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Sample records for basophils

  1. Basophils in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Christian; Eberle, Joerg U; Voehringer, David

    2016-05-01

    Basophils are functionally closely related to mast cells. Both cell types express the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) and rapidly release preformed mediator from intracellular stores upon IgE-mediated activation. However, in contrast to mast cells basophils finish their maturation in the bone marrow and have a lifespan of only 2-3 days. Basophil numbers increase in response to IL-3 or TSLP and migrate into tissues to promote type 2 immune responses. Here we review recent advances regarding the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of basophils in murine models and human allergic inflammation of the skin, lung and intestine. PMID:25959388

  2. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  3. Basophil Markers for Identification and Activation in the Indirect Basophil Activation Test by Flow Cytometry for Diagnosis of Autoimmune Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Zehwan; Choi, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Kun; Won, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Background The indirect basophil activation test using flow cytometry is a promising tool for autoimmune urticaria diagnosis. We aimed to identify better donor basophils (from atopic vs. non-atopic donors and interleukin-3 primed vs. unprimed basophils) and improve basophil identification and activation markers (eotaxin CC chemokine receptor-3 [CCR3] vs. CD123 and CD63 vs. CD203c). Methods Donor basophils were obtained from non-atopic and atopic group O donors. Positive control sera were arti...

  4. Human basophils express interleukin-4 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a multipotential lymphokine reputed to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses, interacts with a variety of hemopoietic target cells through specific cell surface membrane receptors. The present study was designed to investigate whether human basophils express IL-4 binding sites. For this purpose, basophils were enriched to homogeneity (93% and 98% purity, respectively) from the peripheral blood of two chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) donors using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and complement. Purified basophils bound 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human (rh) IL-4 in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity IL-4 binding sites (280 +/- 40 sites per cell in donor 1 and 640 +/- 45 sites per cell in donor 2) with an apparent dissociation constant, kd, of 7.12 x 10(-11) +/- 2.29 x 10(-11) and 9.55 +/- 3.5 x 10(-11) mol/L, respectively. KU812-F, a human basophil precursor cell line, was found to express a single class of 810 to 1,500 high affinity IL-4 binding sites with a kd of 2.63 to 5.54 x 10(-10) mol/L. No change in the numbers or binding constants of IL-4 receptors was found after exposure of KU812-F cells to rhIL-3 (a potent activator of basophils) for 60 minutes. No effect of rhIL-4 on 3H-thymidine uptake, release or synthesis of histamine, or expression of basophil differentiation antigens (Bsp-1, CD11b, CD25, CD40, CD54) on primary human CGL basophils or KU812-F cells was observed

  5. Diagnostic tests based on human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Erdmann, Stephan; Knol, Edward F;

    2006-01-01

    -maximal responses, termed 'intrinsic sensitivity'. These variables give rise to shifts in the dose-response curves which, in a diagnostic setting where only a single antigen concentration is employed, may produce false-negative data. Thus, in order to meaningfully utilize the current basophil activation tests....... Diagnostic studies using CD63 or CD203c in hymenoptera, food and drug allergy are critically discussed. Basophil-based tests are indicated for allergy testing in selected cases but should only be performed by experienced laboratories.......Human basophils are important tools for studying immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions since they release a variety of mediators (e.g., histamine, leukotriene C4, IL-4 and IL-13) following allergen triggering. Several diagnostic tools have been introduced that measure either leukotriene...

  6. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael;

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified by the...... increased with time between 5 and 45 min. The histamine release in both spontaneous and induced basophil adhesion was lower than 3.1%. This microtiter assay is simple and reproducible and can be applied for basic and clinical studies using a limited number of partially purified basophils....

  7. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael;

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  8. Pros and Cons of Clinical Basophil Testing (BAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Knol, Edward F; Ferrer, Martha;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review basophil testing by flow cytometry with an emphasis on advantages and disadvantages. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many tools available to assess the presence and severity of allergic diseases in patients. For 50 years, peripheral blood basophils have been used as tools ...

  9. Antibodies and IL-3 support helminth-induced basophil expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Tina; Esser, Julia; Prati, Moira; Kulagin, Manuel; Stettler, Rebecca; Zaiss, Mario M; Hewitson, James P; Merky, Patrick; Verbeek, Joseph S; Bourquin, Carole; Camberis, Mali; Prout, Melanie; Maizels, Rick M; Le Gros, Graham; Harris, Nicola L

    2012-09-11

    Basophils are powerful mediators of Th2 immunity and are present in increased numbers during allergic inflammation and helminth infection. Despite their ability to potentiate Th2 immunity the mechanisms regulating basophil development remain largely unknown. We have found a unique role for isotype-switched antibodies in promoting helminth-induced basophil production following infection of mice with Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. H. polygyrus bakeri-induced basophil expansion was found to occur within the bone marrow, and to a lesser extent the spleen, and was IL-3 dependent. IL-3 was largely produced by CD4(+)CD49b(+)NK1.1(-) effector T cells at these sites, and required the IL-4Rα chain. However, antibody-deficient mice exhibited defective basophil mobilization despite intact T-cell IL-3 production, and supplementation of mice with immune serum could promote basophilia independently of required IL-4Rα signaling. Helminth-induced eosinophilia was not affected by the deficiency in isotype-switched antibodies, suggesting a direct effect on basophils rather than through priming of Th2 responses. Although normal type 2 immunity occurred in the basopenic mice following primary infection with H. polygyrus bakeri, parasite rejection following challenge infection was impaired. These data reveal a role for isotype-switched antibodies in promoting basophil expansion and effector function following helminth infection. PMID:22930820

  10. Basophilic deposits on the cupula: preliminary findings describing the problems involved in studies regarding the incidence of basophilic deposits on the cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, H; Kohut, R I; Ryu, J H; Tokumasu, K; Okamoto, M; Fujino, A; Hoshino, I; Arai, M

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of whether basophilic deposits adhered to the cupulas in the semicircular canals was investigated histologically. Results indicated that basophilic deposits were present in all three cupulas of the semicircular canals. The overall incidence of basophilic deposits in the superior, lateral and posterior semicircular canal cupulas was 26%, 41% and 37%, respectively. The incidence of basophilic deposits bound to the cupulas increased with age. The possible origin of these basophilic deposits on the cupulas and the increased incidence of basophilic deposits with increasing age are discussed.

  11. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles of β1 andβ2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR). Methods Basophils (purity of 10%-50%) were preincubated with anti-CD29 or anti-CD18 blocking antibodies before used for adhesion study. Basophils were preincubated with the pharmacological inhibitors wortmannin, PP1, PD98059 before used for adhesion and HR study. Cell adherence to bovine serum albumin (BSA) or fibronectin (Fn) was monitored using cell associated histamine as a basophil marker and the histamine was measured by the glass fiber assay.Results Basophil spontaneous adhesion to Fn was inhibited by anti-CD29. Interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA was inhibited by anti-CD18. Wortmannin at 1 μmol/L and PP1 at 20 μmol/L strongly interfered with, whereas PD98059 at 50 μmol/L weakly inhibited basophil spontaneous adhesion to Fn. One μmol/L wortmannin strongly inhibited IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF and anti-IgE induced adhesion to BSA. PP1 at 20 μmol/L partly inhibited anti-IgE induced adhesion. Fifty μmol/L PD98059 marginally inhibited IL-5, weakly inhibited anti-IgE, partly inhibited GM-CSF induced adhesion. Wortmannin, PP1 and PD98059 inhibited anti-IgE (1:100 or 1:1000) induced basophil HR in a dose dependent manner. They inhibited calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L) induced basophil HR in a dose dependent manner, but to different extend with PP1 being the most efficient.Conclusions Basophil spontaneous adhesion to Fn is mediated by β1-integrins whereas cytokine induced adhesion

  12. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens;

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  13. The expression of CD123 can decrease with basophil activation: implications for the gating strategy of the basophil activation test

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alexandra F; Bécares, Natalia; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Background Basophil activation test (BAT) reproduces IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and has been used as a diagnostic test. Different markers can be used to identify basophils in whole blood and have implications for the outcome of the test. We aimed to assess changes in the expression of CD123 and HLA-DR following basophil activation and to select the best gating strategy for BAT using these markers. Methods BAT was performed in whole blood from 116 children. Peanut extract, anti-I...

  14. Modulation of mast cell and basophil functions by benzene metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Massimo; Loffredo, Stefania; Granata, Francescopaolo; Staiano, Rosaria I; Marone, Gianni

    2011-11-01

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound used in industrial manufacturing and a common environmental pollutant mostly derived from vehicle emissions and cigarette smoke. Benzene exposure is associated with a variety of clinical conditions ranging from hematologic diseases to chronic lung disorders. Beside its direct toxicity, benzene exerts multiple effects after being converted to reactive metabolites such as hydroquinone and benzoquinone. Mast cells and basophils are primary effector cells involved in the development of respiratory allergies such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma and they play an important role in innate immunity. Benzene and its metabolites can influence mast cell and basophil responses either directly or by interfering with other cells, such as T cells, macrophages and monocytes, which are functionally connected to mast cells and basophils. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone inhibit the release of preformed mediators, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production in human basophils stimulated by IgE- and non IgE-mediated agonists. Furthermore, these metabolites reduce IgE-mediated degranulation of mast cells and the development of allergic lung inflammation in rats. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that benzene metabolites alter biochemical and functional activities of other immunocompetent cells and may impair immune responses in the lung. These inhibitory effects of benzene metabolites are primarily mediated by interference with early transduction signals such as PI3 kinase. Together, currently available studies indicate that benzene metabolites interfere by multiple mechanisms with the role of basophils and mast cells in innate immunity and in chronic inflammation in the lung. PMID:22103854

  15. Interactions cellulaires et moléculaires entre basophiles et lymphocytes T CD4+

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Basophils are the rare granulocytes and play an important role in the polarization of Th2 responses, differentiation of B cells and protection against helminths. Basophils have a major influence on immune responses and various roles of these cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are emerging. Recent reports showed that murine basophils function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to induce Th2 and IgE responses to allergens and helminths. Therefore, I explored whether human basophils p...

  16. Expression of the Transcription Factor E4BP4 in Human Basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Gohr, Maria; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The cytokine IL-3 plays an important role for human basophil development, function and survival. IL-3 is also reported to induce the expression of the transcription factor E4BP4, but it is not known whether E4BP4 is expressed in basophils and influences basophil responsiveness. The aim...... the transcription factor E4BP4 which might have an impact on basophil histamine release....

  17. 89 Is Basophil Specific Response to Hymenoptera Venom Related to T Regulatory Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Petr; Hulikova, Katarina; Cvackova, Milada; Planska, Daniela; Riegerova, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    Background The exact mechanism of systemic hypersensitivity to venom is not exactly understood. It is suggested T cells with regulatory potential can downregulate other T cell subsets and effector cells, ex. mast cell or basophils. We focused on relationship of specific basophil reactivity in relationship to proportion of regulatory T cells. Methods Forty-five patients with history of systemic symptoms of allergy to Hymenoptera venom were included. Basophil reactivity before the treatment and...

  18. Circulating human basophils lack the features of professional antigen presenting cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Beau, Remi; Sénéchal, Helene; Poncet, Pascal; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports in mice demonstrate that basophils function as antigen presenting cells (APC). They express MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, capture and present soluble antigens or IgE-antigen complexes and polarize Th2 responses. Therefore, we explored whether human circulating basophils possess the features of professional APC. We found that unlike dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, steady-state circulating human basophils did not express HLA-DR and co-stimulatory mo...

  19. Contribution of basophils to cutaneous immune reactions and Th2-mediated allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eOtsuka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basophils are potent effector cells of innate immunity and also play a role in T helper 2 (Th2-mediated allergic responses. But, although their in vitro functions are well studied, their in vivo functions remain largely unknown. However, several mouse models of basophil depletion have recently been developed and used to investigate basophil functions. For example, in a croton oil-induced model of irritant contact dermatitis in conditionally basophil-depleted transgenic mice, we found that basophils rapidly infiltrate inflamed skin and subsequently induce infiltration of eosinophils. We also showed that basophils induce Th2 skewing upon epicutaneous sensitization with various haptens and peptide antigens. Intriguingly, basophils also promoted Th2 polarization upon protein antigen exposure in the presence of dendritic cells (DCs. The dermal DC subset associated with Th2 skewing was recently identified as CD301b+ DC. Such studies with basophil-deficient mouse models have significantly improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in human immune-related diseases. In this review, we will focus on the relative contribution of basophils and DCs to Th2-mediated allergic responses.

  20. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the te...

  1. C-type Lectin Receptor Expression on Human Basophils and Effects of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, K; Rydnert, F; Broos, S; Andersson, M; Greiff, L; Lindstedt, M

    2016-09-01

    Basophils are emerging as immunoregulatory cells capable of interacting with their environment not only via their characteristic IgE-mediated activation, but also in an IgE-independent manner. Basophils are known to express and respond to stimulation via TLR2, TLR4, DC-SIGN and DCIR, but whether basophils also express other C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the CLR expression profile of human basophils using multicolour flow cytometry. As FcRs as well as some CLRs are associated with allergen recognition and shown to be involved in subsequent immune responses, the expression of CLRs and FcRs on peripheral blood basophils, as well as their frequency, was monitored for 1 year in subjects undergoing subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Here, we show that human basophils express CLECSF14, DEC205, Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and MRC2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequencies of basophils expressing the allergy-associated CLRs Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 were significantly reduced after 1 year and 8 weeks of AIT, respectively. In contrast, the frequency of basophils positive for FcγRII, as well as the fraction of total basophils, significantly increased after 1 year of AIT. The herein demonstrated expression of various CLRs on basophils, and their altered CLR and FcR expression profile upon AIT, suggest yet unexplored ways by which basophils can interact with antigens and may point to novel immunoregulatory functions targeted through AIT. PMID:27354239

  2. Basophils help establish protective immunity induced by irradiated larval vaccination for filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrero, Marina N; Morris, C Paul; Mitre, Blima K; Hübner, Marc P; Fox, Ellen M; Karasuyama, Hajime; Mitre, Edward

    2013-08-12

    Basophils are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the immune response toward helminths. In this study, we evaluated the role of basophils in vaccine-mediated protection against filariae, tissue-invasive parasitic nematodes responsible for diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Protective immunity and immunological responses were assessed in BALB/c mice vaccinated with irradiated L3 stage larvae and depleted of basophils with weekly injections of anti-CD200R3 antibody. Depletion of basophils after administration of the vaccination regimen but before challenge infection did not alter protective immunity. In contrast, basophil depletion initiated prior to vaccination and continued after challenge infection significantly attenuated the protective effect conferred by vaccination. Vaccine-induced cellular immune responses to parasite antigen were substantially decreased in basophil-depleted mice, with significant decreases in CD4(+) T-cell production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IFN-γ. Interestingly, skin mast cell numbers, which increased significantly after vaccination with irradiated L3 larvae, were unchanged after vaccination in basophil-depleted mice. These findings demonstrate that basophils help establish the immune responses responsible for irradiated L3 vaccine protection.

  3. Interleukin 3 activates human blood basophils via high-affinity binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure populations of human basophilic granulocytes were obtained from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blood by negative selection using a mixture of monoclonal antibodies and complement. 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) bound to purified basophils in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analyses performed on samples from two donors revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity IL-3 binding sites. Purified CML basophils maintained in suspension in the presence of rhIL-3 incorporated up to 12 times more [3H]thymidine than basophils in control cultures. Furthermore, after preincubation in vitro with rhIL-3 for 30 min, normal blood basophils released 2- to 3-fold more histamine than basophils pretreated with control medium when exposed to various concentrations of an anti-IgE antibody. Together, these results show that rhIL-3 binds to a specific receptor on blood basophils and is a regulator of basophil function

  4. Basophil Sensitivity Decreases During the Updosing of SCIT in Subjects Allergic to Grass Pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    ).This corresponds to an approximately 14-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity. No significant changes were observed in the baseline, washed cells or control group. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the main mechanism leading to a reduction of basophil sensitivity is humoral. PII: S0091-6749(10)02749-1 doi:10.1016...

  5. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikado, Hideto [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko [Laboratory of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, BioMedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takai, Toshiro, E-mail: t-takai@juntendo.ac.jp [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  6. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. PMID:25778870

  7. Interval shifts in basophil measures correlate with disease activity in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, E T; Sterba, P M; Saini, S S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) significantly impacts the quality of life of those affected through symptoms of pruritus and recurrent skin lesions. In active CSU disease, reduced IgE-mediated basophil histamine release (HR) and basopenia are observed. We sought to examine the relationship between interval changes in basophil measures and shifts in patient-reported disease impairment. Simultaneous symptom and basophil evaluations were completed at two sequential study visits, and interval changes in measures were compared between visits for each subject (n = 38). These measures included Skindex-29, current itch and hives scores, total leukocyte histamine content (an indirect measure of blood basophil presence), and basophil HR in response to anti-IgE and formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine. Overall, interval improvements in disease measures in CSU subjects were associated with increased basophil numbers (total leukocyte histamine content) and IgE-mediated HR. This suggests these measures are potential biomarkers for CSU disease improvement and further implicates a role for basophils in CSU. PMID:25631394

  8. Trisomy 19 and T(9;22 In a Patient with Acute Basophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rojas-Atencio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute basophilic leukemia with two coexisting clonal abnormalities, t(9;22 and trisomy 19. The blast showed positive reaction with myeloperoxidase but negative reaction with chloroacetate esterase and acid phosphatase. Metachromatic features of the blast were observed with toluidine blue stain. Ultrastructure study showed the presence of azurophilic granules in basophils and blast mast cells. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies revealed, t(9;22 with BCR/ABL positive and trisomy 19 in all metaphase cells. To our knowledge, this paper here is the first to present acute basophilic leukemia with trisomy 19 and t(9;22.

  9. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  10. Isolation of a basophilic membrane protein binding the anti-allergic drug cromolyn.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurek, N; Bashkin, P.; Pecht, I

    1982-01-01

    The membrane protein component in basophils, responsible for the specific, Ca2+-dependent, binding of the anti-allergic drug cromolyn [disodium cromoglycate, DSCG; the disodium salt of 1,2 bis(2- carboxychromon -5- yloxy )-2-hydroxy propane] was isolated by two procedures based on affinity for the drug. In the first procedure, involving immunoprecipitation, rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3), surface labeled by 125I were reacted with a polyvalent conjugate of DSCG and bovine serum albumi...

  11. Responsiveness of basophil granulocytes of horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to various allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, P; Grabner, A; Buschmann, H

    1993-10-01

    As basophils are the major effector cells of allergic reactions, confirmation of the allergic etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was sought by the demonstration of a specific in vitro response of equine basophilic blood cells to some potential allergens (Aspergillus, Cladosporidium, Mucor, Penicillium, extracts of dust particles of hay and straw). The allergen induced degranulation of basophils and the histamine and protease release from basophils during incubation with the allergens were tested. By evaluating the results obtained from 14 COPD horses and eight controls it could be shown that the sensitivity of the basophils of affected horses was increased, particularly against the allergen extract of Mucor mucedo and Mucor spinosus. Further a greater percentage of COPD horses reacted positively with the Mucor allergen extract. The mitogenic stimulation of lymphocytes by PHA and by the allergen extracts used gave comparable results in affected and control horses. Thus the in vitro stimulation of basophils may be an easily to perform testing device for the identification of potential allergens involved in the pathogenesis of equine COPD.

  12. Mutual interaction of Basophils and T cells in chronic inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eSarfati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basophils are, together with mast cells, typical innate effector cells of allergen-induced IgE-dependent allergic diseases. Both cell types express the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεR1, release histamine, inflammatory mediators and cytokines following FcεR1 cross-linking. Basophils are rare granulocytes in blood, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and the difficulties to detect and isolate these cells has hampered the study of their biology and the understanding of their possible role in pathology. Furthermore, the existence of other FcεR1-expressing cells, including professional Ag-presenting dendritic cells, generated some controversy regarding the ability of basophils to express MHC Class II molecules, present Ag and drive naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells. The focus of this review is to present the recent advances on the interactions between basophils and peripheral blood and tissue memory Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, as well as their potential role in IgE-independent non allergic chronic inflammatory disorders, including human inflammatory bowel diseases. Basophils interactions with the innate players of IgE-dependent allergic inflammation, particularly innate lymphoid cells, will also be considered. The previously unrecognized function for basophils in skewing adaptive immune responses opens novel perspectives for the understanding of their contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  13. Difference in motility of basophilic, granulocytes from atopic subjects following antigen- and Ca inophore A23187-stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro; Kitani,Hikaru; Mifune, Takashi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Ochi, Koji; Harada, Hideo; Nakagawa, Saburo; Soda, Ryo; Takahashi,Kiyoshi; Kimura,Ikuro

    1993-01-01

    We examined histamine release and morphological changes in basophilic granulocytes from atopic subjects, in response to stimulation with antigen and Ca ionophore A23187. 1. Histamine release and a reduction in the rumber of basophils were more rapid and greater in extent at an early stage of antigen stimulation compared with Ca ionophore A23187 stimulation. 2. Morphological changes in basophils, represented by increased motility, in terms of an increased ratio of short to long axis diameter (...

  14. IL-3 and IL-33 induces IL-9 secretion from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Britta C.; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Blom, Lars;

    Background IL-9 has been suggested to play an important role in chronic inflammation due to its effect on remodeling and cell recruitment. Since basophils can be found in inflamed tissue, we wanted to test if human basophils are capable of secreting IL-9 under the influence of growth or tissue...... factors like IL-3 or IL-33, respectively. Methods Basophils, purified from buffy coat blood by negative selection (purity > 95%), were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI culture medium (1x106 cells/ml) supplemented with 5% human serum, and IL-3 (10 ng/ml) and/or IL-33 (50 ng/ml). The cells were then analysed...... by FACS for ST2 expression where basophils were gated as FceRIa+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-. The supernatant was tested for IL-9 using a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Results Human basophils have recently been described to express the IL-33 receptor ST2. In agreement with previous findings, our results showed...

  15. FK506 inhibition of histamine release and cytokine production by mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoku, T; Kishi, S; Sakuma, S; Ohkubo, Y; Goto, T

    2000-03-01

    Histamine release and cytokine production by mast cells and basophils are thought to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Some reports show that FK506 (tacrolimus hydrate) inhibited histamine release and cytokine production by mast cells and basophils. However, as the effects of FK506 has not been compared with those of clinically used drugs in those reports, the clinical relevancy of FK506 inhibition remained unclear. In this paper, we compared the actions of FK506 with those of steroids or disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) which has been clinically used. FK506 inhibited histamine release by Brown-Norway rat peritoneal mast cells more potently than steroids and especially DSCG. FK506 also inhibited histamine release by a mast rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cell line and human peripheral blood basophils, whereas steroids failed to inhibit histamine release by human basophils. FK506 as well as steroids inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-4 production by RBL-1 cells. FK506 was therefore more effective than steroids and DSCG in inhibiting histamine release, and it also had the ability of inhibiting cytokine production by mast cells as steroids do. We concluded that FK506 might regulate allergic diseases via these actions, judging from the viewpoint of clinical relevancy. PMID:10685002

  16. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunie Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI, a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  17. Critical role of P1-Runx1 in mouse basophil development

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, Kaori; BenBarak, Maya J.; Tachibana, Masashi; Nishida, Keigo; Karasuyama, Hajime; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Galli, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Runx1P1N/P1N mice are deficient in the transcription factor distal promoter-derived Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) and have a > 90% reduction in the numbers of basophils in the BM, spleen, and blood. In contrast, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of the other granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils). Although basophils and mast cells share some common features, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of mast cells in multiple tissues. Runx1P1N/P1N mice fail to develop a ba...

  18. Single-step enrichment of basophils from human peripheral blood by a novel method using a Percoll density gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Takuya; Okada, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a novel continuous flow-through cell separation method using a Percoll density gradient. This method can continuously separate a large number of cells into five fractions according to their densities. To apply this method to the separation of basophils, Percoll density gradients were modified to improve basophil enrichment. When a set of Percoll density gradients was prepared (1.071, 1.075, 1.080, 1.084, and 1.090 g/mL) the basophils in a healthy volunteer were enriched by an average of 23.1 and 63.5% at Percoll densities of 1.075 (fraction 3) and 1.080 g/mL (fraction 4), respectively. On average, the yield of basophils was 1.66 × 10(5) cells in fraction 3 and 1.61 × 10(5) cells in fraction 4 from 9 mL of peripheral blood. The expression of CD203c (cluster of differentiation 203c) on separated basophils was upregulated by anti-immunoglobulin E stimulation similar to basophils in whole blood. Histamine release induced by calcium ionophore was also observed in the separated basophils. The present method will be useful for basophil enrichment since it preserves their function without using counterflow elutriation and immunological reagents, and this method will be effective as a preparative separation for cell purification by flow cytometry. PMID:27293108

  19. The JAK2V617 mutation induces constitutive activation and agonist hypersensitivity in basophils from patients with polycythemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Pieri, Lisa; Bogani, Costanza; Guglielmelli, Paola; Zingariello, Maria; Rana, Rosa Alba; Bartalucci, Niccolò; Bosi, Alberto; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2009-01-01

    The JAK2 (V617F) mutation is found in almost all patients with polycythemia vera and an important fraction of patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. This study shows that basophil counts are increased in JAK2 (V617F)-positive patients, and that the basophils contain an increased number of granules. See related article on page 1484.

  20. Segmental bronchoprovocation in allergic rhinitis patients affects mast cell and basophil numbers in nasal and bronchial mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Braunstahl (Gert-Jan); S.E. Overbeek (Shelley); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A. Kleinjan (Alex); A.R. McEuen; A.F. Walls; H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); J-B. Prins (Jan-Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMast cells and basophils are cells that play an important role in the initiation and control of allergic inflammation in asthma and rhinitis. This study was undertaken to determine the presence and dynamics of mast cells and basophils in the nasal and bronchial mucosa o

  1. Mast cells and basophils: trojan horses of conventional lin- stem/progenitor cell isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2011-11-01

    Cancer microenvironment is increasingly recognized as an important factor affecting cancer onset and progression. Since Wirchow reported in 1863 that tumors contain inflammatory cells, the field shifted significantly forward, and immune cells residing in tumors appear to be attractive targets of cancer therapies. For some methods, such as stem/progenitor cell isolation from both cancer and healthy tissues, removal of contaminating immune cells is crucial to achieve consistent, reproducible and accurate results. Despite current methods of lineage negative selection accounts for removal of over 99 % of immune cells from stem/progenitor cell isolates, the vast majority of lineage antibody cocktails retain basophils, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Here we discuss the ability of the most commonly used lineage markers to bind to the plasma membrane of mast cells and/or basophils, and suggest alternatives, which may be used for negative selection of these cellular populations. Both, mast cells and basophils, were shown to participate actively in cancer-associated angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and recruitment of other immune cell types, including eosinophils, B cells, memory T cells and Treg cells. In turn, tumor-derived peptides and chemotactic factors are known to recruit and activate mast cells in neoplasias, resulting in altered tumor progression. Repeated findings of CD34+ populations of mast cells and basophils further highlight necessity of their separation from stem/progenitor cell isolates in both, preclinical experiments and clinical praxis. PMID:22103846

  2. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S;

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the cell membrane content of sialic acid on basophil histamine release was examined in vitro in allergic patients and normal controls. Enzymatical removal of sialic acid enhanced histamine release induced by allergen and anti-IgE, whereas an increase in membrane sialic acid content...

  3. Increasing time interval and decreasing allergen dose interval improves ex vivo desensitization of human blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting Christensen, Sara K; Krohn, Inge Kortekaas; Thuraiaiyah, Jani;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desensitization is a method for inducing temporary tolerance to allergen. The mechanism underlying desensitization is yet to be established. METHODS: Basophil granulocytes in whole blood from grass pollen allergic subjects were desensitized ex vivo by sequential addition of increasing...... for investigation of the mechanism of desensitization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. [Analysis of membrane expression of the CD63 human basophil activation marker. Applications to allergologic diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainte-Laudy, J; Vallon, C; Guérin, J C

    1994-06-01

    On the basis of the CD 63 bi-modal expression on the membrane of activated basophils, we set up a flow cytometric method for the analysis of human basophils activation by an anti-IgE and anti-CD 63 double labelling. We demonstrated that the statistical characteristics of the percentages of activation obtained by an anti-IgE stimulation allowed the use of this method for pharmacological studies. The percentages of activation were of the same order of magnitude than those obtained by histamine release. CD 63 expression was also observed for a low affinity allergen such as the sulfonyl-HSA conjugate used for sulfites hypersensibility diagnosis, healthy donors being negative. This method, which can be automatized may represent an interesting candidate in the field of hapten hypersensitivity which lacks of reliable diagnostical methods. PMID:7524523

  5. Chronic myeloid leukemia presenting with absence of basophils and marked dyspoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year old woman presented to us with fever, weakness and ecchymotic patches for one year. She had leucocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Peripheral blood smear showed 62% neutrophils, 32% myelocytes and metamyelocytes, 2% promyelocytes, 1% blasts, 2% monocytes, 1% lymphocytes but no basophils and marked dyspoiesis. Bone marrow picture was essentially the same. A diagnosis of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia was suggested. The correct diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia - accelerated phase was, however, made on cytogenetic analysis which showed Philadelphia chromosome (Ph and isochromosome 17q [i(17q]. This case describes a rare and diagnostically difficult presentation of CML arising out of a combination of prominent dyspoiesis and near absence of peripheral blood basophils.

  6. Segmental bronchoprovocation in allergic rhinitis patients affects mast cell and basophil numbers in nasal and bronchial mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstahl, Gert-Jan; Overbeek, Shelley; Fokkens, Wytske; KleinJan, Alex; McEuen, A.R.; Walls, A F; Hoogsteden, Henk; Prins, Jan-Bas

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMast cells and basophils are cells that play an important role in the initiation and control of allergic inflammation in asthma and rhinitis. This study was undertaken to determine the presence and dynamics of mast cells and basophils in the nasal and bronchial mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients after segmental bronchial provocation (SBP). Eight nonasthmatic, grass pollen-allergic rhinitis patients and eight healthy controls were included. Bronchial and nasal biopsies, as well a...

  7. Chronic myeloid leukemia presenting with absence of basophils and marked dyspoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Anand M; Kumar Rajive; Kumar L; Barge S; Singh S

    2003-01-01

    A 61-year old woman presented to us with fever, weakness and ecchymotic patches for one year. She had leucocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Peripheral blood smear showed 62% neutrophils, 32% myelocytes and metamyelocytes, 2% promyelocytes, 1% blasts, 2% monocytes, 1% lymphocytes but no basophils and marked dyspoiesis. Bone marrow picture was essentially the same. A diagnosis of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia was suggested. The correct diagnosi...

  8. The GIT–PIX complexes regulate the chemotactic response of rat basophilic leukaemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, Manuela; Za, Lorena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; Curtis, Ivan de

    2010-01-01

    Background information. Cell motility entails the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking for effective protrusion. The GIT–PIX protein complexes are involved in the regulation of cell motility and adhesion and in the endocytic traffic of members of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. We have investigated the function of the endogenous GIT complexes in the regulation of cell motility stimulated by fMLP (formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) peptide, in a rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-...

  9. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  10. Basophil response to antigen and anti-IgE 3. Ca(2+) influx and histamine release

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro; Kitani,Hikaru; Okazaki, Morihiro; Mifune, Takashi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Kimura,Ikuro

    1992-01-01

    The release mechanism of chemical mediators from basophils and mast cells was discussed when these cells were stimulated by different antigens and anti-IgE. 1. Ca(2+) influx into mast cells increased after stimulation by antigen. The increased Ca(2+) uptake by mast cells was inhibited by antiallergic agents, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and tranilast, and calcium antagonists, nifedipine and nicardipine. 2. The dose-response curve of histamine release by antigen was different from that by anti...

