial muscles generate power for ventral expansion, and the rostrocaudal extent of axial muscle shortening during suction feeding, we measured skeletal kinematics and muscle shortening in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The three-dimensional motions of the cleithrum and hyoid were measured with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), and muscle shortening was measured with fluoromicrometry, wherein changes in the distance between radio-opaque intramuscular markers are measured using biplanar X-ray video recording. We found that the hypaxials generated power for ventral suction expansion, shortening (mean of 6.2 mm) to rotate the pectoral girdle caudoventrally (mean of 9.3 deg) and retract the hyoid (mean of 8.5 mm). In contrast, the sternohyoid shortened minimally (mean of 0.48 mm), functioning like a ligament to transmit hypaxial shortening to the hyoid. Hypaxial and epaxial shortening were not confined to the rostral muscle regions, but extended more than halfway down the body during suction expansion. We conclude that hypaxial and epaxial muscles are both crucial for powering mouth expansion in largemouth bass, supporting the integration of axial and cranial musculoskeletal systems for suction feeding.

  11. Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1α (HIF-1α)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival.

  12. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, N.D.; Kocerha, J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, Timothy; Holm, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Chasar, Lia C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates.

  14. Study of the Relationship Between the Organizational Climate and the Campus Ethical Issues of Universities across the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chen-fong

    2004-01-01

    The study applied the approach of empirical studies to select 176 teachers in 9 universities in Taiwan and Inland in China to deliver questionnaires. The study intended to explore the influence of organizational climate on campus ethics and its diversity between the universities across the Taiwan strait. The study explored that the organizational climate in the universities across the Strait was not ethically high. Yet, the universities in Inland emphasized more on campus restraint in teachers' behavior, job performance and their sense of belonging to the school.The study result demonstrated that improving leadership of the universities could enhance teachers' identification with their schools and could promote the level of campus across the Strait.

  15. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  16. Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Morillo-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA. These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides, diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  17. Quantifying submarine landslide processes driven by active tectonic forcing: Cook Strait submarine canyon, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; Pettinga, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Cook Strait submarine canyon system is a multi-branched, deeply incised and highly sinuous feature of New Zealand's active margin, covering some 1500km2 of sea floor between the North and South Islands and spanning water depths of between 50 and 2700m. The canyon occurs at the transition from the westward dipping oblique subduction zone adjacent to the SE North Island and the zone of continental transpression in NE South Island. The recent acquisition of high resolution (5-10m) SIMRAD EM300 bathymetric data allows active tectonic and geomorphic processes to be assessed and quantified at a level of detail previously not possible. While multiple active submarine fault traces have been identified in the Cook Strait by previous studies, quantitative information on their activity has been limited. Cook Strait is structurally characterized by westward dipping thrust faults and E-W trending dextral strike slip faults. The multiple large magnitude high frequency earthquake sources define zones of very high ground shaking expected to contribute to triggering of extensive submarine slope failures. Landslide activity within the canyon system is widespread and represents the dominant mass movement process affecting canyon heads and walls, redistributing material into valley fills. Complexes of large (km3) multi-stepped, deep-seated (100m) translational bedding plane failures represented by gently sloping (<3°) evacuated slide-scar areas with associated blocky valley fill deposits are numerous. Steep catchment heads, channel walls and the leading edges of asymmetric thrust-fault driven anticlines are dominated by gulley and rill systems with associated eroded and/or incipient slump features. Large (107m3+) slide blocks are recognized in discrete failures with quantifiable displacement vectors. Tsunamigenic landslides in this environment are inevitable. This study will provide quantification of landslide models including triggering mechanisms, discrete geometries and

  18. Reconstruction of transports through the Strait of Gibraltar from limited observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordà, G.; Sánchez-Román, A.; Gomis, D.

    2016-04-01

    Observing the water transports through the Strait of Gibraltar is a difficult task. Here we present a methodology aimed to obtain the inflow, outflow and net transport of water from the limited set of available observations, currently consisting of an upward looking ADCP deployed at Espartel sill, two tide gauges located at each side of the Strait and radars monitoring the surface velocities. More precisely, we reconstruct the velocity field over a vertical section across the Strait using a reduced order optimal interpolation technique fed with the spatial covariance patterns deduced from high resolution numerical simulations. As a first step we carry out some sensitivity experiments with synthetic data that demonstrate the high potential of the approach. The reconstruction methodology can reproduce very satisfactorily the variability of the transports with estimated correlations for the inflow, outflow and net over 0.9 in all the cases and estimated RMS errors of 0.03, 0.08 and 0.05 Sv, respectively. However, we have also found that the reconstruction is sensible to bias problems, mostly due to the sensitivity of the method to the differences between the statistics of the actual and modeled velocity profiles. The sensitivity experiments have been used to tune the parameters of the method and a reconstruction of actual monthly transports has been performed for the period 2004-2010 along with an estimate of the associated uncertainty. This reconstruction provides for the first time a multiannual time series of the inflow and the net transports solely based on in situ observations. Therefore it can be used as an independent estimate for the validation of numerical models and surface freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean.

  19. Acoustic imaging of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biescas Gorriz, Berta; Carniel, Sandro; Sallarès, Valentí; Rodriguez Ranero, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic imaging of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the Strait of Gibraltar Berta Biescas (1), Sandro Carniel (2) , Valentí Sallarès (3) and Cesar R. Ranero(3) (1) Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Bologna, Italy (2) Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Venice, Italy (3) Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain Acoustic reflectivity acquired with multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) systems allow to detect and explore the thermohaline structure in the ocean with vertical and lateral resolutions in the order of 10 m, covering hundreds of kilometers in the lateral dimension and the full-depth water column. In this work we present a MCS 2D profile that crosses the Strait of Gibraltar, from the Alboran Sea to the internal Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic Ocean). The MCS data was acquired during the Topomed-Gassis Cruise (European Science Foundation TopoEurope), which was carried out on board of the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa in October 2011. The strong thermohaline contrast between the Mediterranean water and the Atlantic water, characterizes this area and allows to visualize, with unprecedented resolution, the acoustic reflectivity associated to the dense flow of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the prominent slope of the Strait of Gibraltar. During the first kilometers, the dense flow drops attached to the continental slope until it reaches the buoyancy depth at 700 m. Then, it detaches from the sea floor and continues flowing towards the Atlantic Ocean, occupying the layer at 700-1500 m deep and developing clear staircase layers. The reflectivity images display near seabed reflections that could well correspond to turbidity layers. The XBT data acquired coincident in time and space with the MCS data will help us in the interpretation and analysis of the acoustic data.

  20. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Ryou, Albert S [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power density, from outputs based on three independent observation sources to evaluate HYCOM-GOM performance. The three independent data sources include NOAA s submarine cable data of transport, ADCP data at a high power density location, and HF radar data in the high power density region of the Florida Strait. Comparisons with these three independent observation sets indicate discrepancies with HYCOM model outputs, but overall indicate that the HYCOM-GOM model can provide an adequate assessment of the ocean current hydrokinetic resource in high power density regions like the Florida Strait. Additional independent observational data, in particular stationary ADCP measurements, would be useful for expanding this model performance evaluation study. ADCP measurements are rare in ocean environments not influenced by tides, and limited to one location in the Florida Strait. HF radar data, although providing great spatial coverage, is limited to surface currents only.

  1. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  2. Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in the Fram Strait and associated volume fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krumpen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fram Strait is the main gateway for sea ice export out of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore observations there give insight into composition and properties of Arctic sea ice in general and how it varies over time. An extensive data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements collected between 2001 and 2012 is presented here, including long transects well into the southern part of the Transpolar Drift obtained using fixed-wing aircrafts. The source area for the surveyed ice is primarily the Laptev Sea, and the estimated age is consistent with a decreased from 3 to 2 years between 1990 and 2012. The data consistently also show a general thinning for the last decade, with a decrease in modal thickness of second year and multiyear ice, and a decrease in mean thickness and fraction of ice thicker than 3 m. Local melting in the strait was investigated in two surveys performed in the downstream direction, showing a decrease of 0.19 m degree−1 latitude south of 81° N probably driven by bottom melting from warm water of Atlantic origin. Further north variability in ice thickness is more related to differences in age and deformation. The thickness observations were combined with ice area export estimates to calculate summer volume fluxes of sea ice. This shows that it is possible to determine volume fluxes through Fram Strait during summer when satellite based sea ice thickness information is missing. While the ice area export based on satellite remote sensing shows positive trends since 2001, the mean fluxes during summer (July and August are small (18 km3, and long-term trends are uncertain due to the limited surveys available.

  3. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  4. Transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait in 2012 and inferred anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-02-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced, which allows for an application of the inverse-Gaussian-transit-time distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Mean current velocity measurements along the same section from 2002-2010 were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon by the boundary currents above 840 m through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD-based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data, by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996, rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 µmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 µmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10 and 35 µmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a net outflow of ˜ 0.4 DIC and ˜ 0.01 PgC yr-1 anthropogenic carbon from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic, albeit with high uncertainties.

  5. On the origin and propagation of Denmark Strait Overflow Water Anomalies in the Irminger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Köllner, Manuela; Dye, Stephen; Rudels, Bert; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2015-04-01

    Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. We present an analysis of observed hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays to quantify the variability and to track anomalies of DSOW: (1) at the Denmark Strait sill, (2) at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and (3) at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik). The aim of the combined arrays is to cover the overflow plume and its modifications due to its descent and mixing with ambient waters from the sill of Denmark Strait to approx. 2000 m depth in the northern Irminger Basin. Eddy variability dominates the high frequency variations in all DSOW records. Variability on time scales from interannual to weekly is present at all moorings, but no long term trends are detected in the time series. The seasonal cycle is of no importance for the properties measured at the sill, but its significance increases with downstream distance. A low pass filter (cut-off at 20 days) is applied to the time series in order to remove synoptic scale variations: single eddies are likely not traceable and probably merge with each other or fade along the descending pathway of the DSOW plume. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array show coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations are only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays reveal propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 16 days. Despite a difference of 1.5°C between the mean temperatures at both arrays, which are about 500 km away from each other, temperature anomalies can be traced along the DSOW pathway. In contrast, the correlations in salinity are low and only significant

  6. Simulation of electricity generation by marine current turbines at Istanbul Bosphorus Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Tunc, K. M. Murat; Ozbek, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    In this work, several simulations and analyses are carried out to investigate the feasibility of generating electricity from underwater sea currents at Istanbul Bosphorus Strait. Bosphorus is a natural canal which forms a border between Europe and Asia by connecting Black Sea and Marmara Sea....... The differences in elevation and salinity ratios between these two seas cause strong marine currents. Depending on the morphology of the canal the speed of the flow varies and at some specific locations the energy intensity reaches to sufficient levels where electricity generation by marine current turbines...

  7. Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    Full Text Available The water mass distribution in northern Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997 is described using CTD data from two cruises in the area. The West Spitsbergen Current was found to split, one part recirculated towards the west, while the other part, on entering the Arctic Ocean separated into two branches. The main inflow of Atlantic Water followed the Svalbard continental slope eastward, while a second, narrower, branch stayed west and north of the Yermak Plateau. The water column above the southeastern flank of the Yermak Plateau was distinctly colder and less saline than the two inflow branches. Immediately west of the outer inflow branch comparatively high temperatures in the Atlantic Layer suggested that a part of the extraordinarily warm Atlantic Water, observed in the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin in the early 1990s, was now returning, within the Eurasian Basin, toward Fram Strait. The upper layer west of the Yermak Plateau was cold, deep and comparably saline, similar to what has recently been observed in the interior Eurasian Basin. Closer to the Greenland continental slope the salinity of the upper layer became much lower, and the temperature maximum of the Atlantic Layer was occasionally below 
    0.5 °C, indicating water masses mainly derived from the Canadian Basin. This implies that the warm pulse of Atlantic Water had not yet made a complete circuit around the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current recirculating within the strait did not extend as far towards Greenland as in the 1980s, leaving a broader passage for waters from the Atlantic and intermediate layers, exiting the Arctic Ocean. A possible interpretation is that the circulation pattern alternates between a strong recirculation of the West Spitsbergen Current in the strait, and a larger exchange of Atlantic Water between the Nordic Seas and the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean.

    Key words: Oceanography: general

  8. Composition of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island during austral summer of 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors inform about the composition and distribution of phytoplanktonic community between the first 75 m of depth in Bransfield Strait y around the Elephant island, during the ANTAR X expedition in the 1999 Austral Summer (22nd–29th January 1999. The higher cellular concentration (500 cel/mL was given by the autotrophic nanoplankton, with a high density mainly on the bay stations and down the first 25 m of depth. Among the most representative species we have Leucocryptos marina, Phaeocystis antarctica, the Monadas and the pennate diatoms.

  9. Sensitivity of the Denmark Strait Overflow to various parameterizations in a z-coordinate numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Pedro; Barnier, Bernard; Penduff, Thierry; Molines, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Overflows play a key role in the climate system by ventilating deep waters, feeding boundary currents and determining the stratification of the deep ocean. Their correct representation is still an open issue in geopotential-coordinate global ocean models, and leads to misrepresentations of deep and bottom water masses. In this work we quantify the sensitivity of a realistic Denmark Strait regional configuration of the NEMO OGCM at 1/12° horizontal resolution to various parameters: partial vs full cells, use of a bottom boundary layer parameterization, and vertical resolution. We also provide a quantification of the spurious dyapicnal mixing present in the overflow through a passive tracer online release experiment.

  10. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms.

  11. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Thomas, Mahiban; Thomson, Valerie; Griffin, Carolyn; Mayo, Luke; Whitty, Megan; d'Abbs, Peter; Nagel, Tricia

    2012-08-03

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue.

  12. On the variability of Florida Straits and wind driven transports at 26° N in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kanzow

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2004 the RAPID array has made continuous measurements of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC at 26° N. Two key components of this system are Ekman transport zonally integrated across 26° N and western boundary current transport in the Florida Straits. Whilst measurements of the AMOC as a whole are somewhat in their infancy, this study investigates what useful information can be extracted on the variability of the Ekman and Florida Straits transports using the decadal timeseries already available. Analysis is also presented for Sverdrup transports zonally integrated across 26° N. The seasonal cycles of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports are quantified at 26° N using harmonic analysis of annual and semi-annual constituents. Whilst Sverdrup transport shows clear semi-annual periodicity, calculations of seasonal Florida Straits and Ekman transports show substantial interannual variability due to variability at non-seasonal frequencies; the mean seasonal cycle for these transports only emerges from decadal length observations. The Florida Straits and Ekman mean seasonal cycles project on the AMOC with a combined peak-to-peak seasonal range of 3.5 Sv. The combined seasonal range for heat transport is 0.40 PW. The Florida Straits seasonal cycle possesses a smooth annual periodicity in contrast with previous studies suggesting a more asymmetric structure. No clear evidence is found to support significant changes in the Florida Straits seasonal cycle at sub-decadal periods. Whilst evidence of wind driven Florida Straits transport variability is seen at sub-seasonal and annual periods, model runs from the 1/4° eddy-permitting ocean model NEMO are used to identify an important contribution from internal oceanic variability at sub-annual and interannual periods. The Ekman transport seasonal cycle possesses less symmetric structure, due in part to different seasonal transport regimes east and west of 50 to 60

  13. Lack of evidence for a role of olfaction on first maturation in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, João L; Martins, Rute S; Hubbard, Peter C; Canário, Adelino V M

    2015-09-15

    Chemical communication is widespread in the animal kingdom and olfaction constitutes a powerful channel for social and environmental cues. In fish, olfactory stimuli are known to influence physiological processes, including reproduction. Here we investigate the effects of olfaction on puberty in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax males. Intact sea bass coming to first maturity (puberty) are able to smell conspecific odours. However, induced anosmia during most of the spermatogenesis period had no effect on the sex ratio, gonad maturation state or gonado-somatic index at the time of reproduction. Furthermore anosmia decreased mRNA expression of brain KISS2 and pituitary LHb and FSHb, but not brain GnRH1 and GnRH3. Thus, although anosmia seems to modify gene expression of key reproduction related genetic factors, it seems to be insufficient to stop or delay growth or gonadal development and maturation.