  11. Basophil-associated OX40 Ligand Participates in the Initiation of Th2 Responses during Airway Inflammation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Yuan, Yufan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Junling; Xia, Zhenwei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by increased airway submucosal infiltration of T helper (Th) cells and myeloid cells that co-conspire to sustain a chronic inflammation. While recent studies have demonstrated that the myeloid basophils promote Th2 cells in response to various types of allergens, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found for the first time that in a mouse model of allergic asthma basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Interestingly, blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction suppressed basophils-primed Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic eosinophilic inflammation mediated by Th2 activation. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of basophils derived from mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of OVA-immunized mice triggered a robust Th2 response and eosinophilic inflammation in wild-type mice but largely muted in OX40−/− mice and mice receiving OX40L-blocked basophils. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of OX40L presented by the activated basophils to initiate Th2 responses in an allergic asthma model, implicating OX40-OX40L signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25839234

  12. Basophil-associated OX40 ligand participates in the initiation of Th2 responses during airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Yuan, Yufan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Junling; Xia, Zhenwei

    2015-05-15

    Asthma is characterized by increased airway submucosal infiltration of T helper (Th) cells and myeloid cells that co-conspire to sustain a chronic inflammation. While recent studies have demonstrated that the myeloid basophils promote Th2 cells in response to various types of allergens, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found for the first time that in a mouse model of allergic asthma basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Interestingly, blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction suppressed basophils-primed Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic eosinophilic inflammation mediated by Th2 activation. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of basophils derived from mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of OVA-immunized mice triggered a robust Th2 response and eosinophilic inflammation in wild-type mice but largely muted in OX40(-/-) mice and mice receiving OX40L-blocked basophils. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of OX40L presented by the activated basophils to initiate Th2 responses in an allergic asthma model, implicating OX40-OX40L signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25839234

  13. Basophil-derived amphiregulin is essential for UVB irradiation-induced immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell function in vivo. Here we determined whether AREG has a role in UVB-induced, Treg cell-mediated suppression of CHS reactions in the skin. Our data show that AREG is essential for UVB-induced CHS suppression. In contrast to the general assumption, however, mast cells were dispensable for UVB-induced immune suppression, whereas basophil-derived AREG was essential. These data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported function for basophils in the homeostasis of immune responses in the skin. Basophils thus fulfill a dual function: they contribute to the initiation of effective type 2 immune responses and, by enhancing the suppressive capacity of local Treg cell populations, also to local immune regulation in the skin. PMID:25089660

  14. Non-genomic inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on activated peripheral blood basophils through suppression of lipid raft formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, S; Tomita, K; Sano, H; Itoh, Y; Fukai, Y; Okimoto, N; Watatani, N; Inbe, S; Miyajima, H; Tsukamoto, K; Santoh, H; Ichihashi, H; Sano, A; Sato, R; Tohda, Y

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the non-genomic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on inhibition of plasma membrane lipid raft formation in activated human basophils. Human basophils obtained from house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive volunteers were pretreated with hydrocortisone (CORT) or dexamethasone (Dex) for 30 min and then primed with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 10 ng/ml) or HDM (10 µg/ml). The expression of CD63, a basophil activation marker, was assessed by flow cytometry. Membrane-bound GC receptors (mGCRs) were analysed by flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy. Lipid rafts were assessed using a GM1 ganglioside probe and visualization by confocal laser microscopy. Pretreatment of basophils with CORT (10(-4) M and 10(-5) M) and Dex (10(-7) M) significantly inhibited CD63 expression 20 min after addition of PMA or HDM. The inhibitory effects of GCs were not altered by the nuclear GC receptor (GCR) antagonist RU486 (10(-5) M) or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10(-4) M) (P < 0·05). CORT coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA-CORT) mimicked the rapid inhibitory effects of CORT, suggesting the involvement of mGCRs. mGCRs were detectable on the plasma membrane of resting basophils and formed nanoclusters following treatment with PMA or HDM. Pretreatment of cells with BSA-CORT inhibited the expression of mGCRs and nanoclustering of ganglioside GM1 in lipid rafts. The study provides evidence that non-genomic mechanisms are involved in the rapid inhibitory effect of GCs on the formation of lipid raft nanoclusters, through binding to mGCRs on the plasma membrane of activated basophils. PMID:22943204

  15. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  16. Monomeric immunoglobulin E stabilizes FcepsilonRIalpha from the human basophil cell line KU812 by protecting it from natural turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Hansen, Jens Bo; Dissing, S;

    2003-01-01

    The high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells and basophils is up-regulated by its own ligand IgE; however, the mechanism is unknown.......The high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells and basophils is up-regulated by its own ligand IgE; however, the mechanism is unknown....

  17. A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Kamran; Bhargava, Kapil; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The electronic records of 398 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who had had a serum basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) performed as a marker of functional autoantibodies were audited. The BHRA was positive in 105 patients (26.4%). Fifty eight were treated...

  18. iNKT Cells Are Responsible for the Apoptotic Reduction of Basophils That Mediate Th2 Immune Responses Elicited by Papain in Mice Following γPGA Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Se-Ho; Hong, Seokmann

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis-derived poly-gamma glutamic acid (γPGA) treatment suppresses the development of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Although basophils, an innate immune cell, are known to play critical roles in allergic immune responses and repeated long-term administration of γPGA results in decreased splenic basophils in an AD murine model, the underlying mechanisms by which γPGA regulates basophil frequency remain unclear. To investigate how γPGA modulates basophils, we employed basophil-mediated Th2 induction in vivo model elicited by the allergen papain protease. Repeated injection of γPGA reduced the abundance of basophils and their production of IL4 in mice, consistent with our previous study using NC/Nga AD model mice. The depletion of basophils by a single injection of γPGA was dependent on the TLR4/DC/IL12 axis. CD1d-dependent Vα14 TCR invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known to regulate a variety of immune responses, such as allergy. Because iNKT cell activation is highly sensitive to IL12 produced by DCs, we evaluated whether the effect of γPGA on basophils is mediated by iNKT cell activation. We found that in vivo γPGA treatment did not induce the reduction of basophils in iNKT cell-deficient CD1d KO mice, suggesting the critical role of iNKT cells in γPGA-mediated basophil depletion at the early time points. Furthermore, increased apoptotic basophil reduction triggered by iNKT cells upon γPGA stimulation was mainly attributed to Th1 cytokines such as IFNγ and TNFα, consequently resulting in inhibition of papain-induced Th2 differentiation via diminishing basophil-derived IL4. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that γPGA-induced iNKT cell polarization toward the Th1 phenotype induces apoptotic basophil depletion, leading to the suppression of Th2 immune responses. Thus, elucidation of the crosstalk between innate immune cells will contribute to the design and

  19. Basophil Reactivity as Biomarker in Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions—Potential and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Markus; Harrer, Andrea; Himly, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) resemble typical immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from local skin reactions, gastrointestinal and/or respiratory symptoms to severe systemic involvement with potential fatal outcome. Depending on the substance group of the eliciting drug the correct diagnosis is a major challenge. Skin testing and in vitro diagnostics are often unreliable and not reproducible. The involvement of drug-specific IgE is questionable in many cases. The culprit substance (parent drug or metabolite) and potential cross-reacting compounds are difficult to identify, patient history and drug provocation testing often remain the only means for diagnosis. Hence, several groups proposed basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of immediate DHRs as basophils are well-known effector cells in allergic reactions. However, the usefulness of BAT in immediate DHRs is highly variable and dependent on the drug itself plus its capacity to spontaneously conjugate to serum proteins. Stimulation with pure solutions of the parent drug or metabolites thereof vs. drug-protein conjugates may influence sensitivity and specificity of the test. We thus, reviewed the available literature about the use of BAT for diagnosing immediate DHRs against drug classes such as antibiotics, radio contrast media, neuromuscular blocking agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and biologicals. Influencing factors like the selection of stimulants or of the identification and activation markers, the stimulation protocol, gating strategies, and cut-off definition are addressed in this overview on BAT performance. The overall aim is to evaluate the suitability of BAT as biomarker for the diagnosis of immediate drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:27378928

  20. Establishment of a new cell line (MTT-95 showing basophilic differentiation from the bone marrow of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (M7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizobuchi N

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A new myeloid cell line, MTT-95, was established from the bone marrow of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, M7. MTT-95 cells differentiate into mature basophilic cells in culture medium with no chemical component or cytokine. Surface phenotypes were as follows: CD11b 79.3%, CD13 92.4%, CD33 99.8%, CD34 87.9%, CD41a 77.6% and HLA-DR 0.3%. MTT-95 cells were strongly positive for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa by immunohistochemical staining and revealed metachromatic granules. MTT-95 cells seem to possess characteristics of both megakaryocytes and basophils. These findings suggest that MTT-95 cells are basophil progenitors. MTT-95 cells might be useful in the study not only of the biological aspects of basophils, but also of the diversities of AML (M7.

  1. Interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor render human basophils responsive to low concentrations of complement component C3a.

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, S C; de Weck, A. L.; Dahinden, C A

    1990-01-01

    Complement component C3a is an anaphylatoxin known to induce plasma exudation and smooth muscle contraction in tissues. The effects on inflammatory effector leukocytes, however, are poorly defined and controversial, being at best weak and occurring at very high C3a concentrations. Here, we examined the effect of C3a upon mediator release from human basophils, with and without pretreatment with interleukin 3 (IL-3), a hematopoietic growth factor recently found to profoundly modify the basophil...

  2. Contrast media are incomplete secretagogues acting on human basophils and mast cells isolated from heart and lung, but not skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, A; Stellato, C; Patella, V; Lamparter-Schummert, B; de Crescenzo, G; Adt, M; Marone, G

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of anaphylactoid reactions to radiocontrast media, in vitro mediator release induced by three iodinated contrast agents was examined using peripheral blood basophils and mast cells purified from human lung parenchyma, heart, and skin tissues. Three iodinated contrast agents, sodium and meglumine salts of ioxaglic acid, sodium and meglumine salts of ioxithalamic acid, and ioversol, were incubated with basophils purified from peripheral blood and human mast cells isolated and purified from different anatomical sites. Release of preformed (histamine and tryptase) and de novo synthesized mediators (prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4) into the supernatans was determined at various contrast medium concentrations after incubation for 60 min. Ioxaglate (0.2-0.3 M), ioxithalamate (0.3-0.5 M), and to a lesser extent ioversol (0.3-0.5 M) induced histamine release from basophils in a concentration-dependent manner. All three induced the release of preformed mediators (histamine and tryptase) from human lung, but not from skin mast cells. They also induced histamine and tryptase release from human heart mast cells. However, they did not induce the de novo synthesis of leukotriene C1 or prostaglandin D2 from human basophils or any type of mast cell examined. Cross-linking of IgE by anti-IgE induced the release of leukotriene C4 or prostaglandin D2 from human basophils or mast cells. Mannitol, an osmotic stimulus, induced the release of histamine from human basophils, but to a lesser extent from mast cells. These results show that different contrast media can differ in their ability to release mediators from enriched preparations of human basophils and mast cells. The three contrast agents examined act on basophils and mast cells as incomplete secretagogues, causing the release of preformed mediators, but not these novo synthesis of chemical mediators. It may be useful to measure plasma tryptase levels to detect adverse reactions caused by iodinated

  3. Basophil activation test compared to skin prick test and fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for aeroallergen-specific Immunoglobulin-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Faisal M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin prick test (SPT and fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA are widely used for the diagnosis of Immunoglobulin-E (IgE-mediated allergic disease. Basophil activation test (BAT could obviate disadvantages of SPT and FEIA. However, it is not known whether BAT gives similar results as SPT or FEIA for aeroallergens. Objectives In this study, we compared the results of SPT, BAT and FEIA for different aeroallergens. Methods We performed BAT, SPT and FEIA in 41 atopic subjects (symptomatic and with positive SPT for at least 1 of 9 common aeroallergens and 31 non-atopic subjects (asymptomatic and with negative SPT. Results Correlations between SPT and BAT, SPT and FEIA, and BAT and FEIA results were statistically significant but imperfect. Using SPT as the "gold standard", BAT and FEIA were similar in sensitivity. However, BAT had lower specificity than FEIA. False positive (BATposSPTneg results were frequent in those atopic subjects who were allergic by SPT to a different allergen and rare in non-atopic subjects. The false positivity in atopic subjects was due in part to high levels of serum Total-IgE (T-IgE levels in atopic individuals that lead to basophil activation upon staining with fluorochrome-labeled anti-IgE. Conclusion As an alternative to SPT in persons allergic to aeroallergens, BAT in its present form is useful for distinguishing atopic from non-atopic persons. However, BAT in its present form is less specific than FEIA when determining the allergen which a patient is allergic to. This is due to IgE staining-induced activation of atopic person's basophils and/or nonspecific hyperreactivity of atopic person's basophils.

  4. Effects of Echium plantagineum L. Bee Pollen on Basophil Degranulation: Relationship with Metabolic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Moita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3. Two different stimuli were used: calcium ionophore A23187 and IgE/antigen. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated in a cell-free system using soybean lipoxygenase. Additionally, the extract was analysed by HPLC-UV for organic acids and by GC-IT/MS for fatty acids. In RBL-2H3 cells stimulated either with calcium ionophore or IgE/antigen, the hydromethanolic extract significantly decreased β-hexosaminidase release until the concentration of 2.08 mg/mL, without compromising cellular viability. No effect was found on lipoxygenase. Concerning extract composition, eight organic acids and five fatty acids were determined for the first time. Malonic acid (80% and α-linolenic acid (27% were the main compounds in each class. Overall, this study shows promising results, substantiating for the first time the utility of intake of E. plantagineum bee pollen to prevent allergy and ameliorate allergy symptoms, although a potentiation of an allergic response can occur, depending on the dose used.

  5. Modulation of basophils' degranulation and allergy-related enzymes by monomeric and dimeric naphthoquinones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida R Pinho

    Full Text Available Allergic disorders are characterized by an abnormal immune response towards non-infectious substances, being associated with life quality reduction and potential life-threatening reactions. The increasing prevalence of allergic disorders demands for new and effective anti-allergic treatments. Here we test the anti-allergic potential of monomeric (juglone, menadione, naphthazarin, plumbagin and dimeric (diospyrin and diosquinone naphthoquinones. Inhibition of RBL-2H3 rat basophils' degranulation by naphthoquinones was assessed using two complementary stimuli: IgE/antigen and calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, we tested for the inhibition of leukotrienes production in IgE/antigen-stimulated cells, and studied hyaluronidase and lipoxidase inhibition by naphthoquinones in cell-free assays. Naphthazarin (0.1 µM decreased degranulation induced by IgE/antigen but not A23187, suggesting a mechanism upstream of the calcium increase, unlike diospyrin (10 µM that reduced degranulation in A23187-stimulated cells. Naphthoquinones were weak hyaluronidase inhibitors, but all inhibited soybean lipoxidase with the most lipophilic diospyrin, diosquinone and menadione being the most potent, thus suggesting a mechanism of competition with natural lipophilic substrates. Menadione was the only naphthoquinone reducing leukotriene C4 production, with a maximal effect at 5 µM. This work expands the current knowledge on the biological properties of naphthoquinones, highlighting naphthazarin, diospyrin and menadione as potential lead compounds for structural modification in the process of improving and developing novel anti-allergic drugs.

  6. Leukotriene formation by purified 5-lipoxygenase from rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1) cell high speed (105,000 x g for 60 min) supernatants was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by gel filtration and anion-exchange protein-high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 5-LO rapidly converted [14C]arachidonate at 200C to [14C]5-hydroperoxyeicosate-traenoic acid (HPETE) as determined by reversed phase-HPLC, scanning spectrophotometry and radiochemical detection. In addition, 5-LO converted both 5-HPETE and arachidonate to 5,12-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs). The 5,12-diHETEs were identified as 6-trans-leukotriene (LT) B4 and 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 as determined by reversed phase HPLC, scanning spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data indicate that the RBL-1 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase activities reside on the same protein and that it catalyzes the bioconversion of arachidonate to not only 5-HPETE but also to LTA4. The results suggest that a critical regulatory step in LT biosynthesis in mammalian systems involves the intricate coupling of the enzymes 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase and the interactions of their respective cofactors, substrates and reaction products

  7. Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the basophilic cells in the hepatopancreas ofAplysia depilans(Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-da-Cunha, A

    1999-02-01

    The basophilic cells ofAplysia depilanshave a pyramidal shape and a large nucleus usually located near the center or in the basal half of the cell. The nucleus possesses several clumps of condensed chromatin and a prominent nucleolus. The great profusion of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns in a major feature of these cells. Secretion granules are accumulated in the apical zone, and arylsulphatase was detected in some of them. In some basophilic cells a very substantial part of the cell volume was occupied by clear vacuoles, some of them reaching 9 mum. However, in other cells only a few vacuoles were observed. Probably the cells with just a few vacuoles are still young, and after a progressive accumulation, the vacuoles become abundant in old cells. The presence of a dark nucleus in the cells with a large number of vacuoles suggests that they are in a final stage of their life. Arylsulphatase was detected in the vacuoles and also in small secondary lysosomes containing substances in digestion. Bundles of tubules with 50 nm in diameter were found within some cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum. A cell fraction enriched in mannitol oxidase, extracted from the hepatopancreas of a terrestrial slug, consisted in very similar tubular structures. Using a histochemical method, mannitol oxidase was detected in the basophilic cells ofA. depilans, and it may be associated with the tubular structures of the endoplasmic reticulum. This is the first report of mannitol oxidase in opisthobranch molluscs. Almost spherical peroxisomes with a small nucleoid were abundant in these cells. The nucleoids presented a rectangular section, but a crystalline structure was not evident. The peroxisomes were stained after the cytochemical detection of catalase activity. PMID:18627851

  8. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones: The expression of basophil activation markers depends on the clinical entity and the culprit fluoroquinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tahia D; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J

    2016-06-01

    Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity-specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = -0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = -0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers. PMID:27281069

  9. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice...... to be a cellular desensitisation after 1 year. Selected for presentation during the Poster Walk on Friday. (2011), Abstracts of the 11th Euroconference on Clinical Cell Analysis. Dublin, Ireland, 14–17 September 2011. Cytometry, 80B: 390–429. doi: 10.1002/cyto.b.20619...

  10. IL-33 induces IL-9 production in human CD4+ T cells and basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Britta Cathrina; Jensen, Bettina M.;

    2011-01-01

    IL-33, an IL-1 family member and ligand for the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2, has been associated with induction of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Here, we report that IL-33 can initiate IL-9 protein secretion in vitro in human CD4+ T cells and basophils isolated from peripheral...... important, although not an absolute requirement, for IL-9 production in CD4+ T cells. IL-9 production by purified (>95%) human basophils, cultured for 24 h with IL-3 or IL-33, was found, with a strong synergy between the two, likely to be explained by the IL-3 upregulated ST2 expression. Collectively, these...... blood. TGF-β has been described as a critical factor for IL-9 induction in Th2 cells; however, we found that TGF-β also induces co-production of IL-9 in purified, naïve (>99%) CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD45RO(-)CD25(-) T cells differentiated towards a Th1 profile. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that TGF-β is...

  11. Monosodium urate crystals induce extracellular DNA traps in neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils but not in mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchorn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are fibers of extracellular DNA released from neutrophils due to overwhelming phagocytic stimuli. The function of NETs is to trap and kill microbes to avoid spreading of potential pathogens. NETs are formed after encounter with various gram-positive and -negative bacteria but also in response to mediators causing sterile inflammation like interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA.Here we show the formation of NETs (NETting in response to monosodium urate (MSU crystals as further model for sterile inflammation. We identified monocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils as MSU phagocytosing cells. Basophils did not take up the crystals, instead they upregulated their activation marker CD203c after contact with MSU. Nevertheless, MSU crystals induced extracellular trap formation also in basophils, like in eosinophils and neutrophils, which phagocytose the crystals. In contrast, monocytes do not form NETs despite uptake of the MSU crystals. In contrast to the canonical stimuli like bacteria and PMA, MSU-induced NETosis was not abrogated by plasma.Our data show that MSU crystals induce extracellular DNA trap formation in all three granulocytes lineages (NETs, EETs, BETs but not in monocytes, and DNA externalization does not necessitate the uptake of the crystals.

  12. Comparison of CD63 Upregulation Induced by NSAIDs on Basophils and Monocytes in Patients with NSAID Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An in vitro basophil activation test, based on the detection of CD63 upregulation induced by NSAIDs, has been described. Its clinical significance remains controversial. Objectives. In patients with a history of nonallergic NSAID hypersensitivity, stratified according to the severity of the symptoms, to assess with NSAIDs the predictive value of basophil (BAT and monocyte (MAT activation tests. Patients/Methods. Sixty patients who had NSAIDs-induced or exacerbated urticaria/angiooedema and 20 controls was included. After incubation with NSAIDs or acetaminophen, leukocytes were analysed for CD63 upregulation. Results. With aspirin, the sensitivity (37% and specificity (90% of BAT agree with already published results. In contrast, when patients had had cutaneous and visceral reactions, the frequency of positive BAT 14/22 (64%, P<0.001 or MAT 10/22 (46%, P<0.01 were increased. Conclusions. Positive tests were more frequent among patients having a severe hypersensitivity contrasting with the other patients who had results similar to controls.

  13. MHC class II-dependent basophil-CD4(+) T cell interactions promote T(H)2 cytokine-dependent immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrigoue, J.G.; Saenz, S.A.; Siracusa, M.C.; Allenspach, E.J.; Taylor, B.C.; Giacomin, P.; Nair, M.G.; Du, Y.R.; Zaph, C.; Rooijen, van N.; Comeau, M.R.; Pearce, E.J.; Laufer, T.M.; Artis, D.

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells can prime naive CD4(+) T cells; however, here we demonstrate that dendritic cell-mediated priming was insufficient for the development of T helper type 2 cell-dependent immunity. We identify basophils as a dominant cell population that coexpressed major histocompatibility complex cla

  14. Histamine release from basophil leukocytes in asthma patients after in vitro provocation with various neuromuscular blocking drugs and intravenous anaesthetic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H; Søndergaard, I

    1987-01-01

    Basophil histamine release is a relatively new investigation technique, which can be used in the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Our aim in this investigation was to determine reference values for asthma patients and normal subjects. Blood from eight asthmatic patients and eight normal...

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of the inhibition of human basophil activation by histamine high dilutions – a replication study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Wälchli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhibition of human basophil activation by highly diluted histamine was reported to be a reliable experimental model to examine biological effects of high dilutions. However, independent replications did not always yield concordant results. Aims: We aimed at performing an independent replication of a former study [1] using rigorously controlled experimental conditions to minimise confounding factors. Materials and Methods: In 20 independent experiments, human basophils were treated with highly diluted histamine (15cH, 16cH, corresponding to 10-30-10-32 M prior to activation by fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine peptide. Controls were treated with analogously diluted water (15cH, 16cH. The dilutions were prepared freshly for each experiment in deionised water by successive steps of centesimal dilution and agitation (10 s vortex at high speed. Highly diluted samples were blinded and randomised. All samples were set in triplicates. Activated basophils were determined by flow cytometry using anti-CD203c. 20 independent systematic negative control (SNC experiments were carried out to investigate possible systematic errors. Results: No difference in basophil activation was observed between the highly diluted histamine samples and the highly diluted water controls. There was no evidence for a blood donor specificity of the results. The SNC experiments demonstrated the stability of the test system. Experimental variability within and between experiments was slightly reduced for the highly diluted histamine samples. Discussion: This study was designed as an independent reproduction of a former study [1]. Though we strictly adopted the experimental procedure described in [1], our results do not confirm the large inhibitory effects observed for histamine 15cH and 16cH. This lack of reproducibility might be due to minor differences in the experimental design, such as blinding and randomising of the samples, which we chose to

  16. NOD2 and TLR2 ligands trigger the activation of basophils and eosinophils by interacting with dermal fibroblasts in atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Delong; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Qiu, Huai-Na; Dong, Jie; Cai, Zhe; Chu, Man; Hon, Kam-Lun; Tsang, Miranda Sin-Man; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

    2016-01-01

    The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) has a unique predisposition for colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which contributes to the inflammation and grim prognosis of AD. Although the mechanism underlying the S. aureus-induced exacerbation of AD remains unclear, recent studies have found a pivotal role for pattern recognition receptors in regulating the inflammatory responses in S. aureus infection. In the present study, we used a typical mouse model of AD-like skin inflammation and found that S. aureus-associated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands exacerbated AD-like symptoms, which were further deteriorated by the in vivo expansion of basophils and eosinophils. Subsequent histological analyses revealed that dermal fibroblasts were pervasive in the AD-like skin lesions. Co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts with basophils and eosinophils resulted in a vigorous cytokine/chemokine response to the NOD2/TLR2 ligands and the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on the dermal fibroblasts. Basophils and eosinophils were primarily responsible for the AD-related cytokine/chemokine expression in the co-cultures. Direct intercellular contact was necessary for the crosstalk between basophils and dermal fibroblasts, while soluble mediators were sufficient to mediate the eosinophil–fibroblast interactions. Moreover, the intracellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways were essential for NOD2/TLR2 ligand-mediated activation of basophils, eosinophils, and dermal fibroblasts in AD-related inflammation. This study provides the evidence of NOD2/TLR2-mediated exacerbation of AD through activation of innate immune cells and therefore sheds light on a novel mechanistic pathway by which S. aureus contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:26388234

  17. Adhesion of human basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils to interleukin 1-activated human vascular endothelial cells: contributions of endothelial cell adhesion molecules

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) promote adhesiveness in human umbilical vein endothelial cells for leukocytes including basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils, and induce expression of adherence molecules including ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), ELAM-1 (endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In the present study, blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing ICAM-1, ELAM-1, and VCAM-1 have been used to compare their ...

  18. Screening antiallergic components from Carthamus tinctorius using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shengli; Huang, Jing; Cui, Ronghua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    Carthamus tinctorius, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has many pharmacological effects, such as anticoagulant effects, antioxidant effects, antiaging effects, regulation of gene expression, and antitumor effects. However, there is no report on the antiallergic effects of the components in C. tinctorius. In the present study, we investigated the antiallergic components of C. tinctorius and its mechanism of action. A rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography coupled online with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to screen antiallergic components from C. tinctorius. The screening results showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A, from C. tinctorius, was the targeted component that retained on the rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography column. We measured the amount of β-hexosaminidase and histamine released in mast cells and the key markers of degranulation. The release assays showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A could attenuate the immunoglobulin E induced release of allergic cytokines without affecting cell viability from 1.0 to 50.0 μM. In conclusion, the established rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with online high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method successfully screened and identified Hydroxysafflor yellow A from C. tinctorius as a potential antiallergic component. Pharmacological analysis elucidated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A is an effective natural component for inhibiting immunoglobulin E-antigen-mediated degranulation.

  19. The LINA Study: Higher Sensitivity of Infant Compared to Maternal Eosinophil/Basophil Progenitors to Indoor Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hörnig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Enhanced eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B progenitor cell levels are known to be associated with allergic inflammation and atopy risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different indoor exposures on the recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in mother-child pairs. Methods. In 68 mother-child pairs of the LINA study peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess Eo/B colony forming units (CFUs. Information about disease outcomes and indoor exposures was obtained from questionnaires. Indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by passive sampling. Results. Infant’s Eo/B CFUs were positively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, disinfectants, or VOCs. In contrast, for maternal Eo/B CFUs, only a few associations were seen. Higher numbers of infant Eo/B CFUs were observed in children with wheezing symptoms within the second year of life. Conclusions. We demonstrate that infant’s hematopoietic cells seem to respond with more sensitivity to environmental exposure compared to maternal cells. At least in infants, an activation of these hematopoietic cells by environmental exposure could contribute to an enhanced risk for the development of respiratory outcomes.

  20. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model

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    Ichiro Hirahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS, which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administration of glucose degradation products, such as methylglyoxal (MGO or formaldehyde (FA, chlorhexidine gluconate (CG, and talc. In rats treated with MGO, peritoneal fibrous thickening with the appearance of basophilic spindle cells with podoplanin, cytokeratin, and α-smooth muscle actin at the surface of the peritoneum was observed. These cells may have been derived from mesothelial cells by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In FA- or CG-treated rats, the peritoneum was thickened, and mesothelial cells were absent at the surface of the peritoneum. The CG- or MGO-treated rats presented with a so-called abdominal cocoon. In the talc-treated rats, extensive peritoneal adhesion and peritoneal thickening were observed. MGO-induced peritoneal injury model may reflect human histopathology and be suitable to analyze the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS.

  1. Distribution and dynamics of rat basophilic leukemia immunoglobulin E receptors (FcepsilonRI) on planar ligand-presenting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendier, Kathrin; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Lidke, Keith A; Wilson, Bridget S; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Thomas, James L

    2010-07-21

    There is considerable interest in the signaling mechanisms of immunoreceptors, especially when triggered with membrane-bound ligands. We have quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics of the redistribution of immunoglobulin E-loaded receptors (IgE-FcepsilonRI) on rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cells in contact with fluid and gel-phase membranes displaying ligands for immunoglobulin E, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. To clearly separate the kinetics of receptor redistribution from cell spreading, and to precisely define the initial contact time (+/-50 ms), micropipette cell manipulation was used to bring individual cells into contact with surfaces. On ligand-free surfaces, there are micron-scale heterogeneities in fluorescence that likely reflect regions of the cell that are more closely apposed to the substrate. When ligands are present, receptor clusters form with this same size scale. The initial rate of accumulation of receptors into the clusters is consistent with diffusion-limited trapping with D approximately 10(-1) microm2/s. These results support the hypothesis that clusters form by diffusion to cell-surface contact regions. Over longer timescales (>10 s), individual clusters moved with both diffusive and directed motion components. The dynamics of the cluster motion is similar to the dynamics of membrane fluctuations of cells on ligand-free fluid membranes. Thus, the same cellular machinery may be responsible for both processes.

  2. Structural analysis of the endogenous glycoallergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis and its recognition by human basophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Adela, E-mail: adela@unam.mx; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico); Palomares, Laura A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, 62250 Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian [Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Orozco-Martínez, Socorro [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Insurgentes Sur 3700C, 04530 Cuicuilco, DF (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the three-dimensional structure of the endogenous glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase), which exhibits three post-translational modifications that form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be an allergenic IgE epitope. Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 constitute a potentially important IgE-binding epitope that could be responsible for its cross-reactivity. Here, the structure of the endogenous isoform II of Hev b 2 that exhibits three post-translational modifications, including an N-terminal pyroglutamate and two glycosylation sites at Asn27 and at Asn314, is reported from two crystal polymorphs. These modifications form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be one of the binding sites for IgE. A structure is also proposed for the most important N-glycan present in this protein as determined by digestion with specific enzymes. To analyze the role of the carbohydrate moieties in IgE antibody binding and in human basophil activation, the glycoallergen was enzymatically deglycosylated and evaluated. Time-lapse automated video microscopy of basophils stimulated with glycosylated Hev b 2 revealed basophil activation and degranulation. Immunological studies suggested that carbohydrates on Hev b 2 represent an allergenic IgE epitope. In addition, a dimer was found in each asymmetric unit that may reflect a regulatory mechanism of this plant defence protein.

  3. Targeting Mast Cells and Basophils with Anti-FcεRIα Fab-Conjugated Celastrol-Loaded Micelles Suppresses Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Xianyang; Lin, Lihui; Xie, Guogang; Cui, Zelin; Li, Jia; Wang, Yuping; Li, Li

    2015-12-01

    Mast cells and basophils are effector cells in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Targeted elimination of these cells may be a promising strategy for the treatment of allergic disorders. Our present study aims at targeted delivery of anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles toward FcεRIα receptors expressed on mast cells and basophils to have enhanced anti-allergic effect. To achieve this aim, we prepared celastrol-loaded (PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO, Pluronic) polymeric nanomicelles using thin-film hydration method. The anti-FcεRIα Fab Fragment was then conjugated to carboxyl groups on drug-loaded micelles via EDC amidation reaction. The anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles revealed uniform particle size (93.43 ± 12.93 nm) with high loading percentage (21.2 ± 1.5% w/w). The image of micelles showed oval and rod like. The anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated micelles demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake and cytotoxity toward target KU812 cells than non-conjugated micelles in vitro. Furthermore, diffusion of the drug into the cells allowed an efficient induction of cell apoptosis. In mouse model of allergic asthma, treatment with anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated micelles increased lung accumulation of micelles, and significantly reduced OVA-sIgE, histamine and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α) levels, eosinophils infiltration and mucus production. In addition, in mouse model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles treatment significantly decreased extravasated evan's in the ear. These results indicate that anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles can target and selectively kill mast cells and basophils which express FcεRIα, and may be efficient reagents for the treatment of allergic disorders and mast cell related diseases.

  4. A human monoclonal IgE antibody that binds to MGL_1304, a major allergen in human sweat, without activation of mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kan, Takanobu; Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Yanase, Yuhki; Tanaka, Akio; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Hide, Michihiro

    MGL_1304, a major allergen in human sweat for patients with atopic dermatitis and/or cholinergic urticaria, is secreted from Malassezia globosa on human skin. The amounts of MGL_1304 and IgE against MGL_1304 are evaluated by the histamine release test using basophils or mast cells sensitized with serum containing IgE against MGL_1304, and enzyme linked sorbent assay (ELISA) using MGL_1304 and anti-MGL_1304 antibodies. Here, we identified a human monoclonal IgE (ABS-IgE) that binds to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) and MGL_1304 with high affinity (KD = 1.99 nM) but does not release histamine from basophils and mast cells. An ELISA using ABS-IgE as a standard IgE revealed that the amount of IgE against MGL_1304 (1000 U/ml) in the standard sera of patients with AD, employed in our previous report, is 32 ng/ml. A sandwich ELISA using ABS-IgE as a detection antibody showed approximately 10 times lower detection limit for MGL_1304 than ELISA in which MGL_1304 is directly bound to an ELISA plate. Moreover, ABS-IgE prevented histamine release from mast cells and basophils by neutralizing MGL_1304 not only in a free form in solution, but also on FcεRI expressed on the cell surface without cell activation. ABS-IgE may be used both to quantify the amount of MGL_1304 and anti-MGL_1304 IgE, and possibly for the treatment of diseases caused/aggravated by type I allergy to MGL_1304. PMID:26541454

  5. Inhibition of IgE-mediated Secretion from Human Basophils with a Highly Selective Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase, Btk, Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    MacGlashan, Donald; Honigberg, Lee; Smith, Ashley; Buggy, Joseph; Schroeder, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The study of receptor-mediated signaling in human basophils is often limited by the availability of selective pharmacological agents. The early signaling reaction mediated by FcεRI aggregation is thought to require the activity of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (btk), an enzyme that has been identified as important in B cells signaling because mutations lead to X-linked agammaglobulinemia. This study uses the btk selective irreversible inhibitor, PCI-32765, to explore the role of btk in a variety o...

  6. Modulation of human basophil histamine release by protein kinase C inhibitors differs with secretagogue and with inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, H; Lundquist, B; Karabelas, K; Michelsen, P

    1992-03-01

    To assess possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in human basophil degranulation, the present work compared effects of various purported PKC inhibitors on leukocyte histamine release triggered by different stimuli. The effects recorded varied with the inhibitor and the secretagogue used; moreover, with a given secretagogue, different inhibitors often displayed different activities. Thus, histamine release triggered by the PKC activator 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was blocked by K252a, staurosporine and the purported specific PKC inhibitor Ro 31-7549, and reduced by calphostin C, H-7, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by polymyxin B; it was augmented by 2.1 microM palmitoyl carnitine. The leukocyte response induced by another putative activator of PKC, 1,2-isopropylidene-3-decanoyl-sn-glycerol, was also enhanced by 2.1 microM palmitoyl carnitine, slightly increased by staurosporine, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by calphostin C, H-7, K252a or Ro 31-7549, whereas the hyperosmolar mannitol-induced response was reduced by H-7, calphostin C, TMB-8 and W-7 and slightly augmented by staurosporine. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was blocked by staurosporine and K252a and reduced by calphostin C, sphingosine, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by H-7, polymyxin B or retinal. It was enhanced by Ro 31-7549. In contrast, leukocyte histamine release induced by calcium ionophore A23187 or by ionomycin was blocked by retinal, TMB-8 and W-7 and reduced by calphostin C and palmitoyl carnitine but enhanced by H-7, staurosporine and polymyxin B; K252a and Ro 31-7549 did not affect such responses. Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-triggered histamine release was barely affected by any agent used. Thus, the specific PKC inhibitor Ro 31-7549 selectively blocked 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-triggered leukocyte histamine release. These results imply that examined secretagogues trigger human leukocyte histamine release through partly separate pathways

  7. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Member LIGHT (TNFSF14 on the Activation of Basophils and Eosinophils Interacting with Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Na Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma can cause airway structural remodeling, involving the accumulation of extracellular matrix and thickening of smooth muscle. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF family ligand LIGHT (TNFSF14 is a cytokine that binds herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM/TNFRSF14 and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR. LIGHT induces asthmatic cytokine IL-13 and fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β release from allergic asthma-related eosinophils expressing HVEM and alveolar macrophages expressing LTβR, respectively, thereby playing crucial roles in asthmatic airway remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effects of LIGHT on the coculture of human basophils/eosinophils and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines/chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP was measured by flow cytometry, multiplex, assay or ELISA. Results showed that LIGHT could significantly promote intercellular adhesion, cell surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, release of airway remodeling-related IL-6, CXCL8, and MMP-9 from BEAS-2B cells upon interaction with basophils/eosinophils, probably via the intercellular interaction, cell surface receptors HVEM and LTβR on BEAS-2B cells, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, and NF-κB signaling pathways. The above results, therefore, enhance our understanding of the immunopathological roles of LIGHT in allergic asthma and shed light on the potential therapeutic targets for airway remodeling.

  8. Identification of CD13, CD107a, and CD164 as novel basophil-activation markers and dissection of two response patterns in time kinetics of IgE-de pendent upregulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian HENNERSDORF; Stefan FLORIAN; Andreas JAKOB; Katharina BAUMG(A)RTNER; Karoline SONNECK; Alfred NORDHEIM; Tilo BIEDERMANN; Peter VALENT; Hans-J(o)rg B(U)HRING

    2005-01-01

    Using two-colour flow cytometry >200 antibodies submitted to the 8th International Workshop of Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA8) have been analyzed for their reactivity with resting and activated CD203c+ basophils.Four antibodies either non-reactive or weakly reactive with resting basophils exhibited an increased reactivity with basophils activated by anti-IgE-mediated cross-linking of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). These include antibodies against CD164 (WS-80160, clone N6B6 and WS-80162, clone 67D2), as well as two reagents with previously unknown specificities that were identified as CD13 (WS-80274, clone A8) and CD107a (WS-80280, clone E63-880).The activation patterns followed either the "CD203c-like" or "CD63-like" activation profile. The CD203c profile is characterized by a rapid and significant upregulation (of CD13, CD164, and CD203c), reaching maximum levels after 5-15 min of stimulation. The Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibitor Wortmannin inhibited the upregulation of these markers whereas 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced a rapid and FcεRI-independent upregulation within 1-2 min. In the CD63 profile, maximum upregulation (of CD63 and CD107a) was detected only after 20-40 min,and upregulation by TPA reached maximum levels after 60 min. In summary, our data identify CD13, CD107a, and CD164 as novel basophil-activation antigens. Based on time kinetics of upregulation, we hypothesize that molecules of the "CD203c group" and the "CD63 group" are linked to two different mechanisms of basophil activation.

  9. Use of humanised rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RS-ATL8 for the assessment of allergenicity of Schistosoma mansoni proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasite-specific IgE is thought to correlate with protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection or re-infection. Only a few molecular targets of the IgE response in S. mansoni infection have been characterised. A better insight into the basic mechanisms of anti-parasite immunity could be gained from a genome-wide characterisation of such S. mansoni allergens. This would have repercussions on our understanding of allergy and the development of safe and efficacious vaccinations against helminthic parasites.A complete medium- to high-throughput amenable workflow, including important quality controls, is described, which enables the rapid translation of S. mansoni proteins using wheat germ lysate and subsequent assessment of potential allergenicity with a humanised Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL reporter cell line. Cell-free translation is completed within 90 minutes, generating sufficient amounts of parasitic protein for rapid screening of allergenicity without any need for purification. Antigenic integrity is demonstrated using Western Blotting. After overnight incubation with infected individuals' serum, the RS-ATL8 reporter cell line is challenged with the complete wheat germ translation mixture and Luciferase activity measured, reporting cellular activation by the suspected allergen. The suitability of this system for characterization of novel S. mansoni allergens is demonstrated using well characterised plant and parasitic allergens such as Par j 2, SmTAL-1 and the IgE binding factor IPSE/alpha-1, expressed in wheat germ lysates and/or E. coli. SmTAL-1, but not SmTAL2 (used as a negative control, was able to activate the basophil reporter cell line.This method offers an accessible way for assessment of potential allergenicity of anti-helminthic vaccine candidates and is suitable for medium- to high-throughput studies using infected individual sera. It is also suitable for the study of the basis of allergenicity of helminthic proteins.

  10. Controlled-release formulation of antihistamine based on cetirizine zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites and its effect on histamine release from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al Ali SH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali,1 Mothanna Al-Qubaisi,2 Mohd Zobir Hussein,1,3 Maznah Ismail,2,4 Zulkarnain Zainal,1 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim51Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra, Malaysia; 5Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: A controlled-release formulation of an antihistamine, cetirizine, was synthesized using zinc-layered hydroxide as the host and cetirizine as the guest. The resulting well-ordered nanolayered structure, a cetirizine nanocomposite "CETN," had a basal spacing of 33.9 Å, averaged from six harmonics observed from X-ray diffraction. The guest, cetirizine, was arranged in a horizontal bilayer between the zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH inorganic interlayers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicated that the intercalation takes place without major change in the structure of the guest and that the thermal stability of the guest in the nanocomposites is markedly enhanced. The loading of the guest in the nanocomposites was estimated to be about 49.4% (w/w. The release study showed that about 96% of the guest could be released in 80 hours by phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 compared with about 97% in 73 hours at pH 4.8. It was found that release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. Release of histamine from rat basophilic leukemia cells was found to be more sensitive to the intercalated cetirizine in the CETN compared with its free counterpart, with inhibition of 56% and 29%, respectively, at 62.5 ng/mL. The cytotoxicity assay toward Chang liver cells line show the IC50 for CETN and ZLH are 617 and 670 µg/mL, respectively.Keywords: cetirizine hydrochloric acid

  11. Chorea as a clinical feature of the basophilic inclusion body disease subtype of fused-in-sarcoma-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ito; Kobayashi, Zen; Arai, Tetsuaki; Yokota, Osamu; Nonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Naoya; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Kenichi; Higashi, Shinji; Katsuse, Omi; Hosokawa, Masato; Hasegawa, Masato; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-04-04

    Choreoathetoid involuntary movements are rarely reported in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), suggesting their exclusion as a supportive feature in clinical diagnostic criteria for FTLD. Here, we identified three cases of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) that display chorea with fused in sarcoma (FUS)-positive inclusions (FTLD-FUS) and the basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD) subtype. We determined the behavioral and cognitive features in this group that were distinct from other FTLD-FUS cases. We also reviewed the clinical records of 72 FTLD cases, and clarified additional clinical features that are predictive of the BIBD pathology. Symptom onset in the three patients with chorea was at 44.0 years of age (±12.0 years), and occurred in the absence of a family history of dementia. The cases were consistent with a clinical form of FTD known as bvFTD, as well as reduced neurological muscle tone in addition to chorea. The three patients showed no or mild parkinsonism, which by contrast, increased substantially in the other FTLD cases until a later stage of disease. The three patients exhibited severe caudate atrophy, which has previously been reported as a histological feature distinguishing FTLD-FUS from FTLD-tau or FTLD-TAR DNA-binding protein 43. Thus, our findings suggest that the clinical feature of choreoathetosis in bvFTD might be associated with FTLD-FUS, and in particular, with the BIBD subtype.

  12. 嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的研究进展与展望%Research on Progress of Halophilic Basophilic Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加苏尔·阿不都克里木; 旭格拉; 塔衣尔; 阿不都克里木·热依木; 木尼热木·阿力木江; 迪丽拜尔·托合提

    2015-01-01

    Haloalkaliphilic extremophiles were survied in saline alkali soil. Halophilic basophilic Actinomycetes with the genetic characteristics and the special supersedes way, produced a variety of secondary me⁃tabolites, was one of microbial resources with great application prospect. This paper mainly reviewed Halophilic ba⁃sophilic Actinomycetes Resources, standard classification, distribution, system science, development and utilization prospects.%嗜盐嗜碱极端微生物主要分布于地球上的盐碱土壤中,嗜盐嗜碱放线菌适应并长期生存这一特殊极端环境,已具备独特的遗传特性和新陈代谢途径,能够产生具有开发利用价值的多种次生代谢产物,是一类极具应用前景的微生物资源。文章主要综述了嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的资源、分类标准、分布、系统学及其发展趋势、开发利用前景。

  13. OM-X®, Fermented Vegetables Extract Suppresses Antigen-Stimulated Degranulation in Rat Basophilic Leukemia RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Miyake, Yasuyoshi; Kasashima, Takuya; Shimomiya, Yoshie; Nakamura, Yuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Muneaki

    2015-09-01

    OM-X® is a hand-made and naturally manufactured probiotic supplement. This fermented food product is made from vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and mushrooms, using 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. OM-X® is also known to have beneficial health properties, and some of its components show effects on antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation activity, indicating that OM-X® may be useful in the treatment of allergy responses and symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of OM-X® on Ag-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, clarified the underlying mechanisms, and determined the active compounds in OM-X® for suppression of degranulation. Treatment with OM-X® gradually suppressed Ag-stimulated degranulation throughout the maturation period. OM-X® also gradually produced melanoidins by lactic acid bacterial fermentation during the maturation process. There was a high correlation between the suppression levels of Ag-stimulated degranulation and the browning of OM-X®. Furthermore, the inhibition of Ag-stimulated degranulation by OM-X® was found to be partially due to the direct inactivation of NADPH oxidase. To elucidate the in vivo effects of OM- X®, type I allergy model mice were orally administered with OM-X®, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. OM-X® intake remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that OMX® could be a beneficial food to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  14. The clinical values of peripheral blood basophil activation test in children with allergic diseases%过敏性疾病患儿外周血嗜碱性粒细胞百分比及活化率检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨皓征; 曹兰芳; 王利民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical values of basophil activation test in childhood allergic diseases by the analysis of CRTH2+ cells, percent of basophil, and activation of basophil in peripheral blood.Methods The peripheral basophils activation in healthy children and allergic patients ( asthma and/or rhinitis and/or dermatitis ) were analyzed with a combination of CD3/CRTH2/CD63 antibodies by flow cytometric.Results Ninty-three subjects ( 25 in control group, 68 in allergy group ) completed the study.The peripheral CRTH2+ cell level in the allergy group ( 0.53% ± 0.22% ) was significantly higher than that in control group ( 0.44% ± 0.14% )( P < 0.05 ).The peripheral basophil level of the allergy group ( 0.39% ± 0.19% ) was significantly higher than that of control group ( 0.130% ± 0.073% )( P < 0.01 ).The basophil activation ratio was higher in allergic patients ( 85.77% ± 10.63% ) than that in control group ( 31.62% ± 17.41% ).In addition, Spearman correlation coefficients indicated a moderate positive correlation between basophil activation ratio and slgE calss categorized by Unicap calss.Moreover, Spearman correlation coefficients indicated medium positive correlation between basophil activation ratio and standardized skin prick test.Conclusions The peripheral CRTH2+ cell level and basophil level increase in allergic children.It suggests that basophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.Moreover, basophil activation test may have some values in the diagnosis and screening of allergic diseases in children.%目的 探讨嗜碱性粒细胞在儿童过敏性疾病中的临床参考价值.方法 应用流式细胞仪,采用识别CRTH2/CD63/CD4组合抗体,检测过敏性疾病患儿与正常儿童外周血中CRTH2阳性细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞百分比及其活化率,并将检测结果与血清总IgE、特异性IgE、皮肤点刺试验结果作比较,分析其内在联系.结果 68例过

  15. Evaluation of an in vitro method for the measurement of specific IgE antibody responses: the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of allergenic potential is a key parameter in the safety assessment of novel proteins, including those expressed in genetically modified crops and foodstuffs. The majority of allergic reactions to food proteins are immediate type hypersensitivity reactions in which the principal biological effector is IgE antibody; the accurate measurement of specific IgE antibody is therefore a critical factor in experimental systems designed to characterize protein allergenic potential. Due to the presence of much higher concentrations of other immunoglobulin isotypes, the assessment of specific serum IgE antibody poses substantial technical challenges. We have examined the utility of the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line for the measurement of murine IgE responses. RBL cells were sensitized with mouse monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody and challenged with DNP-albumin conjugates with various hapten substitution ratios (SR). Polyclonal anti-OVA IgE antisera were also assessed for activity in the RBL assay. Results were compared with titers measured in homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay. Marked degranulation of RBL cells was induced by conjugates with SRs of between 16 and 32, whereas conjugates with lower SRs (of 10 or 3) failed to elicit significant serotonin release. All conjugates were able to induce mast cell degranulation in vivo in a PCA assay. Anti-OVA antisera with PCA titers of 1/32 to 1/64 failed to stimulate RBL cell degranulation, whereas high titer antibody (1/2048 to 1/4096 by PCA) induced a positive RBL cell response. Successful stimulation of RBL cell degranulation requires not only appropriate epitope densities but also high affinity antibody. These data indicate that this assay is inappropriate for the routine analysis of specific polyclonal IgE antibody responses such as those that are induced by exposure to complex protein allergens

  16. Resveratrol Suppresses Cytokine Production Linked to FcεRI-MAPK Activation in IgE-Antigen Complex-Exposed Basophilic Mast Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon-Young; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A complicated interplay between resident mast cells and other recruited inflammatory cells contributes to the development and progression of allergic inflammation entailing the promotion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine responses. The current study examined whether resveratrol suppressed the production of inflammatory Th2 cytokines in cultured rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Cells pre-treated with resveratrol nontoxic at 1–25 μM were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP), and subsequently stimulated by dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP–HSA) antigen. Resveratrol dose-dependently diminished the secretion of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-13 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the antigen stimulation from sensitized cells. It was found that resveratrol mitigated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK elevated in mast cells exposed to Fc epsilon receptor I (FcεRI)-mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antigen complex. The FcεRI aggregation was highly enhanced on the surface of mast cells following the HSA stimulation, which was retarded by treatment with 1–25 μM resveratrol. The IgE-receptor engagement rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src-related focal adhesion protein paxillin involved in the cytoskeleton rearrangement. The FcεRI-mediated rapid activation of c-Src and paxillin was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the paxillin activation entailed p38 MAPK and ERK-responsive signaling, but the JNK activation was less involved. Consistently, oral administration of resveratrol reduced the tissue level of phosphorylated paxillin in the dorsal skin of DNP–HSA-challenged mice. The other tyrosine kinase Tyk2-STAT1 signaling was activated in the dorsal epidermis of antigen-exposed mice, which was associated with allergic inflammation. These results showed that resveratrol inhibited Th2 cytokines- and paxillin-linked allergic responses dependent upon MAPK signaling. Therefore, resveratrol may possess the

  17. Atividade peroxidásica em basófilos de Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines Chelidae Peroxidase activity in the basophils of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Afonso da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As peroxidases, presentes nos peroxissomos e lisossomos, pertencem às oxidases e atuam como catalítico para o peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2, posteriormente decomposto pela oxidação de cossubstratos, evitando danos celulares.(¹ Foi aplicada a técnica da peroxidase(2 em esfregaços sanguíneos de Phrynops geoffroanus, comparando com sangue humano, para avaliação da atividade e controle da reação. O esfregaço sanguíneo humano apresentou marcações em neutrófilos, fagócitos com muitos lisossomos e peroxissomos (Figura 1. Nos esfregaços sanguíneos de Phrynops geoffroanus, as marcações apresentaram-se nos basófilos (Figura 2, que representam de 10% a 25% dos leucócitos de quelônios e possuem grande número de granulações citoplasmáticas,(3 sugerindo a presença de grande quantidade de enzimas e organelas como lisossomos e peroxissomos, possivelmente associadas a sua participação em reações imunes. A atividade peroxidásica representa resposta do organismo a ações ambientais danosas, servindo como marcador biológico.Peroxidase, present in peroxisomes and lysosomes, belongs to the oxidases and acts as a catalyst for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and is later decomposed by oxidation of cosubstrates thereby preventing cell damage.(1 The peroxidase technique(2 was applied to blood smears of Phrynops geoffroanus and the results compared with human blood to evaluate the activity and control of the reaction. The human blood film showed markings in neutrophils and phagocytes with many lysosomes and peroxisomes (Figure 1. In blood smears of Phrynops geoffroanus, the markings were on the basophils (Figure 2, that represent 10% to 25% of leukocytes of turtles and have a large number of cytoplasmatic granules(3 suggesting the presence of large amounts of enzymes and organelles such as lysosomes and peroxisomes, possibly associated with their participation in immune reactions. Peroxidase activity is the body's response to harmful

  18. Substantial depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores is required for macroscopic activation of the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current in rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, L; Parekh, A B

    2000-01-15

    1. Tight-seal whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed to examine the ability of different intracellular Ca2+ mobilising agents to activate the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current (ICRAC) in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-1) cells under conditions of weak cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. 2. Dialysis with a maximal concentration of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) routinely failed to activate macroscopic ICRAC in low buffer (0.mM EGTA, BAPTA or dimethyl BAPTA), whereas it activated the current to its maximal extent in high buffer (10 mM EGTA). Dialysis with a poorly metabolisable analogue of IP3, with ionomycin, or with IP3 and ionomycin all failed to generate macroscopic ICRAC in low Ca2+ buffering conditions. 3. Dialysis with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump blocker thapsigargin was able to activate ICRAC even in the presence of low cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering, albeit at a slow rate. Exposure to IP3 together with the SERCA blockers thapsigargin, thapsigargicin or cyclopiazonic acid rapidly activated ICRAC in low buffer. 4. Following activation of ICRAC by intracellular dialysis with IP3 and thapsigargin in low buffer, the current was very selective for Ca2+ (apparent KD of 1 mM) Sr2+ and Ba2+ were less effective charge carriers and Na+ was not conducted to any appreciable extent. The ionic selectivity of ICRAC was very similar in low or high intracellular Ca2+ buffer. 5. Fast Ca2+-dependent inactivation of ICRAC occurred at a similar rate and to a similar extent in low or high Ca2+ buffer. Ca2+-dependent inactivation is not the reason why macroscopic ICRAC cannot be seen under conditions of low cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. 6. ICRAC could be activated by combining IP3 with thapsigargin, even in the presence of 100 microM Ca2+ and the absence of any exogenous Ca2+ chelator, where ATP and glutamate represented the only Ca2+ buffers in the pipette solution. 7. Our results suggest that a threshold exists within the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ store

  19. Interleukin-4 (IL-4 enhances and soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL-4R inhibits histamine release from peripheral blood basophils and mast cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Niggemann

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of interleukin-4 (IL-4 on allergen and anti-IgE mediated histamine release from basophils and human skin mast cells and to assess whether soluble recombinant interleukin-4 receptor (sIL4R can inhibit these effects. Anti-IgE stimulated histamine release from peripheral blood basophils and mast cells of atopic donors was enhanced after preincubation with IL-4, whereas after preincubation with sIL-4R it was inhibited. These effects were even more pronounced when samples were stimulated with a clinically relevant allergen. In IL-4 preincubated skin mast cells, there was a similar enhancement of anti-IgE stimulated histamine release, which could again be inhibited by sIL-4R. The effects of IL-4 and sIL4R were dose- and time-dependent. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin and treated with soluble recombinant murine sIL-4R showed significantly reduced immediate-type cutaneous hypersensitivity responses compared with untreated mice. These in vivo effects were IgE independent, since there were no significant differences in total and allergen specific IgE/IgG1 antibody titres between treated and untreated mice. This indicates that IL4 exerts priming effects on histamine release by effector cells of the allergic response and that these effects are potently antagonized by soluble IL-4R both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Urticaria crónica: Evolución clínica, prueba del suero autologo, recuento y activación de basofilos Chronic urticaria: Follow up, autologous serum skin test, basophil count and activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galassi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios sugieren que algunos pacientes con urticaria crónica tienen autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra la IgE o a la cadena alfa de su receptor de alta afinidad FceRIa. La detección de éstos se realiza in vivo mediante la prueba del suero autólogo (PSA o in vitro mediante una variedad de técnicas. Describimos aquí nuestra experiencia con 37 pacientes, 28 mujeres y 9 varones con una relación femenino/masculino de 3.1 y edad promedio de 36.5 años (16-78. La PSA fue positiva en 25 (68% y negativa en 12 (32%. El suero indujo una pápula significativamente más grande que el plasma (122 ± 78 mm² vs 57 ± 66 mm², pRecent advances on the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria have defined a group of patients with autoantibodies directed to the IgE or to the alpha chain of the Fc high affinity receptor of IgE, FceRIa. These antibodies are detected in vivo through the autologous serum test (AST and in vitro with a variety of techniques. We here describe 37 patients with chronic urticaria, 28 female and 9 male, with a f/m ratio of 3.1. Mean age at onset was 36.5 years (range 16-78. AST was positive in 25 (68% of 37 patients. Serum induced a wheal significantly larger than plasma (122 ± 78 mm² vs 57 ± 66 mm², p<0.05. Median persistence of the chronic urticaria, estimated by Kaplan-Meyer analysis, was 437 days, with no difference between AST(+ and AST(- patients (437 vs. 369, p=0.18. Mean IgE concentration was 157 ± 173 IU/mL, as expected in an unselected population. Basophil count was lower in patients compared with controls (17 ± 12 cel/mL vs. 43 ± 27 cel/mL, p< 0.008. Only sera from 2/7(28.6% patients AST (+ and very low basophil count consistently induced expression of CD63. This effect was abrogated in non-releasing basophils, confirming the presence of antibodies directed to the FceRIa-IgE . We conclude that functional antibodies are present in only a minority of patients and that their identification does not predict the outcome.

  1. Activation of basophilic granulocyte in Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and the influence of glucocorticoid on it%肺炎支原体肺炎患儿嗜碱性粒细胞活化及激素对其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑜; 蒋俊晔; 曹兰芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨嗜碱性粒细胞与肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)发病的关系,以及糖皮质激素在治疗中对嗜碱性粒细胞的影响.方法 60例难治性MPP患儿随机分成治疗组和对照组,另选择30例非难治性MPP患儿和30例正常对照儿童.难治性MPP治疗组接受阿奇霉素 + 地塞米松(Dx)治疗,阿奇霉素剂量为10 mg/(kg·d)(最大量不超过0.5 g/d),Dx为0.2 mg/(kg·d)(最大量不超过5 mg/d),疗程5 d;难治性MPP对照组和非难治性MPP患儿仅接受阿奇霉素治疗,剂量同上,疗程5 d.采用流式细胞仪检测所有MPP组患儿治疗前、后及正常对照组儿童外周血CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率.结果 MPP组CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率均高于正常对照组(P < 0.05);难治性MPP组CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率明显高于非难治性MPP组(P < 0.05);难治性MPP患儿在常规用阿奇霉素治疗同时加用地塞米松治疗后CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率明显下降至正常水平,未加用地塞米松的难治性MPP患儿CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率仍显著高于正常对照儿童(P < 0.01);治疗5 d后,难治性MPP治疗组患儿咳嗽评分明显低于难治性MPP对照组患儿.结论 嗜碱性粒细胞可能参与了MPP的发病;糖皮质激素能够有效抑制难治性MPP嗜碱性粒细胞的活化,改善临床症状.%Objective To explore whether basophilic granulocyte takes part in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), and to study the influence of glucocorticoid via basophilic granulocyte. Methods Sixty refractory MPP patients were randomly divided into two groups : group 1 (n= 30) and group 2 (n= 30). Patients of group 1 were administered with both azithromycin (10 mg/kg·d, ≤ 0.5 g/d) and dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg-1·d-1,≤ 5 mg/d) for five days. The patients of group 2 were administered only with azithromycin (10 mg/kg-1·d-1 , ≤ 0.5 g/d)for five days. The 30 non-refractory MPP patients were included to group 3 and

  2. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  3. 嗜碱粒细胞组胺释放试验检测抗高亲和力IgE抗体及其受体%Significance of basophil histamine release assays in chronic urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣卿; 孙仁山

    2001-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria.Methods Basophil histamine release assay was utilized.Result 15 of 32 cases(46.9%)had increased serum histamine releasing activities. This implied that anti-FcεR1 and anti-IgE autoantibodies existed in the sera of some patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.Conclusion It suggested that autoimmunity might take part in the occurrence of some patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.%目的 探讨慢性荨麻疹的发生机制。方法 用嗜碱粒细胞组胺释放试验,检测慢性特发性荨麻疹患者的血清组胺释放活性。结果 32例中,有15例(46.9%)患者血清组胺释放活性增高,提示抗FcεR1或抗IgE自身抗体的存在。结论 部分慢性荨麻疹的发生与自身免疫机制有关。

  4. Activation of protein tyrosine kinase p72syk by Fc epsilon RI aggregation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. p72syk is a minor component but the major protein tyrosine kinase of pp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoguchi, K; Benhamou, M; Swaim, W D; Kawakami, Y; Kawakami, T; Siraganian, R P

    1994-06-17

    Aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells results in protein tyrosine phosphorylations. Previously we reported that there is prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of approximately 72-kDa proteins (pp72) and that the tyrosine kinase p72syk is one component of pp72. Here we studied further the relationship of p72syk to pp72. The aggregation of Fc epsilon RI induced the activation of p72syk which was parallel to its tyrosine phosphorylation. By in vitro kinase assay of immune complexes purified with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was the major pp72 tyrosine kinase. However, by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was a minor component of pp72. The heterogeneous nature of pp72 was indicated by different studies. Under optimum conditions of one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pp72 consisted of a heterogeneous group of 69-, 71-, and 72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. There were differences in the tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins in cells activated in the absence of extracellular calcium or when stimulation was with the calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol myristate acetate. One of the proteins migrating at 69 kDa was p72syk. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pp72 was found to consist of multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protens including 71-80-kDa proteins that associate with p53/56lyn. A 75-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, different from pp72, was identified as p75HS1 (SPY75). These results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the pp72 and that p72syk is activated after Fc epsilon RI aggregation. PMID:7515887

  5. Inhibitory effects of an ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside, on antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Agarie, Kengo; Sakima, Rina; Imamura, Shihoko; Tsuha, Kazuyo; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Gima, Shinichi; Matsuzaki, Goro; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Degranulation inhibitors in plants are widely used for prevention and treatment of immediate-type allergy. We previously isolated a new ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside (OCS), from Camellia japonica leaves for use as a potent degranulation inhibitor. Crude extracts from leaves also suppressed allergic conjunctivitis in rats. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of OCS using a pure sample and performed in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanism underlying the extraordinary high potency of OCS and its aglycon. The IC(50) values for degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) were 14 nM for OCS and 3 μM for aglycon, indicating that the two compounds were approximately 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more potent than the anti-allergic drugs ketotifen fumarate, DSCG, and tranilast (0.17, 3, and >0.3 mM, respectively). Antigen-induced calcium ion (Ca(2+)) elevation was significantly inhibited by OCS and aglycon at all concentrations tested (p<0.05). Upstream of the Ca(2+) elevation in the principle signaling pathway, phosphorylation of Syk (Tyr525/526) and PLCγ-1 (Tyr783 and Ser1248) were inhibited by OCS and aglycon. In DNA microarray-screening test, OCS inhibited expression of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13], cytokine-producing signaling factors, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase 2, indicating that OCS broadly inhibits allergic inflammation. During passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice, OCS significantly inhibited vascular hyperpermeability by two administration routes: a single intraperitoneal injection at 10 mg/kg and per os at 5 mg/kg for 7 days (p<0.05). These results suggest the potential for OCS to alleviate symptoms of immediate-type allergy. PMID:22330086

  6. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels;

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...... stimulated by the calcium ionophore A 23187 was found to be highly dependent on the storage time of the EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, which should be carefully controlled....