  14. A numerical study of the South China Sea deep circulation and its relation to the Luzon Strait transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东亮

    2002-01-01

    A fine-resolution MOM code is used to study the South China Sea basin-scale circulation and its relation to the mass transport through the Luzon Strait. The modal domain includes the South China Sea, part of the East China Sea, and part of the Philippine Sea so that the currents in the vicinity of the Luzon Strait are free to evolve. In addition, all channels between the South China ,Sea and the Indonesian seas are closed so that the focus is on the Luzon Strait transport. The model is driven by specified Philippine Sea currents and by surface heat and salt flux conditions. For simplicity, no windstress is applied at the surface.The simulated Luzon Strait transport and the South China Sea circulation feature a sandwich vertical structure from the surface to the bottom. The Philippine Sea water is simulated to enter the South China Sea at the surface and in the deep ocean and is carried to the southern basin by western boundary currents. At the intermediate depth, the net Luzon Strait transport is out of the South China Sea and is fed by a western boundary current flowing to the north at the base of the thermocline. Corresponding to the western boundary currents, the basin circulation of the South China Sea is cyclonic gyres at the surface and in the abyss but an anti-cyclonic gyre at the intermediate depth. The vorticity balance of the gyre circulation is between the vortex stretching and the meridional change of the planetary vorticity.Based on these facts, it is hypothesized that the Luzon Strait transports are determined by the diapycnal mixing inside the entire South China Sea. The South China Sea plays the role of a "mixing mill" that mixes the surface and deep waters to return them to the Luzon Strait at the intermediate depth. The gyre structures are consistent with the Stommel and Arons theory (1960), which suggests that the mixlng-induced circulation inside the South China Sea should be cyclonic gyres at the surface and at the bottom but an anti

  15. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew E.; Rao, K. Ranga

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  16. RNA-Seq analysis of salinity stress–responsive transcriptome in the liver of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass. PMID:28253338

  17. [The possible causes of the tragedy of "Port Famine" in the Strait of Magellan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza G, Juan Pablo; Espinoza G, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    The attempts to colonize the Strait of Magellan soon followed the discovery of this route. PeDro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish sailor, established human settlements to fortify those lands and control the transit of vessels, especially those of English corsairs, which devastated Chilean and Peruvian coasts. During the summer of 1584, approximately 500 soldiers, artisans, priests, women and children established two villages called "Nombre de Jesús" and "Rey Don Felipe". From the beginning, these settlers had leadership and communication problems and difficulties to obtain food. After three winters only 17 to 18 people survived according to the testimony of one of the survivors, that was rescued by an English sailor named Cavendish, which renamed the village "Rey Don Felipe" as "Port Famine". When he observed the scenes of abandonment and death, he supposed that the settlers died due to lack of food. Other factors that facilitated the desolation were hypothermia, execution, anthropophagy and lesions caused by natives. There is also a possibility that intoxication by red tide (harmful algal bloom) could explain in part the finding of unburied corpses in the strait beaches.

  18. PM10 retrieval over the water surface of Penang Straits from Landsat TM5 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.; Hashim, S. A.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we used the Landsat TM data captured on 9 March 2006 for the retrieval of PM10 over the water surface of Penang Straits, Malaysia. PM10 measurements were collected using a handheld DustTrak TM meter simultaneously with the remotely sensed data acquisition. The PCI Geomatica version 9.1 digital image processing software was used in all image-processing analysis. An algorithm was developed based on the atmospheric optical characteristic. The digital numbers were extracted corresponding to the ground-truth locations for each band and then converted into radiance and reflectance values. The reflectance measured from the satellite [reflectance at the top of atmospheric, ρ(TOA)] was subtracted by the amount given by the surface reflectance to obtain the atmospheric reflectance. Then the atmospheric reflectance was related to the PM10 using regression analysis. These atmospheric reflectance values were used for calibration of the PM10 algorithm. The developed algorithm was used to correlate the digital signal and the PM10 concentration. The proposed algorithm produced a high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean-square error (RMS). The PM10 concentration was generated using this algorithm over the water surface of Penang straits.

  19. Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, M.; Scholz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Dima, M.; Prange, M.

    2016-09-01

    As a key persistent component of the atmospheric dynamics, the North Atlantic blocking activity has been linked to extreme climatic phenomena in the European sector. It has also been linked to Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability, but its potential links to rapid oceanic changes have not been investigated. Using a global ocean-sea ice model forced with atmospheric reanalysis data, here it is shown that the 1962–1966 period of enhanced blocking activity over Greenland resulted in anomalous sea ice accumulation in the Arctic and ended with a sea ice flush from the Arctic into the North Atlantic Ocean through Fram Strait. This event induced a significant decrease of Labrador Sea water surface salinity and an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the 1970s. These results have implications for the prediction of rapid AMOC changes and indicate that an important part of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics at mid- and high latitudes requires a proper representation of the Fram Strait sea ice transport and of the synoptic scale variability such as atmospheric blocking, which is a challenge for current coupled climate models.

  20. Trace metals in surface sediments of the Taiwan Strait: geochemical characteristics and environmental indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Lui, Hon-Kit; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhuang, Wen

    2016-06-01

    The concentration and geochemical fractionation of six trace metals related with environmental quality assessment, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, in 30 surface sediments from both inshore and offshore areas of the Taiwan Strait were measured to investigate their distribution characteristics, evaluate their potential mobility, and assess their pollution status. The geoaccumulation index results indicated that, on average, the studied metals presented an order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu > Cr and were practically in uncontaminated status except Cd. The results of the sequential extraction analysis indicated that, on average, the studied metals were mostly accumulated in residual fraction except Cd whose concentration was the highest in the acid soluble fraction presenting a high risk to the environment, and their mobility decreased in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr. Based on the mean probable effect level quotients, the combination of the studied metals had an 8 % probability of being toxic at two sampling sites and had a 21 % probability of being toxic at the rest of sites. The spatial distribution of the studied metals in total concentrations and different geochemical fractions corroborated the previous findings about the possible sediment transportation routes in and around the Taiwan Strait.

  1. Coastal Erosion Along the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait and It's Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhui; CAI Feng; QI Hongshuai; LEI Gang; CAO Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Based on the field surveys and repeated cross-profile observations combined with the comparison of many years' topographic maps, this study shows the spatial variability and varying patterns of coastal erosion along the west coast of the Taiwan Strait. Regional differentiation in the Meso-Cenozoic coastal tectonics determined the irregular coastline and geological background for large-scale coastal erosion distribution. The intensity of coastal erosion on the west side of the Taiwan Strait is mild in the northern region, severe in the central region and modest in the southern region. The beaches along the coast are mainly backed by dunes, seawalls or cliffs. The dunes and beaches show periodic erosion and recovery along the coast adjacent to river mouths, while persistent retreat of frontal dunes and beaches tends to occur in other areas. The beach erosion occurs mainly in front of seawalls. Due to the low strength of the unconsolidated sediment the soft cliffs suffer the severest coastline recession. Sea level rise and river sediment discharge reduction are main causes of coastal erosion. Storm surge is common in the studied area and plays an important role in the progress of coastal erosion. Human activities including coastal constructions and sand mining also tend to interfere strongly with the balance of sediment budget in some coastal cells.

  2. Filament generation off the Strait of Gibraltar in response to Gap winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliz, Álvaro; Teles-Machado, Ana; Marchesiello, Patrick; Dubert, Jesus; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia

    2009-01-01

    We present a case study of the generation of a cold filament rooted off the southwestern edge of the Strait of Gibraltar (Atlantic side) during the summer of 2000. The event is successfully simulated using high-resolution atmospheric and oceanic numerical models. It is shown that a sharp filament may develop oceanwards with little modification of the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean, contrary to usual expectations. The filament is essentially driven by the surface layer response to Gap winds occurring during Levanter conditions. The easterly wind funnelling in the Strait generates a strong wind jet and intense wind curl which impacts the oceanic surface layer through Ekman pumping and mixing processes. The generation and fate of the filament is very similar to the Gulf of Tehuantepec case, where strong Gap wind events produce asymmetric deformation and erosion of the thermocline that tends to favour anticyclonic mesoscale circulations. Our observations and model results from both realistic and idealized experiments suggest that similar phenomena are present in the Gulf of Cadiz, but they are altered by the persisting Atlantic inflow, so that the response to Gap winds is not as dramatic.

  3. Assessment of pollution aerosols sources above the Straits of Dover using lead isotope geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboudt, K; Flament, P; Weis, D; Mennessier, J P; Maquinghen, P

    1999-09-15

    We assess the capability of lead isotopes to study the transport of pollution aerosols above the Straits of Dover by collecting atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. During the same period, we characterized the lead isotopic signature of the main industrial sources on the French coast near the Straits of Dover. Urban and automobile-derived aerosols were also collected. Due to the phasing out of lead in gasoline, the urban isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.158 +/- 0.003) has become more radiogenic, although it is highly variable. On a regional scale, major industrial emissions have a well-defined isotopic composition (1.13 isotopic compositions, it can be shown that lead aerosols originating from eastern Europe have an isotopic signature (1.145 isotopic composition of west-European lead aerosols (1.111 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.142). The influence of remote North American sources is suggested, with caution, due to uncertainties in meteorological calculations.

  4. Surface circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar: A combined HF radar and high resolution model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, Javier; Lorente, Pablo; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique; Carlos Sánchez-Garrido, Jose; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    Observations from a high frequency radar system and outputs from a high resolution operational ocean model working at the Strait of Gibraltar have been analyzed and compared during the period February 2013 to September 2014 in order to evaluate their capability to resolve the surface circulation of the region. The description of the mean circulation patterns has been statistically assessed, showing good agreement, particularly in the central region of the strait corresponding with the Atlantic Jet (AJ) stream, although some short scale features are not reproduced by the model. In the frequency domain very high concordance is observed. Tidal maps of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents are in good agreement with previous observations. The analysis of the model and radar response to the wind forcing reveals that the low resolution of the model wind-forcing field and its deeper superficial level smoothes the wind effect on the simulated currents. The first three EOF modes account for the 86% of model and radar variances. The coincidence between the observed and simulated patterns is very significant for the first two modes, which account for the mean velocity field and the latitudinal shifting of the AJ consequence of the flow-topography interaction. The third mode captures the wind-induced circulation, and greater discrepancies are found in this case. Results underline the complementary character of both systems: radar observations improve the model description, resolving short scale processes, while the model completes the radar information when the time or spatial coverage is poorer.

  5. Sound speed as a proxy variable to temperature in Fram Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    The application of ocean acoustic tomography in Fram Strait requires a careful assessment of the accuracy to which estimates of sound speed from tomography can be converted to estimates of temperature. The Fram Strait environment is turbulent, with warm, salty, northward-flowing North Atlantic water interacting with cold, fresh, southward-flowing Arctic water. The nature of this environment suggests that salinity could play an important role with respect to sound speed. The properties of sound speed with respect to temperature and salinity in this environment were examined using climatological and in situ glider data. In cold water, a factor of about 4.5 m s(-1) °C(-1) can be used to scale between sound speed and temperature. In situ data obtained by gliders were used to determine the ambiguities between temperature, salinity, and sound speed. Tomography provides a depth-averaging measurement. While errors in the sound speed-temperature conversion at particular depths may be 0.2 °C or larger, particularly within 50 m of the surface, such errors are suppressed when the depth is averaged. Using a simple scale factor to compute temperature from sound speed introduced an error of about 20 m °C for depth-averaged temperature, a value less than formal uncertainties estimated from acoustic tomography.

  6. Recent observations of seasonal variability of the Mediterranean outflow in the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    GarcíA Lafuente, J.; SáNchez RomáN, A.; DíAz Del RíO, G.; Sannino, G.; SáNchez Garrido, J. C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent observations of the outflowing Mediterranean water collected near the bottom in key points of the Strait of Gibraltar show the existence of a seasonal cycle with warmer and lighter waters leaving the Mediterranean Sea in winter and cooler and denser waters in spring early summer. The amplitude of the signal is around 5 10-2 °C for potential temperature and 1.5 10-2 for potential density, salinity hardly showing seasonal fluctuations. The outflow also shows a seasonal cycle with maximum volume transport in April, in coincidence with the minimum of the signal of potential temperature. A simple analysis of the composition of the outflow in terms of the main water masses of the western Mediterranean basin and its comparison with climate indicators suggests that the seasonal cycle follows the annual process of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water formation that replenish the deep portion of the basin by the end of winter and rises the level of the deep water reservoir, facilitating the suction of cooler and denser water from the Mediterranean over the sills of the Strait. From this time onwards, the data show a smooth warming that would be explained by the progressive fall of the level of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water as it is drained out the Mediterranean, which would leave warmer water available for suction. The process is asymmetric in the sense that the transition from high to low temperature is completed in a short period while the progressive warming spans a longer period.

  7. Small-scale variability of the current in the Strait of Bonifacio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérigny, Olivia; Coudray, Sylvain; Lapucci, Chiara; Tomasino, Corinne; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François

    2015-08-01

    Current dynamics in the Strait of Bonifacio (south Corsica) were investigated at a small scale during the STELLAMARE1 multidisciplinary cruise in summer 2012, using in situ measurements and modeling data. The Strait of Bonifacio is a particularly sensitive marine area in which specific conservation measures have been taken to preserve the natural environment and wild species. Good knowledge of the hydrodynamics in this area is essential to optimize the Marine Protected Area's management rules. Therefore, we used a high-resolution model (400 m) based on the MARS3D code to investigate the main flux exchanges and to formulate certain hypotheses about the formation of possible eddy structures. The aim of the present paper is first to synthetize the results obtained by combining Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data, hydrological parameters, Lagrangian drifter data, and satellite observations such as MODIS OC5 chlorophyll a data or Metop-A AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data. These elements are then used to validate the presence of the mesoscale eddies simulated by the model and their recurrence outside the cruise period. To complete the analysis, the response of the 3D hydrodynamical model was evaluated under two opposing wind systems and certain biases were detected. Strong velocities up to 1 m s-1 were recorded in the east part due to the Venturi effect; a complementary system of vortices governed by Coriolis effect and west wind was observed in the west part, and horizontal stratification in the central part has been identified under typical wind condition.

  8. Physical oceanographic mooring data (temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking) collected from Bering Strait Moorings A2,A4, A3 in Bering Strait from 2013-07-05 to 2014-07-02 (NCEI Accession 0156230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2013 to summer 2014. Mooring deployments were funded by the ONR award N00014-13-1-0468...

  9. Interactive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and methoxychlor on hormone synthesis in largemouth bass ovarian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J; Gross, Timothy S; Guiney, Patrick D; Osimitz, Tomas G; Price, Bertram; Wells, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and methoxychlor were tested alone and in combination to assess the similarity of their actions on hormone synthesis in gonadal tissue from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus), a species whose reproductive fitness has relevance to ecosystem health in Florida (USA). Gonads were harvested from adult female bass (age, two to three years) during the peak reproductive season (January-May), minced, and incubated in culture medium with or without test agents for 48 h. Duplicates of each treatment were performed in each of three experiments using tissue from a different female. Both 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were measured in aliquots of culture medium by validated radioimmunoassay procedures. Dose-response relationships of individual agents were characterized over a 6-log concentration range (1 X 10(-2) to 1 X 10(4) ppb). Both DDE and methoxychlor, tested individually, produced a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. 17beta-Estradiol levels were unaffected. Mixtures of the agents were tested at all concentration combinations of 0.01, 1, 100, and 10,000 ppb in culture medium. Statistical tests indicated that of 16 dose combinations tested, 15 were antagonistic, and only 1 was additive based on the Loewe additivity model of no interaction. These results imply that methoxychlor and DDE inhibit testosterone production by different mechanisms in bass ovaries.

  10. Whole genome semiconductor based sequencing of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Mediterranean genetic stocks using a DNA pooling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an important marine species for commercial and sport fisheries and aquaculture production. Recently, the European sea bass genome has been sequenced and assembled. This resource can open new opportunities to evaluate and monitor variability and identify variants that could contribute to the adaptation to farming conditions. In this work, two DNA pools constructed from cultivated European sea bass were sequenced using a next generation semiconductor sequencing approach based on Ion Proton sequencer. Using the first draft version of the D. labrax genome as reference, sequenced reads obtained a total of about 1.6 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), spread all over the chromosomes. Transition/transversion (Ti/Tv) was equal to 1.28, comparable to what was already reported in Salmon species. A pilot homozygosity analysis across the D. labrax genome using DNA pool sequence datasets indicated that this approach can identify chromosome regions with putative signatures of selection, including genes involved in ion transport and chloride channel functions, amino acid metabolism and circadian clock and related neurological systems. This is the first study that reported genome wide polymorphisms in a fish species obtained with the Ion Proton sequencer. Moreover, this study provided a methodological approach for selective sweep analysis in this species.

  11. Impact of amoeba and scuticociliatidia infections on the aquaculture European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria João; Cavaleiro, Francisca; Campos, Pamela; Sousa, André; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins, Marta

    2010-07-15

    In this work, a survey of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for amoebae and scuticociliatidia infections was carried out to evaluate their effects on the aquaculture of this fish species. The study was conducted in two different fish farms, one using seawater and the other brackish water. Infection with parasitic amoebae was found to be fairly high (prevalence: 43-73%), being more frequent in sea bass from the brackish water system. Although it was never found to cause outbreaks of disease or mortality in the surveyed fish, amoebic gill disease (AGD) histopathological signs, i.e., hyperplasia, secondary lamellae fusion and cavity formation (interlamellar vesicles), were observed in fish manifesting no macroscopic lesions. Furthermore, some evidence was found that amoebae affects the fish's general state of health and growth rate. These results indicate that cautious and detailed surveys to detect this sort of infection, and thus carefully plan its control, are fully justified. Compared with amoebic infection, the prevalence of scuticociliatosis was found to be low (7-13%). No outbreaks of disease or mortality were ever recorded, even when scuticociliatidia was present in turbot raised in the same water system, leading to serious outbreaks of disease and mortalities in that species. This suggests that sea bass is far more resistant than turbot to such infections, and if this is the case, the former fish may be a good farming alternative when scuticociliatidia is present.