  7. Control of T cell infiltration and tumor rejection by regulatory T cells, basophils and macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sektioglu, Ibrahim Murathan

    2015-01-01

    Most solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to immune rejection due to immunosuppressive mechanisms operative within the tumor microenvironment. Cancer patients frequently harbor elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which inhibit efficient anti-tumor T cell responses. We employed different mouse models for Treg depletion in order to study the mechanisms that control tumor rejection. Depletion of about 99% Tregs in Foxp3DTR knock-in mice resulted in complete rejection of transplan...

  8. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J.A.M.; Zaiss, Dietmar M.W.

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell...

  9. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epiderma

  10. Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha activates basophils by means of CXCR4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jacobi, H H; Jing, C;

    2000-01-01

    The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is predominantly expressed on inactivated naive T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is the only known ligand for CXCR4. To date, the CXCR4 expression and function o...

  11. The number of FceRI receptors on basophils decreases during subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, J. M.; Dahl, R.; Hoffmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only disease modifying treatment of allergic diseases. It induces complex cellular and humoral changes leading to an inhibition of type-1 allergic reactions. Method: Twenty four young grass pollen allergic adults suffering from seasonal rhino-con...

  12. Rat basophilic leukemia cells express syntaxin-3 and VAMP-7 in granule membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, T; Hirashima, N; Nakanishi, M

    2000-04-29

    In neuronal cells, it is generally agreed that SNARE proteins underlie the release of neurotransmitter. It is controversial, however, whether they also work functionally in the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells because the expression of SNARE proteins has not been confirmed and the degranulation is not inhibited by tetanus toxin which cleaves one of SNARE proteins, VAMP-2. We investigated the expression and the localization of SNARE proteins including VAMP-7 which is insensitive to tetanus toxin. RT-PCR analysis showed the existence of SNARE proteins, including syntaxin-2, -3, -4, SNAP-23, VAMP-2, and VAMP-7. Experiments using GFP-conjugated proteins revealed that VAMP-7 was localized only in granule membranes, whereas syntaxin-3 was in both the plasma and granule membranes. Upon antigen stimulation, these proteins in granule membranes moved to the cell surface due to the fusion of granules with the plasma membrane. The results suggest the involvement of SNARE proteins in the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells.

  13. Basophils Initiate IL-4 Production during a Memory T-dependent Response

    OpenAIRE

    Khodoun, Marat V.; Orekhova, Tatyana; Potter, Crystal; Morris, Suzanne; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize and identify the cellular sources of the secondary interleukin (IL)-4 response to a T cell–dependent antigen. Mice were primed by immunization with goat anti–mouse immunoglobulin (Ig)D antibody (GaMD), which stimulates naive CD4+ T cells to secrete IL-4 in 3–4 d. When challenged with goat serum 14 d after immunization, GaMD-primed mice generated an IL-4 response that exceeded the primary response by ∼100-fold, started in

  14. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous histamine-releasing factors (HRFs) are involved in 30-60% of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Evidence for their existence comes from in vivo studies of autoreactivity with the autologous serum skin test (ASST), in vitro immunoassays demonstrating autoantibodies against...... and subsequently determined the frequency of HR-Urticaria-positive sera from a larger population of CU patients....

  15. Suppression of basophil histamine release and other IgE-dependent responses in childhood Schistosoma mansoni/hookworm coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Jones, Frances M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The poor correlation between allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (asIgE) and clinical signs of allergy in helminth infected populations suggests that helminth infections could protect against allergy by uncoupling asIgE from its effector mechanisms. We investigated this hypothesis in U...

  16. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiro Hirahara; Hideki Sato; Toshimi Imai; Akira Onishi; Yoshiyuki Morishita; Shigeaki Muto; Eiji Kusano; Daisuke Nagata

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administrat...

  17. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsukane, Mariko; Koike, Minako; Nakamura, Chizu; Ohguchi, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Akao, Yukihiro; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Nukaya, Haruo; Suwa, Yoshihide

    2010-06-23

    Whisky is matured in oak casks. Many nonvolatile substances (whisky congeners, WC) seep from the oak cask during the maturing process. In this study, three antiallergic agents (syringaldehyde, SA; lyoniresinol, Lyo; and ellagic acid, EA) were isolated from WC. Treatment with SA, Lyo, and EA reduced the elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and intracellular ROS production caused by FcepsilonRI activation. The inhibitions of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular ROS production by SA and Lyo were mainly due to the suppression of the NADPH oxidase activity and scavenging of the produced radical, respectively. On the other hand, EA inactivated spleen tyrosine kinase and led to the inhibition of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, it was found that WC strongly inhibited IgE binding to the FcepsilonRIalpha chain, whereas SA, Lyo, and EA did not indicate this inhibitory effect. These results suggest that WC inhibits allergic reactions through multiple mechanisms. To disclose the in vivo effects of WC, SA, Lyo, and EA, these compounds were administered to type I allergic model mice, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. These compounds remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that WC seemed to be beneficial to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  18. Structure-activity relationships of vanillic acid ester analogs in inhibitory effect of antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimata, Nao; Ito, Hideyuki; Tai, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Methyl vanillate (1) showed strong degranulation inhibitory activity among vanillin derivatives tested. In order to find structure-activity relationships for developing anti-allergic agents with simple structures and potent activity, we synthesized several vanillic acid (VA) ester derivatives with C1-C4 and C8 alkyl chains and evaluated their degranulation inhibitory activities. The most active compound of VA ester derivatives was derivative 5 with a C4 straight alkyl chain, and derivative 5 exhibited approximately three-fold greater inhibitory activity than that of 1. Moreover, we designed 8 types of analogs based on 5, and we found that the minimum structure for potent degranulation inhibitory activity requires direct connection of the butyl ester moiety on the benzene ring and at least one hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. Butyl meta or para hydroxyl benzoate (10 or 11) has a simpler structure than that of 5 and exhibited more potent degranulation inhibitory activity than that of 5. PMID:27324979

  19. Atividade peroxidásica em basófilos de Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines Chelidae) Peroxidase activity in the basophils of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Afonso da Silva; Maria Tercilia Vilela de Azeredo Oliveira; Claudia Regina Bonini-Domingos

    2010-01-01

    As peroxidases, presentes nos peroxissomos e lisossomos, pertencem às oxidases e atuam como catalítico para o peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2), posteriormente decomposto pela oxidação de cossubstratos, evitando danos celulares.(¹) Foi aplicada a técnica da peroxidase(2) em esfregaços sanguíneos de Phrynops geoffroanus, comparando com sangue humano, para avaliação da atividade e controle da reação. O esfregaço sanguíneo humano apresentou marcações em neutrófilos, fagócitos com muitos lisossomos e...

  20. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Member LIGHT (TNFSF14) on the Activation of Basophils and Eosinophils Interacting with Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huai Na Qiu; Chun Kwok Wong; Jie Dong; Christopher Wai-Kei Lam; Zhe Cai

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma can cause airway structural remodeling, involving the accumulation of extracellular matrix and thickening of smooth muscle. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a cytokine that binds herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM)/TNFRSF14 and lymphotoxin β receptor (LT β R). LIGHT induces asthmatic cytokine IL-13 and fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor- β release from allergic asthma-related eosinophils expressing HVEM and alveolar macrophages expressing ...

  1. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole;

    1987-01-01

    . aureus Wood 46 was not affected. It was demonstrated that the inhibitory capacity of the glucolipid mixture could be attributed to the content of gangliosides, since no inhibition was obtained with cerebrosides or with gangliosides from which sialic acid was removed. Preincubation of the cells...

  2. Role for Na/sup +/, H/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/ during (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release from rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stump, R.F.; Oliver, J.M.; Deanin, G.G.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have investigated the roles of Na/sup +/, pH, and Ca/sup 2 +/ in the release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin from RBL-2H3 cells. The importance of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ for antigen-induced mediator release is well known. The authors report that mediator release also depends on extracellular Na/sup +/ and that the Na/sup +/ ionophore, monensin, like the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophores A23187 and ionomycin, mimics antigen in causing release. Amiloride suppresses serotonin release, indicating that antigen activates the Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiport. Antigen-stimulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange (and/or the resulting cytoplasmic alkalinization) may affect mediator release in part by controlling cytoplasmic free Ca/sup 2 +/ levels. The authors report that antigen normally causes a spike followed by a plateau of Ca/sup 2 +/-Quin 2 fluorescence. Only the spike occurs when cells are incubated with antigen in low Na/sup +/ medium. Conversely, monensin produces a Ca/sup 2 +/ plateau without a spike phase. In addition, cytoplasmic alkalinization due to increased Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange may directly cause secretion. Both NH/sub 4/Cl and monensin cause mediator release in Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium: these reagents increase pH by about 0.1 units as measured by the fluorescent dye, BCECF. TPA that stimulates Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange in other cells does not cause release directly but it potentiates both antigen and Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore-induced release in RBL-2h3 cells. This further suggests synergistic roles for Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange and Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in the control of mediator release.

  3. Urticaria crónica: Evolución clínica, prueba del suero autologo, recuento y activación de basofilos Chronic urticaria: Follow up, autologous serum skin test, basophil count and activation

    OpenAIRE

    N. Galassi; N. Riera; Rey, G.; M. M. E. Bracco; A. Malbran

    2003-01-01

    Recientes estudios sugieren que algunos pacientes con urticaria crónica tienen autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra la IgE o a la cadena alfa de su receptor de alta afinidad FceRIa. La detección de éstos se realiza in vivo mediante la prueba del suero autólogo (PSA) o in vitro mediante una variedad de técnicas. Describimos aquí nuestra experiencia con 37 pacientes, 28 mujeres y 9 varones con una relación femenino/masculino de 3.1 y edad promedio de 36.5 años (16-78). La PSA fue positiva en 25 (68...

  4. Anaphylactoid reaction induced by Qingkailing injection via basophils cells degranulation%清开灵注射液诱导嗜碱性粒细胞脱颗粒致类过敏反应作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓亮; 李钦; 赵吟; 颜冬梅; 屠凌岚; 张信岳

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察清开灵注射液诱导大鼠嗜碱性粒细胞白血病细胞株RBL-2H3细胞脱颗粒,释放组胺,探讨其诱发类过敏反应的可能机制.方法:清开灵注射液孵育RBL-2H3细胞30 min后,透射电镜观察细胞发生脱颗粒反应形态学变化,阿利新蓝染色试验、Annexin V 结合试验β-氨基己糖苷酶测定试验检测细胞脱颗粒率,ELISA检测细胞组胺释放率.结果:不同浓度清开灵注射液可诱导细胞发生典型的脱颗粒反应形态学变化,与对照组相比脱颗粒率及组胺释放率显著升高,且具有浓度依赖性.结论:清开灵注射液单次给药即可诱导RBL-2H3细胞脱颗粒,释放组胺,诱发类过敏反应,这可能是其临床首次用药即引起严重不良反应的机制之一.

  5. Increase in histidine decarboxylase activity in skin of genetically mast-cell-deficient W/Wv mice after application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate: evidence for the presence of histamine-producing cells without basophilic granules.

    OpenAIRE

    TAGUCHI, Y.; Tsuyama, K.; Watanabe, T.; Wada, H; Kitamura, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase (HisDCase, EC 4.1.1.22) activity in mouse skin increased by a factor of more than 10 after a single application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The cell type that was responsible for the increase in HisDCase activity was examined by using (WB X C57BL/6)F1-W/Wv mice, which are genetically deficient in tissue mast cells. In contrast to a report that increase of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) activity occurs in the epidermis [O'Brien, T. G., Simisiman, R. C. & ...

  6. 特異抗原による末梢血好塩基球の形態学的変化に関する研究 第2編 微分干渉顕微鏡映画による観察

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木,良英

    1986-01-01

    Morphological changes, i.e., increased motility and degranulation, of basophils of 5 atopic asthmatics after antigen stimulation were observed in differenctial-interference microscopic motion pictures. Among basophil granulocytes with increased motility and without degranulation after antigen stimulation, the incidence of A(1) type basophils, which showed random movement, and A(2) type basophils, which showed oriented movement, clearly increased during the 15-min. microscopic observation. Amo...

  7. Disease: H01021 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available illus. Rhodococcus equi infection is rare in humans, but it can cause potentially fatal disease in immunocom...ered concentric basophilic inclusions, are observed in biopsy specimens of R. equi infection. Infectious disea

  8. Development of Chemiluminscence Immunoaasy Kit for Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropic hormone, and it is synthesized and secreted by basophilic cell of anterior lobe of hypophysis. Detection of FSH levels in human serum is useful in

  9. Retinoblastoma: genetic considerations and report of a new animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, D.M.; O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary, intraocular neoplasm of childhood. Histologically, retinoblastoma resembles, in many respects, other pediatric malignancies such as medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma. These tumors are composed of small, basophilic cells with scanty cytoplasm and often form

  10. Use of a new glass microfibre histamine release method to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni. Individuals with different degrees of exposure to the disease show differing antibody biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Ebbesen, F.; Vennervald, B.;

    1996-01-01

    A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood b...... basophils sensitized with sera from Sudanese individuals infected with Schistosoma mansoni was measured. Schistosomiasis sera (n=113) were able to passively sensitize basophils and induce a positive histamine release in response to whole worm homogenate (WWH)(chi(2)=40.5, P......A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood...

  11. 好塩基球の反応性に関する研究 第2編 Ca. ionophore A23187刺激時の好塩基球の経時的形態的変化とヒスタミン遊離

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 三郎

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes in human basophils from 11 atopic asthmatics were observed in whole blood smears with respect to histamine release after the cells were challenged by Ca. ionophore A23187. A decreased number of basophils and granules in the cells as well as increase in cell diameters were observed upon histamine release after stimulation with Ca. ionophore A23187. Compared to cell reactions to antigen or anti-IgE, Ca. ionophore A23187 produced both more gradual morphological changes and ...

  12. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during the perioperative period

    OpenAIRE

    Lagopoulos, V; Gigi, E

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylactic reactions in the peri-operative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, involving multiple organ systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils. Anaphylaxis is an immune mediated type I allergic reaction following the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophils as a response to an allergen. Anaphylactoid reactions are defined as those reactions that p...

  13. Anaphyllaxis management: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Mali, Shrikant; Jambure, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock is medical emergency characterized by circulatory collapse resulted from severe acute allergic reactions, namely anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reaction. Anaphylaxis is an acute, systemic, IgE-mediated, and immediate hypersensitivity reaction caused by the release of mediators by mast cells and basophils after exposure to antigens. The pathophysiology involves activated mast cells and basophils releasing preformed, granule-associated mediators, and newly formed lipid mediato...

  14. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153

  15. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Heneberg

    Full Text Available Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20, hymenopteran venoms (n = 23 and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164 was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.

  16. The cell composition of the red pulp of mice. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cytokinetic and morphological cell analysis was performed, with autoradiograms of thin sections in red pulp of untreated mice. The following cells could be differentiated in the thin preparations: 1) basophilic blasts (large and small), 2) erythroblasts (basophilic and poly- and orthochromatic), 3) lymphocytes, 4) plasma cells, 5) reticulum cells (without and with phagocytosis), 6) endothelial cells, 7) myelopoietic cells, and 8) megakaryocytes. Erythropoiesis essentially takes place in the interfollicular zones whilst myelopoiesis predominates in the subcapsular and peritrabecular zones. The autoradiographic study has suggested that in the interfollicular zone, basophilic blasts and erythroblasts can be classified as locally arising cells, whilst small lymphocytes, reticulum cells without and with phagocytosis (macrophages) can be regarded as migrating cells. (orig.)

  17. Deletion of ABL/BCR on der(9 associated with severe basophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantashri Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic basophilic leukemia is a rare form in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Only limited number of reports are available. Herein, we describe a patient who presented with fatigue, weight loss, leucocytosis, prominent basophilia, and mild eosinophilia. On biopsy, bone marrow was hypercellular with marked basophils. The immunophenotype showed abnormal expression of CD7, which is suggestive of basophilic maturation. Chromosomal analysis from GTG-banded metaphases revealed Ph positivity, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with BCR/ABL dual color, dual fusion probe showed single fusion on the der(22 chromosome and ABL/BCR fusion was deleted on the der(9 chromosome. The deletion (ABL/BCR on der(9 may be associated with basophilia which may be also indicative of the transformation of CML to acute myeloid leukemia.

  18. Reversible alterations in epithelial cell turnover in digestive gland of winkles (Littorina littorea) exposed to cadmium and their implications for biomarker measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldibar, B. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, I. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Marigomez, I. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: ionan.marigomez@ehu.es

    2007-02-28

    In marine molluscs, the epithelium of the digestive gland is composed of two cell types, namely, digestive and basophilic cells. Under normal physiological conditions digestive cells outnumber basophilic cells, but under different stress situations the composition of the epithelium changes, basophilic cells apparently replace digestive cell. Winkles, Littorina littorea, were exposed to 1.25 mg/l Cd for 20 days to provoke cell type replacement. Then, animals were depurated in clean seawater for 10 days to determine whether cell type replacement was reversible. Digestive glands were fixed in Carnoy and paraffin embedded for histological analysis. The volume densities of basophilic cells (Vv{sub BAS}) and digestive cells (Vv{sub DIG}) were calculated by stereology on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Vv{sub BAS} increased and Vv{sub DIG} decreased in Cd-exposed animals. After estimation of cell size and absolute cell numbers, these changes were attributed to digestive cell loss and concomitant basophilic cell hypertrophy but not to increased numbers of basophilic cells. Cell type composition and cell size almost fully returned to normal values after 10-day depuration. Accordingly, PCNA immunohistochemistry demonstrated that proliferating digestive cells were more abundant in winkles exposed to Cd and after 10-day depuration than in control specimens, suggesting that net digestive cell loss was accompanied by increased digestive cell proliferation. Thus, Cd-exposure seems to provoke an enhanced digestive cell turnover in order to cope with Cd detoxification. Intralysosomal accumulation of metals (autometallographied black silver deposits; BSD) was used as a biomarker of exposure to Cd and lysosomal structural changes as an effect biomarker to see whether cell type composition might have any effect on these endpoints. BSD formed around Cd ions, in digestive cell lysosomes of Cd-exposed winkles whereas basophilic cells appeared devoid of them. After depuration, BSD

  19. Two galactose-α-1,3-galactose carrying peptidases from pork kidney mediate anaphylactogenic responses in delayed meat allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Christiane; Fischer, Jörg; Swiontek, Kyra;

    2016-01-01

    . Proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Isolated proteins were assayed in ELISA and ELISA inhibition, basophil activation and skin prick test. RESULTS: Several IgE-binding proteins of high molecular weight (100 - >200 kDa) were detected in pork kidney extracts by immunoblot using patient...... resistent to heat denaturation. Pork kidney extract, isolated ACE I and AP-N were able to activate patient basophils and elicit positive responses in skin prick tests. CONCLUSION: Two cell-membrane proteins carrying α-Gal epitopes were identified in pork kidney. For the first time, isolated meat proteins...

  20. Development of a Hypoallergenic Recombinant Parvalbumin for First-in-Man Subcutaneous Immunotherapy of Fish Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Huber, Hans; Swoboda, Ines;

    2015-01-01

    chromatography and mass spectrometry. Allergenicity was assessed by ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release assay, immunogenicity by immunization of laboratory animals and stimulation of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reference molecules were purified wild-type Cyp c 1 (natural...

  1. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D;

    1988-01-01

    allergic patients with nickel challenge in the chamber medium showed a time-dependent increase of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils and a concomitant decrease of polymorphonuclear granulocytes, characteristic of a combined specific and unspecific inflammation. The morphology of the exudate...

  2. Significance of Charcot Leyden crystals in hepatic aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Vatsala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcot Leyden crystals are hexagonal bipyramidal structures localised in the primary granules of the cytoplasm of eosinophils and basophils. Their presence, along with eosinophilic infiltrate, is an indirect evidence of parasitic infestation particularly with Toxocara, Capilliriasis, Ascariasis, or Fasciola. We report here two cases where Charcot Leyden crystals with eosinophilic infiltrate were found in the smears prepared from hepatic abscess.

  3. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  4. Antihistaminic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiallergic Properties of the Nonsedating Second-Generation Antihistamine Desloratadine: A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Canonica, G. Walter; Blaiss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The allergy cascade presents widespread inflammatory and proinflammatory activation, robust cytokine and chemokine signaling, and heterogeneous immune and endothelial responses that lead ultimately to the manifestations of allergic reaction. Histamine, a small peptide with inherent vasoactive properties, is released from granules contained within mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and other reservoirs and interacts with histamine receptors to regulate numerous cellular functions in...

  5. The ability of thapsigargin and thapsigargicin to activate cells involved in the inflammatory response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, H; Christensen, S B; Foreman, J C;

    1985-01-01

    , and the number of mast cells in suspension. Thapsigargin induced histamine release from human basophil leukocytes. Thapsigargin induced beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme release from human neutrophil leukocytes. Thapsigargin caused a release of histamine from mesentery, lung, and heart mast cells of the rat...

  6. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. The in vivo effects of interleukin-3 on histamine levels in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, D J; Stahl Skov, P; Nissen, N I

    1997-06-01

    Recombinant human Interleukin-3 (RhIL-3) is a haemopoietic growth factor with effect both on early and differentiated cells, such as eosinophils and basophils, and it also acts as a histamine-releasing agent. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether in vivo rhIL-3 administration after chemotherapy affected basophil histamine levels and whether a concordance between rhIL-3 induced histamine release and side effects during the treatment could be demonstrated. Thirty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma entered the study. All patients received 6 courses of chemotherapy, rhIL-3 was administered subcutaneously once daily after the second and the fourth course of chemotherapy from cycle day 2-15 at the dose levels 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 micrograms/kg with 6 patients at each dose level. In cycle 6 recombinant human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhGM-CSF) (3.0 micrograms/kg) was administered sequential/concurrent day 9-15 to rhIL-3 (day 2-15) at all dose levels except 7.5 micrograms/kg, where rhIL-3 was given day 2-8 and rhGM-CSF sequential day 9-15. Cycles 1, 3 and 5 served as control cycles with no cytokine therapy. During rhIL-3 treatment, and after CHOP chemotherapy, the basophil counts increased moderately especially during the recovery period day 15-22, and mainly at the two highest dose levels 7.5 and 10 micrograms/kg, but never exceeded the normal upper limit. Histamine levels in basophils were the same in patients before chemotherapy and healthy volunteers, and except from a trend to increased histamine level at 10 micrograms/kg on day 15, no difference was noted between rhIL-3 cycles and control cycles. Within 3-4 hr after rhIL-3 administration, a drop in histamine level in basophils was noted, which could be due to histamine-releasing properties of rhIL-3 as previously demonstrated by in vitro studies. No serious side effects were noted during the cytokine treatment, and despite that most patients had mild flushing of the

  8. Purves symposium: 2. Pituitary morphology in relationship to function. General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, H D

    1974-12-25

    It was found that the recognition of the character of a pituitary cell depended on its content of granules. The term "chromophobe" indicated the absence of granules. In the rat pituitary, total thyroxine deficiency resulted in progressive loss of granules from acidophil cells until they became unrecognizable as such. Therefore, counting the cell types as acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes had no significance. However, changes in the apparent proportions of the 3 groups could be used to determine how much thyroxine was needed to reverse changes produced by thyroidectomy. Rats that had been given brassica seed diets developed goiters. In these rats, proliferation of basophil cells occurred. The amount of thyroxine needed to reverse thyroidectomy changes was the same in rats receiving a brassica seed diet as in those on a normal diet. This excluded the possibility of the brassica agent acting as a thyroxine antagonist or of its increasing the thyroxine requirement of the animal. The effect of thyroidectomy was modified by diet. When a diet contained no animal products, the acidophils lost their granules. When acidophil granules were lost, growth ceased. When aciodphil granules had been lost after thyroidectomy, daily doses of thyroxine restored the acidophils and caus ed growth to resume. In animals given potent goitrogens, small doses of thyroxine did not inhibit activation of the thyroid gland, but with larg er doses basophilic changes regressed and the thyroid became inactive. It is concluded that basophil changes were linked with the production of thyrotrophic hormone while acidophil changes which were regressive were related to the failure of growth hormone secretion. When only a single change in hormone production occurs and only a single cell type is modified in the pituitary, that cell type is considered to be the site of production of that particular hormone. By improved technique, it was shown that the basophil cells were of 2 types: "thymotrophs

  9. Acetic orcein staining of prefixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-05-01

    Acetic orcein stains formol- and Carnoy-fixed tissues, coloring mast cells, nuclei, basophilic cytoplasm, cerebral corpora amylacea, and cartilage strongly; keratin and erythrocytes moderately; muscle and collagen weakly. Guinea pig Brunner gland and rat colonic goblet cell mucins did not stain. The red nuclear stain contrasts well with the Prussian blue reaction of hemosiderin and the ferric ferricyanide (Turnbull's blue) reaction of enterochromaffin. A weak (0.01%) fast-green FCF stain changes collagen and sometimes smooth muscle to green, without impairing nucleic acid or mast cell staining. Picroindigocarmine gives blue collagen, yellow muscle, and red elastin, nucleic acids and mast cells. Picro-methyl blue tends to override the red nuclear stain. Carnoy fixation is somewhat better for nuclei, formol for basophil cytoplasms.

  10. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl;

    BACKGROUND Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that IgE-mediated basophil activation leads to release of TNFα that in turn can induce matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) release from monocytes. We wished to investigate if serum from chronic spontaneous urticaria-patients with auto......-antibodies against IgE/IgE-receptor could induce TNFα and MMP-9 release from donor PBMCs, and if release levels could be used to assess severity and activity of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood from healthy donors and basophils...... observed to induce highly significant MMP-9 and TNFα release from donor PBMCs when compared to sera from healthy controls (pUrticaria assessment score (UAS) did not appear to correlate with release levels for histamine, TNFa or MMP-9 in either group but in the ASST+ group, the ASST score appeared...

  11. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  12. [Lead poisoning. A surprising cause of constipation, abdominal pain and anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmanová, Iva; Kačírková, Petra; Kučerová, Irena; Ševčík, Rudolf; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on patient that has been presented with sudden onset of constipation, abdominal pain and normocytic anemia. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy ruled out an organic diseases. In peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates mears, coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte (and erythroblasts) point out a possibility of heavy metal poisoning. The level of plumbemia exceeded 8.4 times the maximal permitted value for common (non-professional) population. A source of poisoning was indentified from a glaze on a ceramic jug, from which the patient had drank tea with lemon for three months. A lead concentration in the tea extract was 227 mg/kg. In developed countries, lead poisoning is a rare diagnosis. As the symptoms are nonspecific, missed diagnoses could occur, especially in sporadic, non-occupational exposure. However, a microscopic evaluation of the peripheral bloods mear with finding of predominantly coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte mayle ad to suspicion of lead poisoning. PMID:27172444

  13. An FNA pitfall: Mammary analog secretory carcinoma mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma due to cytoplasmic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Hijazi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the salivary gland, a key differential feature of Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC from acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is the lack of cytoplasmic granules. We report a case of a parotid mass incorrectly diagnosed on fine needle aspirate as acinic cell carcinoma due to many cells with basophilic granules suggesting serous acinar differention. Tumor resection revealed a tumor consistent with low grade adenocarcinoma that had eosinophilic, microvacuolar cytoplasm with distinct basophilic granules staining with PASD and mucicarmine. The diagnosis of MASC was confirmed with stains for GCDF-15, mammoglobin, and S100 and FISH consistent with a t(12;15 translocation. Relying on the absence of cytoplasmic granules as a feature to distinguish ACC from MASC is a diagnostic pitfall.

  14. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Gomez-Rial, Jose; Valcarcel, Catalina;

    2011-01-01

    and biological significance of IgE antibodies to N-glycans from wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers. A structured questionnaire, skin prick tests, serum IgE levels, IgE-immunoblotting to wine extracts, and basophil activation tests were used to characterize 20 heavy drinkers and 10 control subjects. Eleven...... heavy drinkers (55%) showed IgE binding to proteins in wine extracts. The proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as grape-derived vacuolar invertase and thaumatin-like protein. Immunoblot reactivity was closely associated with the presence of IgE to CCDs and was inhibited by preincubation...... with a glycoconjugate containing bromelain-type N-glycans. The same conjugate, CCD-bearing allergens, and wine extracts activated basophils in patients with high-titer CCD-specific IgE but not in healthy controls. There was no relationship between immunoblot reactivity and consumption of any specific type of wine...

  15. Novel Functional Aspect of Antihistamines: The Impact of Bepotastine Besilate on Substance P-Induced Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kitaba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides histamine, substance P (SP has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in pruritic skin diseases. Although antihistamines are frequently used for pruritic skin diseases, little is known concerning the effect on an SP-induced event such as mast cell degranulation and the upregulation of adhesion molecules or the nitric oxide (NO synthesis in endothelial cells. Our aim was to study the effect of bepotastine besilate on SP-induced degranulation of rat basophillic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells and expression of adhesion molecules and NO synthesis in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited SP-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and NO synthesis in HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited expression of adhesion molecules in HMVESs, while it failed to suppress SP-induced upregulation of the adhesion molecules in HMVECs. Therefore, bepotastine besilate is assumed to act favorably on SP-induced basophil degranulation and NO synthesis in HMVECs.

  16. Mast cells and company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Friederike; Daëron, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb's classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells be considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  17. Menaquinone (vitamin K2 therapy for bronchial asthma. I. Mechanism of action menaquinone on allergic reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura,Ikuro

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of the drug was investigated from various points of view. The findings may be summarized as follows: 1. In the experiments of the degranulation of mesenteric mast cells of rats, menaquinone proved to significantly inhibit the degranulation either in active or passive sensitization with the reagin-like antibody. 2. Menaquinone did not inhibit the formation of the reagin-like antibody. 3. In the experiements of the degranulation of basophilic granulocytes from patients of bronchial asthma, the rate of appearance of A form basophilic cells upon addition of the antihuman IgE goat serum was not markedly but significantly inhibited in the patients treated with menaquinone for long periods, as compared with that in the control, whereas the in vitro addition of menaquinone did not exert a significant inhibitory action.

  18. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Heneberg; Kamila Riegerová; Petr Kučera

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch polle...

  19. Inhibitory effect of tannins from galls of Carpinus tschonoskii on the degranulation of RBL-2H3 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Parida; Ono, Takako; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the anti-allergy potency of thirteen tannins isolated from the galls on buds of Carpinus tschonoskii (including two tannin derivatives) was investigated. RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells were incubated with these compounds, and the release of β-hexosaminidase and cytotoxicity were measured. Of the thirteen tannins, tetragalloylglucose (2), pentagalloylglucose (3), casuarictin (4), and casuarinin (9) were the most potent inhibitors, and all the tannins showed no cytotoxic...