  12. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  13. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers.

  14. New Approaches to Cross-Strait Integration and Its Impacts on Taiwan’s Domestic Economy: An Emerging “Chaiwan”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. K. Cheung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Legislative Yuan and Presidential elections in January and March 2008 respectively re-orientated cross-Strait relations from hostility to co-operation. On 4 November 2008, Chen Yunlin, head of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS, and Chiang Pin-kun (Jiang Bingkun, chairman of Taiwan’s Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF, meeting in the Second Chiang-Chen Talks in Taiwan, took a historical step in the further development of cross-Strait relations. Agreements were signed on direct air and sea transport, postal services and food-safety security. On 22 December 2009, the Fourth Chiang- Chen Talks took place in Taizhong and more substantial and technical agreements were signed on agriculture, inspection/ accreditation and fisheries. It seems that continuous integration between China and Taiwan is inevitable. To address the implications of this process for Taiwan’s domestic economy, four dimensions of the current cross-Strait relationship are scrutinized: guanxi, plutocracy, legalism and the idea of a Chinese Common Market. It is argued that in order to intensify economic co-operation across the Taiwan Strait, more institutionalization of the cross-Strait relationship must be brought about.

  15. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  16. Liquid freshwater transport estimates from the East Greenland Current based on continuous measurements north of Denmark Strait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Macrander, A.; Våge, K.; Harden, B.; Jónsson, S.; Østerhus, S.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC are determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11 month mean freshwater transport (FWT), relative to a salinity of 34.8, was 65

  17. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310 Section 165.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  18. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  19. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  20. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  1. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  2. Fish silage in black bass (Micropterus Salmoides feed as an alternative to fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferraz de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use the residues of fermented sardine to elaborate the acid fish silage and its use in feed for aquaculture. Biological assay was performed by feeding largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides fingerlings (initial weight 22g, with extruded diets (41% crude protein; 3,600 kcal/kg digestible energy containing 0.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0% of fish silage in partial substitution to the fish meal. The feed conversion ratio and weight gain for the treatments were: 1.26 and 15.76g; 1.11 and 17.07g; 1.19 and 17.81g; 1.18 and 19.83g; 1.47 and 14.64g, respectively. No significant differences (PO objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a utilização de resíduos de sardinha fermentada para elaboração de silagem química e sua utilização em rações para aquacultura. Foi realizado ensaio de ganho de peso utilizando juvenis de "black bass" (Micropterus salmoides, com peso inicial de 22 gramas, onde utilizou-se rações extrusadas (41% de proteína bruta, 3.600 kcal/kg de energia digestível contendo 0,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0% de silagem em substituição à farinha de peixe. A composição química da silagem de pescado (matéria seca apresentou valores de proteína bruta de 28,47 g 100g-1; lipídeo 8,24 g 100g-1; cinza 60,68 g 100g-1 A conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso para os tratamentos foram, respectivamente: 1,26 e 15,76g; 1,11 e 17,07g; 1,19 e 17,81g; 1,18 e 19,83g; 1,47 e 14,64g. Nenhuma diferença significativa (P<0,05 foi encontrada entre os tratamentos. Os resultados indicam a possibilidade da utilização de até 15% de silagem na substituição da farinha de peixe, em rações para peixes carnívoros.

  3. Splitting of Atlantic water transport towards the Arctic Ocean into the Fram Strait and Barents Sea Branches - mechanisms and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Skagseth, Øystein; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Walczowski, Waldemar; Lien, Vidar

    2016-04-01

    The heat content in the Arctic Ocean is to a large extent determined by oceanic advection from the south. During the last two decades the extraordinary warm Atlantic water (AW) inflow has been reported to progress through the Nordic Seas into the Arctic Ocean. Warm anomalies can result from higher air temperatures (smaller heat loss) in the Nordic Seas, and/or from an increased oceanic advection. But the ultimate fate of warm anomalies of Atlantic origin depends strongly on their two possible pathways towards the Arctic Ocean. The AW temperature changes from 7-10°C at the entrance to the Nordic Seas, to 6-6.5°C in the Barents Sea opening and 3-3.5°C as the AW leaving Fram Strait enters the Arctic Ocean. When AW passes through the shallow Barents Sea, nearly all its heat is lost due to atmospheric cooling and AW looses its signature. In the deep Fram Strait the upper part of Atlantic water becomes transformed into a less saline and colder surface layer and thus AW preserves its warm core. A significant warming and high variability of AW volume transport was observed in two recent decades in the West Spitsbergen Current, representing the Fram Strait Branch of Atlantic inflow. The AW inflow through Fram Strait carries between 26 and 50 TW of heat into the Arctic Ocean. While the oceanic heat influx to the Barents Sea is of a similar order, the heat leaving it through the northern exit into the Arctic Ocean is negligible. The relative strength of two Atlantic water branches through Fram Strait and the Barents Sea governs the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean. According to recently proposed mechanism, the Atlantic water flow in the Barents Sea Branch is controlled by the strength of atmospheric low over the northern Barents Sea, acting through a wind-induced Ekman divergence, which intensifies eastward AW flow. The Atlantic water transport in the Fram Strait Branch is mainly forced by the large-scale low-pressure system over the eastern Norwegian and

  4. Assessment of circulation and inter-basin transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  5. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  6. Assessment of Circulation and Inter-Basin Transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  7. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  8. Isotopic and geochemical signatures of Late Quaternary sediments in the Fram Strait area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccali, J.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Carignan, J.; Reisberg, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic freshwater/sea-ice export through Fram Strait contributes to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and acts as a trigger or feedback mechanism in the climate/ocean system. Here, geochemical and isotopic analyses of cores raised along a transect through the Strait are used to document changes in sediment sources and sea-ice transport since the LGM. Radiogenic isotope and elemental data in leachable fractions vs residues are used as proxies for water mass vs sediment source signatures, respectively. Unequivocal linkage between leachates and water-mass properties are illustrated by the anthropogenic-lead overprint in leachates from core-top sediments. Below this polluted layer, leachates and residues from late Holocene sediments carry distinct geochemical signatures E and W of the Strait. Eastward, below the North Atlantic Water (NAW) mass flowing northward, Th/Zr and Th/Pb concentration ratios ranging 0.040-0.041 and 0.85-0.90, respectively, label GIN seas and western Spitzbergen sediment-sources. Westward, below outflowing Arctic waters and sea-ice routes, these ratios range 0.032-0.035 and 0.72-0.75, respectively, and label NE Greenland and Arctic sediment sources. Pb-isotopes exhibit a similar pattern with sediment carrying a mixed Variscan-Pan-African signature below the NAW route, and a mixture of less radiogenic sources in sediments deposited below the outflowing Arctic waters and sea-ice route. Back in time, divergent trends in some radiogenic isotope values are recorded westward, below the outflowing Arctic waters and sea-ice route. Whereas isotopic properties of residues suggest sedimentary supplies originating from the Canadian Arctic and/or the NW Greenland margin, lead data from leachates bear an "Arctic Ocean" signature illustrating variable relative contributions from the Russian vs Canadian ice-margins and/or rivers. During deglacial times, a significant change in sedimentary supplies is recorded at ~ 14 ka along with some

  9. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid impression material and to examine its physical characteristic. Methods: The methods of research including extraction natrium alginate from Sargassum sp, synthesis of dental impression material and the test of porosity, density, viscosity, and water content of impression material which fulfilled the standard of material used in clinical application in dentistry. Results: Extraction result of Sargassum sp was natrium alginate powder with cream colour, odorless, and water soluble. The water content of natrium alginate was 21.64% and the viscosity was 0.7 cPs. The best porosity result in the sample with the addition of trinatrium phosphate 4% was 3.61%. Density value of impression material was 3 gr/cm3. Conclusion: The research suggested that brown algae Sargassum sp from Madura strait is potential as hydrocolloid impression material, due to its physical properties which close to dental impression material, but still need further research to optimize the physical characteristic.Latar belakang: Alga coklat adalah sumber bahan baku material natrium alginat. Salah satu jenis alga coklat adalah Sargassum sp yang merupakan anggota divisi Phaeophyta. Sargassum sp dapat ditemukan di Selat Madura Indonesia. Natrium alginat dapat diekstraksi dari Sargassum sp. Kebutuhan akan bahan ini di Indonesia sebagian besar dipenuhi dari impor, padahal ketersediaan Sargassum sp di Indonesia sangat melimpah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi potensi alga coklat

  10. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  11. Effects of feeding and hypoxia on cardiac performance and gastrointestinal blood flow during critical speed swimming in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Prinet, A; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that if European sea bass are exercised after feeding, they can achieve a significantly higher maximum metabolic rate (MMR) than when fasted. They can meet combined metabolic demands of digestion (specific dynamic action, SDA) and maximal aerobic exercise, with no decline in swimming performance. If, however, exposed to mild hypoxia (50% saturation), bass no longer achieve higher MMR after feeding but they swim as well fed as fasted, due to an apparent ability to defer the SDA response. This study explored patterns of cardiac output (Q(A)) and blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract (Q(GI)) associated with the higher MMR after feeding, and with the ability to prioritise swimming in hypoxia. Sea bass (mean mass approximately 325 g, forklength approximately 27 cm) were instrumented with flow probes to measure Q(A) and Q(GI) during an incremental critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol in a tunnel respirometer, to compare each animal either fasted or 6h after a meal of fish fillet equal to 3% body mass. Feeding raised oxygen uptake (M(O2)) prior to exercise, an SDA response associated with increased Q(A) (+30%) and Q(GI) (+100%) compared to fasted values. As expected, when exercised the fed bass maintained the SDA load throughout the protocol and achieved 14% higher MMR than when fasted, and the same U(crit) (approximately 100 cm s(-1)). Both fed and fasted bass showed pronounced increases in Q(A) and decreases in Q(GI) during exercise and the higher MMR of fed bass was not associated with higher maximum Q(A) relative to when fasted, or to any differences in Q(GI) at maximum Q(A). In hypoxia prior to exercise, metabolic and cardiac responses to feeding were similar compared to normoxia. Hypoxia caused an almost 60% reduction to MMR and 30% reduction to U(crit), but neither of these traits differed between fed or fasted bass. Despite hypoxic limitations to MMR and U(crit), maximum Q(A) and patterns of Q(GI) during exercise in fasted and

  12. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Johnson, W.E.; Higman, J.C.; Denslow, N.D.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17??-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  13. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, J.H. (Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. (Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States))

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Chemical contamination and the annual summer die-off of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, J R; Maltby, D A; Nishioka, R S; Bern, H A; Gee, S J; Hammock, B D

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, striped bass (Morone saxatilis) that were nearly dead (moribund) were captured by hand net, and apparently healthy striped bass were caught by hook and line from adjacent waters in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta or, alternatively, caught by hook and line from the Pacific Ocean. The livers of these three groups of striped bass were examined for chemical contamination by gas chromatography, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and by immunoassay. Moribund striped bass livers were greatly contaminated by chemicals compared to healthy fish caught in the Delta and the Pacific Ocean. The types of contaminant encountered suggested that industrial, agricultural, and urban pollutants were present in the livers of moribund fish. Although the variability in the amount of hepatic contaminants observed among the groups of fish does not provide direct proof of causation, the large amount of pollutants suggests that chemical contamination (possibly acting as multiple stressors) contributes to the hepatotoxic condition of the moribund striped bass and may lead to an explanation of the die-off in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region.

  15. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel d´Almeida Bernardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2% in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%, ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9% with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%. Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%, ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.

  16. Effects of an antidepressant mixture on the brain serotonin and predation behavior of hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Sweet, Lauren E; van den Hurk, Peter; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Antidepressants have been found in measurable concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent and receiving waters throughout the world. Studies have shown that these concentrations are typically not overtly toxic, but the psychotropic mode of action of these chemicals warrants examination of their behavioral effects. Exposure of hybrid striped bass to the antidepressants fluoxetine or venlafaxine alone has been shown to cause decreased brain serotonin levels and increased time to capture prey at concentrations typically 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than environmentally relevant concentrations. In the present study, equally effective doses of fluoxetine and venlafaxine were used to perform a mixture study, using a toxic unit approach to determine whether these antidepressants may act in an additive manner at lower concentrations. The results indicated that mixtures of these antidepressants caused decreased brain serotonin and increased time to capture prey at concentrations lower than reported in previous studies. Low concentration mixtures caused an additive effect on brain serotonin levels and time to capture prey, whereas higher concentrations were less than additive. The results were consistent with the dose addition concept, with higher concentration mixtures potentially saturating the effects on serotonin in the brain. Results from the present study indicate that antidepressants have the potential to be additive on the biochemical and individual scale, which necessitates more robust analysis of antidepressant mixtures and their potential to act together in low concentration scenarios.

  17. Dietary TAG source and level affect performance and lipase expression in larval sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S; Cahu, C; Zambonino-Lnfante, J L; Robin, J; Rønnestad, I; Dinis, M T; Conceição, L E C

    2004-05-01

    The influence of dietary TAG source (fish oil, triolein, and coconut oil) and level (7.5 and 15% of the diet) on growth, lipase activity, and mRNA level was studied in sea bass larvae, from mouth opening until day 24 and from day 37 to 52. Fish oil and triolein induced better growth in both experiments, this being significant at a higher dietary level. Coconut oil significantly decreased growth at the higher level, possibly as the result of an excessive supply of medium-chain TAG. Growth was not related to lipase specific activity, suggesting a production in excess to dietary needs. Body lipid content was positively related to dietary lipid level and was affected by lipid quality. In addition, larval FA composition generally reflected that of the diet. The source of dietary lipid, but not the quantity, was shown to affect lipase activity significantly. Coconut oil diets induced the highest lipase activity, whereas the effect of fish oil was age dependent-it was similar to coconut oil at day 24 but induced the lowest lipase activity in 52-d-old larvae. The differential lipase response was probably caused by differences in the FA composition of the diet, related to the specificity of lipase toward FA differing in chain length and degree of saturation. No significant differences were found in lipase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA, which suggests the existence of a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism.

  18. Structure and Specificity of a Binary Tandem Domain F-Lectin from Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchet, M.; Odom, E; Vasta, J; Amzel, M

    2010-01-01

    The plasma of the striped bass Morone saxatilis contains a fucose-specific lectin (MsaFBP32) that consists of two F-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in tandem. The crystal structure of the complex of MsaFBP32 with l-fucose reported here shows a cylindrical 81-A-long and 60-A-wide trimer divided into two globular halves: one containing N-terminal CRDs (N-CRDs) and the other containing C-terminal CRDs (C-CRDs). The resulting binding surfaces at the opposite ends of the cylindrical trimer have the potential to cross-link cell surface or humoral carbohydrate ligands. The N-CRDs and C-CRDs of MsaFBP32 exhibit significant structural differences, suggesting that they recognize different glycans. Analysis of the carbohydrate binding sites provides the structural basis for the observed specificity of MsaFBP32 for simple carbohydrates and suggests that the N-CRD recognizes more complex fucosylated oligosaccharides and with a relatively higher avidity than the C-CRD. Modeling of MsaFBP32 complexed with fucosylated glycans that are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes rationalizes the observation that binary tandem CRD F-type lectins function as opsonins by cross-linking 'non-self' carbohydrate ligands and 'self' carbohydrate ligands, such as sugar structures displayed by microbial pathogens and glycans on the surface of phagocytic cells from the host.

  19. Spatiotemporal trends of mercury in walleye and largemouth bass from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Bruce A; Staples, David F; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Holsen, Thomas M; Schrank, Candy S; Moses, Sara K; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Backus, Sean M; Williams, Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    The risk of mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife from fish consumption has driven extensive mercury analysis throughout the Great Lakes Region since the 1970s. This study compiled fish-Hg data from multiple sources in the region and assessed spatiotemporal trends of Hg concentrations in two representative top predator fish species. Walleye (Sander vitreus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were chosen for the trend analysis because they had more Hg records (63,872) than other fish species that had been sampled from waters throughout the region. Waterbody types were inland lakes (70%), the Great Lakes, impoundments, and rivers. The compiled datasets were analyzed with a mixed effects statistical model having random effects of station, year, and fish length; and fixed effects of year, tissue type, fish length, habitat, and season. The results showed a generally declining temporal trend in fish-Hg for the region (1970-2009), with spatial trends of increasing Hg concentration from south to north and from west to east across the region. Nonlinearity was evident in the general downward trends of Ontario walleye, with a shift to an upward trend beginning in the 1990s. Only ongoing monitoring can reveal if this upward shift is an oscillation in a long-term decline, a statistical anomaly, or a sustained declining temporal trend in regional fish-Hg concentrations.

  20. Influence of nutritional state on the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, John M; Rhodes, Matt R; Baya, Ana; Reimschuessel, Renate; Townsend, Howard; Harrell, Reginal M

    2009-12-03

    Challenge studies with Mycobacterium marinum clearly demonstrate that a poor diet affects the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Fish (n = 512 total, wt = 65 +/- 15 g) were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) body weigth (BW) or a physiological saline solution (controls) and evaluated for 8 mo. Inoculated fish fed a low-ration diet (0.15% BW d(-1)) developed a severe, systemic infection characterized by a high bacterial load (>10(8) CFU g(-1) spleen) and poor granuloma formation, which commonly progressed to mortality by 6 wk. In contrast, inoculated fish fed an adequate ration diet (1% BW d(-1)) developed classic granulomatous inflammation of reduced severity and total body energy similar to that found in uninoculated controls (p > 0.05). After 4 wk, fish fed adequate rations maintained an equilibrium state throughout the study period, even though 10(6) CFU g(-1) spleen mycobacteria were consistently cultured. In a second study, reactivation of an acute inflammatory state was demonstrated by placing previously infected fish on reducing diets (0.073% BW d(-1)). In both studies, the energetic demand of this disease was only appreciable when associated with active, severe, inflammatory states. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the interaction of diet and mycobacteriosis in fish.

  1. Evolutionary stability of egg trading and parceling in simultaneous hermaphrodites: the chalk bass revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Philip H; Hart, Mary K

    2007-06-07

    Several species of simultaneously hermaphroditic seabasses living on coral reefs mate by alternating male and female roles with a partner. This is known as egg trading, one of the classic and most widely cited examples of social reciprocity among animals. Some of the egg-trading seabass species, including the chalk bass, Serranus tortugarum, switch mating roles repeatedly, having subdivided their clutch of eggs into parcels offered to the partner for fertilization. Here we attempt to understand these dynamics as a pair of evolutionary games, modifying some previous approaches to better reflect the biological system. We find that the trading of egg clutches is evolutionarily stable via byproduct mutualism and resistant to invasion by rare individuals that take the male role exclusively. We note why and how parceling may reflect sexual conflict between individuals in the mating pair. We estimate evolutionarily stable parcel numbers and show how they depend on parameter values. Typically, two or more sequential parcel numbers are evolutionarily stable, though the lowest of these yields the highest fitness. Assuming that parcel numbers are adjusted to local conditions, we predict that parcel numbers in nature are inversely related both to mating group density (except at low density) and predation risk.

  2. On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Carstensen, J.; Ellermann, T.

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen...... are calculated by the periodic maximum method and the results are successfully compared to a map of chlorophyll return periods based on in-situ observations. The one-year return of extreme atmospheric wet deposition is around 60 mg N m(-2) day(-1) and 30 mg N m(-2) day(-1) for deep-water entrainment. Atmospheric......-water entrainment forced by high winds greatly exceeds the atmospheric pool of nitrogen washed out by precipitation. At the frontal zone of the Kattegat Strait and Skagerrak, the nitrogen deep-water entrainment is very high and this explains the high 10-year return chlorophyll level at 8 mg m(-3) in the Kattegat...

  3. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-30

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a 'snapshot' of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region.

  4. Manganese, nickel, selenium and cadmium in molluscs from the Magellan Strait, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga España, M S; Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Díaz Romero, C

    2004-08-01

    The concentrations of manganese, selenium, nickel and cadmium were determined in 112 samples of molluscs belonging to mussels (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47) and limpets (Nacella deaurata, n = 65), which were collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait, Chile. Four (6.2%) samples of limpets exceeded the maximum limits for cadmium established in Europe. Limpets showed higher mean manganese, nickel and cadmium concentrations than mussels, whilst the mean selenium concentration in mussels was higher. The consumption of one serving (100 g) of molluscs represents a considerable contribution to the dietary daily intake of selenium, and limpets make a significant contribution to the manganese and cadmium intakes. The sampling zone influenced the trace element concentrations, and different uptakes were observed between the mollusc species.

  5. Statistical analysis of strait time index and a simple model for trend and trend reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze the daily closing prices of the Strait Time Index (STI) as well as the individual stocks traded in Singapore's stock market from 1988 to 2001. We find that the Hurst exponent is approximately 0.6 for both the STI and individual stocks, while the normal correlation functions show the random walk exponent of 0.5. We also investigate the conditional average of the price change in an interval of length T given the price change in the previous interval. We find strong correlations for price changes larger than a threshold value proportional to T; this indicates that there is no uniform crossover to Gaussian behavior. A simple model based on short-time trend and trend reversal is constructed. We show that the model exhibits statistical properties and market swings similar to those of the real market.

  6. Test of numerical prediction of sea water temperature in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiuqin; Huang Huowang; Dong Jian; Qian Chengchun

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic numerical prediction model of sea water temperature for limited sea area is used to predict the sea water temperature at the sea area near Fujian. Essential adjustments have been made in accordance with the characteristics of this region. Two tests have been made. One is in summer (3 d) and the other is in winter (10 d). In the summer test, a typhoon is just passing by and the calculated current field well responds to typhoon. In the winter test, variation tendency of the predicted sea water temperature field agrees with that of the observation basically, the absolute mean error in the whole sea area is 0.6 ℃. The variation of the sea water temperature is mostly affected by entrainment and pumping, which is related to the topography of the strait.

  7. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater from the Western Taiwan Strait, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Seawater samples (including surface water and bottom water) were collected from the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) during June 24-25, 2009; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dissolved phase and particulate phase were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the dissolved phase and particulate phase were ranged from 12.3 to 58.0 ng L(-1), and 10.3-45.5 ng L(-1), which showed a low-middle contamination level in the China Seas. The spatial variability of PAHs may be related to the complicated currents of WTS, especially the Min-Zhe coastal current. PAHs diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs mainly originated from the inputs of pyrolytic (combustion) sources, which might be contributed to land-based atmospheric deposition. The particle-water partition coefficients of individual PAH showed that partitions were not correlated with suspended particulate matter content, dissolved organic carbon or salinity, similar to the Yangtze coastal area.

  8. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  9. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities...

  10. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA haplotyping of Testudo graeca on both continental sides of the Straits of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Y; Mateo, J A; Andreu, A C; Díaz-Paniagua, C; Diez, A; Bautista, J M

    2000-01-01

    Testudo graeca is an endangered species of tortoise that inhabits Mediterranean areas of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Western populations are found on both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar. The effects of geographical isolation on genetic divergence were assessed by the sequence analysis of two mitochondrial DNA regions of the 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes. Four different haplotypes were identified. A single haplotype was shared by all Spanish and some east Moroccan specimens. Two haplotypes were unique to the west Moroccan T. graeca populations and allowed the clear discrimination between individual specimens found west of the Moulouya River. Phylogenetic analysis based on the estimation of nucleotide sequence distances of the haplotypes suggests an African origin for the Spanish populations and a subspecies status for the west Moroccan pool.

  12. Meteorologically-driven circulation and flushing times of the Bay of Algeciras, Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Garrido, José C; Lafuente, Jesús García; Sammartino, Simone; Naranjo, Cristina; de los Santos, Francisco J; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2014-03-15

    A primitive-equation model has been used to investigate the meteorologically-driven circulation of the Bay of Algeciras. It is shown that the mean circulation of Atlantic Water (AW) is characterized by an anticyclonic cell, while Mediterranean Water (MW) follows a preferred cyclonic pathway. Meteorological forcing distorts substantially the AW mean circulation pattern, and only modulates that of the MW. Winds drive a vertical circulation cell in the Atlantic layer consistent with Ekman dynamics, whereas the horizontal circulation pattern is markedly dependent on the swift Atlantic jet entering the Mediterranean and changes from clearly anticyclonic to cyclonic as the jet separates or approaches the strait's northern shoreline. This occurs through atmospheric pressure-driven acceleration/deceleration of the jet, in agreement with internal hydraulics theory predictions. It is also found that the renewal of AW is largely modulated by tides, with meteorological forcing playing a secondary role. The opposite applies to the renewal of MW.

  13. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...... radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river...... runoff into the Arctic Ocean. Role of attenuation of light by CDOM in determining underwater light regime will become more important, with a potential for future increase in marine productivity in the area of EGC due to elevated PAR and lowered UV light exposures....

  14. Large-scale, realistic laboratory modeling of M2 internal tide generation at the Luzon Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu J; Helfrich, Karl; Sommeria, Joël; Viboud, Samuel; Didelle, Henri; Saidi, Sasan; Dauxois, Thierry; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The complex double-ridge system in the Luzon Strait in the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the strongest sources of internal tides in the oceans, associated with which are some of the largest amplitude internal solitary waves on record. An issue of debate, however, has been the specific nature of their generation mechanism. To provide insight, we present the results of a large-scale laboratory experiment performed at the Coriolis platform. The experiment was carefully designed so that the relevant dimensionless parameters, which include the excursion parameter, criticality, Rossby, and Froude numbers, closely matched the ocean scenario. The results advocate that a broad and coherent weakly nonlinear, three-dimensional, M2 internal tide that is shaped by the overall geometry of the double-ridge system is radiated into the South China Sea and subsequently steepens, as opposed to being generated by a particular feature or localized region within the ridge system.

  15. A shark in the stars: astronomy and culture in the Torres Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Technology has, without doubt, expanded our understanding of space. The Voyager 1 space probe is on the brink of leaving our solar system. Massive telescopes have discovered blasts of fast radio bursts from 10 billion light years away. And after a decade on Mars, a Rover recently found evidence for an early ocean on the Red Planet. But with every new advance, it's also important to remember the science of astronomy has existed for thousands of years and forms a vital part of Indigenous Australian culture, even today. As an example, let's explore the astronomy of the Torres Strait Islanders, an Indigenous Australian people living between the tip of Cape York and Papua New Guinea.

  16. The potential impact of bedform migration on seagrass communities in Torres Strait, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James J.; Harris, Peter T.; Hughes, Michael G.; Hemer, Mark; Heap, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass communities in the northwest of Torres Strait are known to disappear episodically over broad areas. Sediment mobility surveys were undertaken within two study areas during the monsoon and trade wind seasons, in the vicinity of Turnagain Island, to find out if the migration of bedforms could explain this disappearance. The two study areas covered sand bank and sand dune environments to compare and contrast their migration characteristics. Repeat multibeam sonar surveys were used to measure dune-crest migration during each season. Our results show that seagrass beds occur in the troughs of sediment-starved dunes, but no seagrass occurs in association with full-bedded dunes that are superimposed on large sand bank features. The coincidence of seagrass beds with the sediment-starved dunes is in spite of the fact that they migrate faster (0.59 m day -1) than full-bedded dunes (0.13 m day -1), which indicates that some other factor (other than dune migration rate) limits seagrass growth within Torres Strait. We suggest that seagrasses are unable to colonise full-bedded dunes because of the semi-continuously transported sand that characterises this environment. In contrast, the troughs of sediment-starved dunes experience only limited bedload transport and are less hostile for seagrasses. A conceptual model is presented to explain the occurrence of seagrass beds in relation to their proximity to migrating sand dunes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the widespread dieback of seagrasses documented for the Turnagain Island region was not caused by dune migration.

  17. Broadband waveform inversion of moderate earthquakes in the Messina Straits, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    We report the first application of the Cut and Paste (CAP) method to compute earthquake focal mechanisms in the Messina Straits area by waveform inversion of Pnl and surface wave segments. This application of CAP has furnished new knowledge about low-magnitude earthquake mechanics that will be useful for improved understanding of the local geodynamics. This is possible because the CAP inversion technique can be applied to small earthquakes, for which traditional moment tensor inversion methods are not appropriate and P-onset focal mechanisms in the study area fail because of a lack of sufficient observations. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 23 earthquakes with local magnitudes in the range of 3-4 occurring in the 2004-2008 time period, and recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in the northern part of the study area while co-existence of normal faulting and strike-slip has been detected in the southern part. In the whole area of investigation the T-axes of focal mechanisms display a preferential northwest-southeast direction of extension. Combined with the findings of previous investigations, this improved database of focal mechanisms allows us to better detail the transitional area between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (western-central Sicily). The observed spatial change of seismic deformation regime offers new data to current seismotectonic and seismic hazard investigations in the area of Messina Straits where a magnitude 7.2 earthquake caused more than 60,000 casualties on 28 December 1908.

  18. The Strait of Gibraltar as a major biogeographic barrier in Mediterranean conifers: a comparative phylogeographic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Correa, J P; Grivet, D; Terrab, A; Kurt, Y; De-Lucas, A I; Wahid, N; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2010-12-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar (SG) is reputed for being both a bridge and a geographic barrier to biological exchanges between Europe and Africa. Major genetic breaks associated with this strait have been identified in various taxa, but it is unknown whether these disjunctions have been produced simultaneously or by independent biogeographic processes. Here, the genetic structure of five conifers distributed on both sides of the SG was investigated using mitochondrial (nad1 b/c, nad5-1, nad5-4 and nad7-1) and chloroplast (Pt1254, Pt15169, Pt30204, Pt36480, Pt71936 and Pt87268) DNA markers. The distribution of genetic variation was partially congruent between types of markers within the same species. Across taxa, there was a significant overlapping between the SG and the genetic breaks detected, especially for the four Tertiary species surveyed (Abies pinsapo complex, Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster and Taxus baccata). For most of these taxa, the divergence of populations across the SG could date back to long before the Pleistocene glaciations. However, their strongly different cpDNA G(ST) and R(ST) values point out that they have had dissimilar population histories, which might include contrasting amounts of pollen-driven gene flow since their initial establishment in the region. The fifth species, Pinus halepensis, was genetically depauperated and homogenous on both sides of the SG. A further analysis of nuclear DNA sequences with coalescent-based isolation with migration models suggests a Pleistocene divergence of P. halepensis populations across the SG, which is in sharp contrast with the pre-Pleistocene divergence dates obtained for P. pinaster. Altogether, these results indicate that the genetic breaks observed across this putative biogeographical barrier have been produced by independent evolutionary processes related to the biological history of each individual species instead of a common vicariant phenomenon.

  19. Ten years of marine current measurements in Espartel Sill, Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, S.; García Lafuente, J.; Naranjo, C.; Sánchez Garrido, J. C.; Sánchez Leal, R.; Sánchez Román, A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 10 year of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations collected at the westernmost sill (Espartel sill) of the Strait of Gibraltar by a monitoring station have been carefully processed to provide the most updated estimation of the Mediterranean outflow. A comprehensive quality control of the factors affecting the uncertainty of the measurements has been carried out and great care has been paid to infer the current at the bottom layer, where direct observations are lacking. The mean outflow in the southern channel of the sill section has been estimated as -0.82 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1), with an average contribution of the eddy fluxes of -0.04 Sv. This figure is an overestimation, as the mooring measurements, assumed valid for the whole section, ignore the lateral friction. On the other hand, it only gives the flow through the southern channel and disregards the fraction flowing through shallower northern part. Both drawbacks have been addressed by investigating the cross-strait structure of the outflow from hindcasts produced by the MITgcm numerical model, run in a high-resolution domain covering the Gulf of Cádiz and Alboran Sea basins. An overall rectifying factor of 1.039 was found satisfactory to correct the first estimate, so that the final mean outflow computed from this data set is -0.85 Sv, complemented with an uncertainty of ±0.03 Sv based on the interannual variability of the series. The temporal analysis of the series shows an outflow seasonality of around the 8% of the mean value, with maximum outflow in early spring.

  20. FCJ-140 Radio Feeds, Satellite Feeds, Network Feeds: Subjectivity Across the Straits of Gibraltar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Knouf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with the practices surrounding the two fadaiat encounters that took place simultaneously in Spain and Morocco in the summers of 2004 and 2005 (see http://fadaiat.net/ .  The fadaiat project focused on the question of immigration to Europe, specifically from northern Africa, and the ‘Fortress Europe’ responses by European Union governments.  Participants in fadaiat included academic scholars, free software developers, artists, and activists, forming a meta-network that created bridges across disparate communities and practices.  In particular, the participation of the Spanish collective hackitectura was key; they describe themselves as a ‘posse of architects, hackers and social activists experimenting in the merging territories of recombining spatial cyborgs composed by physical spaces, ICT networks and bodies’.  hackitectura led the development of both a temporary civil, non-commercial wireless link across the straits of Gibraltar between Tarifa, Spain and Tangier, Morocco, as well as an entirely free software audio/video streaming system, that enabled participants on both sides to come together independently of the restrictions normally placed on such movement by immigration laws.The importance of free software for fadaiat extends beyond its purely instrumental use as an agent for disrupting state control.  Indeed, the imagery of computation and free software – networks, links, patches, nodes, penguins – pervades the documentation of the project.  Rave parties simulcast across the straits are as important as the discussions and software produced.  I suggest that this can be understood as developing new forms of subjectivity, in the sense given by Felix Guattari, and therefore link the fadaiat project to earlier pirate radio practices, especially Radio Alice in Bologna, Italy, in which Guattari was involved.