  20. Leukocytes Detection, Classification and Counting in Smears of Peripheral Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Castro, J.; Reyes-Cadena, S.; E. Felipe-Riverón

    2014-01-01

    Using the k -NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to differentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because ...

  1. The C60(FeCp22-Based Cell Proliferation Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Soldatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied structural and magnetic proprieties of the fulleride C60(FeCp22. The influence of fulleride particles on the cell proliferative activity was also investigated. We found that the proliferative activity of the RINmF5 cells increases (53% versus control in presence of the C60(FeCp22 nanosized particles. Moreover, it was registered that the cell culture became multilayered and secreted basophile matrix.

  2. Chronic urticaria: new management options

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberger, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. “Autoimmune chronic urticaria” implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with label...

  3. Effector Cells and Mechanisms in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Borzova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterised by weals, angioedema, or both, which occur for six weeks or more. Itchy, red and raised weals in CSU are thought to occur as a result of skin mast cell activation, local vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability which are the cardinal features of the disease. Serum histamine-releasing activity and abnormal basophil function were implicated in the pathophysiology of CSU. We hypothesized that severe and/or persistent CSU ...

  4. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoni Mumba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  5. Heterogeneity and plasticity of T helper cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E.

    2009-01-01

    CD4 T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in adaptive immune responses. They recruit and activate other immune cells including B cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Based on their functions, their pattern of cytokine secretion and their expression of specific transcription factors, Th cells, differentiated from naïve CD4 T cells, are classified into four major lineages, Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells, although other Th lineages ...

  6. Novel treatment strategies and regulation of IgE-mediated allergic disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Thunberg, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Allergic symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma or gastrointestinal symptoms, triggered by inhaled or ingested allergens cross-linking allergen-specific IgE on mast cells or basophils, are defined as IgE-mediated allergy. The major allergens from birch pollen (Bet v 1) and cat dander (Fel d 1) are two common allergens eliciting allergic disease. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative treatment for IgE-mediated allergy. It is long-lasting and involve...

  7. Functions of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Immunity and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanlu; Zhou, Baohua

    2012-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin 7 (IL-7)-like cytokine expressed mainly by epithelial cells. Current studies provide compelling evidence that TSLP is capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs) to promote T helper (Th) 2 immune responses. TSLP has also been shown to directly promote Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cell, and activate natural killer T (NKT) cells, basophils and other innate immune cells at the initial stage of inflammation. In addition, TSLP affects B ...

  8. Immunology and Homeopathy. 2. Cells of the Immune System and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Ortolani; Francesco Pontarollo; Anita Conforti; Paolo Bellavite

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe the results of some experimental laboratory studies aimed at verifying the efficacy of high dilutions of substances and of homeopathic medicines in models of inflammation and immunity. Studies carried out on basophils, lymphocytes, granulocytes and fibroblasts are reviewed. This approach may help to test under controlled conditions the main principles of homeopathy such as ‘similarity’ of drug action at the cellular level and the effects of dilution/dynamization on the drug a...

  9. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  10. A case of anaphylaxis to peppermint

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Roian; Borici-Mazi, Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis, a form of IgE mediated hypersensitivity, arises when mast cells and possibly basophils are provoked to secrete mediators with potent vasoactive and smooth muscle contractile activities that evoke a systemic response. We report a case of IgE mediated anaphylaxis to peppermint (Mentha piperita) in a male shortly after sucking on a candy. Case presentation A 69 year old male developed sudden onset of lip and tongue swelling, throat tightness and shortness of breath within...

  11. Pengaruh Ekstrak Etanol Daun Bangun-Bangun (Plectranthus Amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng) Terhadap Penghambatan Degranulasi Mastosit Yang Tersensititasi Aktif Pada Mencit Jantan Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ronal

    2013-01-01

    Mastocyte is important source in immune response is responsible for the occurrence of allergic reaction. Allergic reaction are caused by the bond between the antigen and antibody Immunoglobulin E (IgE) which will cause the degranulation of mastocyte and basophil and thereby releasing chemical mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinin, arachidonic acid. Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng is a plant and its leaf has an activity as antiallergy. The objective of ...

  12. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. T...

  13. Effects of Topical Intranasal Doxycycline Treatment in the Rat Allergic Rhinitis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Avincsal, Mehmet Ozgür; Ozbal, Seda; Ikiz, Ahmet Omer; Pekcetin, Cetin; Güneri, Enis Alpin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic upper respiratory tract disease that inflames the mucous membranes of the nose and occurs when circulating inflammatory cells including eosinophils and basophils migrate to and accumulate in the inflammation area by passing through the interstitium and capillary walls. To pass through these barriers, the inflammatory cells degrade extracellular matrix proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) released by inflammatory cells mediate the degradatio...

  14. "A system for the intracellular generation of triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and the sequence-specific inhibition of human MCP-1 gene expression"

    OpenAIRE

    Kautz, Kordula

    2006-01-01

    Chemokines play a key role in the cellular infiltration of inflamed tissue. They are released by a wide variety of cell types during the initial phase of host response to injury, allergens, antigens, or invading microorganisms, and selectively attract leukocytes to inflammatory foci, inducing both migration and activation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the CC chemokine superfamily, functions in attracting monocytes, T lymphocytes, and basophils to sites of inflammati...

  15. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  16. 90 Improving the Diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: Component Resolved Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes, Liliana; Balzer, Lukas; Simon, Blank; Seismann, Henning; Darsow, Ulf; Spillner, Edzard; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Up to 3% of the general population suffers from potentially life-threatening systemic reactions after honeybee and wasp stings. Unfortunately, there are still individuals who have a convincing history of an anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic, making difficult the decision for immunotherapy. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of using recombinant allergens in the Basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera allergy and to develop a high-t...

  17. Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity to Succinylated Corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Annett Isabel; Raewer, Helen-Caroline; Sieber, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite their frequent use, systemic corticosteroids have rarely elicited immediate-type reactions. Objective: We report two male patients, aged 26 and 70 years, respectively, with severe immediate-type hypersensitivity secondary to the administration of corticosteroids esterified with succinate. Methods: Skin tests, basophil activation tests and challenge tests were performed for diagnostic evaluation. Results: In both patients, immediate-type skin test reactions were found to me...

  18. Influence of MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Lucjusz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Mast cells, owing to diversity of secreted mediators, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. Together with basophils, mast cells constitute a central pathogenetic element of anaphylactic (IgE-dependent) and anaphylactoid (IgE-independent) reactions. In severe cases, generalized degranulation of mast cells may cause symptoms of anaphylactic shock. The influence of the classical, iodine-based contrast media on mastocyte degranulation has been fully d...

  19. Human heart as a shock organ in anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Marone, Gianni; Genovese, Arturo; Varricchi, Gilda; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal, immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Mast cells and basophils, by elaborating vasoactive mediators and cytokines, are the main primary effector cells of anaphylaxis. Mast cells have been identified in human heart between myocardial fibers, perivascularly, in the adventitia, and in the arterial intima. Mast cells isolated from human heart tissue (HHMC) of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation express high affinity immunglobulin E (IgE) receptor...

  20. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  1. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    -allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  2. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D;

    1981-01-01

    of mobilized cells at the time of maximum LMR response. The median cumulative leukocyte count was 1.412 x 10(6) leukocytes/cm2/48 h. In the same period a statistically significant increase in the basophils for all the nickel allergic patients was observed. In 8 out of 10 patients a statistically significant...... is a valuable means for quantitative evaluation of leukocyte mobilization and morphology in skin exudates during exposure to an allergen in delayed hypersensitivity reactions....

  3. Perioperative anaphylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mertes, P M

    2010-07-01

    The incidence of immune-mediated anaphylaxis during anesthesia ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000. Neuromuscular blocking agents are most frequently incriminated, followed by latex and antibiotics, although any drug or substance used may be a culprit. Diagnosis relies on tryptase measurements at the time of the reaction and skin tests, specific immunoglobulin E, or basophil activation assays. Treatment consists of rapid volume expansion and epinephrine administration titrated to symptom severity.

  4. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Rickson; Nayak Chitra; Deshpande Sunita; Bhatt Kalpana; Khatu Swapna; Dhurat Rachita

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud&...

  5. Clinicopathological spectrum and therapeutic outcomes in Burkitt’s lymphoma: A ten year experience in a tertiary care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Farheen Mahar; Bushra Moiz; R. Sajid; Muhammad Owais Khan; S. N. Adil (1); M.Usman; Khurshid,, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinico-pathological spectrum of Burkitt’s Lymphoma and to evaluate treatmentoutcomes along with survival studies.Background: Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is one of the most aggressive non-hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)characterized morphologically by monomorphic population of medium sized cells with round nuclei,basophilic cytoplasm and prominent cytoplasmic vacuolation. Cytogenetically there is a translocationbetween the long arm of chromosome 8 and either one of the following t...

  6. Fra a 1.02 Is the Most Potent Isoform of the Bet v 1-like Allergen in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Eberlein, Bernadette; Edelmann, Kathrin; Hücherig, Stephanie; Besbes, Fatma; Darsow, Ulf; Ring, Johannes; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-05-11

    The strawberry fruit proteins Fra a 1.01E-1.08 are homologues of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Three of the proteins are known to have essential biological functions in pigment formation during fruit ripening and seem to be responsible for allergic reactions to strawberry fruit. We evaluated the cross-reactive allergenic potential of these putative strawberry allergens in patients allergic to birch pollen. Activation of basophils of eight atopic patients was studied using different concentrations of Fra a 1 isoforms. Bet v 1a was used as control and as atopic patient selection criterion. Although Fra a 1.01E-1.08 have amino acid sequence identities of 74.5-97.5% with Fra a 1.02, the basophil activation mediated by the eight Fra a 1 proteins differed substantially. Fra a 1.03 and Fra a 1.02 showed the highest activation of basophils, 73 and 66% of total basophils, respectively. On the basis of the high relative expression of the gene Fra a 1.02 in ripe strawberry fruits of allergenic varieties, Fra a 1.02 was identified as the main strawberry allergen of the Bet v 1 superfamily. Knowledge of the allergenic potential of Fra a 1.02/1.03 will help to improve food safety and can serve as a valuable marker for the development of red-fruited hypoallergenic strawberry cultivars. PMID:27086707

  7. Enhanced histamine production through the induction of histidine decarboxylase expression by phorbol ester in Jurkat cells

    OpenAIRE

    NAGASHIMA, YUSUKE; Kako, Koichiro; KIM, JUN-DAL; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Histamine (HA), a mediator of inflammation, type I allergic responses and neurotransmission, is synthesized from L-histidine, the reaction of which is catalyzed by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). HDC has been reported to be induced by various stimuli, not only in mast cells and basophils, but also in T lymphocytes and macrophages. Although its mRNA has been shown to be increased in Jurkat cells when treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), little is known concerning the induced prod...

  8. IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cannabis in Laboratory Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Herzinger, T; Schöpf, P.; Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruëff, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There have been sporadic reports of hypersensitivity reactions to plants of the Cannabinaceae family (hemp and hops), but it has remained unclear whether these reactions are immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. Objective: We examined the IgE-binding and histamine-releasing properties of hashish and marijuana extracts by CAP-FEIA and a basophil histamine release test. Methods: Two workers at a forensic laboratory suffered from nasal congestion, rbinitis, sneezing and asthmatic ...

  9. Clinical diagnosis of type I allergy by means of SPR imaging with less than a microliter of peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhki Yanase

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of antigen that induces activation of mast cells and basophils by crosslinking IgE bound to the cell surface is crucial to avoid symptoms of allergic diseases. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI possesses a great potential for clinical diagnosis of allergy, in that it reveals living cell activation following the binding of antigens to IgE, on real-time and single cell basis without artificial labeling. However, present technique of SPRI requires freshly isolated basophils of patients and cannot analyze multiple samples in parallel. To overcome such problems, we developed devices for SPRI to make a broad observation area and a multi-well SPRI sensor chip with a hydrophobic membrane. The employment of human IgE receptor-expressing mast cell lines (RBL-48 cells sensitized with serum, collected and stored from less than a microliter of patient’s blood, allowed us to detect specific reactions of RBL-48 cells in response to antigens. This technique may be a useful tool as a high throughput screening system of type I allergy not only for freshly prepared basophils but also for sera stored in clinical practices.

  10. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  11. Gender-based effects on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Kim H.; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Milad, Mark A.; Donovan, Kathleen; Middleton, Elliott; Ferry, James J.; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamic responses to methylprednisolone were investigated in six men and six premenopausal women after a dose of 0.6 mg/kg ideal body weight. Women (luteal phase) exhibited a greater methylprednisolone clearance (0.45 versus 0.29 L/hr/kg) and shorter elimination half-life (1.7 versus 2.6 hours) than men. The volume of distribution of methylprednisolone was similar when normalized for ideal body weight. Pharmacodynamic models were used to examine the methylprednisolone suppressive effects on cortisol secretion and basophil and helper T lymphocyte trafficking. A significantly smaller 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (0.1 versus 1.7 ng/ml) was seen in the women for suppression of cortisol secretion, indicating increased sensitivity. However, the area under the concentration-time curve of effect was similar for both groups. The IC50 values for effects of methylprednisolone on basophil trafficking related to estradiol concentrations in a log-linear fashion in women, with increased sensitivity found at higher estradiol concentrations. Men displayed a greater 24-hour net suppression in blood basophil numbers, but no difference was observed in net cortisol and helper T lymphocyte suppression between the sexes. These findings suggest that methylprednisolone dosages should be based on ideal body weight. Although women are more sensitive to methylprednisolone as measured by cortisol suppression, they eliminate the drug more quickly, generally producing a similar net response. PMID:8222483

  12. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  13. Pathogenesis of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A P; Greaves, M

    2009-06-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as the presence of urticaria (hives) for at least 6 weeks with the assumption that it occurs daily or close to it. If we eliminate physical urticarias and urticarial vasculitis from consideration, the remainder can be divided into autoimmune chronic urticaria (45%) and idiopathic chronic urticaria (55%). The autoimmune subgroup is associated with the IgG anti-IgE receptor alpha subunit in 35-40% of patients and IgG anti-IgE in an additional 5-10%. These autoantibodies have been shown to activate blood basophils and cutaneous mast cells in vitro with augmentation of basophil activation by complement and release of C5a, in particular. Binding methods (immunoblot and ELISA) yield positives in many autoimmune diseases as well as occasional normal subjects or patients with other forms of urticaria but most such sera are non-functional. Activation of basophils or mast cells causing histamine release is quite specific for chronic urticaria and defines the autoimmune subgroup. Although pathogenicity is not formally proven, the antibodies cause wealing upon intradermal injection, and removal of the autoantibody leads to remission. A cellular infiltrate is seen to be characterized by mast cell degranulation and infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The intensity of the infiltrate and clinical severity of the disease (including accompanying angio-oedema) is more severe in the autoimmune subpopulation. This latter group also has a higher evidence of human leucocyte antigen DR alleles associated with autoimmunity and a 25% incidence of antithyroid antibodies with diagnosed hypothyroidism in some. Hypo-responsiveness of patients' basophils to anti-IgE and hyperresponsiveness to serum defines another subpopulation (at least 50%) that overlaps the idiopathic and autoimmune subgroups. Hypo-responsiveness to anti-IgE has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of cytoplasmic phosphatases that

  14. Changes in IgE- and Antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazibwe Francis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of important research, the involvement of other Fcε receptor-bearing cells, such as mast cells and basophils, has not been investigated in relation to human immunity to schistosomes. Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ kills schistosomes living in an in vivo blood environment rich in IgE, eosinophils and basophils. This releases parasite Ags that have the potential to cross-link cell-bound IgE. However, systemic hypersensitivity reactions are not induced by treatment. Here, we describe the effects of schistosomiasis, and its treatment, on human basophil function by following changes in total cellular histamine and in vitro histamine-release induced by schistosome Ags or anti-IgE, in blood samples from infected Ugandan fishermen, who are continuously exposed to S. mansoni infection, before and 1-day and 21-days after PZQ treatment. Results There was a significant increase in the total cellular histamine in blood samples at 1-day post-treatment, followed by a very significant further increase by 21-days post-treatment. In vitro histamine-release induced by S. mansoni egg (SEA or worm (SWA Ags or anti-IgE antibody, was significantly reduced 1-day post-treatment. The degree of this reduction correlated with pre-treatment infection intensity. Twenty-1-days post-treatment, SEA-induced histamine-release was still significantly lower than at pretreatment. Histamine-release was not correlated to plasma concentrations of total or parasite-specific IgE, nor to specific IgG4 plasma concentrations. Conclusion The biology of human blood basophils is modulated by S. mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment. Infection intensity-dependent suppression of basophil histamine-release, histamine-dependent resistance to infection, and

  15. "Siglec"ting the allergic response for therapeutic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    As a physician-scientist, I have pursued research related to translational immunology with the goal of improving our ability to diagnose and treat allergic, immunologic and other diseases involving eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. We have tried to delineate novel mechanisms of human disease, working whenever possible with primary human cells and tissues, attempting to identify targets that might be amenable to the development of new therapies. As a general strategy, we have compared eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and neutrophils to look for pathways in inflammation that were unique to distinct subsets of these cells. In doing so, the concepts of glycobiology did not enter my mind until we began noticing some intriguing functional differences involving selectins and their ligands among these cell types. One simple observation, that neutrophils were coated with a glycan that allowed them to interact with an endothelial adhesion molecule while eosinophils lacked this structure, pried open the glyco-door for me. Fruitful collaborations with card-carrying glycobiologists soon followed that have forever positively influenced our science, and have enhanced our hypotheses, experimental design, research opportunities and discoveries. Within a few years, we helped to discover Siglec-8, an I-type lectin expressed only on human eosinophils, basophils, mast cells. This receptor, together with its closest mouse counterpart Siglec-F, has been the primary focus of our work now for over a decade. If not for those in the fields of glycobiology and glycoimmunology, my lab would not have made much progress toward the goal of leveraging Siglec-8 for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26911285

  16. Isoquercitrin suppresses the expression of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Guang-Rong; Liu, Chang; Dong, Yin-Mao

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm. Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events, producing an array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The KU812 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). The inhibitory effects of isoquercitrin on the productions of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated KU812 cells were measured using cytokine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Western blotting analysis was used to assess the effects of isoquercitrin on the MAPKs and NF-κB protein levels. Our results indicated that the isoquercitrin treatment of PMACI-stimulated KU812 cells significantly reduced the production of histamine and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The treated cells exhibited decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), revealing the role of ERK MAPK in isoquercitrin-mediated allergy inhibition. Furthermore, isoquercitrin suppressed the PMACI-mediated activation of NF-κB in the human basophil cells. In conclusion, the results from the present study provide insights into the potential therapeutic use of isoquercitrin for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions. PMID:27473957

  17. Splenic irradiation before bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 229 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase were randomized between 1986 and 1990 to receive or not receive additional splenic irradiation as part of their conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both groups, 115 patients with and 114 patients without splenic irradiation, were very similar regarding distribution of age, sex, donor/recipient sex combination, conditioning, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prevention method and blood counts at diagnosis or prior to transplant. 135 patients (59%) are alive as of October 1995 with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. 52 patients have relapsed (23%), 26 patients in the irradiated, 26 patients in the non-irradiated group (n.s.) with a relapse incident at 6 years of 28%. The main risk factor for relapse was T-cell depletion as the method for GvHD prevention, and an elevated basophil count in the peripheral blood prior to transplant. Relapse incidence between patients with or without splenic irradiation was no different in patients at high risk for relapse, e.g. patients transplanted with T-cell-depleted marrows (P = n.s.) and in patients with low risk for relapse, e.g. patients transplanted with non-T-cell-depleted transplants and basophil counts 3% basophils in peripheral blood). In this patient group, relapse incidence was 11% at 6 years with splenic irradiation but 32% in the non-irradiated group (P = 0.05). Transplant-related mortality was similar whether patients received splenic irradiation or not. This study suggests an advantage in splenic irradiation prior to transplantation for CML in this subgroup of patients and illustrates the need for tailored therapy. (Author)

  18. Effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda: implications for HIV biomedical prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Ruzagira

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda and determine its implications for HIV prevention and other clinical trials.Volunteers in a cross-sectional study to establish laboratory reference intervals were asked to return for a seasonal visit after the local season had changed from dry to rainy or vice versa. Volunteers had to be clinically healthy, not pregnant and negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and syphilis infection at both visits. At each visit, blood was taken for measurement of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, CD4/CD8 T cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total immunoglobulin gamma, total protein, creatinine, total amylase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Consensus dry season reference intervals were applied to rainy season values (and vice versa and the proportion of 'out-of-range' values determined. Percentage differences between dry and rainy season parameter mean values were estimated.In this cohort of 903 volunteers, less than 10.0% of consensus parameter (except LDH values in one season were "out-of-range" in the other. Twenty-two (22 percent of rainy season LDH values fell outside of the consensus dry season interval with the higher values observed in the rainy season. Variability between consensus seasonal means ranged from 0.0% (total WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and direct bilirubin to 40.0% (eosinophils. Within sites, the largest seasonal variations were observed for monocytes (Masaka, 11.5%, LDH (Lusaka, 21.7%, and basophils (Kigali, 22.2%.Seasonality had minimal impact on adult clinical laboratory parameter values in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda. Seasonal variation may not be an important factor in the

  19. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I.; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity–specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = −0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = −0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers. PMID:27281069

  20. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Marino-Buslje, Cristina; Rivera, Elena; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2012-01-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant.

  1. In vitro apoptotic cell death during erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamai, L; Burattini, S; Luchetti, F; Canonico, B; Ferri, P; Melloni, E; Gonelli, A; Guidotti, L; Papa, S; Falcieri, E

    2004-03-01

    Erythropoiesis occurs in bone marrow and it has been shown that during in vivo erythroid differentiation some immature erythroblasts undergo apoptosis. In this regard, it is known that immature erythroblasts are FasL- and TRAIL-sensitive and can be killed by cells expressing these ligand molecules. In the present study, we have investigated the cell death phenomenon that occurs during a common unilineage model of erythroid development. Purified CD34+ human haemopoietic progenitors were cultured in vitro in the presence of SCF, IL-3 and erythropoietin. Their differentiation stages and apoptosis were followed by multiple technical approaches. Flow cytometric evaluation of surface and intracellular molecules revealed that glycophorin A appeared at day 3-4 of incubation and about 75% of viable cells co-expressed high density glycophorin A (Gly(bright)) and adult haemoglobin at day 14 of culture, indicating that this system reasonably recapitulates in vivo normal erythropoiesis. Interestingly, when mature (Gly(bright)) erythroid cells reached their higher percentages (day 14) almost half of cultured cells were apoptotic. Morphological studies indicated that the majority of dead cells contained cytoplasmic granular material typical of basophilic stage, and DNA analysis by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction revealed nuclear fragmentation. These observations indicate that in vitro unilineage erythroid differentiation, as in vivo, is associated with apoptotic cell death of cells with characteristics of basophilic erythroblasts. We suggest that the interactions between different death receptors on immature basophilic erythroblasts with their ligands on more mature erythroblasts may contribute to induce apoptosis in vitro. PMID:15004520

  2. A naturally occurring hypoallergenic variant of vespid Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris venom as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E Vinzón

    Full Text Available Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order are known to cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Despite the effectiveness of conventional vespid venom immunotherapy, more standardized and safer allergy vaccines are required and recombinant hypoallergenic variants are important clinical tools. Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venoms and it was previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5 could be a hypoallergenic variant. In this work we assess the immunological behavior and allergenic activity of Poly s 5 in order to explore its suitability for specific immunotherapy. With this aim, recombinant Poly s 5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the presence of cross-reactive epitopes with Pol a 5, a known allergenic Antigen 5, was investigated both at the IgG and IgE levels, by ELISA assays and a basophil-mediator release assay respectively. A molecular model was also built to better understand the relationship between immunological and structural aspects. In mice, Poly s 5 induced IgG antibodies which cross-reacted with Pol a 5. However, Poly s 5 induced only minimal amounts of IgE and was a poor inducer of basophil-mediator release, even when the cells were sensitized with Pol a 5-specific IgE. Moreover, Poly s 5-specific serum showed a specific protective activity and was able to inhibit the Pol a 5-induced basophil degranulation. Structural analysis from the molecular model revealed that a few amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Poly s 5 should lead to an alteration of the surface topography and electrostatic potential of the epitopes which could be responsible for its hypoallergenic behavior. These findings, taken as a whole, show that Poly s 5 is likely a naturally occurring hypoallergenic Antigen 5 variant.

  3. Isoquercitrin suppresses the expression of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Xiao-Hui; LIU Guang-Rong; LIU Chang; DONG Yin-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm.Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events,producing an array of inflammatory mediators,such as cytokines.The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation.The KU812 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI).The inhibitory effects of isoquercitrin on the productions of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated KU812 cells were measured using cytokine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays.Western blotting analysis was used to assess the effects of isoquercitrin on the MAPKs and NF-κB protein levels.Our results indicated that the isoquercitrin treatment of PMACI-stimulated KU812 cells significantly reduced the production of histamine and the pro-inflammatory cytokines,such as interleukin (IL)-6,IL-8,IL-1β,and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.The treated cells exhibited decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK),revealing the role of ERK MAPK in isoquercitrin-mediated allergy inhibition.Furthermore,isoquercitrin suppressed the PMACI-mediated activation of NF-κB in the human basophil cells.In conclusion,the results from the present study provide insights into the potential therapeutic use of isoquercitrin for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions.

  4. Omalizumab in the management of patients with allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Sandström

    2009-01-01

    Thomas SandströmDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital, Umeå, SwedenAbstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is central to the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, binds to the FcεRI binding site on free IgE. As a result, circulating free IgE is reduced, IgE is prevented from attaching to mast cells and basophils, and FcεRI receptor expression is down-regulated. The inflammatory respons...

  5. [New data on the pathogenesis of endometriosis interna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damirov, M M; Kulakov, V I; Bakuleva, L P; Shabanov, A M; Sliusar', N N; Sarkisov, S E

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-six patients with histologically verified internal endometriosis were examined using histochemical, morphometric methods, and measurements of blood and myometrial tissue phosphatidyl inosites. Blood levels of phosphatidyl inosites were found reliably decreased in the patients vs. normal subjects, whereas their levels in myometrial tissue were significantly increased. Increased counts of tissue basophils, microcirculation disorders, lymphostasis and membranogenic stromal edema development were observed round endometriosis foci. Changes in the basic substance and fibrous structures of myometrial connective tissue complex were revealed, most marked in the areas adjacent to the endometrium. A possible mechanism of the development of pathologic shifts in internal endometriosis is discussed. PMID:8250133

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Induction of Tolerance to Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berin, M Cecilia; Shreffler, Wayne G

    2016-02-01

    Oral tolerance refers to a systemic immune nonresponsiveness to antigens first encountered by the oral route, and a failure in development of this homeostatic process can result in food allergy. Clinical tolerance induced by allergen immunotherapy is associated with alterations in immune mechanisms relevant to the allergic response, including reduction of basophil reactivity, induction of IgG4, loss of effector Th2 cells, and induction of Tregs. The relative contribution of these immune changes to clinical tolerance to foods, and the duration of these immune changes after termination of immunotherapy, remains to be identified. PMID:26617229

  7. Bryophyte flora of the Uvac river gorge (Southwest Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the examined area, 165 taxa were found and identified: 139 taxa from the class Bryopsida and 26 taxa from the class Marchantiopsida. Nine species are red-listed in Serbia. Material was collected from 62 localities, which were analyzed for similarity of chorological and ecological features using the Jaccard similarity index. Analysis of floristic elements and phytogeographic distribution showed that the greatest number of taxa are temperate elements with Holarctic distribution. Results of ecological analysis showed that in regard to the substratum aspect, terricolous, basophilous, and indifferent species were dominant. In relation to the ecological parameter humidity, most species were mesophilous. The majority of identified bryophytes were sciophilous taxa. .

  8. Anti-allergic activity of Thai medicinal plants used in longevity formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sawanee Kraithep; Kwunchit Oungbho; Supinya Tewtrakul*

    2008-01-01

    The ethanolic (EtOH) and water extracts of six plants including Piper nigrum, Streblus asper, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa, Diospyros rhodocalyx and Albizia procera used in Thai traditional longevity formulation, were examined for anti-allergic activity on antigen-induced b-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat-basophilic leukemia cell line), a tumor analog of mast cell. It was revealed that Piper nigrum (EtOH) extract exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 14...

  9. Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mi, Lan; Xiong, Rongling; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Yang, Wuli; Wang, Changchun; Peng, Qian

    2009-07-01

    Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.

  10. Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp Stephen F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, an acute and potentially lethal multi-system clinical syndrome resulting from the sudden, systemic degranulation of mast cells and basophils, occurs in a variety of clinical scenarios and is almost unavoidable inmedical practice. Healthcare professionalsmust be able to recognize its features, treat an episode promptly and appropriately, and be able to provide recommendations to prevent future episodes. Epinephrine, administered immediately, is the drug of choice for acute anaphylaxis. The discussion provides an overview of one set of evidence-based and consensus parameters for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis.

  11. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells and acquired (Th2 cells allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.

  12. The epidemiology of anaphylaxis in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panesar, S S; Javad, S; de Silva, D;

    2013-01-01

    for all-cause anaphylaxis ranged from 1.5 to 7.9 per 100,000 person-years. These data indicated that an estimated 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.5) of the population experience anaphylaxis at some point in their lives. Food, drugs, stinging insects, and latex were the most commonly identified triggers. CONCLUSIONS......BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal, multi-organ system, allergic reaction caused by the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. Uncertainty exists around epidemiological measures of incidence and prevalence, risk factors, risk of recurrence, and death due...

  13. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Kazufumi Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells) and acquired (Th2 cells) allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy',...

  14. Megalocytivirus infection in orbiculate batfish Platax orbicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwanayos, Preeyanan; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Stidworthy, Mark F; Petty, Barbara D; Kelley, Karen; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2013-07-01

    Megalocytiviruses cause systemic disease in both marine and freshwater fishes, negatively impacting ornamental and food fish aquaculture. In this report, we characterize a megalocytivirus infection in a captive marine ornamental fish, the orbiculate batfish Platax orbicularis. Histologic examination revealed cytomegalic cells characterized by strongly basophilic granular intracytoplasmic inclusions within various organs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virus particles within the cytoplasm of cytomegalic cells consistent with an iridovirus infection. Analysis of the major capsid protein gene sequence confirmed that the orbiculate batfish virus is a member of the family Iridoviridae and is identical to the only other megalocytivirus reported from a marine ornamental fish, the Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni iridovirus. PMID:23836765

  15. Studies on the Tolerating Mechanism for Sulfide in Urechis unicinctus ( Echiura : Urechidae) ——Cytological Observation on Urechis unicinctus in Different Hydrogen Sulfide Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志峰; 邵明瑜; 康庆浩; 金在敏

    2003-01-01

    This study on the cytological changes of the body wall, aspiratory intestine and crissalbursa in Urechis unicinctus by light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)showed that the difference between the body wall and the natural environment rich in H2 S was notobvious; that the wall color of the aspiratory intestine in H2 S rich environment changed from normalsemitransparency to dark brown; that its epithelia were disassembled and the electron density of itscytoplasm matrix was lower; and that in H2 S rich enviromnent many basophilic granules occurred inthe epithelia of the crissal bursa. Granules with single membrane and myelinefingure were foundwith TEM.

  16. Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ji-Yao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.