  1. Spatial localization and mesoscale modulation of mixing and transformation of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszalka, Inga; Haine, Thomas; Magaldi, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is a major export route for dense waters from the Nordic Seas forming the North Atlantic Deep Water, an important element of the climate system. Mixing processes in the Irminger Basin determine volume transport and properties of the DSO but are poorly resolved by sparse observations which hinders development of DSO mixing parameterizations in global circulation models (GCMs). We employ a high resolution circulation model (horizontal grid spacing of 2km and 210 levels in the vertical) to investigate transformation and mixing in the DSO in the Irminger Basin and quantify the effect of mesoscale (10-100km) flows unresolved by GCMs. Both the warming rate derived from model Lagrangian particles and the Eulerian eddy temperature flux divergence show elevated values in about a 200km long and 50km wide corridor downstream of the Denmark Strait sill and between the shelf break and the 2000m isobath. In this region, the DSO warms by about 1K, which constitutes most of the transformation along the entire 700km pathway in the Irminger Basin. The horizontal and vertical mixing is modulated by dense water boluses and overlying cyclonic eddies that propagate together through the Irminger Basin (`beddies'). The passage of beddies increase the squared vertical shear of horizontal velocity by a factor of 3, correspond to increase in the vertical velocity by ten times and double the eddy heat flux divergence leading to a warming of the bottom (densest) waters and a cooling of the interface layer of the overflow plume and the ambient water above. There is a clear correlation between the speed in the nose of the plume, the eddy kinetic energy and the vertical shear in the horizontal flow. The modulation of mixing by the mesoscale variability and the attendant mixing localization should be included in future overflow parameterizations in global circulation models. A targeted field campaign to empirically test these conjectures is another high priority.

  2. Physical, biological and optical oceanographic data collected from moored buoys in the Bering Strait from 08/16/2004 to 09/03/2007 (NODC Accession 0045300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, current meter, biological, and optical oceanographic data were collected in the Bering Strait from August 16, 2004 to September 3, 2007. These data were...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bald eagle, great blue heron, and seabird nesting sites in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for forage fish in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains points that represent the following sensitive human-use socioeconomic sites in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: access...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea otters, sea lions, and harbor seals in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector...

  10. Current speed and direction, temperature and salinity collected from Moored Buoy in Davis Strait from 1987-09-05 to 1990-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0129882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volume, freshwater and heat transport through Davis Strait, the northern boundary of the Labrador Basin, were computed using a mooring array deployed for three...

  11. Fertilization strategies for Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of pre-incubation and duration of egg receptivity in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad A Momin; Butts, Ian; Linhart, Otomar

    2017-01-01

    these treatments after 3 min of pre-incubation, which clearly indicates that sea bass eggs are able to be fertilized by sperm for up to 3 min after release into seawater. This study has particular importance for understanding fertilization strategies, reproductive potential, as well as reproductive ecology of sea......Studying gamete biology can provide important information about a species fertilization strategy as well as their reproductive ecology. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax eggs can remain viable after being activated in seawater. The objectives...... of this study were to understand the effects of pre-incubation of fresh and overripe sea bass eggs in seawater and to determine the duration of egg receptivity. Pooled eggs (fresh and overripe) from four females were pre-incubated in seawater for 0 min (control), 0.5 min, 1 min, 3 min, 10 min and 30 min...

  12. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  13. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally ta...

  14. International law of the sea and national legislation on piracy and terrorism in the straits of Malacca: a study in law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ja'afar, Sabirin Bin

    2007-01-01

    The issue of piracy and maritime terrorism becomes complicated when it is discussed in relation to the rights of the coastal states regarding the right of passage in straits used for international navigation. One of the issues in this respect is the conflicting interests of littoral states that insist on sovereignty over the sea areas adjacent to their coast and the needs of user states to retain and indeed to have more freedom in navigation while passing through and overflying these straits....

  15. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  16. The influence of logjams on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) concentrations on the lower Roanoke River, a large sand-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Edward R.; McCargo, Jeremy W.; Moulin, Bertrand; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relation between logjams and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the alluvial sand-bed lower Roanoke River. Disparate data sets from previous bank erosion, fisheries, and large wood studies were used to compare the distribution of largemouth bass with logjam frequency. Logjams are related to the frequency of bank mass wasting increasing from near an upstream dam to the middle reach of the study segment and then decreasing as the river approaches sea level. The highest concentration of largemouth bass and logjams was in the middle reach (110 fish per hour and 21 jams per km). Another measure of largemouth bass distribution, fish biomass density (g h1 ), had a similar trend with logjams and was a better predictor of fish distribution versus logjams (R2= 0.6 and 0.8 and p = 0.08 and 0.02 for fish per hour and g h1 versus logjam, respectively). We theorize that the preference for adult bass to congregate near logjams indicates the use of the jams as feeding areas. The results of a principal component analysis indicate that fish biomass concentration is much more related to logjam frequency than channel geometry (width, depth, and bank height), bed grain size, bank erosion, or turbidity. The results of this research support recent studies on in-channel wood and fisheries: Logjams appear to be important for maintaining, or increasing, both largemouth bass numbers and total biomass of fish in large eastern North American rivers. Persistent logjams, important as habitat, exist where relatively undisturbed river reaches allow for bank erosion inputs of wood and available anchoring locations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Potential effects of maternal contribution on egg and larva population dynamics of striped bass: Integrated individual-based model and directed field sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, J.H., Jr. (Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    We have used a bioenergetically-driven, individual-based model (IBM) of striped bass as a framework for synthesizing available information on population biology and quantifying, in a relative sense, factors that potentially affect year class success. The IBM has been configured to simulate environmental conditions experienced by several striped bass populations; i.e., in the Potomac River, MD; in Hudson River, NY; in the Santee-Cooper River System, SC, and; in the San Joaquin-Sacramento River System CA. These sites represent extremes in the geographic distribution and thus, environmental variability of striped bass spawning. At each location, data describing the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the spawning population and nursery area are being collected and synthesized by means of a prioritized, directed field sampling program that is organized by the individual-based recruitment model. Here, we employ the striped bass IBM configured for the Potomac River, MD from spawning into the larval period to evaluate the potential for maternal contribution to affect larva survival and growth. Model simulations in which the size distribution and spawning day of females are altered indicate that larva survival is enhanced (3.3-fold increase) when a high fraction of females in the spawning population are large. Larva stage duration also is less ({bar X} = 18.4 d and 22.2 d) when large and small females, respectively, are mothers in simulations. Although inconclusive, these preliminary results for Potomac River striped bass suggest that the effects of female size, timing of spawning nad maternal contribution on recruitment dynamics potentially are important and illustrate our approach to the study of recruitment in striped bass. We hope to use the model, field collections and management alternatives that vary from site to site, in an iterative manner for some time to come. 54 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. There’s More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won’t Dance to Techno

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM) and raters’ perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec.) representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a) the high-frequency band, (b) the mid-frequency band, and (c) the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d) dynamics, and (e) timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a) isochronous bass and static timbres, (b) isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c) non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d) non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99) were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9), affective (n = 9), and psychomotor (n = 3) domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of “non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies” demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of “isochronous bass with static timbres” demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters’ responses for those with a musical preference for “contemporary” music, “sophisticated” music, and “intense” music. PMID:27798645

  19. Shared marine waters of British Columbia and Washington: A scientific assessment of current status and future trends in resource abundance and environmental quality in the strait of Juan de Fuca, Strait of Georgia, and Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The British Columbia/Washington Marine Science Panel was created in 1993 to evaluate the condition of the marine environment in the Strait of Georgia, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and Puget Sound region on both sides of the international boundary. The panel was asked to produce a report on the current condition of, and trends in, the marine waters shared by the province and state. This report describes the principles followed; the region of concern; physical exchange mechanisms in the transboundary region; movements, status, and trends of transboundary biological resource populations; anthropogenic impacts on the ecosystem and humans; ecosystem sensitivity and future scope of anthropogenic impacts; and degree of harm and management priorities.

  20. A Numerical Model of Seawater Volume and Velocity Dynamic for Marine Currents Power Plant in the Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Taunaumang, H.; Sangari, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    One of equipment as prime movers in the marine current power plant is turbine. Marine current turbines require a data of marine currents velocity in its design. The objective of this study was to get the velocities distribution of marine currents in the Bangka strait. The method used survey, observation, and measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of seawater density conducted measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of width and depth of the strait collected from the map of Bangka strait and its depth of the sea. Problem solving of the study used a numerical model. The velocities distribution of marine current obtained from a numerical model in the form of numerical program. The results showed that the velocities distribution at seawater column when low and high tide currents which the maximum happened at 0.1 Sv were 0-0.9 and 0-1.0 m/s respectively, while at 0.3 Sv were 0-2.7 and 0-3.0 m/s respectively. The results will be a product in analyzing the potential kinetic energy that used to design profile of the turbines as prime mover for marine currents power plant in the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

  1. Reproductive endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Potomac River basin: spatial and temporal comparisons of biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Henderson, Holly; Mazik, Patricia M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Alvarez, David A.; Young, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A high prevalence of intersex or testicular oocytes (TO) in male smallmouth bass within the Potomac River drainage has raised concerns as to the health of the river. Studies were conducted to document biomarker responses both temporally and spatially to better understand the influence of normal physiological cycles, as well as water quality and land-use influences. Smallmouth bass were collected over a 2-year period from three tributaries of the Potomac River: the Shenandoah River, the South Branch Potomac and Conococheague Creek, and an out-of-basin reference site on the Gauley River. The prevalence of TO varied seasonally with the lowest prevalence observed in July, post-spawn. Reproductive maturity and/or lack of spawning the previous spring, as well as land-use practices such as application of manure and pesticides, may influence the seasonal observations. Annual, seasonal, and site differences were also observed in the percentage of males with measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin, mean concentration of plasma vitellogenin in females, and plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in both sexes. Bass collected in the South Branch Potomac (moderate to high prevalence of TO) had less sperm per testes mass with a lower percentage of those sperm being motile when compared to those from the Gauley River (low prevalence of TO). An inverse relationship was noted between TO severity and sperm motility. An association between TO severity and wastewater treatment plant flow, percent of agriculture, total number of animal feeding operations, the number of poultry houses, and animal density within the catchment was observed.

  2. Transcriptomic Profiling of Egg Quality in Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Sheds Light on Genes Involved in Ubiquitination and Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żarski, Daniel; Nguyen, Thaovi; Le Cam, Aurélie; Montfort, Jérôme; Dutto, Gilbert; Vidal, Marie Odile; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Variable and low egg quality is a major limiting factor for the development of efficient aquaculture production. This stems from limited knowledge on the mechanisms underlying egg quality in cultured fish. Molecular analyses, such as transcriptomic studies, are valuable tools to identify the most important processes modulating egg quality. However, very few studies have been devoted to this aspect so far. Within this study, the microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of eggs (of different quality) of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was performed. An Agilent oligo microarray experiment was performed on labelled mRNA extracted from 16 batches of eggs (each batch obtained from a different female) of sea bass, in which over 24,000 published probe arrays were used. We identified 39 differentially expressed genes exhibiting a differential expression between the groups of low (fertilization rate  60 %) quality. The mRNA levels of eight genes were further analyzed by quantitative PCR. Seven genes were confirmed by qPCR to be differentially expressed in eggs of low and high quality. This study confirmed the importance of some of the genes already reported to be potential molecular quality indicators (mainly rnf213 and irf7), but we also found new genes (mainly usp5, mem-prot, plec, cenpf), which had not yet been reported to be quality-dependent in fish. These results suggest the importance of genes involved in several important processes, such as protein ubiquitination, translation, DNA repair, and cell structure and architecture; these probably being the mechanisms that contribute to egg developmental competence in sea bass.

  3. Sensitive periods for 17β-estradiol exposure during immune system development in sea bass head kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Frauke; Knigge, Thomas; Duflot, Aurélie; Marie, Sabine; Olivier, Stéphanie; Minier, Christophe; Monsinjon, Tiphaine

    2016-06-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that sex steroids play an important role in the development and regulation of vertebrate immune defense. Therefore, compounds with estrogenic activity may influence the immune system via receptor-mediated pathways. The presence of estrogen receptors in immune cells and organs during the early stages of development may indicate that female steroid hormones are involved in the maturation of the fish immune system. This is of particular importance, as some marine fish are probably exposed to sources of exogenous estrogens while they reside in their estuarine nursery grounds. In this study, the influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on estrogen receptor and cytokine gene expression was assessed in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) together with characterization of the head kidney leukocyte populations and corresponding phagocytic activity during organ regionalization from 98 to 239 dph. E2 exposure, beginning at 90 dph resulted in indirect and delayed modifications of interleukin 1β and estrogen receptor α gene expression, which may affect B-lymphocyte proliferation in the sea bass head kidney. The E2 treatment of 120 dph fish led to an increase in estrogen receptor β2 and a decrease in transforming growth factor β1 gene expression, which coincided with decreased phagocytic activity of head kidney lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Additionally, these changes were observed during developmental periods described as critical phases for B-lymphocyte development in mammals. Consequently, exogenous estrogens have the potential to modify the innate immune response in juvenile sea bass and to exert detrimental effects on head kidney development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Ruessler, D.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Holm, S.E.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of efffluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17??-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library.

  6. Convolutional Neural Networks with Batch Normalization for Classifying Hi-hat, Snare, and Bass Percussion Sound Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajhede, Nicolai; Beck, Oliver; Purwins, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    of the most prominent drum set instru- ments (bass, snare, hi-hat). We use the Mel scale log magnitudes (MLS) as a representation for the input of the CNN. We compare the classification results of 1) a CNN (3 conv/max-pool layers and 2 fully connected layers) without drop-out and batch normalization vs. three...... variants, 2) with drop-out, 3) with batch normalization (BN), and 4) with both drop-out and BN. The CNNs with BN yield the best classification results (97% accuracy)....

  7. Convolutional Neural Networks with Batch Normalization for Classifying Hi-hat, Snare, and Bass Percussion Sound Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajhede, Nicolai; Beck, Oliver; Purwins, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    After having revolutionized image and speech processing, convolu- tional neural networks (CNN) are now starting to become more and more successful in music information retrieval as well. We compare four CNN types for classifying a dataset of more than 3000 acoustic and synthesized samples...... of the most prominent drum set instru- ments (bass, snare, hi-hat). We use the Mel scale log magnitudes (MLS) as a representation for the input of the CNN. We compare the classification results of 1) a CNN (3 conv/max-pool layers and 2 fully connected layers) without drop-out and batch normalization vs. three...

  8. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS......), is introduced. The system utilizes front loudspeakers and extra loudspeakers on the opposite wall of the room processed to cancel out the rear-wall reflections, which effectively conveys a more uniform sound field. The system works in the time domain and presents good performance over the loudspeaker low...

  9. RELATION OF BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION TO METABOLIC RATE OF JUVENILE JAPANESE SEA BASS,LATEOLABRAX JAPONICUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metabolic rate of Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (C & V), was estimated in laboratory at temperature 25.2±0.5℃. The fresh weight of the fish was 4.64-52.28 g (average of 17.81±0.33 g). The routine metabolism was related to body weight by the exponential equation: Rr=14.966W0.74 (r=0.934). The rate of feeding metabolism increased linearly with food consumption. Feeding metabolic rate was 1.8-2.4 times the routine metabolic rate.

  10. A study on the efficiency of EFQM versus Bass method: Evidence from national land and housing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style plays essential role on the success of organizations. The proposed study of this paper compares the efficiency of leadership study based on EFQM and Bass models in national land and housing organization of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among all managers on this organization. The study covers all different levels of management including middle and top-level management. The results of the survey indicate that the average efficiency of EFQM model is located in 2.7276

  11. Trace elements and metals in farmed sea bass and gilthead bream from Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Jalilli, A; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hernández, F; Melón, E; Burgos, A; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of metals (Ca, K, Na, Mg) and trace metals (Ni, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) in two fish species (gilthead bream [Sparus aurata] and sea bass [Dicentrarchus labrax]) collected from fish farms located along the coast of Tenerife Island. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents were 3.09, 0.59, 0.18, and 8.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in S. aurata and 3.20, 0.76, 0.24, and 10.11 mg/kg (wet weight) in D. labrax, respectively. In D. labrax, Ca, K, Na, and Mg levels were 1,955, 2,787, 699.7, and 279.2 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively; in S. aurata, they were 934.7, 3,515, 532.8, and 262.8 mg/kg (wet weight), respectively. The Pb level in S. aurata was 7.28 ± 3.64 μg/kg (wet weight) and, in D. labrax, 4.42 ± 1.56 μg/kg (wet weight). Mean Cd concentrations were 3.33 ± 3.93 and 1.36 ± 1.53 μg/kg (wet weight) for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. All Pb and Cd levels measured were well below the accepted European Commission limits, 300 and 50 μg/kg for lead and cadmium, respectively.

  12. Individual variation and repeatability in aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J; Nelson, J A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of inter-individual variation in fish swimming performance may provide insight into how selection has influenced diversity in phenotypic traits. We investigated individual variation and short-term repeatability of individual swimming performance by wild European sea bass in a constant acceleration test (CAT). Fish were challenged with four consecutive CATs with 5 min rest between trials. We measured maximum anaerobic speed at exhaustion (U(CAT)), gait transition speed from steady aerobic to unsteady anaerobic swimming (U(gt)), routine metabolic rate (RMR), post-CAT maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope and recovery time from the CATs. Fish achieved significantly higher speeds during the first CAT (U(CAT)=170 cm s(-1)), and had much more inter-individual variation in performance (coefficient of variation, CV=18.43%) than in the subsequent three tests (U(CAT)=134 cm s(-1); CV=7.3%), which were very repeatable among individuals. The individual variation in U(CAT) in the first trial could be accounted for almost exclusively by variation in anaerobic burst-and-coast performance beyond U(gt). The U(gt) itself varied substantially between individuals (CV=11.4%), but was significantly repeatable across all four trials. Individual RMR and MMR varied considerably, but the rank order of post-CAT MMR was highly repeatable. Recovery rate from the four CATs was highly variable and correlated positively with the first U(CAT) (longer recovery for higher speeds) but negatively with RMR and aerobic scope (shorter recovery for higher RMR and aerobic scope). This large variation in individual performance coupled with the strong correlations between some of the studied variables may reflect divergent selection favouring alternative strategies for foraging and avoiding predation.

  13. Expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a in the sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone eGiffard-Mena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The successful establishment of a species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each of its developing stages to adapt to the environment. In order to understand this process we have studied the adaptation of a euryhaline fish, the sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax, to various salinities during its ontogeny. The expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a (AQP1a mRNA and protein were determined in different osmoregulatory tissues. In larvae, the sites of AQP1a expression are variable and they shift according to age, implying functional changes. In juveniles after metamorphosis (D32-48 post hatch, 15 - 25 mm and in pre-adults, an increase in AQP1a transcript abundance was noted in the digestive tract, and the AQP1a location was observed in the intestine. In juveniles (D87-100 post hatch, 38 - 48 mm, the transcript levels of AQP1a in the digestive tract and in the kidney were higher in sea water than at lower salinity. These observations, in agreement with existing models, suggest that in sea water-acclimated fish, the imbibed water is absorbed via AQP1a through the digestive tract, particularly the intestine and the rectum. In addition, AQP1a may play a role in water reabsorption in the kidney. These mechanisms compensate dehydratation in sea water, and they contribute to the adaptation of juveniles to salinity changes during sea-lagoon migrations. These results contribute to the interpretation of the adaptation of populations to habitats where salinity varies.

  14. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules.

  15. Thermal and temporal stability of swimming performance in the European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey; Standen, Emily; Nelson, Jay A

    2007-01-01

    Studies of locomotor performance have contributed to the elucidation of how suborganismal traits ultimately relate to fitness. In terrestrial populations, exploring the physiological and environmental contributions to whole-animal performance measures has improved our understanding of phenotypic selection. Conversely, very little is known about the links between phenotypic selection and swimming abilities in fish. Most research on swimming performance in fish has focused on morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits contributing to performance or has used swimming performance as a measure of environmental suitability. Few studies have explored how swimming performance is integrated with life-history traits or contributes to Darwinian fitness. In addition, while there are many studies on how the environment influences the swimming performance of fish, few have been done at the individual level. The objective of this study was to broaden our understanding of the relevance of fish swimming performance studies by testing the hypothesis that swimming performance (endurance and sprint) is ontogenetically and temporally stable across fluctuating environmental conditions. We found that individual sprint performances recorded at 12 degrees C were significantly repeatable after a 4-wk acclimation to 22 degrees C, although relative sprint performance of fish that survived 6 mo of natural conditions in a mesocosm was not significantly repeatable. Endurance swimming performance, as measured by critical swimming speed (U(crit)) before and after the 6-mo exposure to simulated natural conditions, was significantly repeatable within survivors. Relative sprint and critical swimming performances were not significantly related to each other. We concluded that within a time frame of up to 6 mo, the swimming performances of individual bass are ontogenetically nearly stable (sprint) to stable (endurance) despite large fluctuations in environmental conditions. Moreover, because

  16. Effect of fasting on body composition and responses to stress in sunshine bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth B; Gaylord, T Gibson

    2011-01-01

    The integrated responses of the hormonal regulation of growth and stress in sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis) as regulated by feed deprivation were investigated. Groups of fish were fed 1.5% of the body weight per day or offered no feed for 4weeks. Another group of fish was not fed for 3weeks and feed was offered during the fourth week. Fish in each group were sampled immediately before or after a 15-min low water confinement stressor after each week of the experiment. Liver mass and liver glycogen content were decreased after one week of fasting and remained low until the end of the study. However, both recovered after a week of refeeding. Intraperitoneal fat was significantly lower after two weeks of fasting and did not recover after a week of refeeding. None of these components were affected by confinement stress. Plasma glucose in unstressed fish was generally unaffected by fasting or refeeding; however, plasma glucose increased after confinement stress in fed but not in fasted fish. The cortisol stress response was unaltered by fasting and remained robust. Plasma IGF-I generally decreased in fasted fish but was not significantly lower than fed fish until the fourth week. A week of refeeding did not restore plasma IGF-I concentrations. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were higher in confinement stressed fed fish after two and four weeks but were unchanged in the fourth week. There was no change in the plasma IGF-I concentrations in fasted or refed fish due to the stress. Liver weight and liver glycogen were essentially depleted after 2weeks of fasting. The reduction of liver glycogen greatly reduced the glucose response to stress; however, the cortisol stress response was maintained for at least four weeks of fasting. Intraperitoneal fat was decreased very little after 4weeks of fasting. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were reduced only after 3weeks of fasting.

  17. Study on the seasonal migration of surface suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Jian; Ye, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of suspended sediment directly affects the optical properties such as transparency and water color, and aquatic environment as well. This paper selects the Taiwan Strait as study area, establishes inversion mode of suspended sediment by coupling field data with remote sensing reflectance from MODIS data. Monthly-averaged concentrations and seasonal changes of suspended sediment from 2003 to 2012 were calculated and analyzed by the mode. The main results are as follows:(1) remote sensing reflectance at 555nm from MODIS data has high relativity with the field observed turbidity by regression equation of Y =0.8931e123.93x in which Y is TSM concentration, X is Rrs555 and R2 is 0.6836. (2)Suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait has obviously spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, that higher concentration of suspended sediment is in coastal water and decreases from shore to sea, and highest concentration happens in winter.

  18. An Experiment to Evaluate Skylab Earth Resources Sensors for Detection of the Gulf Stream. [Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, H. R.; Baig, S. R.; Mccaslin, M.; Devivo, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An experiment to evaluate the Skylab earth resources package for observing ocean currents was performed in the Straits of Florida in January 1974. Data from the S190 photographic facility, S191 spectroradiometer and S192 multispectral scanner, were compared with surface observations. The anticyclonic edge of the Gulf Stream could be identified in the Skylab S190A and B photographs, but the cyclonic edge was obscured by clouds. The aircraft photographs were judged not useful for spectral analysis because vignetting caused the blue/green ratios to be dependent on the position in the photograph. The spectral measurement technique could not identify the anticyclonic front, but mass of Florida Bay water which was in the process of flowing into the Straits could be identified and classified. Monte Carlo simulations of the visible spectrum showed that the aerosol concentration could be estimated and a correction technique was devised.

  19. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-04-24

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80-11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open.

  20. Distribution of Synechococcus sp. and Synechococcus bacillaris in the waters of the Straits of Magellan (April 1995-early austral autumn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G; Zaccone, R

    1998-10-01

    During the last oceanographic cruise carried out in the Straits of Magellan (April 1995), a serological approach was used in order to determine the distribution and composition of the picophytoplankton community with respect to two cyanobacteria species, Synechococcus sp. and bacillaris, characterized respectively by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as the main accessory photosynthetic pigment. In the period examined, the Straits were characterized by generally low concentrations of total picophytoplankton (10(5)-10(6) cells/l). The qualitative composition of the community showed the prevalence of the species Synechococcus sp. in the Pacific basin, whereas S. bacillaris appears to be predominant in the central area. The immunofluorescence method proved to be effective in the study of the diversity of these microorganisms in aquatic environments.

  1. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait) during ongoing sea ice melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Kattner, G.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Stimac, I.

    2011-05-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  2. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait during ongoing sea ice melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  3. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Kathryn J.; Bond, Kathy S.; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian...

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of soft-bottom peracarid (Crustacea: Peracarida infauna in the Canakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASLAN-CIHANGIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity and distribution of soft-bottom peracarid crustaceans were analyzed in the south part of Canakkale Strait, a very important biological corridor between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Samples were collected seasonally from 11 coastal stations at depths ranging from 10 to 22 m. Moreover, qualitative samples were collected in summer from 7 stations (40 - 83 m depth located in the middle part of the Strait. A total of 110 species were identified. Amphipods were the dominant group both in terms of species richness and abundance. Apocorophium acutum, Phtisica marina and Microdeutopus versiculatus were the most abundant species. A large number of rare species was recorded, leading to very low similarity values among stations. Six different feeding types were detected, with surface deposit feeders being the dominant one in the area. Significant differences in abundances and assemblage structure were detected along the eastern and western coasts of the Strait that could be attributed to food supply and sediment composition, depending on bottom current velocities. Possible relations of peracarids with the hydrological regime of the area are also discussed.

  5. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  6. The origin, historical variations, and distribution of heavy metals in the Qiongzhou Strait and nearby marine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Liang; Wang, Weiping; Li, Tuanjie; Zu, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in a number of surface sediments and cores from the Qiongzhou Strait and surrounding marine areas. The areas of high concentrations are primarily outside the eastern mouth of the Qiongzhou Strait and on the west side of the Leizhou Peninsula, whereas the areas of low concentrations are located primarily in the eastern Qiongzhou Strait. The maximum Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in the samples collected in our study do not exceed the official standards for marine sediments, whereas the concentrations of Cr and Cu slightly exceed the standards. Correlations exist between the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd, and the concentrations of these metals are positively correlated with the mean particle size (φ value), indicating that the finer sediments have adsorbed greater amounts of heavy metal elements than the coarser sediments. An evaluation of the potential environmental risks demonstrates that certain indices of heavy metal pollution and environmental risks are relatively low and may be assigned low risk levels, thereby indicating that, in terms of heavy metals, the marine sedimentary environment in this region is only mildly impacted. Our analysis of the contaminant origins shows that the heavy metals in this region primarily originate in the Pearl River Estuary and that a small amount of them is derived from local runoff. The elevated heavy metal concentrations from the upper sections of the cores started 130 years ago, which indicats that heavy metals in the surface sediments are primarily due to human activities associated with industrialization.

  7. STRait Razor: a length-based forensic STR allele-calling tool for use with second generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, David H; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar; Jain, Ravi; Davis, Carey; Larue, Bobby; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of second generation sequencing (SGS) to provide coverage of short tandem repeats (STRs) found within the human genome. However, there are relatively few bioinformatic software packages capable of detecting these markers in the raw sequence data. The extant STR-calling tools are sophisticated, but are not always applicable to the analysis of the STR loci commonly used in forensic analyses. STRait Razor is a newly developed Perl-based software tool that runs on the Linux/Unix operating system and is designed to detect forensically-relevant STR alleles in FASTQ sequence data, based on allelic length. It is capable of analyzing STR loci with repeat motifs ranging from simple to complex without the need for extensive allelic sequence data. STRait Razor is designed to interpret both single-end and paired-end data and relies on intelligent parallel processing to reduce analysis time. Users are presented with a number of customization options, including variable mismatch detection parameters, as well as the ability to easily allow for the detection of alleles at new loci. In its current state, the software detects alleles for 44 autosomal and Y-chromosome STR loci. The study described herein demonstrates that STRait Razor is capable of detecting STR alleles in data generated by multiple library preparation methods and two Illumina(®) sequencing instruments, with 100% concordance. The data also reveal noteworthy concepts related to the effect of different preparation chemistries and sequencing parameters on the bioinformatic detection of STR alleles.

  8. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Condren, O M; Downes, A B; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    1999-09-30

    New data on the vertical distributions of plutonium and americium in the waters of the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar are examined in terms of the processes governing their delivery to, transport in and removal from the water column within the basin. Residence times for plutonium and americium in surface waters of approximately 15 and approximately 3 years, respectively, are deduced, and it is shown that by the mid 1990s only approximately 35% of the 239,240Pu and approximately 5% of the 241Am deposited as weapons fallout still resided in the water column. Present 239,240Pu inventories in the water column and the underlying sediments are estimated to be approximately 25 TBq and approximately 40 TBq, respectively, which reconcile well with the time-integrated fallout deposition in this zone, taken to be approximately 69 TBq. The data show that there are significant net outward fluxes of plutonium and americium from the basin through the Strait of Gibraltar at the present time. These appear to be compensated by net inward fluxes of similar magnitude through the Strait of Sicily. Thus, the time-integrated fallout deposition in the western basin can be accounted for satisfactorily in terms of present water column and sediment inventories. Enhanced scavenging on the continental shelves, as evidenced by the appreciably higher transuranic concentrations in shelf sediments, supports this contention.

  9. Lateral supply and downward export of particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Catherine; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hardge, Kristin; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed at 4 depths in the eastern Fram Strait from July 2007 to June 2008 to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of the sinking particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor. Sediment traps were deployed at 196 m in the Atlantic Water layer, at 1296 and 2364 m in the intermediate and deep waters, and at 2430 m on a benthic lander in the near-bottom layer. Fluxes of total particulate matter, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic matter, lithogenic matter, biogenic particulate silica, calcium carbonate, dominant phytoplankton cells, and zooplankton fecal pellets increased with depth, indicating the importance of lateral advection on fluxes in the deep Fram Strait. The lateral supply of particulate matter was further supported by the constant fluxes of biomarkers such as brassicasterol, alkenones, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and IP25 at all depths sampled. However, enhanced fluxes of diatoms and appendicularian fecal pellets from the upper waters to the seafloor in the presence of ice during spring indicated the rapid export (15-35 days) of locally-produced large particles that likely contributed most of the food supply to the benthic communities. These results show that lateral supply and downward fluxes are both important processes influencing the transport of particulate matter to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait, and that particulate matter size dictates the prevailing sinking process.

  10. The fundamental characteristics of current in the Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea from July to September 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; DU Ling; ZHAO Jinping; ZUO Juncheng; LI Peiliang

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of current in the Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea are analyzed based on the two current data on the mooring stations during the Second National Arctic Research Expedition of China in 2003. The tidal currents of the principal diurnal and semidiurnal ellipses rotate clockwise in the upper layer, except for N2, S2, and Q1 at Sta. ST. In the Bering Strait (Sta. ST), the major semi-axis of tidal current constituent M2 is 2.9 cm/s in the upper layer, which is much smaller than that of semi-monthly oscillation (11.8 cm/s);and the mean current flows northwestward at the amplitude of about 20 cm/s and varies a little with depth. During the cruise, the current has significant semi-monthly oscillation at the two mooring stations. The spectra analyses of the air pressure gradient and the wind stress show that there are the semi-monthly oscillations in these two data series. The near-inertial current, approximately 4 cm/s, presents almost the same magnitude of the principal tidal currents in the Bering Strait.

  11. Dolphin Watching in the Southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape, Philippines: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemnuel V. Aragones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin watching is a growing economic activity in the southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape (TSPS, the Philippines, an area that is also heavily exploited by fisheries. In order to examine the issues and challenges in this growing industry, we monitored relevant information regarding cetacean watching, conducted focus group discussions (FGDs and educational seminar-workshops for various local stakeholders from 2004 to 2006, and followed these up from 2008-2012. From 9 May to 16 August 2004, we conducted structured interviews to determine the perceptions of cetacean-watching tourists (CWTs and assess the level of local knowledge of f ishers and non-fishers (NFs regarding marine mammals and environmental management in this area. Ninety f ive (95 CWTs, 100 local fishers, and 64 NFs were interviewed. Sixty seven percent (n=64 of the CWTs believed that the overall quality of tours was impressive primarily because they were able to watch, at reasonable costs, large groups of dolphins in close proximity and in an almost pristine environment. The majority of CWTs (~91% felt that there is a need to develop a ‘Special Management Plan’ (SMP for the southern TSPS focusing on cetaceans and their habitats. The increasing number of dolphin watching boats, heavy exploitation of f ishing ground, misperception of local f ishers that cetaceans are competitors with f isheries, and lack of a SMP or a Management Plan per se for TSPS warranted the facilitation of a participatory management process to protect the cetaceans and their habitats.This study has shown that even with only preliminary results, survey interviews of key stakeholders in combination with FGDs and seminar-workshop could be critical in facilitating a participatory management process. In the case of the TSPS, this par ticipatory approach led to the formation of the Tañon Strait Association of Dolphin and Whale Watching Operators, Inc. (TaSADoWWI, and eventual development of cetacean

  12. Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: Potential insights into biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Brian C., E-mail: bcsanche@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J., E-mail: ralstonk@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kowalski, Kevin A., E-mail: kowalski@purdue.edu [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Proteomics Facility, Purdue University, 1203 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dorota Inerowicz, H., E-mail: inerowic@purdue.edu [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Proteomics Facility, Purdue University, 1203 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Adamec, Jiri, E-mail: jadamec@purdue.edu [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Proteomics Facility, Purdue University, 1203 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 195 Marsteller Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3.0, 2.5, 50, and 100 {mu}g/g, respectively. After a 96 h exposure, hepatic proteins were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) recognized and identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We identified, 30, 18, eight, 19, and five proteins as differentially expressed within the CdCl{sub 2}, atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, and toxaphene treatments, respectively. Alterations were observed in the expression of proteins associated with cellular ion homeostasis (toxaphene), oxidative stress (phenanthrene, PCB 126), and energy production including glycolysis (CdCl{sub 2}, atrazine) and ATP synthesis (atrazine). This work supports the further evaluation of several of these proteins as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish.