  17. The Studies of Cellular Constituents in Siynovial Fluid of Carpus and Tarsus in cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular constituents of the carpus and tarsus were investigated in 6 healthy Holstein cows. The cell counts method in synovial fluid was founded. The differential leukocyte contes were made from smears stained with Wright's and Giemsa's compound stain. There were four types of cells in the synovial fluid,i. e,lympho- cytes,neutrophils,macrophages and degenerated cells. The percentages of neutrophils in the synovial fluid was significantly lower than that in the bolld. The eosinophils and basophils were never observed in the smear.

  18. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  19. Anaphylatoxin C3a receptors in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Panettieri Reynold A; Ali Hydar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The complement system forms the central core of innate immunity but also mediates a variety of inflammatory responses. Anaphylatoxin C3a, which is generated as a byproduct of complement activation, has long been known to activate mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and to cause smooth muscle contraction. However, the role of C3a in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma remains unclear. In this review, we examine the role of C3a in promoting asthma. Following allergen challenge, C3a i...

  20. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rickson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar grew Cladophialophora boppii. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole for a year and the response monitored with dermal ultrasound. This is the first case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cl. boppii in India.

  1. An in vitro study on the risk of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci

    2013-01-01

    Background Momordica charantia (MC) is a tropical plant that is extensively used in folk medicine. However, the knowledge about side effects of this plant is relatively little according to knowledge about its therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to MC by an experiment which was designed in vitro. Methods In the present study, the expression of CD63 and CD203c on peripheral blood basophils against different dilutions o...

  2. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  3. Herbal medicine as a cause of combined lead and arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Heggs, C A; Conway, M; Cassar, J

    1990-05-01

    1. Combined chronic lead and arsenic poisoning was diagnosed in a 33-year-old Korean woman following consumption of a Korean herbal medicine prescribed for haemorrhoids. 2. The patient had malaise, severe difficulty walking, arthralgia, oedema and abdominal pain with diarrhoea. 3. Investigation showed anaemia with basophilic stippling, fragmentation and a raised reticulocyte count. 4. Raised blood and urine lead levels and urine arsenic levels were found. 5. Analysis of the herbal medicine revealed a high lead and arsenic content. 6. Treatment with the newer chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid was successful, with no detectable side-effects.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    The human type I allergic response is characterized by the presence of allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergen-mediated cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE on the surface of mast cells and circulating basophils triggers the release of mediators, resulting in the development of th......, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.65, b = 99.14, c = 108.90 A, alpha = 105.7, beta = 98.32, gamma = 97.62 degrees, and diffract to 2.9 A resolution when analyzed at 100 K using synchrotron-generated X--rays....

  5. The skin: target organ in immunotoxicology of small-molecular-weight compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Baron, J

    2001-01-01

    Immunotoxicology studies two different effects of xenobiotics: immunosuppression and dysregulation of immune responses leading to hypersensitivity or autoimmunity. The skin is a major target organ of immunotoxicity which is provoked by small-molecular-weight compounds. Methods may be helpful for immunotoxicological investigations and screenings for adverse effects of xenobiotics which are used for diagnosis or studies on the pathophysiology of skin disorders such as allergic contact dermatitis, cutaneous drug-allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases of the skin. Examples include well-designed patch tests, assays involving antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, but also T lymphocytes, basophiles or keratinocytes.

  6. Xenotransplanted human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells develop into carcinomas and cribriform carcinomas: ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Summers, Jack L; Taper, Henryk S

    2012-10-01

    Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics.

  7. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  8. Cellular responses to Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in pre-sensitised cattle with differing phenotypes of infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Dzama, Kennedy; Chimonyo, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, threatens cattle production in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Delayed skin hypersensitivity reactions are thought to cause Nguni cattle to be more resistant to R. microplus than Bonsmara cattle yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been classified. Tick counts and inflammatory cell infiltrates in skin biopsies from feeding sites of adult R. microplus ticks were determined in 9-month-old Nguni and Bonsmara heifers to determine the cellular mechanisms responsible for tick immunity. Nguni heifers (1.7 ± 0.03) had lower (P tick counts than the Bonsmaras (2.0 ± 0.03). Parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had higher counts of basophils, mast and mononuclear cells than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Conversely, parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had lower neutrophil and eosinophil counts than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Tick count was negatively correlated with basophil and mast cell counts and positively correlated with eosinophil counts in both breeds. In the Bonsmara breed, tick count was positively correlated with mononuclear cell counts. Cellular responses to adult R. microplus infestations were different and correlated with differences in tick resistance in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle breeds. It is essential to further characterise the molecular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate elicited by adult R. microplus infestation to fully comprehend immunity to ticks in cattle. PMID:24057115

  9. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  10. New routes for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  11. Histopathological study of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in cultured false clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier, 1830) and true clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepede, 1802)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva; Thangapandi Marudhupandi; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in two species of marine ornamental fishes through histopathological investigation along with control for differentiating the tissue damage.Methods:killed by organ dissection. The infected fish organs were aseptically cut off and stored with 10%formalin solution for histological study. Samples were examined for gross pathology including location, distribution, shape, size, colour, consistency and special features of typical external lesions by standard method.Results:Six naturally infected fishes were collected. They were anaesthetized and subsequently 2.5 to 3.5 mm (Amphiprion percula). Light microscopic observation showed over growth of tumor like nodules on the skin or scales and ventral side as well. Numerous hypertrophied cells with basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were in the connective tissues of dermis and between scales on two species. The nucleus of lymphocystis cell were enlarged, irregular and containing basophilic marginated chromatin. Thus, the similarities among cellular patterns of different fish LCDV isolates from different hosts indicated that these profiles do not depend on the host species.Conclusions: In conclusion, this current study of histopathological statement of LCDV may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocystis disease from both marine as well as fresh water fish species. The findings of asymptomatic carriers by histology using infected skin and fin sampling, which does not imply animal killing, could be important tool to epizootics caused by LCDV. This study may be very useful for further molecular studies.

  12. IgE epitope proximity determines immune complex shape and effector cell activation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieras, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Roux, Kenneth H.; Dutta, Moumita; Khodoun, Marat; Zafred, Domen; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Lupinek, Christian; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Keller, Walter; Finkelman, Fred D.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-allergen complexes induce mast cell and basophil activation and thus immediate allergic inflammation. They are also important for IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Objective To investigate whether the proximity of IgE binding sites on an allergen affects immune complex shape and subsequent effector cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Methods We constructed artificial allergens by grafting IgE epitopes in different numbers and proximity onto a scaffold protein. The shape of immune complexes formed between artificial allergens and the corresponding IgE was studied by negative-stain electron microscopy. Allergenic activity was determined using basophil activation assays. Mice were primed with IgE, followed by injection of artificial allergens to evaluate their in vivo allergenic activity. Severity of systemic anaphylaxis was measured by changes in body temperature. Results We could demonstrate simultaneous binding of 4 IgE antibodies in close vicinity to each other. The proximity of IgE binding sites on allergens influenced the shape of the resulting immune complexes and the magnitude of effector cell activation and in vivo inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the proximity of IgE epitopes on an allergen affects its allergenic activity. We thus identified a novel mechanism by which IgE-allergen complexes regulate allergic inflammation. This mechanism should be important for allergy and other immune complex–mediated diseases. PMID:26684291

  13. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without PSC 833, Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation, and/or Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  14. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-07-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix. PMID:26330833

  15. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  16. Occurrence, Development and Histochemical Characteristics of Lymphocystis in Cultured Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xiuzhen(绳秀珍); Zhan Wenbin

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence and development of lymphocystis cells in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and some histochemical features are studied using light and electron microscopy and histochemical methods. Fibroblasts engulf virus particles forming phagocytosis vacuole in the cytoplasm. The infected cells proliferate and turn round and hypertrophied; basophilic inclusion bodies, Feulgen-positive, are present in the cytoplasm, and a hyaline capsule, containing acid ploysaccharide and protein, appears outside cell membrane. The mature lymphocystis cells possess numerous virus particles (200~220nm in diameter with a central core 120~140nm) and high electron-dense inclusions with budding virions at the surface in the cytoplasm, and show margination of chromatin. Moderate electron density particles (70~80nm in diameter) fill out perinuclear cisterna and arrange in crystalloid arrays in nucleus, liberated into the cytoplasm by rupture of nuclear membrane. No virus particles are observed in nucleus. Therefore, inclusion bodies are the sites of virus assembly and maturity, while replication processes of lymphocystis virus are involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. Besides, strongly basophilic link-like structures are present between adjacent cells or through connective tissue, and virus particles are observed in somewhere of the capsule, thus where may be the spread route of virus from one cell to another or to the environment. The senile lymphocystis cells release virus by the rupture of cells.

  17. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Sung Lee; Dai-In Kang; Seung Zhoo Yoon; Yeon Hee Ryu; Inhyung Lee; Hoon-Gi Kim; Byung-Cheon Lee; Ki Bog Lee

    2015-01-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-depen-dent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-depen-dent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increas-ing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  18. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests. PMID:26774053

  19. A combination vaccine for allergy and rhinovirus infections based on rhinovirus-derived surface protein VP1 and a nonallergenic peptide of the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Linhart, Birgit; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Westritschnig, Kerstin; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Stoecklinger, Angelika; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Campana, Raffaela; Thalhamer, Josef; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia; Valenta, Rudolf

    2009-05-15

    Allergens and rhinovirus infections are among the most common elicitors of respiratory diseases. We report the construction of a recombinant combination vaccine for allergy and rhinovirus infections based on rhinovirus-derived VP1, the surface protein which is critically involved in infection of respiratory cells, and a nonallergenic peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 1. Recombinant hybrid molecules consisting of VP1 and a Phl p 1-derived peptide of 31 aa were expressed in Escherichia coli. The hybrid molecules did not react with IgE Abs from grass pollen allergic patients and lacked allergenic activity when exposed to basophils from allergic patients. Upon immunization of mice and rabbits, the hybrids did not sensitize against Phl p 1 but induced protective IgG Abs that cross-reacted with group 1 allergens from different grass species and blocked allergic patients' IgE reactivity to Phl p 1 as well as Phl p 1-induced basophil degranulation. Moreover, hybrid-induced IgG Abs inhibited rhinovirus infection of cultured human epithelial cells. The principle of fusing nonallergenic allergen-derived peptides onto viral carrier proteins may be used for the engineering of safe allergy vaccines which also protect against viral infections.

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T C; Dantzer, V; Jones, C J P; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial placentae show no trophoblast invasion into the uterine epithelium and there is interdigitation between fetal and maternal microvilli. Two distinct regions of the fetomaternal interface can be identified: the interareolar and the areolar regions. The uterine epithelium has eosinophilic cytoplasm with dispersed, basophilic and electron-dense granules. Trophoblast cells are irregularly cuboidal on top of the fetal ridges and columnar on troughs, where cells have cytoplasmic vesicles and large basal vacuoles, surrounded by whorls of smooth membranes. Capillaries indent the trophoblast cells forming a placental barrier 3 microm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussian blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular vacuoles and cisternae. The placenta can therefore be classified as non-deciduate. The ultrastructural aspects of this study reveal features that have not previously been described and extend our knowledge of functions relating to materno-fetal transport in these species.

  1. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway (BN) rats. To study these effects BN rats were sensitized to either 1 or 10 mg peanut or ovalbumin by daily oral gavage and the TBTO-groups were fed a diet containing 80 mg TBTO per kg diet. Co-exposure to TBTO not only resulted in decreased general immunologic parameters such as weights of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphocyte proliferation rates in splenocytes, but also on allergic parameters. In the peanut allergen-model TBTO decreased allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production by spleen cells, number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes in the blood and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. In the ovalbumin allergen-model TBTO decreased the number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, allergen-specific IgE and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. The data imply that in the process of risk assessment of food allergy attention should be given to immunomodulating compounds present in the diet

  2. Novel strategy to create hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; Kulis, Mike; White, Brittany L; Grace, Mary H; Guo, Rishu; Burks, A Wesley; Davis, Jack P; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-07-23

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. Polyphenolic phytochemicals have high affinity to bind proteins and form soluble and insoluble complexes with unique functionality. This study investigated the allergenicity of polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices prepared by complexing various polyphenol-rich plant juices and extracts with peanut flour. Polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices reduced IgE binding to one or more peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested changes in secondary protein structure. Peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol fortified matrices triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than unmodified flour in an ex vivo assay using human blood and less mast cell degranulation when used to orally challenge peanut-allergic mice. Polyphenol fortification of peanut flour resulted in a hypoallergenic matrix with reduced IgE binding and degranulation capacity, likely due to changes in protein secondary structure or masking of epitopes, suggesting potential applications for oral immunotherapy.

  3. RARE BENIGN EYELID TUMOR IN CHILDREN (EPITHELIOMA OF MALHERBE, PILOMATRIXOMA, OR TRICHELEMMOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ryabtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe clinical manifestations of rare eyelid tumor (epithelioma Malherbe and to improve differential diagnosis of benign eyelid tumors in children. Patients and methods. We observed 8 children aged 3,5‑8 years (sex ratio was 1:1. In all cases, examination, palpation, surgical excision of the tumor with histological examination were performed. Results. Trichilemmoma, or pilomatricoma, was suggested from clinical manifestations. Epithelioma Malherbe was diagnosed by histology only. Microscopically, the tumor is surrounded by a capsule which includes two cell types. Peripheral basophilic cells are small cells with poor cytoplasm, indistinct borders, and deeply basophilic nucleus. Central shadow cells have a distinct border and a central unstained area. Islands of small basaloid epithelial cells with squamous cell focuses and cornification are embedded in the stroma. Epithelial lesions are often necrotized. Epithelial mass is surrounded by granulations with giant cells. Osseous trabeculae are often adjacent to necrotic lesions. Further follow-up revealed no complications or recurrences. Conclusions. Our observations and literature data suggest that epithelioma Malherbe is occured in 1.3 % of benign eyelid tumors in childern. Tumor growth is slow and non-invasive. 

  4. Repeat-dose toxicology evaluation in cynomolgus monkeys of AVI-4658, a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) drug for the treatment of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazani, Peter; Ness, Kirk P Van; Weller, Doreen L; Poage, Duane W; Palyada, Kiran; Shrewsbury, Stephen B

    2011-05-01

    AVI-4658 is a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) drug designed to restore dystrophin expression in a subset of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Previous reports demonstrated this clinical proof-of-principle in patients with DMD following intramuscular injection of AVI-4658. This preclinical study evaluated the toxicity and toxicokinetic profile of AVI-4658 when administered either intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to cynomolgus monkeys once weekly over 12 weeks, at doses up to the maximum feasible dose of 320 mg/kg per injection. No drug-related effects were noted on survival, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, opthalmoscopic or electrocardiographic evaluations, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, and macroscopic evaluations. Drug-related microscopic renal effects were dose-dependent, apparently reversible, and included basophilic granules (minimal), basophilic tubules (minimal to moderate), and tubular vacuolation (minimal to mild). These data establish the tolerability of AVI-4658 at doses up to and including the maximum feasible dose of 320 mg/kg by IV bolus or SC injection.

  5. Cutaneous mastocytomas in the neotenic caudate amphibians Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) and Ambystoma tigrinum (tiger salamander).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, J C; Chang, S C; DeLanney, L E; Rose, F L; Green, D E

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous mastocytomas studied in 18 axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and six tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) were gray-white, uni- to multilobular cutaneous protrusions from 2 mm to 2 cm in diameter. Tumors were moderately cellular unencapsulated masses that usually infiltrated the dermis and hypodermis with the destruction of intervening tissues. Some tumors were invading superficial bundles of the underlying skeletal muscle. Tumors consisted of mitotically active cells derived from a single lineage but showing a range of differentiation. Immature cells had nearly smooth to lightly cleft or folded basophilic nuclei bordered by a band of cytoplasm with few cytoplasmic processes and containing a few small uniform eccentric granules. Mature cells had basophilic nuclei with deep clefts or folds and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with multiple long intertwining cytoplasmic extensions packed with metachromatic granules. The axolotls were old individuals from an inbred laboratory colony. The tiger salamanders were wild animals from a single polluted pond. They could have been old and inbred. Both groups were neotenic. These are the first mastocytomas discovered in cold-blooded animals.

  6. Cutaneous mastocytomas in the neotenic caudate amphibians Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) and Ambystoma tigrinun (tiger salamander)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, J.C.; Chang, S.C.; DeLanney, L.E.; Rose, F.L.; Green, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous mastocytomas studied in 18 axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and six tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) were gray-white, uni- to multilobular cutaneous protrusions from 2mm to 2cm in diameter. Tumors were moderately cellular unencapsulated masses that usually infiltrated the dermis and hypodermis with the destruction of intervening tissues. Some tumors were invading superficial bundles of the underlying skeletal muscle. Tumors consisted of mitotically active cells derived from a single lineage but showing a range of differentiation. Immature cells had nearly smooth to lightly cleft or folded basophilic nuclei bordered by a band of cytoplasm with few cytoplasmic processes and containing a few small uniform eccentric granules. Mature cells had basophilic nuclei with deep clefts or folds and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with multiple long intertwining cytoplasmic extensions packed with metachromatic granules. The axolotls were old individuals from an inbred laboratory colony. The tiger salamanders were wild animals from a single polluted pond. They could have been old and inbred. Both groups were neotenic. These are the first mastocytomas discovered in cold-blooded animals.

  7. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST, alanin aminotransferase (ALT and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT, in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartum. The highest values of total leukocytes count, neutrophiles, monocytes and basophiles count were recorded on the day of parturition, and then decreased, so that the minimum value established on d 45 of lactation. The lymphocytes count was the lowest on the day of parturation, while the eosinophils and basophiles counts were significantly different in observed time intervals. The concentration of glucose ranged from 3.07 mmol/L on d 15 prepartum to 2.71 mmol/L on d 15 postpartum. A high concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the postpartum period is a consequence of changes in energy balance and more intensive process of lypolisis in fat tissue, due to energy disbalance at the beginning of lactation. Established activity of enzymes AST, ALT and GGT was approximately the same in studied time intervals and was within physiological limits. The results of hematological and biochemical analysis in this paper do not indicate the development of postpartum ailments, because the investigated parameters were within physiological limits.

  8. A fluorescence-based centrifugal microfluidic system for parallel detection of multiple allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Cheung, K. L.; Kong, S. K.; Suen, Y. K.; Kwan, Y. W.; Li, W. J.; Wong, C. K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports a robust polymer based centrifugal microfluidic analysis system that can provide parallel detection of multiple allergens in vitro. Many commercial food products (milk, bean, pollen, etc.) may introduce allergy to people. A low-cost device for rapid detection of allergens is highly desirable. With this as the objective, we have studied the feasibility of using a rotating disk device incorporating centrifugal microfluidics for performing actuationfree and multi-analyte detection of different allergen species with minimum sample usage and fast response time. Degranulation in basophils or mast cells is an indicator to demonstrate allergic reaction. In this connection, we used acridine orange (AO) to demonstrate degranulation in KU812 human basophils. It was found that the AO was released from granules when cells were stimulated by ionomycin, thus signifying the release of histamine which accounts for allergy symptoms [1-2]. Within this rotating optical platform, major microfluidic components including sample reservoirs, reaction chambers, microchannel and flow-control compartments are integrated into a single bio-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The flow sequence and reaction time can be controlled precisely. Sequentially through varying the spinning speed, the disk may perform a variety of steps on sample loading, reaction and detection. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of using centrifugation as a possible immunoassay system in the future.

  9. Sweat Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    For many years, sweat has been recognized as an exacerbation factor in all age groups of atopic dermatitis (AD) and a trigger of cholinergic urticaria (CholU). Recently, we reported the improvement of AD symptoms by spray with tannic acid, which suppresses basophil histamine release by semipurified sweat antigens in vitro, and showering that removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia globosa as a major histamine-releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is detected as a 17-kDa protein in sweat and exhibits almost the highest histamine-release ability from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE of patients with AD and CholU were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. PMID:27584969

  10. Diagnostic Significance of BAT in Anaphylaxis to Non-ionic Contrast Media%BAT在非离子型造影剂过敏反应中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张皓月; 许素军; 唐笑先; 牛记军; 郭相杰; 高彩荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic significance of basophil activation test (B A T) in ana-phylaxis to non-ionic contrast media through testing the content of CD 63, m ast cell-carboxypeptidase A 3 (M C-CPA 3), and term inal com plem ent com plex SC5b-9 of the individuals by testing their levels in the norm al im m une group and the anaphylaxis groups to β-lactam drugs and non-ionic contrast media. Methods The CD 63 expression of basophilic granulocyte in blood w as detected by flow cytom etry. The levels of M C-CPA 3 in blood serum and SC5b-9 in blood plasm a w ere detected by ELISA . Results The CD 63 expression of basophilic granulocyte in blood, the levels of M C-CPA 3 and SC5b-9 of anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media and β-lactam drugs w ere significantly higher than that in norm al im m une group (P<0.05). Conclusion There is activation of basophilic granulocytes, m ast cells and com plem ent system in anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media. B A Tcan be used to diagnose the anaphylaxis to non-ionic contrast media.%目的:通过测定免疫正常人、β-内酰胺类药物过敏者以及非离子型造影剂过敏者血液中CD63、肥大细胞羧肽酶A3(MC-CPA3)、人末端补体复合物SC5b-9,探讨嗜碱性粒细胞活化试验(basophil activation test,BAT)在非离子型造影剂过敏反应中的诊断价值。方法采用流式细胞术测定全血中嗜碱性粒细胞CD63表达率。采用ELISA法测定血清中MC-CPA3、血浆中SC5b-9含量。结果非离子型造影剂和β-内酰胺类药物过敏者血液中嗜碱性粒细胞CD63表达率、MC-CPA3以及SC5b-9含量均较免疫正常人升高(P<0.05)。结论非离子型造影剂过敏者血液中嗜碱性粒细胞和肥大细胞发生活化,补体系统的激活也参与了非离子型造影剂过敏反应的发生。流式细胞术分析BAT可作为非离子型造影剂过敏反应的诊断方法。

  11. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Elisabeth C A M; Wijering, Selva C; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E; Garssen, Johan

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of drugs that can be used for the treatment of allergic disease is important in human health. Arctium lappa Linne (Compositae) (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine in Brazil and throughout Asia and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the inhibitory effects of AL on degranulation and the release of mediators as well as on inhibition of cys-leukotriene biosynthesis by basophils were investigated. AL was selected out of 10,000 herbal extracts in a set-up for high throughput screening in which the degree of degranulation was monitored by the release of beta-hexosaminidase from rat basophil leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The AL extract significantly reduced degranulation and biosynthesis of cys-leukotrienes of human basophils in peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 8.3 and 11.4 microg/ml, respectively). Viability and metabolic activity of the PBMCs were not affected. Although arctiin, the active component of AL that has been described in the literature, was not able to reduce degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells, a single high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fraction from the AL extract inhibited beta-hexosaminidase release (IC(50) = 22.2 microg/ml). Topical administration of an aqueous extract of AL (5 mg/ear) on the ear of whey-sensitized mice 4 hrs before challenge with whey in the ear inhibited acute ear swelling by 50% in an in vivo cow's milk allergic model. The extract had no effect in this model when administered orally. In conclusion, the active component present in the active HPLC fraction of the AL extract was able to significantly reduce the release of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of degranulation and cys-leukotriene release in vitro. In addition, this active component was able to inhibit acute skin response in mice in vivo, indicating that AL is a very promising natural component for use in anti-allergic treatment.

  12. 杂交鲍苗种“病毒性萎缩症(AbSV)”病理学研究%Studies on Pathology of “Shriveling Syndrome Associated Virus(AbSV)” in Juvenile Hybrid Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小强

    2013-01-01

    从福州地区患病杂交鲍苗种组织中分离到一种球形病毒用以感染健康鲍,通过对感染发病的鲍苗进行光镜和电镜观察,发现:病毒主要在消化腺嗜碱性细胞的细胞核中发生;消化腺消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞细胞核异形、染色质固缩,内质网扩张,线粒体嵴断裂、消失;消化腺小叶基膜肌纤维断裂、消失;消化道肠道具微绒毛的柱状细胞和纤毛柱状细胞发生自溶现象;足部肌细胞核浓缩,染色质固缩、边集,肌纤维断裂出现空泡.据此推测,病毒以鲍消化腺嗜碱性细胞为靶细胞,造成消化腺和胃、肠道等消化系统病变,机体因长期营养不良而萎缩,最后因全身性感染出现死亡.%Pathological analysis was done on juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotisdiscus discus Haliotis discus hannai)artificially infected by a spherical virus isolated from the diseased ones in Fuzhou.Examination of artificially infected juvenile hybrid abalone by optical and electron microscopy showed that the virion mainly developed in nucleus of basophilic cells in digestive gland,and led to nuclear heteromorphosis,chromatin condensation,endoplasmic reticulum expansion,and mitochondria cristae breakage in digestive gland cell and basophilic cell.Meanwhile,broken digestive gland lobule basal lamina muscle fibers,autolysis and pyknosis of microvillus and cilium columnar cell in digestive gland intestinal tract were observed.In foot muscle cells,muscle fibers were broken and vesicles emerged,together with chromatin condensation and margination.These results suggested that the digestive gland basophilic cells maybe the special target cell of this virus,the infection could cause lesion in digestive gland and digestive organs such as stomach,intestines.Atrophy due to long-term malnutrition and systemic infection would finally led to death.

  13. Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterization of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Martínez, S; Prado-Alvarez, M; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Azevedo, C; Gestal, C

    2014-05-01

    The hemocytes of Octopus vulgaris were morphologically and functionally characterized. Light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and flow cytometry analyses revealed the existence of two hemocyte populations. Large granulocytes showed U-shaped nucleus, a mean of 11.6 μm±1.2 in diameter with basophilic granules, polysaccharide and lysosomic deposits in the cytoplasm. Small granulocytes measured a mean of 8.1 μm±0.7 in diameter, and have a round nucleus occupying almost the entire cell and few or not granules in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis showed that large granulocytes are the principal cells that develop phagocytosis of latex beads (rising up to 56%) and ROS after zymosan stimulation. Zymosan induced the highest production of both ROS and NO. This study is the first tread towards understanding the O. vulgaris immune system by applying new tools to provide a most comprehensive morpho-functional study of their hemocytes.

  14. Aberrant expression of regulatory cytokine IL-35 and pattern recognition receptor NOD2 in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Kwok; Leung, Ting Fan; Chu, Ida Miu Ting; Dong, Jie; Lam, Yvonne Yi On; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the plasma concentration of the novel regulatory cytokine IL-35 and intracytosolic pattern recognition receptors nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors in granulocytes and explored their potential implication in disease severity monitoring of allergic asthma. The expression of circulating IL-35 and other pro-inflammatory mediators in asthmatic patients or control subjects were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The intracellular expressions of NOD1 and NOD2 in CCR3+ granulocytes were assessed using flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of IL-35, IL-17A, basophil activation marker basogranulin, and eosinophilic airway inflammation biomarker periostin were significantly elevated in allergic asthmatic patients compared to non-atopic control subjects (all probability (p) IL-35 concentration in asthmatic patients (all p IL-35 and periostin with disease severity score in asthmatic patients (both p IL-35 (p IL-35 may serve as a potential surrogate biomarker for disease severity of allergic asthma.

  15. HAEMOGRAM OF KHASI LOCAL (MEGHALAYA LOCAL PIG AT DIFFERENT AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naskar*

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The blood of Meghalaya Local pigs of different ages i.e. 0 day, 15 days, 1 month, 2 months, 4 months and 6 months were collected and studied various cytological parameters like Hb. (g.percent, TEC (million/cmm, PVC (percent, ESR (mm/hr., TLC (thousand/cmm, Neutrophil (percent, Eosinophil (percent and Lymphocyte (percent. Newborn piglets showed an average Hb% of 6.9 ± 0.17, RBC counts of 3.81± 0.39 million/cmm of blood and which increased with the advancement of age. PVC% was found to be lowest in newborn piglets 18.3 ± 0.69 and highest in 6 months age 45.5 ± 0.51. Neutrophil count was significantly higher in newborn piglets 52.67 ± 1.35 and basophil was also observed to be present in the age group of 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months.

  16. [Evaluation of nasal inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I

    2006-01-01

    In the reaction of immediate hypersensibility to alergene is joined to its specific type IgE antibody, also united to the high affinity receptors for IgE (FccI) of the effecters cells fundamentally mastocites and basophiles. The interbreeding of these molecules Fcc to RI, after the union ofpolyvalent antigenes to IgE, active these cells, producing three biologic responses: excitosis of the preformed content of its granules, synthesization of lipidic mediators and citoquine secretion. The inflammation mediators are in last term, substances responsible of the clinic symptomatology. They can be divided generally in preformed mediators (biogene amines and macromolecules of the granules) and of new synthese mediators (lipidic and citoquine mediators). PMID:16749721

  17. IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Bi, Yutian; Sun, Kun; Wang, Changzheng

    2007-08-01

    As an important subset of regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1), have some different features to thymic-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells(nTreg cells). Similar to nTreg cells, Tr1 also play important roles in the control of allergic inflammation in several ways. There is a fine balance between Tr1 and Th2 responses in healthy subjects. Skewing of allergic-specific effector T cells to a Tr1 phenotype appears to be a critical event in successful allergen-specific immunotherapy and glucocorticoids and beta2-agonists treatment. Tr1 suppress Th2 cells and effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, through producing IL-10, and perhaps TGF-beta. Understanding of Tr1 may be helpful in developing new strategies for treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:17764617

  18. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Suradkar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431

  19. [Differential analysis of BM cell morphology, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic characters and prognosis between myeloblastic and lymphoblastic crisis of CML].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hua-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the difference of morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetic features and prognosis between myeloid blast crisis and lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). A total of 31 patients with CML in blastic crisis in Department of Hematology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University school of Medicine from 2009 January to 2014 January were enrolled in this study. Out of 31 CML patients, 24 cases were patients with myeloid blast crisis and other 7 cases were patients with lymphoblastic crisis. The clinical data, blast cell percentage in peripheral blood and bone marrow, eosinophil and basophil percentage, immunophenotype, cytogenetic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. The results indicated that there was no significant difference of blastic cell percentage in peripheral blood and bone marrow of CML with myeloid blast crisis, and the eosinophil and basophil cells could be easily detected. The ratio of blastic cells in BM was higher than that in PB in lymphoid blastic crisis of CML, eosinophil and basophil cells were rare. 7 cases of CML with lymphoid blastic crisis were B ALL with CD10, CD19, CD34, HLA-DR expression, and 2 cases with CD13 and CD33 expression. The lymphoid score was in all CML patients with lymphoid blastic crisis was greater than or equal to 1.5;and 2 patients with CD13 and CD33 expression, and with 1 myeloid score.24 cases of myeloid blastic crisis of CML patients mainly expressed CD33, CD13, CD38, CD34, CD11b and HLA-DR, and their myeloid score greater than or equal to 2, among them the lymphoid scores of 2 patients were 0.5 and 1 score, respectively. All the 31 patients showed 100% Ph(+) chromosome, among them 3 cases also showed other new chromosome aberrations. There was no significant difference of overall survival rate between lymphoid and myeloid blastic crisis of CML, but the overall survival rate of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI ) was

  20. NF-κB Regulates B-Cell-Derived Nerve Growth Factor Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Heese; Noriko Inoue; Tohru Sawada

    2006-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, four neurotrophins have been identified: nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). NGF exerts an important role in the development and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. However, it has recently been documented that several types of immune cells, such as mast cells, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils, produce,store and release NGF. Accumulating preclinical and clinical data indicate that dysfunctions of NGF and the other neurotrophins may contribute to impaired immune responses and concentration of NGF frequently correlates with disease severity. Thus, the aim of this study was to elucidate the potential signaling mechanisms of cytokineneurotrophins interactions contributing to increased NGF levels. Our data show that the transcription factorNF-κB plays a pivotal role in regulating B-cell-derived NGF expression.

  1. Mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens: role of IL-10 and Tregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A.; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-01-01

    During the past 20 years, major advances have been made in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergen tolerance in humans. The demonstration of T cell tolerance, particularly that mediated by the immune-suppressive functions of IL-10, led to a major conceptual change in this area. Currently, the known essential components of allergen tolerance include the induction of allergen-specific regulatory subsets of T and B cells, the immune-suppressive function of secreted factors, such as IL-10 and TGF-β, the production of IgG4 isotype allergen–specific blocking antibodies, and decreased allergic inflammatory responses by mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils in inflamed tissues. PMID:25365074

  2. Systemic herpesvirus and morbillivirus co-infection in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S; González, B; Willoughby, K; Maley, M; Olvera, A; Kennedy, S; Marco, A; Domingo, M

    2012-01-01

    During 2007 a dolphin morbillivirus epizootic affected the western Mediterranean and several striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the Catalonian coasts. One of those animals had severe lymphoid depletion, necrosis and syncytial formation in lymph nodes and spleen, with large basophilic nuclear inclusions compatible with herpesvirus detected by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. Non-suppurative encephalitis with associated morbillivirus antigen and morbillivirus antigen within alveolar macrophages were also observed. A pan-herpesvirus nested polymerase chain reaction amplified a sequence virtually identical to two cetacean herpesvirus sequences previously identified in systemic infections in an Atlantic Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and in a Mediterranean striped dolphin. The herpesviral infection was probably secondary to the immunosuppression caused by the morbillivirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cetacean co-infected by dolphin morbillivirus and herpesvirus with evidence of lesions attributable to both viruses.

  3. Histopathology of Marine and Freshwater Fish Lymphocytosis Disease Virus (LCDV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)

  4. Screening of several Indonesian medicinal plants for their inhibitory effect on histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawati, Z; Wahyuono, S; Maeyama, K

    2001-05-01

    Twelve alcoholic extracts and 12 hexane extracts of plant materials selected on the basis of medicinal folklore for asthma treatment in Indonesia were studied for their activity in inhibiting histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophilic leukemia cell line), a tumor analog of mast cells. The results of screening indicated that five alcoholic extracts (Plantago major leaves, Eucalyptus globulus leaves and fruit, Cinnamomum massoiae cortex, Vitex trifolia leaves) and two hexane extracts (Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Vitex trifolia leaves) inhibited IgE-dependent histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells. The inhibitory effects were found to be more than 80% for extract concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml. The results indicate that the extracts contain active compounds that inhibit mast-cell degranulation, and provide insight into the development of new drugs for treating asthma and/or allergic disease. PMID:11297859

  5. Chronic radium intoxication: morphology of bone and marrow infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using direct and polarized light microscopy and a variety of standard histologic stains, the morphology of two groups of bone and marrow infarcts are compared. One group is from patients whose infarcts can, with confidence, be related to ischemia, trauma, or embolization and whose histories exclude radium ingestion or exposure. The second group is from radium dial painters whose pre-terminal body burdens of 226Ra ranged from 1.67 μCi to some value equal to or below 0.0042 μCi. The individual bone or marrow infarct among the radium cases does not differ radically from those in the ischemia-injury group, although taken as a whole, the radium-related infarcts are marked by less osteogenetic activity, a less prominent blood supply, much less cellular fibrous tissue and more extensive deposits of basophilic bone debris than the ischemia-injury group

  6. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel;

    1990-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators from intestinal mast cells may serve as initiators of acute and delayed inflammation. Mast cell histamine release was measured in 19 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases using gut mast cells from enzymatically dispersed endoscopic forceps biopsy specimens...... histamine per sample at anti-IgG4 challenge; however, the corresponding basophils did not respond to anti-IgG4. In addition, the anti-IgG4 mediated histamine release was primarily confined to patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This study substantiates previous histopathological findings that mast...... cells may play a functional role in the inflammatory process of inflammatory bowel diseases and provides evidence for a possible role of subclass IgG4 as a reaginic antibody....

  7. Kyrle′s disease presenting in an extensive distribution along lines of Blaschko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old lady presented with the complaints of asymptomatic dark, raised lesions over her body since past 4 years. Dermatological examination revealed hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmented papules in a Blaschkoid distribution over trunk and extremities. The hyperkeratotic lesions could be removed leaving behind a small crater. Skin biopsy revealed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis with epidermal invagination, focal cornified plug with basophilic degenerated material and dyskeratotic keratinocytes. Dermis showed dilated capillaries with moderate amount of perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate and granulomatous lymphocytic infiltrate in the deep dermis. A diagnosis of Kyrle′s disease was made and patient was started on oral acitretin 25 mg daily with satisfactory response to therapy. This is the first reported instance of Kyrle′s disease occurring in an extensive Blaschkoid distribution.

  8. Accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia: evaluation of clinical criteria as predictors of survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fiorini Furtado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published criteria defining the accelerated phase in chronic myeloid leukemia are heterogeneous and little is known about predictors of poor outcome.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 139 subjects in the accelerated phase of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib at a single center in Brazil. The objective was to identify risk factors for survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase in this population. The factors analyzed were: blasts 10-29%, basophils ≥ 20%, platelets > 1 × 106/µL or 1 × 105/µL in the peripheral blood, as well as clonal evolution, splenomegaly, hemoglobin 12 months (p-value = 0.030.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that patients with the above risk factors have a worse prognosis. This information can guide the therapy to be used.

  9. Omalizumab is efficacious for management of recalcitrant, antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, D M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic urticaria continues to be a challenging condition for both patients and physicians. Despite improved understanding of chronic urticaria, many patients continue to experience ongoing symptoms and impaired quality of life. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the domain at which IgE binds to the high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells and basophils. The efficacy of omalizumab for antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials as well as observational studies. Omalizumab is generally well tolerated, and is associated with less potential for harm compared with other therapeutic alternatives (e.g., calcineurin inhibitors) for recalcitrant chronic urticaria. Omalizumab has become the best-studied agent for treatment of antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria, and the agent for which the data in support of its efficacy is most methodologically sound. Omalizumab is an effective therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant chronic urticaria.

  10. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F;

    2014-01-01

    the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter...... products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization...

  11. Chronic urticaria: new management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. "Autoimmune chronic urticaria" implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with labeled dosages of second generation H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines), there is evidence for reduction of urticaria using up to 4 fold increases in labeled dosages. The biologic modifier, omalizumab, helps to reduce lesions of chronic urticaria within 1-2 weeks. PMID:25383135

  12. Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad el Karim, M A; Hamed, A S; Elhaimi, Y A; Osman, Y; el Karim, M A

    1986-01-01

    Health effects of occupational exposure to lead were investigated among 92 exposed workers in lead-acid battery factory and 40 nonexposed workers serving as a control group from an oil mill in Khartoum North industrial area. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socioeconomic conditions. A highly significant increase (P less than .01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin, and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group in comparison to the control group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only on 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic, and constipation were recorded. Exposure to exceedingly high levels of lead in the working environment causes adverse health effects.

  13. Assessment of the potential allergenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC 12 using the FAO/WHO 2001 decision tree for novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev-Jensen, C; Sten, E; Earl, L K;

    2003-01-01

    modern biotechnology and derived from fish are being considered for use in food and other applications, and since allergy to fish is well established, a potential risk from such proteins to susceptible human beings exists. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the potential allergenicity......, methods for assessing degradability under standardised conditions, assays for detection of specific IgE against the protein (Maxisorb RAST) and histamine release from human basophils. In the present paper we describe the serum screening phase of the study and discuss the overall application...... no sequence similarity to known allergens nor was it stable to proteolytic degradation using standardised methods. Using sera from 20 patients with a well-documented clinical history of fish allergy, positive in skin prick tests to ocean pout, eel pout and eel were used, positive IgE-binding in vitro...

  14. Further investigations on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation on blood corpuscles hemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ultraviolet irradiation, applied for one hour, with a relatively high enerqy output of 95.5x103 erg. cm-2. sn-1, on some biological parameters of chicken's blood was determined. At the 24th hour after irradiation erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were decreased, but total leucocyte, thrombocyte counts and percentage of pseudoeosinophils were increased, significantly (P< 0,01). No significant changes were obtained in all parameters, at the 24th hour after a second irradiation. There were also found no differences between the values obtained at 24th hour after the second, and at 48th hour after the single irradiation, but all these values had a tendency taward the initial determinations

  15. [Is Malherbe calcifying epithelioma in the ENT area of a rare tumor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, H

    1986-07-01

    The calcifying epithelioma (pilomatrixoma) is a benign tumour of the skin originating from hair sheath cells. The head, especially the cheek and preauricular region with the parotid gland, is a very common site (about 50%). The tumour arises predominantly in younger people, with a 2:1 female to male ratio. It is not so rare as suggested by the few ENT publications. The histologic picture shows two characteristic epithelial cells, the basophilic and ghost cell. Calcification is present in most cases. The prognosis after removal of the tumour is good. Two personal cases are reported, multiple pilomatrixomas on the cheek of an 12 year old girl, and a tumour on the auricle, an unusual site.

  16. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Work, Thierry M.

    2012-01-01

    The blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Perciformes, Lutjanidae) are cosmopolitan in the Indo-Pacific but were introduced into Oahu, Hawaii, USA, in the 1950s and have since colonized most of the archipelago. Studies of microparasites in blue-striped snappers from Hawaii revealed chlamydia-like organisms (CLO) infecting the spleen and kidney, characterized by intracellular basophilic granular inclusions containing Gram-negative and Gimenez-positive bacteria similar in appearance to epitheliocysts when seen under light microscopy. We provide molecular evidence that CLO are a new member of Chlamydiae, i.e. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, that represents the first reported case of chlamydial infection in organs other than the gill in fishes.

  17. Traditional medicine: a rare cause of lead poisoning in Western countries [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2c6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Muller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man from Bhutan was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced abdominal CT scan was found negative, however laboratory tests showed hemolytic anemia and basophilic stippling which are often seen in lead and heavy metal poisoning. Additional tests revealed a high level of lead in blood and urine. The patient was administered a chelator treatment with rapid improvement of the symptoms. A detailed interview revealed that the patient had been taking daily Bhutanese traditional medicines to treat a Bell’s palsy from which he had been suffering for a few months. The analysis of these medicines confirmed the presence of a high level of lead.

  18. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH outbreak associated with fowl adenovirus type 8b in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH was identified as fowl adenovirus (FAdV type 8b, a member of the Fowl adenovirus E species, based on PCR results of adenoviral polymerase and the hexon gene in an outbreak of acute mortality that affected a broiler flock of 12,000 animals. In two waves of elevated mortality rate, a total of 264 chickens were found dead. Affected birds showed ruffled feathers, depression, watery droppings and limping. The most common pathological lesions seen on necropsy were pale, swollen and friable livers. On histological examination, acute hepatitis characterized by necrosis of hepatocytes, with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, were observed. In addition, infectious bursal disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus were detected in the same flock.

  19. Haematological studies of Gaolao Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Kapale,D.G.Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    Hematological study of 15 healthy Gaolao heifers has been carried out. The mean ±S.E. values of total erythrocyte (10.3 ±0.34 million/cu mm), Hb (11.92 ±0.33 gm%), PCV (34.07±1.11%), MCV (33.14±0.75cuμ), MCH (11.63±0.32 μμgm), MCHC (35.07 ±0.70%),TLC (9.51±0.92 thousand/cmm), Lymphocytes (64.93 ±1.74%),Neutrophil (28.93 ±1.8%), Monocyte (2.2 ±0.34%), Basophil (0.2&...

  20. Outbreak of herpesviral conjunctivitis and respiratory disease in gouldian finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulman, A; Lichtensteiger, C A; Kohrt, L J

    2006-11-01

    An outbreak of tracheitis, sinusitis, and conjunctivitis, originating in recently imported birds, caused high morbidity and mortality in a flock of finches in Central Illinois. Although several species were present, Gouldian finches (Erythrura [Chloebia] gouldiae) were most commonly and severely affected. Birds submitted for necropsy displayed microscopic lesions characteristic of herpesviral infection, including epithelial cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nasopharynx, sinuses, trachea, parabronchi, conjunctiva, and occasionally the lacrimal gland or proximal proventricular glands. Viral particles consistent with herpesvirus were visualized within affected epithelial cells with electron microscopy. Based on a partial sequence of the viral DNA polymerase gene, this virus was found to be identical to a herpesvirus previously implicated in a similar outbreak in Canada and is most likely an alphaherpesvirus.

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, R; van de Bildt, M W G; Schapendonk, C M E; van Leeuwen, M; van Boheemen, S; de Jong, A A W; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species.

  2. Haemopedia: An Expression Atlas of Murine Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. de Graaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is a multistage process involving the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells into distinct mature cell lineages. Here we present Haemopedia, an atlas of murine gene-expression data containing 54 hematopoietic cell types, covering all the mature lineages in hematopoiesis. We include rare cell populations such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and megakaryocytes, and a broad collection of progenitor and stem cells. We show that lineage branching and maturation during hematopoiesis can be reconstructed using the expression patterns of small sets of genes. We also have identified genes with enriched expression in each of the mature blood cell lineages, many of which show conserved lineage-enriched expression in human hematopoiesis. We have created an online web portal called Haemosphere to make analyses of Haemopedia and other blood cell transcriptional datasets easier. This resource provides simple tools to interrogate gene-expression-based relationships between hematopoietic cell types and genes of interest.

  3. Using bacteria to determine protein kinase specificity and predict target substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Chou

    Full Text Available The identification of protein kinase targets remains a significant bottleneck for our understanding of signal transduction in normal and diseased cellular states. Kinases recognize their substrates in part through sequence motifs on substrate proteins, which, to date, have most effectively been elucidated using combinatorial peptide library approaches. Here, we present and demonstrate the ProPeL method for easy and accurate discovery of kinase specificity motifs through the use of native bacterial proteomes that serve as in vivo libraries for thousands of simultaneous phosphorylation reactions. Using recombinant kinases expressed in E. coli followed by mass spectrometry, the approach accurately recapitulated the well-established motif preferences of human basophilic (Protein Kinase A and acidophilic (Casein Kinase II kinases. These motifs, derived for PKA and CK II using only bacterial sequence data, were then further validated by utilizing them in conjunction with the scan-x software program to computationally predict known human phosphorylation sites with high confidence.

  4. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Fumihiko; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath. PMID:26955331

  5. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Onishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath.

  6. Granulocyte and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors as therapy in human and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varón, Emilio; Villamayor, Lucía

    2007-07-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSFs) are endogenous cytokines that regulate granulocyte colonies and play a major role in the stimulation of granulopoiesis (neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) and in the regulation of microbicidal functions. There are numerous pathological conditions in which neutrophils are decreased, the most common being neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy, which increases the risk of serious microbial infections developing with the potential for high morbidity and mortality. New methods in molecular biology have led to the identification and cloning of CSF genes and biopharmaceutical production. Since then, CSFs have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy, for mobilising haematopoietic cell precursors, and for other neutropenia-related pathologies. This review focuses on the use of CSFs within both human and veterinary medicine. Clinical applications, pharmacology, tolerability and the potential role of these factors in veterinary medicine are considered.

  7. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  8. Lead Toxicity Resulting from Chronic Ingestion of Opium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili, Mohammad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:244-246.

  9. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine. PMID:23404176

  10. DSCG binding protein and process for preparing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecht, I.; Mazurek, N.

    1987-07-28

    An essentially pure protein is described consisting essentially of the protein, (CBP), present in nature in membranes of basophile cells and in mast cells, having a molecular weight of about 60,000 +- 2,000 determined by SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis an isoelectric point of about 3.9 and an amino acid composition of about 4 units of asparagine, 3 units of threonine and serine, 3 units glycine, 2 units alanine, 2 units proline, 1 unit cysteine, 2 units valine, 1 unit methionine, 1 unit isoleucine, 2 units leucine, 1 unit tyrosine, 1 unit phenylalanine, 2 units histamine, 2 units lysine and 1 unit arginine. The protein is able to build calcium and having a calcium dependent affinity to the disodium salt of 1,2 bis(-2 carboxychromon-5-yloxy)-2-hydroxy propane (DSCG).

  11. Yeast profilin complements profilin deficiency in transgenic tomato fruits and allows development of hypoallergenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lien Q; Mahler, Vera; Scheurer, Stephan; Foetisch, Kay; Braun, Yvonne; Weigand, Daniela; Enrique, Ernesto; Lidholm, Jonas; Paulus, Kathrin E; Sonnewald, Sophia; Vieths, Stefan; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Gene silencing of Lyc e 1 leads to reduced allergenicity of tomato fruits but impaired growth of transgenic tomato plants. The aim of the study was to restore growth of Lyc e 1-deficient tomato plants while retaining reduced allergenicity by simultaneous complementation of profilin deficiency by expression of nonallergenic yeast profilin. Transgenic plants were generated and tested by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; allergenicity of yeast profilin and transgenic fruits was investigated by IgE binding, basophil activation, and skin-prick tests. Lyc e 1 content of transgenic tomato fruits was foods with reduced allergen accumulation, can be generated even if the allergen fulfills an essential cellular function in the plant. In summary, our findings of efficiently complementing profilin-deficient tomato plants by coexpression of low allergenic yeast profilin demonstrate the feasibility of creating low-allergenic food even if the allergen fulfills essential cellular functions.

  12. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H;

    2000-01-01

    as defined by the Bet v 1 Ab interaction surface. Molecular interactions predicted to occur in the interface are likewise in agreement with earlier observations on Ag-Ab complexes. The epitope is formed by amino acids that are conserved among major allergens from related species within the Fagales order......The symptoms characteristic of allergic hypersensitivity are caused by the release of mediators, i.e., histamine, from effector cells such as basophils and mast cells. Allergens with more than one B cell epitope cross-link IgE Abs bound to high affinity FcepsilonRI receptors on mast cell surfaces...... leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16...

  13. Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma of the median maxillary gingiva: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALQahtani, Dalal; Qannam, Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Oral leiomyomatous hamartoma (OLH) is a rare lesion seen in the oral cavity. It mainly presents on the median maxilla and tongue. In the literature in English, there are only 10 reported cases of OLH of the median maxilla. Most of the cases were found in patients of Japanese and Latin American origin. We report a case of OLH in an 18-month-old boy of Middle Eastern ancestry. The lesion presented as a pedunculated, light pink, soft swelling that was located on the labial gingiva of tooth number 21. Microscopically, it showed proliferative smooth-muscle fascicles dispersed in loose fibrous stroma and multiple small vessels. The lesional cells looked mature and elongated and were deeply eosinophilic spindle cells with basophilic, central "cigar-shaped" nuclei. The diagnosis of OLH was supported by positive immunohistochemical reactivity of smooth-muscle actin and desmin. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of OLH in a Middle Eastern patient.

  14. Histopathological Observation of Lymphocystis Disease and Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Detection in Cultured Diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70-80nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70-80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  15. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium in a neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, R; Vargas, A; Rojas, L; Lemus, M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum). Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light microscopy. The concentration of Cd in the head and trunk kidneys was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cd produced histopathological changes in the head kidney, the most evident of these being: the thickening of the vein wall, an increase in the number of basophils/mast cells close to blood vessels and a severe depletion of hematopoietic precursors especially the granulopoietic series. In the blood, a decrease in the total leucocytes and hemoglobin concentration was observed. Cd-exposed fish showed higher Cd concentrations in the trunk kidney than the head kidney. In conclusion, exposure to Cd affected precursor hematopoietic cells in C. macropomum.

  16. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jacob Eli; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated...... of these reacted to penicillins. 33.3% of the patients receiving antibiotics during their current hospitalisation were prescribed penicillins. 2% developed non-severe exanthema. The average acquisition costs for antibiotics to penicillin allergic patients were euro 278, compared to euro 119 had they been non...... a third of patients receiving antibiotics. The acquisition costs for antibiotics to penicillin allergic patients were higher, compared to the cost had the patients been non-allergic....

  17. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine.

  18. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  19. IL-10-Producing Type 1 Regulatory T Cells and Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Wu; Yutian Bi; Kun Sun; Changzheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    As an important subset of regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1), have some different features to thymic-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells(nTreg cells). Similar to nTreg cells, Tr1 also play important roles in the control of allergic inflammation in several ways. There is a fine balance between Tr1 and Th2 responses in healthy subjects. Skewing of allergic-specific effctor T cells to a Tr1 phenotype appears to be a critical event in successful allergen-specific immunotherapy and glucocorticoids and β2-agonists treatment. Tr1 suppress Th2 cells and effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, through producing IL-10, and perhaps TGF-β. Understanding of Tr1 may be helpful in developing new strategies for treatment of allergic diseases.

  20. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    We previously observed that human, recombinant interleukin-2 in a pharmacologic dose (200 u/ml) induced histamine release from monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Therefore, we studied the role of various pharmacologic doses of rIL-2 on in vitro histamine release....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (5 x 10(6) cells/ml), which also contain basophils, from 13 patients scheduled for elective colorectal cancer surgery and 10 age and sex matched healthy volunteers were stimulated with rIL-2 in concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 450, 900, 1,800 and 3,600 u/ml, respectively...... release. Supernatant histamine concentration from unstimulated cells was 17.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml in patients compared to 7.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml in volunteers (#p < 0.05) after 1 hour stimulation, and no further increase was observed after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Histamine concentration increased...

  1. Ceroid in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    Since the original description of ceroid in rats, many papers have appeared on the etiology and characteristics of this pigment. It was first seen as a yellow, granular pigment in hematoxylin and eosin sections of the cirrhotic livers of choline deficient rats. The pigment was more fully characterized by Endicott and Lillie, and additional stainging reactions were summarized recently by Lillie. The pigment is sudanophilic in paraffin sections, acid-fast, basophilic, isotropic, iron negative, and highly resistant to solution in water, alcohol, fat solvents, and dilute aqueous acids and alkalis. It is stained by Mallory's hemofuscin stain and Weigert's myelin stain. It reduces osmium tetraoxide and diamine silver carbonate but not ferric ferricyanide. The Gmelin reactions for bile pigments is negative. It has a greenish yellow fluorescence at 3650-3660 Å. It is Schiff positive with or without antecedent diastase digestion after performic or periodic acid oxidation.

  2. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  3. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in pakistani horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and hemato-biochemical manifestations of brucellosis in horses. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT). Blood samples were evaluated for hemato-biochemical parameters following standard procedures. Results indicated seroprevalence of brucellosis 20.13 and 16.23% in horses by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Brucellosis does not lead to any significant change in hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to age, sex, body condition and lactation except few parameters. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil, basophil and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in brucellosis positive animals as compared to healthy animals whereas lymphocytes and alanine aminotransferase were in opposite order. It was concluded from the results that prevalence of brucellosis in horse population is of concern; therefore, control measures should be opted so that its zoonotic threat is curtailed. (author)

  4. Effects of Chronic Lead Acetate Intoxication on Blood Indices of Male Adult Rat

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    Mohammadhosein Noori Mugahi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead as one of the environmental pollutants can threats the life of living creatures in many ways. In this study, hematological effects of chronic toxicity of the lead acetate in adult male rats through measurement of the lead concentration in the blood of animal’s heart by atomic absorption as well as hematological analyses and differential cell count were investigated. Results showed that lead concentration in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control groups (P<0.001, and basophilic stippling, Howell-Jolly bodies, decreased RBC count (anemia, increased leukocyte count (leukocytosis, monocytosis, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytosis were observed in the test group (P<0.001. It is concluded that microcytic hypochromic anemia can be attributed to the interaction of lead with iron and copper metabolism and increased leukocyte count may be linked to the inflammatory effects of lead on lymphatic organs.

  5. Haematological characteristics of freshwater-reared and wild mullet, Mugil platanus Günther (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae

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    Maria José T Ranzani-Paiva

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullets, Mugilplalanus Günther, 1880. were obtained from the estua-rine area of CananÉia (São Paulo, Brazil and from freshwater tearing tanks. For each fish the body weight, body length, gonad weight and gonad maturation stage were recorded and the allometric index (K was calculated. Blood was collected for hematocrit (Ht, hemoglobin level (lib, total cell count (Er, and the determination of hematological indices (MCV. MCH, MCHC, as well as the differential leukocyte count (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils and '"other cells". The averages of the hematological analyses, hematological indeces, condition factor and leukocytes percentage of the specimens acclimated to fresh water were significantly higher than those of the specimens from the estuary.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

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    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  7. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy and immune tolerance to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early desensitization effects, modulation of T- and B-cell responses and related antibody isotypes as well as inhibition of migration of eosinophils, basophils and mast cells to tissues and release of their mediators. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been identified as key regulators of immunological processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears as a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in AIT. Naturally occurring FoxP3(+) CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and inducible type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE, and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and suppression of effector T cell migration to tissues. New strategies for immune intervention will likely include targeting of the molecular mechanisms of allergen tolerance and reciprocal regulation of effector and regulatory T cell subsets. PMID:26023323

  8. Role of IgE in autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Miguel A; Sagar, Divya; Kolbeck, Roland

    2016-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that IgE plays a significant role in autoimmunity. The presence of circulating self-reactive IgE in patients with autoimmune disorders has been long known but, at the same time, largely understudied. However, studies have shown that the increased IgE concentration is not associated with higher prevalence for atopy and allergy in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE-mediated mechanisms are conventionally known to facilitate degranulation of mast cells and basophils and promote TH2 immunity, mechanisms that are not only central to mounting an appropriate defense against parasitic worms, noxious substances, toxins, venoms, and environmental irritants but that also trigger exuberant allergic reactions in patients with allergies. More recently, IgE autoantibodies have been recognized to participate in the self-inflicted damaging immune responses that characterize autoimmunity. Such autoimmune responses include direct damage on tissue-containing autoantigens, activation and migration of basophils to lymph nodes, and, as observed most recently, induction of type 1 interferon responses from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The importance of IgE as a central pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity has now been clinically validated by the approval of omalizumab, an anti-IgE mAb, for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and for the clinical benefit of patients with bullous pemphigoid. In this review we summarize recent reports describing the prevalence of self-reactive IgE and discuss novel findings that incriminate IgE as central in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. PMID:27264000

  9. Effect of vitamin E levels on the cell-mediated immunity of broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICM da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the relationships between animal nutrition and immunity have sought reliable methodologies to measure responses. Cell-mediated immune response is similarly studied in humans. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity test (CBH is one of the methods to measure that response and consists in the infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly of lymphocytes and basophils, as result of the application of substances capable of inducing cell proliferation in determined sites, such as wings, wattle, and interdigital space in birds. CBH is considered a simple and fast method and can be applied in birds of different ages. In immunocompetence studies with poultry, phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P is a commonly used substance, despite the variability of the response related to the method of application (intradermal injection and the antigens used. In the present experiment, PHA-P was used to observe the cell-mediated immune response of 216 chicks fed three dietary levels of vitamin E from 1 to 36 days of age. All birds were immunologically challenged by vaccination against coccidiosis at three days of age and against Newcastle Disease (NCD at 14 and 30 days of age. At 36 days of age, birds were submitted to the CBH test according to the methodology of Corrier & DeLoach (1990. Birds fed 65mg/kg of vitamin E presented lasting cell reaction (p<0.08, which indicates that this vitamin E level improved cell immune response of birds due to its antioxidant and immunomodulating properties. The use of this vitamin E level can be considered by nutritionists under practical conditions, aiming to improve broiler immunity.

  10. Identification, recombinant expression, and characterization of the 100 kDa high molecular weight Hymenoptera venom allergens Api m 5 and Ves v 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Bockisch, Benjamin; Braren, Ingke; Cifuentes, Liliana; McIntyre, Mareike; Rühl, Dana; Ring, Johannes; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Ollert, Markus W; Grunwald, Thomas; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-05-01

    Insect stings can cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in venom-allergic patients. Although several compounds have already been described as venom allergens, prominent allergen candidates especially in the higher m.w. range have still remained elusive. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing assigned a candidate gene to the most prominent putative high m.w. allergen Api m 5 (allergen C) in honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom and also allowed identification of its homologue Ves v 3 in yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) venom. Both proteins exhibit a pronounced sequence identity to human dipeptidyl peptidase IV or CD26. Reactivity of a human IgE mAb verified the presence of these proteins in the venoms. Both proteins were produced in insect cells and characterized for their enzymatic activity as well as their allergenic potential using sera and basophils from insect venom-allergic patients. Both Api m 5 and Ves v 3 were recognized by specific IgE of the majority of patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Serologic IgE reactivity closely matched activation of human basophils by Api m 5 or Ves v 3, thus underlining their relevance in functional assays. With Api m 5 and Ves v 3, a new pair of homologous allergens becomes available for future clinical applications in diagnosis and therapy that may also contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of insect venoms. Moreover, the patient IgE reactivity together with the cellular activation demonstrates for the first time the relevance of high m.w. allergens in the context of hymenoptera venom allergy. PMID:20348419

  11. Radioimmunometric analysis of histamine in myeloproliferative syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analysis of histamine is increasingly used in clinical haematology. The present study demonstrates the properties of and potential indication for a novel histamine radioimmunoassay (RIA) in clinical haematology. The sensitivity of this test assay corresponds to a histamine level of 0,1 to 0,5 nM, the non-specific cross reaction with endogeneous histamine metabolites appears to be less than 0,1%. The total histamine levels in the peripheral blood of healthy donors (n = 10) ranged from 10 to 100 ng/ml, the plasma histamine values from 0,02 to 0,6 ng/ml blood. Increased levels of total histamine were measured in myeloproliferative syndromes, i.e. in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)(8 of 9), myelofibrosis (OMS)(2 of 4), and polycythaemia vera (PCV)(1 of 2). An excessive increase in total histamine was observed in healthy rhesus monkeys (n = 10) treated with recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3). The total histamine value correlated with the absolute number of circulating blood basophils (correlation coefficient: 0,9). The calculated content of histamine per basophil was found to be 0,5 to 1,5 pg. Plasma histamine values in patients suffering from myeloproliferative syndromes were within the normal range. In contrast, a moderate to marked increase in plasma histamine values was observed in monkeys during IL-3 treatment. The radioimmunometric analysis of histamine clearly represents a useful new test system in clinical haematology, especially in the follow up of malignant as well as IL-3-induced myeloproliferation. (Authors)

  12. Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcɛRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabban, Sari; Ye, Hongtu; Helm, Birgit

    2013-05-15

    The binding of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to its high-affinity receptor (FcɛRI) is the central protein interaction in IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The cross-linking of the IgE/FcɛRI complex, through cognate allergens, on the surface of mast cells and basophil cells results in mediator release, and thus leads to the symptoms of type I hypersensitivity responses in mammals. To develop a baseline value for subsequent equine anti-allergy drug and vaccine research, the interaction of equine IgE with its high-affinity FcɛRI receptor was investigated following the cloning and expression of equine IgE with specificity for NIP-HSA (4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenylacetic acid conjugated to human serum albumin). Receptor recognition and effector functions were assessed in Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells transfected with the α chain of equine and canine FcɛRI. Results obtained showed that the equine FcɛRI receptor recognizes both equine and canine IgE and supports similar β-hexosaminidase release levels from RBL cells transfected with equine FcɛRI, peaking at 36.68% at 100ngml(-1) antigen and 32.00% at 100ngml(-1) antigen respectively. Furthermore, the binding kinetics of the equine IgE to the equine FcɛRI receptor and the canine IgE to the same receptor was measured to be KA=6.33×10(9)M(-1) and KA=1.84×10(9)M(-1) respectively. This research established basic reagents and vitro assay systems to underpin the development of rational therapeutic intervention strategies to combat equine allergic manifestations. PMID:23485176

  13. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  14. Blockade of peanut allergy with a novel Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fcγ1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human FcεRIα and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFcεRIα transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking FcγRII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fcγ can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607

  15. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibit heterogeneous CD52 expression levels and show differential sensitivity to alemtuzumab mediated cytolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva P Rao

    Full Text Available Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs display the highest number while natural killer (NK cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact.