  13. Volcanic evolution of central Basse-Terre Island revisited on the basis of new geochronology and geomorphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, J.; Quidelleur, X.; Lahitte, P.

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-six new and seven previous K-Ar ages obtained on groundmass separates for samples from the Axial Chain massif (Guadeloupe, F.W.I.), associated with geomorphological investigations, allow us to propose a new model of the volcanic evolution of the central part of Basse-Terre Island. The Axial Chain is composed of four edifices, Moustique, Matéliane, Capesterre, and Icaque mounts, showing coeval activity from 681 ± 12 to 509 ± 10 ka, which contradicts a previous hypothesis that flank collapse affected them successively. Our geomorphological reconstruction shows that the Axial Chain can be considered as a single large volcano, named the Southern Axial Chain volcano (SCA), rather than a succession of several smaller volcanoes. It raises questions regarding the formation of a large depression within the SCA volcano, prior to the construction of the Sans-Toucher volcano between 451 ± 13 and 412 ± 8 ka. Given presently available evidence, a slump affecting the western part of the SCA volcano is the most probable scenario to reconcile the complete age dataset and the present-day morphology of central Basse-Terre. Finally, our study shows that the SCA volcano had a post-activity volume of 90 km3, implying a construction rate of 0.5 km3/kyr. This value strongly constrains interpretations of magma generation processes throughout the Lesser Antilles arc.

  14. The characteristics of vasa gene from Japanese sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas) and its response to the external hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Meili; Wen, Haishen; Ni, Meng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Senhao

    2015-08-01

    The RNA helicase Vasa is an important regulator of primordial germ cell development. Its function in mature fish, especially the hormone-related differences in maturing male fish has seldom been documented. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of the vasa gene was cloned from Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas, and it was named jsb-vasa. Homology analysis showed that jsb-vasa was closely related to its teleost homologs. The spatial distribution of jsb-vasa indicated that it was only highly expressed in testis, showing its germ cell-specific expression pattern. During the testicular development cycle, jsb-vasa was highly expressed during early period of spermatogenesis, and reduced when spermatogenesis advanced. In addition, the jsb-vasa gene expression was significantly inhibited at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after injecting hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and GnRHa (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue), indicating that jsb-vasa gene may play an important role in spermatogenesis of Japanese sea bass, and be under the regulation of external sex hormones.

  15. Administration of a Polyphenol-Enriched Feed to Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Modulates Intestinal and Spleen Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Fontana, Sergio; Laforgia, Flavia; Dragone, Teresa; Jirillo, Emilio; Passantino, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Farmed fish are exposed to a continuous antigenic pressure by microbial and environmental agents, which may lead to a condition of chronic inflammation. In view of the notion that polyphenols, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) have been administered with red grape polyphenol-enriched feed. Polyphenols were extracted from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg, resp.). Fish samples collected at days 223 and 273, respectively, were evaluated for intestinal and spleen cytokine release as well as for spleen macrophage (MØ) and melanomacrophage center (MMC) areas and distribution. Data will show that in treated fish decrease of intestinal interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 and increase of splenic interferon- (IFN-) γ occur. On the other hand, in the spleen reduction of MØ number seems to parallel increase in MMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that polyphenol-administered sea bass generate lower levels of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines, while producing larger amounts of spleen IFN-γ, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Increase of MMCs corroborates the evidence for a protective spleen response induced by feed enriched with polyphenols.

  16. Growth parameters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labraxL.: effects of live weight and water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary feed intake (VFI and growth rate of sea bass were studied for 147 days, based on different starting live  weights, under natural photoperiods and varied water temperatures. Sea bass (n = 720 were divided into five weight  classes (60-70, 90-110, 130-150, 160-180 and 230-250 g and distributed among 20 tanks. Seven different water tem-  peratures were compared: 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C. A commercial extruded diet (N x 6.25, 43.7% DM; crude  fat, 25.7% DM was used. The trial was performed in a closed-circuit plant, with a daily water turnover rate of 10%. Each  tank was fitted with an apparatus for collecting the uneaten food. Automatic feeders distributed equal amounts of food  for ten meals per day. The daily food allowance was adjusted, based on fish biomass, to permit ad libitum feeding and  to leave approximately 20% uneaten. Fish were exposed to natural photoperiod (March-July. Non-linear regression  equations were used to calculate the best-fitting curves for the data. 

  17. BANYAN. VII. A New Population of Young Substellar Candidate Members of Nearby Moving Groups from the BASS Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Cruz, Kelle L; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Burgasser, Adam J; Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John E; Albert, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    [Abbreviated] We present the results of a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic follow-up survey of 182 M4-L7 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs) from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) for candidate members of nearby, young moving groups (YMGs). We confirm signs of low-gravity for 42 new BD discoveries with estimated masses between 8-75 $M_{Jup}$ and identify previously unrecognized signs of low gravity for 24 known BDs. This allows us to refine the fraction of low-gravity dwarfs in the high-probability BASS sample to $\\sim$82%. We use this unique sample of 66 young BDs, supplemented with 22 young BDs from the literature, to construct new empirical NIR absolute magnitude and color sequences for low-gravity BDs. We obtain a spectroscopic confirmation of low-gravity for 2MASS J14252798-3650229, which is a new $\\sim$27 $M_{Jup}$, L4 $\\gamma$ bona fide member of AB Doradus. We identify a total of 19 new low-gravity candidate members of YMGs with estimated masses below 13 $M_{Jup}$, seven of which have kinematically ...

  18. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  19. Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation by fasting of the agouti family of peptides in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulleiro, Maria Josep; Cortés, Raúl; Leal, Esther; Ríos, Diana; Sánchez, Elisa; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2014-09-01

    The melanocortin system is one of the most complex hormonal systems in vertebrates. Atypically, the signaling of melanocortin receptors is regulated by the binding of endogenous antagonists, named agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) and agouti-related protein (AGRP). Teleost specific genome duplication (TSGD) rendered new gene copies in teleost fish and up to four different genes of the agouti family of peptides have been characterized. In this paper, molecular cloning was used to characterize mRNA of the agouti family of peptides in sea bass. Four different genes were identified: AGRP1, ASIP1, AGRP2 and ASIP2. The AGRP1 gene is mainly expressed in the brain whereas ASIP1 is mainly expressed in the ventral skin. Both ASIP2 and AGRP2 are expressed in the brain and the pineal gland but also in some peripheral tissues. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that AGRP1 is exclusively expressed within the lateral tuberal nucleus, the homologue of the mammalian arcuate nucleus in fish. Long-term fasting (8-29 days) increased the hypothalamic expression of AGRP1 but depressed AGRP2 expression (15-29 days). In contrast, the hypothalamic expression of ASIP2 was upregulated during short-term fasting suggesting that this peptide could be involved in the short term regulation of food intake in the sea bass.

  20. Apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, protein, lipid, and organic matter using various animal and plant protein sources by sunshine bass Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available on the digestibility of nutrients in various practical ingredients used in diets for commercially-important finfish species. This information is especially needed for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, to improve least-cost diet formulations and to allow ...

  1. SeaBASS Bio-optical and pigment data collected from 1979-08-22 to 2011-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0086308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) bio-optical, pigment, and other data collected from 1979-08-22 to 2011-12-14....

  2. The effects of menhaden oil, flaxseed oil and a dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth , health , feed conversion , survival , critical maximum temperature, and body composition of sunshine bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile "sunshine bass" female Morone chrysops x male M. saxatilis using four diets containing two levels of a dairy-yeast prebiotic (0 or 2%) and either menhaden fish oil or flaxseed oil as a lipid source. The objective was to determine the main and inte...

  3. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The..., Put-in-Bay, Ohio. This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the...

  4. Comparison of Two Brushing Methods- Fone’s vs Modified Bass Method in Visually Impaired Children Using the Audio Tactile Performance (ATP) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ramesh; V, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of two brushing techniques - Fone’s method Vs Modified Bass method in visually impaired children using the Audio Tactile Performance (ATP) technique. Settings and design: Eighty institutionalised visually impaired children, aged between 4-15 y were randomly selected. Materials and Methods: Baseline plaque scores were recorded using Silness and Loe plaque index. The subjects were then randomly divided into two groups of which, 40 were trained with Fone’s method and and other 40 with Modified Bass method using the ATP technique. Plaque scores were evaluated again after two months. The effectiveness of oral hygiene maintenance in these children were analysed and evaluated statistically. Statistical analysis: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and paired t-test. Results: Both Fone’s and Modified Bass method showed reduction in plaque which was statistically significant. There was an increase in the frequency of tooth brushing following training. Conclusion: The Fone’s method and the Modified Bass method of tooth brushing showed a significant improvement in the oral hygiene of visually impaired children when taught using an effective communication tool, the ATP technique. PMID:25954698

  5. Effect of contrasting agents on survival, performance, and condition of larval hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbidity is important in the tank culture of larval cannibalistic fish. The principal goal of these studies were to characterize the utility and feasibility of select contrasting agents, either algae or inert soil, at improving sunshine bass survival and uniformity of size at time of weaning to an ...

  6. Identification of centrarchid hepcidins and evidence that 17β-estradiol disrupts constitutive expression of hepcidin-1 and inducible expression of hepcidin-2 in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Marranca, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin is a highly conserved antimicrobial peptide and iron-regulatory hormone. Here, we identify two hepcidin genes (hep-1 and hep-2) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Hepcidin-1 contains a putative ATCUN metal-binding site in the amino-terminus that is missing in hepcidin-2, suggesting that hepcidin-1 may function as an iron-regulatory hormone. Both hepcidins are predominately expressed in the liver of largemouth bass, similar to other fish and mammals. Experimental exposure of pond-raised largemouth bass to 17β-estradiol and/or the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri led to distinct changes in expression of hep-1 and hep-2. Estradiol reduced the constitutive expression of hep-1 in the liver. Bacterial exposure induced expression of hep-2, suggesting that hepcidin-2 may have an antimicrobial function, and this induction was abolished by estradiol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the regulation of hepcidin expression by estradiol in either fish or mammals.

  7. Evaluation of electrical stunning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in seawater and killing by chilling: wel;fare aspects, product quality and possibilities for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Andre, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to assess neural, behavioural responses and product quality in farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon electrical stunning in seawater. The electrical sinusoidal 50 Hz or pulse square wave alternating 133 Hz current induced a general epileptiform insult with a current of 3.3±0.

  8. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River. [Effects of entrainment and impingement at power plants on population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River.

  9. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  10. Lithodynamic processes in the construction area of a bridge across the kerch strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vvedenskiy Aleksey Rostislavovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The information about the evolution of the bottom topography in the construction area is necessary in the design and construction of hydraulic structures in sea, as well as information about possible deformations of the bottom caused by both natural reasons and the appearance of new hydraulic objects in the waters. In the given research the authors propose an analysis of lithodynamic processes in the area of the construction of the bridge across the Kerch Strait. Several physico-mathematical models were used for calculation and description of lithodynamic processes in the construction site of the Kerch Bridge. They may be divided into two groups: atmospheric and water. Many important properties of hydrometeorological conditions may be obtained only by modeling. The model WRF is used in the research, which is applied in many foreign and domestic centers for simulation and forecast of regional atmospheric circulation due to its high quality and ease. The main steps of the calculations are provided: beginning with the collection of basic information up to combining the results of numerical experiments on several mathematical models. Special attention is paid to sedimentation and erosion associated with construction of temporary piers and waterways to them.

  11. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  12. Baseline concentrations of trace metals in macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga-España, Maria Soledad; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy Cristina; Guerrero, Sandra

    2008-02-01

    Samples of four different species of seaweed were collected monthly between October 2000 and March 2001 from the coast of the Strait of Magellan, Chile to establish baseline levels of trace metals (silver, total mercury, nickel, lead, antimony, vanadium and zinc) and to compare the accumulation capacity among species. The algae included in the study were Adenocystis utricularis (n=15); Enteromorpha sp. (n=11), Mazzaella laminarioides (n=12) and Porphyra columbina (n=6). The concentration range of each metal in microg g(-1) dry weight varied as follows: Ag=ND-0.3, Hg=ND-0.02, Ni=ND-12.6, Pb = ND-11.2, Sb=ND-1.97, V=ND-11.34 and Zn=14.10-79. Results showed that levels of Ag, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn for all species were similar to those found in other studies for non-contaminated areas with very little influence from anthropogenic activity. Also among the four species studied macroalgae Enteromorpha sp. had the highest capacity for metal accumulation and could therefore be considered as a biomonitor for future studies in the area.

  13. Water quality mapping using remote sensing technique in Penang Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Mohd. Saleh, N.

    2008-10-01

    The application of remote sensing to assess water quality for coastal and open ocean has escalated recently due to its capability of scanning wide water bodies within a short time period. In this paper, we examined the spatial variability of chlorophyll within Penang straits, Malaysia. Coastal and estuarine ecosystems typically exhibit high temporal and spatial variability in phytoplankton biomass that is often too difficult to characterize with a limited set of in situ shipboard measurements. In this study, we used ALOS satellite imagery acquired on 24 April 2007. An algorithm for retrieval of chlorophyll level was developed for ALOS data. Chlorophyll samples were collected using a small boat simultaneously with the acquisition of the satellite image. The water locations were determined using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). And then the digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the chlorophyll algorithm. For the regression model, the correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-square deviation (RMS) were noted. The proposed algorithm is considered superior based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square The water quality image was generated using the multispectral data set and the proposed calibrated TSS algorithm. This study demonstrates that remote sensing can play an important role in water quality assessment by using high resolution satellite image of ALOS data.

  14. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn.

  15. ­­­­Submarine Mass Wasting on Hovgaard Ridge, Fram Strait, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, M.; Laberg, J. S.; Husum, K.; Gales, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hovgaard Ridge is an 1800 m high bathymetric high in the Fram Strait, the only deep-water gateway between the Arctic Ocean and the other World's oceans. The slopes of the ridge provide evidence of various types of sediment reworking, including 1) up to 12 km wide single and merged slide scars with maximum ~30 m high headwalls and some secondary escarpments; 2) maximum 3 km wide and 130 m deep slide scars with irregular internal morphology, partly narrowing towards the foot of the slope; 3) up to 130 m deep, 1.5 km wide and maximum 8 km long channels/gullies originating from areas of increasing slope angle at the margins of a plateau on top of the ridge. Most slide scars result presumably from retrogressive failure related to weak layers in contourites or ash. The most likely trigger mechanism is seismicity related to tectonic activity within the nearby mid-ocean fracture zone. Gully/channel formation is suggested to result from cascading water masses and/or from sediment gravity flows originating from failure at the slope break after winnowing on the plateau of the ridge.

  16. Seasonal patterns in Arctic planktonic metabolism (Fram Strait – Svalbard region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaquer-Sunyer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of the Arctic Ocean is marked by extreme pronounced seasonality and spatial heterogeneity associated with light conditions, ice cover, water masses and nutrient availability. Here we report the marine planktonic metabolic rates (Net Community Production, Gross Primary Production and Community Respiration along three different seasons of the year for a total of eight cruises along the western sector of the European Arctic (Fram Strait – Svalbard region in the Arctic Ocean margin: one at the end of 2006 (fall/winter, two in 2007 (early spring and summer, two in 2008 (early spring and summer, one in 2009 (late spring–early summer and one in 2010 (spring. The results show that metabolisms of the western sector of the European Arctic varies throughout the year, depending mostly on the stage of bloom, which is mainly determined by availability of light and nutrients. Here we report metabolic rates for the different periods, including the spring bloom, summer and the dark period, increasing considerably the empirical basis on metabolic rates in the Artic Ocean, and especially in the European Arctic corridor. We also report a rough annual metabolic balance for this area of the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a Net Community Production of 108 g C m−2 yr−1.

  17. A double-index method to classify Kuroshio intrusion paths in the Luzon Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhida; Liu, Hailong; Hu, Jianyu; Lin, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    A double index (DI), which is made up of two sub-indices, is proposed to describe the spatial patterns of the Kuroshio intrusion and mesoscale eddies west to the Luzon Strait, based on satellite altimeter data. The area-integrated negative and positive geostrophic vorticities are defined as the Kuroshio warm eddy index (KWI) and the Kuroshio cold eddy index (KCI), respectively. Three typical spatial patterns are identified by the DI: the Kuroshio warm eddy path (KWEP), the Kuroshio cold eddy path (KCEP), and the leaking path. The primary features of the DI and three patterns are further investigated and compared with previous indices. The effects of the integrated area and the algorithm of the integration are investigated in detail. In general, the DI can overcome the problem of previously used indices in which the positive and negative geostrophic vorticities cancel each other out. Thus, the proportions of missing and misjudged events are greatly reduced using the DI. The DI, as compared with previously used indices, can better distinguish the paths of the Kuroshio intrusion and can be used for further research.

  18. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  19. Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Delgado, Javier; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Vargas, Manuel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek

    Time series of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar at the eastern section have been estimated from current-meter observations taken between October 1995 and May 1998 within the Canary Islands Azores Gibraltar Observations (CANIGO) project. The inflow exhibits a clear annual signal that peaks in late summer simultaneously with a deepening of the interface. The cycle seems to be driven by the seasonal signal of the density contrast between the surface Atlantic water that forms the inflow and the deep Mediterranean water of the outflow. The outflow and the depth of the interface have predominant semiannual signals and a smaller annual one whose phase agrees with that of the density contrast as well. Local wind stress and atmospheric pressure difference between the Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean to less extent have clear semiannual signal, so that the possibility that the semiannual cycle of the outflow and of the depth of the interface are forced by them was analyzed. The composite Froude number in this section is well below the critical value, suggesting submaximal exchange. Therefore, the conditions in the Alboran basin influence the exchange and some evidence that the size and location of the Western Alboran Gyre contribute to the observed signals, both annual and semiannual, is provided.

  20. Diurnal evolution of the barrier layer and its local feedback in the central Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal evolution of the barrier layer (BL) and its local feedback features in the central Taiwan Strait (119.2oE,24.3oN) during summertime monsoon are investigated using in situ moored observations conducted by the "Yan-Ping 2" research vessel in late June 2005.During the initiation phase,for the non-solar radiation tends to be trapped in the upper mixed layer,whereas the solar radiation can penetrate deeply through the mixed layer approaching the thermocline,most heat is accumulated inside the BL inducing an inverse-thermal layer.Along with heat convergence inside the BL,thermal exchange increases between the BL and the overlaying mixed layer and finally,a prominently warming mixed layer is formed.Moreover,the BL is associated with a buoyancy frequency minimum with mild stability.Further analysis reveals that the BL’s local feedbacks can be divided into two aspects,on one hand,the BL can generate dramatic changes in the local sensible and latent heat fluxes;on the other hand,the sub-halocline and the thermocline serve as two interfaces during the downward transmission of the wind stirring turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and as a result,most TKE is retarded by the shallow halocline and being trapped above the upper mixed layer,while the residual pierced through the base of the mixed layer is likewise blocked by the thermocline.

  1. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  2. Response of the Kuroshio Current to Eddies in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jie; LUO De-Hai

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eddies on the Kuroshio Current in the Luzon Strait(LS)area is investigated by using the sea surface height anomaly(SSHA)satellite observation data and the sea surface height(SSH)assimilation data.The influence of the eddies on the mean current depends upon the type of eddies and their relative position.The mean current is enhanced(weakened)as the cyclonic(anticyclonic)eddy becomes slightly far from it,whereas it is weakened(enhanced)as the cyclonic(anticyclonic)eddy moves near or within the position of the mean current;this is explained as the eddy-induced meridional velocity and geostrophic flow relationship.The anticyclonic(cyclonic)eddy can increase(decrease)the mean meridional flow due to superimposition of the eddy-induced meridional flow when the eddy is within the region of the mean current.However,when the eddy is slightly far from the mean current region,the anticyclonic(cyclonic)eddy tends to decrease(increase)the zonal gradient of the SSH,which thus results in weakening(strengthening)of the mean current in the LS region.

  3. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers’ attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species. PMID:27526102

  4. A Pliocene flora and insect fauna from the Bering Strait region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D.M.; Matthews, J.V.; Wolfe, J.A.; Silberman, M.L.

    1971-01-01

    A flood-plain forest has been preserved beneath a lava flow that invaded the Inmachuk River Valley in the northern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, during the Pliocene Epoch. The fossil flora is of great biogeographic interest because of its position (Fig. 1) in a tundra region about 250 km east of Bering Strait, 75 km south of the Arctic Circle, and 65 km west of the northwestern limit of spruce-birch forest. It provides insight into the history of the development of the circumpolar boreal forest (taiga). A rich arthropod fauna casts light on the phylogeny of several modern insect genera and on the origin of modern tundra faunas. A potassium-argon analysis of the overlying basaltic lava provides our first radiometric age estimate (5.7??0.2 million years) for the Clamgulchian Stage, a Late Tertiary time-stratigraphic unit based on fossil plants and widely recognized in Alaska (Wolfe and Hopkins 1967) and northeastern Siberia. ?? 1971.

  5. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  6. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  7. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bingtian; CAO Anzhou; LV Xianqing

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional isopycnic-coordinate internal tidal model is employed to investigate the generation, propagation, vertical structure and energy conversion of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait (LS) with mooring observations. Simulated results, especially the tidal current amplitudes, agree well with observations, demonstrating the reasonability and accuracy of the model. Results indicate that M2 internal tides mainly propagate into three directions horizontally, i.e., eastward towards the western Pacific Ocean, westward towards the Dongsha Island and southwestward towards the South China Sea Basin. In the horizontal direction, tidal current amplitudes decrease as distance increases away from the LS; in the vertical direction, they show an obvious decreasing tendency with depth. Between the double ridges of the LS, a clockwise gyre of M2 baroclinic energy flux appears, which is caused by reflections of M2 internal tides at supercritical topographies, and resonance of M2 internal tides happens along 19.5° and 21.5°N due to the heights and separation distance of the double ridges. The total energy conversion in the LS is about 14.20 GW.

  8. Comparison of Chlorophyll-a Measurement Using Multi Spatial Imagery and Numerical Model in Bali Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanintyo, Rizki; susilo, Eko

    2016-11-01

    One of abundance of nutrient in coastal area is chlorophyll-a, where chlorophyll-a is a driving factor to derive fishing ground location. There's several method has been used to derive chlorophyll-a concentration from insitu data, remote sensing satellite data, and ocean dynamics models, but we are not decide those data for certain area in coastal area and open ocean. In this paper, we will use Aqua-Terra MODIS, Landsat -8 and INDESO Satellite observation dataset to detect chlorophyll-a and also using dynamic modelling produced by INDESO and MyOcean/Marine Copernicus. Using a lot variation of data to understand the differences of spatial resolution and accuracy with observed insitu data. After calculating data comparison with insitu data in bali strait on 2014, we can conclude that Landsat-8 data has the highest r value r=0.41. For model data, comparison between insitu data and MyOcean data has r=0.3. in the other hand, insitu data and INDESO data model has r=0.26. In coastal areas (case 2 water), Landsat-8 data performed to give detail information of chlorophyll-a. Furthermore for open ocean areas (case 1 water), we can use numerical model from MyOcean/Marine Copernicus because it has lower resolution and able to forecast. For those data, it can help non artisanal fisheries to predict chlorophyll-a area in their fishing ground areas

  9. Active faults and historical earthquakes in the Messina Straits area (Ionian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polonia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Calabrian Arc (CA subduction complex is located at the toe of the Eurasian Plate in the Ionian Sea, where sediments resting on the lower plate have been scraped off and piled up in the accretionary wedge due to the African/Eurasian plate convergence and back arc extension. The CA has been struck repeatedly by destructive historical earthquakes, but knowledge of active faults and source parameters is relatively poor, particularly for seismogenic structures extending offshore. We analysed the fine structure of major tectonic features likely to have been sources of past earthquakes: (i the NNW–SSE trending Malta STEP (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator fault system, representing a lateral tear of the subduction system; (ii the out-of-sequence thrusts (splay faults at the rear of the salt-bearing Messinian accretionary wedge; and (iii the Messina Straits fault system, part of the wide deformation zone separating the western and eastern lobes of the accretionary wedge.

    Our findings have implications for seismic hazard in southern Italy, as we compile an inventory of first order active faults that may have produced past seismic events such as the 1908, 1693 and 1169 earthquakes. These faults are likely to be source regions for future large magnitude events as they are long, deep and bound sectors of the margin characterized by different deformation and coupling rates on the plate interface.

  10. Particle size distributions and organic-inorganic compositions of suspended particulate matters around the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Bian, Changwei; Bi, Rong; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xueqing

    2017-02-01

    Laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST) significantly improves our ability to assess particle size distribution (PSD) in seawater, while wide-ranging measurements of the organic-inorganic compositions of suspended particulate matters (SPM) are still difficult by using traditional methods such as microscopy. In this study, PSD properties and SPM compositions around the Bohai Strait (China) were investigated based on the measurements by LISST in combination with hydro-biological parameters collected from a field survey in summer 2014. Four typical PSD shapes were found in the region, namely right-peak, left-peak, double-peak and negative-skew shapes. The double-peak and negative-skew shapes may interconvert into each other along with strong hydrodynamic variation. In the upper layer of the Bohai Sea, organic particles were in the majority, with inorganic particles rarely observed. In the bottom layer, SPM were the mixture of organic and inorganic matters. LISST provided valuable baseline information on size-resolved organic-inorganic compositions of SPM: the size of organic particles mainly ranged from 4 to 20 μm and 40 to 100 μm, while most SPM ranging from 20 to 40 μm were composed of inorganic sediment.

  11. Ocean acoustic remote sensing using ambient noise: results from the Florida Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. G.; Godin, O. A.; Zang, X.; Ball, J. S.; Zabotin, N. A.; Zabotina, L. Y.; Williams, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    Noise interferometry is the process by which approximations to acoustic Green's functions, which describe sound propagation between two locations, are estimated by cross-correlating time series of ambient noise measured at those locations. Noise-interferometry-based approximations to Green's functions can be used as the basis for a variety of inversion algorithms, thereby providing a purely passive alternative to active-source ocean acoustic remote sensing. In this paper we give an overview of results from noise interferometry experiments conducted in the Florida Straits at 100 m depth in December 2012, and at 600 m depth in September/October 2013. Under good conditions for noise interferometry, estimates of cross-correlation functions are shown to allow one to perform advanced phase-coherent signal processing techniques to perform waveform inversions, estimate currents by exploiting non-reciprocity, perform time-reversal/back-propagation calculations and investigate modal dispersion using time-warping techniques. Conditions which are favourable for noise interferometry are identified and discussed.

  12. Identification decomposition of regional economic disparity for the west coast of Taiwan Strait of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Regional economic disparity is a hot issue in the development of society and economy.As the conjunct of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta and the frontier to Taiwan,the west coast of the Taiwan Strait (WCS) is of great social and political significance.The paper defines" the connotation of the WCS,decomposed the regional economic disparity by using weighted coefficient of variation and Theil coeJficient,and explores the industrial and regional source of the regional economic disparity of the WCS.The analysis results show that:(1) the WCS has important political,economic and military position,so it's better to regard it to be comprehensive region,not just refer to Fujian Province;(2)from the industrial decomposition of weighted variation coefficient,the influence of the primary industry was tiny,conversely,the development inequity of the secondary and the tertiary indus'try was the main source of regional economic disparity.Their contribution has had the converse trend and the secondary contribution has gone beyond the tertiary since 2003;(3)from the regional decomposition of Theil coefficient,the regional economic disparity mainly came from inter-area inequity of 4 areas.Moreover,the inner economic disparity mainly drove by Fujian,suggesting that the urban development inequity in Fujian Province was comparatively outstanding.

  13. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  14. Nodavirus infection of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) induces up-regulation of galectin-1 expression with potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa-Beiro, Laura; Dios, Sonia; Ahmed, Hafiz; Vasta, Gerardo R; Martínez-López, Alicia; Estepa, Amparo; Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-11-15

    Sea bass nervous necrosis virus is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses in larval and juvenile stages of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). To identify genes potentially involved in antiviral immune defense, gene expression profiles in response to nodavirus infection were investigated in sea bass head kidney using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. A total of 8.7% of the expressed sequence tags found in the SSH library showed significant similarities with immune genes, of which a prototype galectin (Sbgalectin-1), two C-type lectins (SbCLA and SbCLB) from groups II and VII, respectively, and a short pentraxin (Sbpentraxin) were selected for further characterization. Results of SSH were validated by in vivo up-regulation of expression of Sbgalectin-1, SbCLA, and SbCLB in response to nodavirus infection. To examine the potential role(s) of Sbgalectin-1 in response to nodavirus infection in further detail, the recombinant protein (rSbgalectin-1) was produced, and selected functional assays were conducted. A dose-dependent decrease of respiratory burst was observed in sea bass head kidney leukocytes after incubation with increasing concentrations of rSbgalectin-1. A decrease in IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and Mx expression was observed in the brain of sea bass simultaneously injected with nodavirus and rSbgalectin-1 compared with those infected with nodavirus alone. Moreover, the protein was detected in the brain from infected fish, which is the main target of the virus. These results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory, protective role of Sbgalectin-1 during viral infection.

  15. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  16. Population genetic structure of a sandstone specialist and a generalist heath species at two levels of sandstone patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-López, Manuel Jesús; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Ojeda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar.

  17. Population genetic structure of a sandstone specialist and a generalist heath species at two levels of sandstone patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús Gil-López

    Full Text Available Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras. In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness than in Algeciras (low patchiness for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar.

  18. Variability of the currents in the Luzon Strait during spring of 2002 obtained from observations and satellite geostrophic currents and spectral analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YaoChu; LIAO GuangHong; WANG HuiQun; LOU RuYun; CHEN Hong

    2009-01-01

    The structure and variability of the currents in the Luzon Strait during spring of 2002 are studied, based on the current measurements at the average position of the mooring station (20°49'57"N, 120°48'12"E) from 03 17 to 04 15, 2002, satellite geostrophic currents in the Luzon Strait, and the spectral analyses, using the maximum entropy method. The subtidal currents at the mooring station show de-creased amplitudes downward with an anti-cyclonic rotation, suggesting that the currents enter and exit the South China Sea in the upper and intermediate layers, respectively. The vertical structure of the currents in the Luzon Strait suggests strongly the sandwiched structure of the LST, even though the bottom part of the profile is not resolved by the observational grid. The spectral analyses show the following periods of significant spectral peaks: (1) the tidal currents variability in the vertical direction; (2) the period about 4-6 d for the two cases of frequency f>0 and f0 and f<0 at the 200, 500 and 800 m levels, namely the Luzon Strait currents exhibit significant synoptical variability throughout the water column up to 800 m deep. Both direct current measurements and in situ hydrographic and satellite survey suggest no Kuroshio loop current in the Luzon Strait during the spring of 2002.

  19. Erosive effects of the storms HELENA (1963) and HUGO (1989) on Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe - Lesser Antilles Arc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, Rejanne; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Quiquerez, Amélie

    2014-05-01

    Basse-Terre is a volcanic island which belongs to the archipelago of Guadeloupe located in the Lesser Antilles Arc (Caribbean Sea). As a mountainous region in the tropical belt, Basse-Terre is affected by intense sediment transport due to extreme meteorological events. During the last fifty years, eight major tropical storms and hurricanes with intense rainfalls induced landslides and scars in the weathered layers. The purpose of this study is to compare two major meteorological events within a period of 26 years (HELENA in 10/1963 and HUGO in 09/1989) in order to qualify the parameters responsible of the spatial distribution of landslides and scars. The storm HELENA affected Basse-Terre between the 23rd and the 25th of October, 1963. The maximal daily rainfall reached 300 mm in Baillif which is located on the leeward coast at the altitude of 650 m while the maximum wind velocity reached 50 km/h. A similar exceptional event happened when the hurricane HUGO slammed the island in September 17, 1989. The maximum daily rainfall recorded in Sainte-Rose (on the northern coast) was 250 mm while it reached 208 mm in Petit-Bourg and the maximum wind speed was 60 km/h. Aerial images were acquired by the IGN (French Geographical Institute) before and a few weeks after the extreme events: less than three months after the event HELENA and less than a month after the event HUGO. Those images have been orthorectified at a metric resolution and combined in a GIS with a 10 m resolution DEM. Scars and landslides were digitalized and their surface area and mean slope were measured for both HELENA and HUGO. This work confirms several results proposed by a previous study related to the HELENA event: (1) the landslides occurred mainly in the center of the island and (2) the slope is the main parameter for the initiation of landslides, since all of them occurred with a slope superior to 30°. Furthermore, the resiliency of the surface affected by the landslides induced by HELENA was

  20. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids. [Etiology and host-pathogen relations in red-sore disease of largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    During the current contract year, the following results were obtained: (1) Data from field-generated studies have shown that hematocrit, hemoglobin, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and cortisol levels are significantly affected in largemouth bass with body conditions < 2.0, suggesting that stress, body condition, and the probability of bass acquiring red-sore disease are related. Laboratory studies appear to at least partially confirm these results. (2) Chemotaxis studies show that Aeromonas hydrophila is attracted to specific sugars and amino acids and that there appears to be a strain-related affect of fish mucous on A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions. (3) Immunologic and serologic tests suggest that A. hydrophila isolated from red-sore lesions on bass from one lake system will not cross-react with antibodies in sera isolated from bass in another lake system, suggesting the existence of different strains in different lakes.