  16. Alternative splicing of interleukin-33 and type 2 inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erin D; Simpson, Laura J; Rios, Cydney L; Ringel, Lando; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Peters, Michael C; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Gonzalez, Jeanmarie R; MacLeod, Hannah J; Christian, Laura S; Yuan, Shaopeng; Barry, Liam; Woodruff, Prescott G; Ansel, K Mark; Nocka, Karl; Seibold, Max A; Fahy, John V

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 inflammation occurs in a large subgroup of asthmatics, and novel cytokine-directed therapies are being developed to treat this population. In mouse models, interleukin-33 (IL-33) activates lung resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) to initiate airway type 2 inflammation. In human asthma, which is chronic and difficult to model, the role of IL-33 and the target cells responsible for persistent type 2 inflammation remain undefined. Full-length IL-33 is a nuclear protein and may function as an "alarmin" during cell death, a process that is uncommon in chronic stable asthma. We demonstrate a previously unidentified mechanism of IL-33 activity that involves alternative transcript splicing, which may operate in stable asthma. In human airway epithelial cells, alternative splicing of the IL-33 transcript is consistently present, and the deletion of exons 3 and 4 (Δ exon 3,4) confers cytoplasmic localization and facilitates extracellular secretion, while retaining signaling capacity. In nonexacerbating asthmatics, the expression of Δ exon 3,4 is strongly associated with airway type 2 inflammation, whereas full-length IL-33 is not. To further define the extracellular role of IL-33 in stable asthma, we sought to determine the cellular targets of its activity. Comprehensive flow cytometry and RNA sequencing of sputum cells suggest basophils and mast cells, not ILC2s, are the cellular sources of type 2 cytokines in chronic asthma. We conclude that IL-33 isoforms activate basophils and mast cells to drive type 2 inflammation in chronic stable asthma, and novel IL-33 inhibitors will need to block all biologically active isoforms. PMID:27432971

  17. Genetic engineering of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 6, to reduce allergenic activity and preserve immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, Susanne; Focke, Margarete; Kopec, Jolanta; Verdino, Petra; Hartl, Arnulf; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ball, Tanja; Almo, Steve; Valent, Peter; Thalhamer, Josef; Keller, Walter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    On the basis of IgE epitope mapping data, we have produced three allergen fragments comprising aa 1-33, 1-57, and 31-110 of the major timothy grass pollen allergen Phl p 6 aa 1-110 by expression in Escherichia coli and chemical synthesis. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the purified fragments lack the typical alpha-helical fold of the complete allergen. Superposition of the sequences of the fragments onto the three-dimensional allergen structure indicated that the removal of only one of the four helices had led to the destabilization of the alpha helical structure of Phl p 6. The lack of structural fold was accompanied by a strong reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the three fragments as determined by basophil histamine release in allergic patients. Each of the three Phl p 6 fragments adsorbed to CFA induced Phl p 6-specific IgG Abs in rabbits. However, immunization of mice with fragments adsorbed to an adjuvant allowed for human use (AluGel-S) showed that only the Phl p 6 aa 31-110 induced Phl p 6-specific IgG Abs. Anti-Phl p 6 IgG Abs induced by vaccination with Phl p 6 aa 31-110 inhibited patients' IgE reactivity to the wild-type allergen as well as Phl p 6-induced basophil degranulation. Our results are of importance for the design of hypoallergenic allergy vaccines. They show that it has to be demonstrated that the hypoallergenic derivative induces a robust IgG response in a formulation that can be used in allergic patients.

  18. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  19. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer. PMID:24594861

  20. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ni Mi

    Full Text Available The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer.

  1. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides induce cardiovascular collapse and sepsis-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-04-01

    Fifty percent of trauma patients who present sepsis-like syndrome do not have bacterial infections. This condition is known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A unifying factor of SIRS and sepsis is cardiovascular collapse. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) are damage-associated molecular patterns that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides and are potent immune system activators. The goal of this study was to investigate whether F-MIT trigger SIRS, including hypotension and vascular collapse via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) activation. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters in Wistar rats treated with FPR or histamine receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the nitric oxide pathway before and after F-MIT infusion. F-MIT, but not nonformylated peptides or mitochondrial DNA, induced severe hypotension via FPR activation and nitric oxide and histamine release. Moreover, F-MIT infusion induced hyperthermia, blood clotting, and increased vascular permeability. To evaluate the role of leukocytes in F-MIT-induced hypotension, neutrophil, basophil, or mast cells were depleted. Depletion of basophils, but not neutrophils or mast cells, abolished F-MIT-induced hypotension. Rats that underwent hemorrhagic shock increased plasma levels of mitochondrial formylated proteins associated with lung damage and antagonism of FPR ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. Finally, F-MIT induced vasodilatation in isolated resistance arteries via FPR activation; however, F-MIT impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of blood. These data suggest that F-MIT may be the link among trauma, SIRS, and cardiovascular collapse.

  2. Gambaran Hitung Jenis Leukosit pada Pasien Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik yang Dirawat di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revi Sofiana Martantya

    2014-05-01

    marrow that can affect leukocyte counts in peripheral blood. Other factors that can also affect leukocyte count in COPD patients is the presence of comorbidities. The design of this study was descriptive retrospective from medical record of 69 people with COPD who were treated at the lungs and internal medicine department of dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. The result of this study show in COPD patients without comorbidities (n=9 average value of basophil counts 0±0%, eosinophils 1.22±1.2%, neutrophils rod 3.33±2.5%, neutrophils segment 79.56±9.26%, lymphocytes 13.67±6.55%, and monocytes 2.22±2.44%. COPD patients with infectious comorbidities (n=41 obtained average value of basophil counts 0±0%, eosinophils 1.02±1.59%, neutrophils rod 1.98±2.63%, neutrophils segment 81.07±8.44%, lymphocytes 12.83±6.68%, and monocytes 3.1±2.71%. In COPD patients with non-infectious comorbidities (n=19 obtained average value of basophil counts 0±0%, eosinophils 2.16±5.65%, neutrophils rod 2.16±1.77%, neutrophils segment 79.0±10.44%, lymphocytes 14.16±8.03%, and monocytes 2.53±1.87%. This study shows that COPD patients without comorbidities, with infectious, and with non-infectious comorbidities obtained neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia.Keywords:COPD, differential leukocyte count

  3. 魁蚶血细胞分类及其免疫功能的初步分析%Studies on the hemocytes types and their immunological functions in bloody clam (Scapharca broughtonii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽青; 杨爱国; 王清; 刘志鸿; 吴彪; 田吉腾; 严加坤; 吕振明

    2013-01-01

    借助显微观察和鳗弧菌免疫刺激等手段,首次对魁蚶血细胞进行分类及免疫功能分析.魁蚶血细胞可分为3大类:红细胞、白细胞和血栓细胞,红细胞发育过程大致经历新生、成熟、衰老和死亡4个阶段.白细胞分为:嗜酸性、嗜中性、嗜碱性细胞,以及淋巴细胞和巨核细胞.嗜酸性、嗜中性、嗜碱性细胞和血栓细胞均参与血液的凝固;红细胞、白细胞均有吞噬病原菌能力,红细胞具有被动吞噬作用和免疫吸附作用,白细胞具有主动吞噬作用,嗜酸性和嗜中性细胞是吞噬病原菌的主体,嗜碱性细胞具有吞噬大颗粒异物的作用,魁蚶感染病原菌后白细胞增多并表现炎症.研究表明,魁蚶血细胞在应对外界的免疫刺激时,能作出系统免疫应答,且血细胞免疫分工明确,以抵御外界不良刺激.%It was the first time to study the types and immunological functions of blood cells in bloody clam (Scapharca broughtonii) by the means of microscopic observation and immunostimulation with pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum, and three types of hemocytes were recognized: red blood cells, white blood cells and thrombus cells. Red blood cells had four developmental states: freshmen, mature, aging and death. White blood cells were divided into acidophils, neutuophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and megalokaryocytic. Acidophils,neutuophils,basophils and thrombus cells were all involved in the blood coagulation. Both red blood cells and white blood cells had phagocytic function,red cells showed the passive phagocytic function and immune adherence function, while white cells showed the active phagocytic function. Acidophils and neutuophils cells were principal in phagocytizing pathogens, and basophils cells could be found phagocytizing large size foreign materials, an increase in the number of white cell and inflammation took place after the bloody clam was infected by pathogen. It was also the first time to show the

  4. T-cell response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Cevdet; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening IgE-dependent type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in which multiple organ systems are involved. The existence of allergen exposure and specific IgE are the major contributors to this systemic reaction. The decision of the immune system to respond to allergens is highly dependent on factors including the type and load of allergen, behavior and type of antigen-presenting cells, innate immune response stimulating substances in the same micromilieu, the tissue of exposure, interactions between T and B lymphocytes, costimulators, and genetic propensity known as atopy. Antigen-presenting cells introduce processed allergens to T-helper lymphocytes, where a decision of developing different types of T-cell immunity is given under the influence of several cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory signals and regulatory T cells. Among Th2-type cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are responsible for class switching in B cells, which results in production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies that bind to specific receptors on mast cells and basophils. After re-exposure to the sensitized allergen, this phase is followed by activation of IgE Fc receptors on mast cells and basophils resulting in biogenic mediator releases responsible for the symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis. Since the discovery of regulatory T cells, the concepts of immune regulation have substantially changed during the last decade. Peripheral T-cell tolerance is a key immunologic mechanism in healthy immune response to self antigens and non-infectious non-self antigens. Both naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible populations of allergen-specific, IL-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells inhibit allergen-specific effector cells and have been shown to play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and the establishment of controlled immune responses. On the other hand, Th17 cells are characterized by their IL-17 (or IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-6

  5. The aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, S C; Schwartz, A B

    1985-02-01

    Pathologic studies of the myocardium and valvular structures have failed to provide convincing evidence of gross or microscopic changes that can be ascribed to aging alone. Lipofuscin accumulation and basophilic degeneration in cardiac muscle cells appear to be the most consistent findings associated with aging, but they are found in other conditions. Without doubt, pathologic changes in the myocardium, valves, and coronary arteries are found more frequently in the hearts of elderly persons, but those changes are caused by disease processes associated with an aging population rather than the aging process itself. Both the sinus and atrioventricular nodes decrease in size with age owing to a loss of cellularity. These structures become infiltrated with collagen, elastic tissue, and reticular fibers. Some have found infiltration also with fat. Amyloid deposition, basophilic degeneration of cells, and lipofuscin accumulation occur but probably do not cause functional abnormalities. Similar but less dramatic changes occur in the bundle of His and individual bundle branches. Most of the data suggests that these aging changes are not due to vascular insufficiency. Age-related changes in intrinsic mechanical function have been identified as a prolongation of contraction duration, decreased inotropic responses to catecholamines and cardiac glycosides, and an increase in mechanical refractoriness. Other possible age-related changes include alterations in relaxation, which may or may not be independent of the prolongation of contraction, and changes in the viscoelastic properties of cardiac muscle. When examined in the context of the components of a model of excitation-contraction coupling, changes in action potential duration and the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum emerge as the most likely bases for the changes. The electrical characteristics of sinus, atrioventricular, and His-Purkinje cells as well as atrial and ventricular muscle cells change with age. The sinus

  6. Vaccination with intestinal tract antigens does not induce protective immunity in a permissive model of filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C Paul; Torrero, Marina N; Larson, David; Evans, Holly; Shi, Yinghui; Cox, Rachel T; Mitre, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Antigens obtained from the intestinal tract of filarial nematodes have been proposed as potential safe and effective vaccine candidates. Because they may be 'hidden' from the immune response during natural infection, yet accessible by antibodies induced by vaccination, intestinal antigens may have a low potential for eliciting allergic responses when vaccinating previously infected individuals. Despite prior promising data, vaccination with intestinal antigens has yet to be tested in a permissive model of filariasis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of vaccination with filarial intestinal antigens in the permissive Litomosoides sigmodontis BALB/c model of filariasis, and we evaluated the extent to which these antigens are recognized by the immune system during and after infection. Infected BALB/c mice developed lower IgG antibody responses to soluble intestinal antigens (GutAg) than to soluble antigens of whole worms (LsAg). Similarly, GutAg induced less proliferation and less production of IL-4 and IFNγ from splenocytes of infected mice than LsAg. In contrast to these differences, active infection resulted in equivalent levels of circulating GutAg-specific IgE and LsAg-specific IgE levels. Consistent with this, basophil activation, as assessed by flow cytometric staining of intracellular basophil IL-4 expression, was equivalent in response to GutAg and LsAg. Vaccination with GutAg adsorbed to CpG/alum induced GutAg specific IgG1 and IgG2A production, with GutAg specific IgG titers greater than 5-fold higher than those measured in previously infected animals. Despite this response to GutAg vaccination, vaccinated mice harbored similar parasite burdens 8 weeks post infection when compared to non-vaccinated controls. These studies demonstrate that soluble antigens obtained from the intestinal tracts of L. sigmodontis have some qualities of 'hidden' antigens, but they still sensitize mice to allergic reactions and fail to protect against future infection

  7. Morphological and cytochemical observations on the peripheral blood cells of Megalobrama pellegrini%厚颌鲂外周血细胞形态及细胞化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 杜长雷; 金丽; 张耀光

    2011-01-01

    The Wright-Giemsa(W-G) and Cytochemical staining methods were used for observations on the morphological features and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells in Megalobrama pellegrini. Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and three type of granulocytes, were identified in the peripheral blood of M. pellegrini. Except mature erythrocytes, immature erythrocytes (IE) and old erythrocytes (OE) were observed, and IE and OE are relatively less;thrombocytes are the most abundant blood cells after erythrocytes, and the next are lymphocytes. Granulocytes- Ⅰ and granulocytes- Ⅱ are more common in granulocytes, whereas granulocytes- Ⅲ are very rare. Lymphocytes, thrombocytes and immature erythrocytes showed weakly ACP positive; monocytes showed ACP and ANAE positive; granulocytes- Ⅰ are heterophils, which showed POX, PAS, ACP and ANAE positive; granulocytes-I are PAS positive granular leucocytes,which stained intensely positive with PAS and positive with ACP; granulocyte-Ⅲ is the later stage of the Granulocyte- Ⅰ .PAS-GL may be eosinophil/basophil, which couldn’t be precursor of basophil.%采用血细胞常规染色和细胞化学染色对厚颌鲂(Megalobrama pellegrini)外周血细胞形态及细胞化学特征进行观察.结果显示:厚颌鲂外周血细胞可分为红细胞、血栓细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞和三种类型粒细胞.红细胞有幼稚、成熟和衰老三种形态,其中幼稚和衰老红细胞较少见;血栓细胞数量最多,其次是淋巴细胞.粒细胞中Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型较常见,Ⅲ型粒细胞少有.细胞化学染色显示幼红细胞、血栓细胞和淋巴细胞均呈ACP弱阳性;单核细胞呈ACP和ANAE阳性;Ⅰ型粒细胞是嗜中性粒细胞,POX、ACP和ANAE阳性;Ⅱ型粒细胞是PAS-GL,PAS强阳性和ACP阳性;Ⅲ型粒细胞是Ⅰ型粒细胞的晚期形态.厚颌鲂的PAS-GL可能是嗜酸性/嗜碱性粒细胞,而不是嗜碱性粒细胞的前体.

  8. Degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium following inhalation exposure to methyl bromide: pathology, cell kinetics, and olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, M E; Thomas, D A; Working, P K; Monticello, T M; Morgan, K T

    1988-06-30

    The effects of acute inhalation exposure to methyl bromide (MeBr) on the olfactory epithelium of male F-344 rats was investigated by morphologic examination of animals killed at varying timepoints during and following exposure to 200 ppm MeBr 6 hr/day for 5 days. Cell replication rate and histopathology were used to assess the kinetics of repair. In addition, olfactory function, using the buried food pellet test, was assessed and the result compared with morphological recovery. Extensive destruction of the olfactory epithelium was evident in animals killed directly after a single 6-hr exposure to MeBr. Histologic features of these lesions indicate that the primary, or most severe, effect of MeBr exposure was on the sustentacular cells and mature sensory cells; basal cells were generally unaffected. By Day 3, despite continued exposure, there was replacement of the olfactory epithelium by a squamous cell layer that increased in thickness and basophilic cytoplasmic staining over the next 2 days of exposure. One week postexposure, the epithelial region was covered by a layer of polyhedral, basophilic cells, and from 2 to 10 weeks postexposure, the epithelium exhibited progressive reorganization to reform the original olfactory epithelium pattern. By Week 10, 75-80% of the olfactory epithelium appeared morphologically normal. Cell replication showed a single peak of olfactory epithelial cell proliferation at Day 3 of exposure, with a labeling index of 14.5% compared to 0.7% in controls. Cell replication rates returned gradually to control levels by Week 10 postexposure. Behavioral tests of olfactory function in animals after a single 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm MeBr demonstrated a loss of the sense of smell, with recovery of this function by Day 6. Exposure to 90 ppm caused no observable effect on olfactory function or morphology. These findings demonstrate that the olfactory mucosa is highly sensitive to the toxic effects of MeBr and that olfactory epithelial cell

  9. Sequential univariate gating approach to study the effects of erythropoietin in murine bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuthanandam, Ram; Quinn, John; Capocasale, Renold J; Bugelski, Peter J; Hrebien, Leonid; Kam, Moshe

    2008-08-01

    Analysis of multicolor flow cytometric data is traditionally based on the judgment of an expert, generally time consuming, sometimes incomplete and often subjective in nature. In this article, we investigate another statistical method using a Sequential Univariate Gating (SUG) algorithm to identify regions of interest between two groups of multivariate flow cytometric data. The metric used to differentiate between the groups of univariate distributions in SUG is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (D) statistic. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by applying it to a known three-color data set looking at activation of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes with anti-CD3 antibody treatment and comparing the results to the expert analysis. The algorithm is then applied to a four-color data set used to study the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on several murine bone marrow populations. SUG was used to identify regions of interest in the data and results compared to expert analysis and the current state-of-the-art statistical method, Frequency Difference Gating (FDG). Cluster analysis was then performed to identify subpopulations responding differently to rHuEPO. Expert analysis, SUG and FDG identified regions in the data that showed activation of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes with anti-CD3 treatment. In the rHuEPO treated data sets, the expert and SUG identified a dose responsive expansion of only the erythroid precursor population. In contrast, FDG resulted in identification of regions of interest both in the erythroid precursors as well as in other bone marrow populations. Clustering within the regions of interest defined by SUG resulted in identification of four subpopulations of erythroid precursors that are morphologically distinct and show a differential response to rHuEPO treatment. Greatest expansion is seen in the basophilic and poly/orthochromic erythroblast populations with treatment. Identification of populations of interest can be performed

  10. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Javanbakht; Abbas Tavassoli; Atefeh Sabbagh; Mehdy Aghamohammmad Hassan; Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Radmehr Shafiee; Ali Lakzian; Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee; Sonia Shoja Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70-5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9-90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L;reference interval, 5-60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5-55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5-5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3-17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  11. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad; Javanbakht; Abbas; Tavassoli; Atefeh; Sabbagh; Mehdy; Aghamohammmad; Hassan; Shohreh; Alian; Samakkhah; Radmehr; Shafiee; Ali; Lakzian; Vahideh; Rahmani; Ghalee; Sonia; Shoja; Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia.A complete blood cell count,serum biochemistry panel,and urinalysis(cystocentesis sample)were evaluated.Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration(7.28 mmol/L;reference interval,2.70-5.94 mmol/L),increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity(184 U/L;reference interval,9-90 U/L),alanine transaminase(122 U/L;reference interval,5-60 U/L)activity and aspartate aminotransferase(80 U/L;reference interval,5-55 U/L)activity,severe increased total calcium concentration(16.3 mg/dL;reference interval,8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL),and decreased total calcium concentration(3.4 mg/dL,reference interval,2.5-5.6mg/dL).Furthermore,testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration(38.6 pmol/L;reference interval,3-17 pmol/L).On cytologic and histopathologic examinations,various types of cells were observed.Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm.The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm.Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures.Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus.Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed.Histologically,the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells.Based on location and histologic features,the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac,which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  12. Waterborne cadmium impacts immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic endpoints in green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cadmium (Cd) significantly altered the proportional composition of haemocytes. •Subchronic exposure increased nuclear aberrations in gill cells. •Branchial nuclear aberrations correlated significantly with gill Cd accumulation. •Cd induced DNA damage in haemocytes. -- Abstract: Mussels are sentinel species that can be used to monitor coastal metal pollution through the application of biomarkers. Among the several important metal toxicants in coastal settings, cadmium (Cd) is of particular concern, being a non-essential metal that is known to cause harmful impacts in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of Cd on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, under laboratory conditions. The acute (96 h; 0, 2000 and 4000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) and subchronic (28 d; 0, 200 and 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) toxic effects of waterborne Cd were measured in haemocytes and gill cells using differential haemocyte cell count, the micronucleus test and the comet assay. During subchronic exposure to Cd the relative counts of eosinophils and hyalinocytes increased significantly in Cd-exposed mussels while the proportion of basophils decreased. All of these effects were time- and concentration-dependent. Conversely, the relative numbers of basophils and eosinophils increased significantly during acute Cd exposure. Nuclear aberrations such as the formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds, fragmented-apoptotic cells and binuclei were observed in gill cells of Cd-exposed mussels. All of these parameters increased significantly at 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1} during subchronic exposure to Cd, and all showed a strong and significant correlation to gill Cd accumulation. Comet assay results demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage in the haemocytes of mussels exposed to subchronic Cd concentrations. The results indicate that Cd has the capacity to induce immune system and genotoxic

  13. Chemokines: structure, receptors and functions. A new target for inflammation and asthma therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. A. van Acker

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Five to 10% of the human population have a disorder of the respiratory tract called ‘asthma’. It has been known as a potentially dangerous disease for over 2000 years, as it was already described by Hippocrates and recognized as a disease entity by Egyptian and Hebrew physicians. At the beginning of this decade, there has been a fundamental change in asthma management. The emphasis has shifted from symptom relief with bronchodilator therapies (e.g. β2-agonists to a much earlier introduction of anti-inflammatory treatment (e.g. corticosteroids. Asthma is now recognized to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, involving various inflammatory cells and their mediators. Although asthma has been the subject of many investigations, the exact role of the different inflammatory cells has not been elucidated completely. Many suggestions have been made and several cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, such as the eosinophils, the mast cells, the basophils and the lymphocytes. To date, however, the relative importance of these cells is not completely understood. The cell type predominantly found in the asthmatic lung is the eosinophil and the recruitment of these eosinophils can be seen as a characteristic of asthma. In recent years much attention is given to the role of the newly identified chemokines in asthma pathology. Chemokines are structurally and functionally related 8–10 kDa peptides that are the products of distinct genes clustered on human chromosomes 4 and 17 and can be found at sites of inflammation. They form a superfamily of proinflammatory mediators that promote the recruitment of various kinds of leukocytes and lymphocytes. The chemokine superfamily can be divided into three subgroups based on overall sequence homology. Although the chemokines have highly conserved amino acid sequences, each of the chemokines binds to and induces the chemotaxis of particular classes of white blood cells. Certain

  14. Analysis of hematologic and serum chemistry values of Spheniscus magellanicus with molecular detection of avian malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus routinely migrate from their breeding colonies to Southern Brazil often contracting diseases during this migration, notably avian malaria, which has been already reported in Brazil and throughout the world. Detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood smears is the routine diagnostic method of avian malaria, however it has a low sensitivity rate when compared to molecular methods. Considering the negative impact of avian malaria on penguins, the aim of this study was to detect the presence of Plasmodium spp. in Magellanic penguins using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by verifying clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations in blood samples as well as to verify the likely prognosis in response to infection. Blood samples were obtained from 75 penguins to determine packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels. Whole blood samples were used for PCR assays. Plasmodium spp. was detected in 32.0% of the specimens using PCR and in 29.3% using microscopic analyses. Anorexia, diarrhea and neurological disorders were more frequent in penguins with malaria and a significant weight difference between infected and non-infected penguins was detected. PCV and MCV rates showed no significant difference. RBC and WBC counts were lower in animals with avian malaria and leukopenia was present in some penguins. Basophil and lymphocyte counts were lower in infected penguins along with high monocyte counts. There was no significant difference in AST activities between infected and non-infected animals. There was a significant increase in uric acid values, however a decrease in albumin values was observed in infected penguins. Based on this study, we concluded that Plasmodium spp. occurs in Magellanic penguins of rehabilitation centers in Southeastern Brazil

  15. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  16. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  17. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

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    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  18. First cytochemical study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    V. Matozzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a morphological study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii was carried out by means of light microscopy and differing cytochemical assays. Analysis of haemocyte size frequency distribution (performed by means of a Coulter Counter revealed the presence of two distinct haemocyte fractions in C. aestuarii haemolymph, depending on cell size. The first fraction was of about 3-5 µm in diameter and 30-50 fL in volume, the second was of about 6-12 µm in diameter and over 200 fL in volume. Mean cell diameter and volume were 8.20±1.7 µm and 272.30±143.5 fL, respectively. Haemocytes observed under light microscope were distinguished in three cell types: granulocytes (28%; 11.94±1.43 µm in diameter with evident cytoplasmic granules, semigranulocytes (27%; 12.38±1.76 µm in diameter with less granules than granulocytes, and hyalinocytes (44%; 7.88±1.6 µm in diameter without granules. In addition, a peculiar cell type was occasionally found (about 1%: it was 25-30 µm in diameter and had a great vacuole and a peripheral cytoplasm with granules. Granulocyte and semigranulocyte granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. Giemsa’s dye confirmed that granulocytes and semigranulocytes were larger than hyalinocytes. Pappenheim’s panoptical staining and Ehrlich’s triacid mixture allowed to distinguish granule-containing cells (including semigranulocytes in acidophils (64%, basophils (35% and neutrophils (1%. Hyalinocytes showed always a basophilic cytoplasm. Haemocytes were positive to the PAS reaction for carbohydrates, even if cytoplasm carbohydrate distribution varied among cell types. Lastly, lipids were found on cell membrane and in cytoplasm of all haemocyte types in the form of black spots produced after Sudan Black B staining. The morphological characterisation of C. aestuarii haemocytes by light microscopy was necessary before performing both ultrastructural and functional

  19. Morfologia de células neurológicas e imunológicas da medula espinhal de cães (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1215 Morphology of neurological and immunologic cells of canine spinal cord - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1215

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    Maria Rita Pacheco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a morfologia de neurônios, de neuróglia e de células de defesa da pia-máter das regiões cervical, torácica e lombar da medula espinhal de cães. Utilizaram-se as técnicas da hematoxilina-eosina (HE, do tricrômico de Masson (TM, da impregnação pela prata e da peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP. Pela coloração com TM, evidenciaram-se neurônios com núcleo acidófilo e citoplasma basófilo e com HE, o núcleo mostrou-se basófilo e o citoplasma acidófilo. Observou-se irregularidade nos prolongamentos citoplasmáticos (núcleo grande, esférico ou oval, pouco corado, com cromatina frouxa e um ou mais nucléolos evidentes. Pela PAP, visualizou-se astrócitos com citoplasma marrom e núcleo roxo-azulado, possuindo os fibrosos prolongamentos longos e menos ramificados e os protoplasmáticos, prolongamentos curtos e abundantes. Pela prata, evidenciou-se oligodendróglia com corpo celular arredondado e micróglia com corpo celular alongado e pequeno, tanto nas substâncias brancas quanto nas cinzentas. As células ependimárias apresentaram epitélio cilíndrico simples ciliado e as células de defesa apresentaram neutrófilos segmentados e eosinófilosThis study analyzed neurons and neuroglia morphology, and pia mater defensive cells from canine spinal cord cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE, Masson’s trichrome (MT, silver and anti-peroxydase peroxydase (APP stains were used. By MT, neurons with acidophilic nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm were observed. HE showed neurons with basophilic nucleus and acidophilic cytoplasm. Irregularity of cytoplasmatic processes, large, round or oval nucleus, pale-stained, and one or more nucleolus was also noted. By APP, astrocytes were visualized with brown cytoplasm and blue-purple nucleus, showing fibrous astrocytes with long and less ramified processes, and protoplasmic astrocytes with short and ramified processes. Silver stain showed oligodendrocytes with round

  20. Identification and evaluation of anti-inflammatory compounds from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigome, Satoru; Yoshida, Izumi; Tsuda, Aiko; Harada, Teppei; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Inohana, Shuichi; Isagawa, Satoshi; Kibune, Nobuyuki; Satoyama, Toshiya; Katsuda, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Shinobu; Watai, Masatoshi; Hirose, Naoto; Mitsue, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Komai, Michio

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora has been used in traditional Thai medicine. In this study, we identified and compared specific compounds from the hexane extract of K. parviflora with those from other Zingiberaceous plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), estimated 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated with an IgE antigen or a calcium ionophore. We found that DMF and TMF more potently inhibited antigen-induced degranulation than did nobiletin, a well-known anti-inflammatory agent. In addition, compared to RBL-2H3 cells stimulated with a calcium ionophore, those treated with DMF and TMF showed more marked inhibition of the degranulation and the production and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that DMF and TMF inhibit an early step in the high-affinity IgE receptor signaling cascade rather than intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation. PMID:25035989

  1. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

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    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  2. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  3. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on The Amount of Blood Cells and Liver Enzymes in Wistar Rats

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    Rezaei Zarchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the development of nanotechnology and extensive use of nano-materials are in different fields of industry, it is necessary to investigate their destructive effects on biological systems. Titanium dioxide(TiO2 is used in the production of different dyes, cosmetics, ceramics, photocatalysts, water and sewage treatment and a lot of other products. In the present study, the effect of TiO2 on the number of blood cells and the activity of liver enzymes of rat was assessed. Methods: Concentrations of 50, 100 and 500 mg/Kg TiO2 nanoparticles (25 nm size in distilled water were administered orally to Wistar rats for 14 days and some blood factors were studied on the blood samples collected. Results: Results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles cause different changes in blood cells, and the changes were significant for some of them such as white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Decreased number of red blood cells and increased level of liver enzymes was also observed after the administration of different concentrations of TiO2, which proves the toxic effects of TiO2 on the body. Conclusion: Results of the present study proved the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on the living organisms. So, further studies are recommended to predict TiO2 toxicity.

  4. Comparative analysis of biological activities of Der p I-derived peptides on Fc epsilon receptor-bearing cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-sensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, P; Pestel, J; Bossus, M; Lassalle, P; Tartar, A; Tonnel, A B

    1993-04-01

    The ability of four uncoupled synthetic peptides (p52-71, p117-133, p176-187, p188-199) derived from Der p I, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) to stimulate Fc epsilon R+ cells from Dpt-sensitive patients was comparatively analysed. Each free peptide may specifically stimulate basophils (Fc epsilon RI+ cells) and platelets (Fc epsilon RII+ cells) from patients with significant levels of anti-Der p I IgE antibodies; p52-71 and p117-133 appear the best cell stimulation inducers. Both concentration-dependent biological activities of Der p I-peptide on Fc epsilon R+ cells are enhanced by coupling peptide to a carrier (as human serum albumin). Interestingly each Der p I-sensitive patient tested presents an individual pattern of response to peptide. Thus, from our results it appears that different Der p I sequences could be involved in the immune response to Der p I. PMID:7682161

  5. The antinociception of oxytocin on colonic hypersensitivity in rats was mediated by inhibition of mast cell degranulation via Ca2+-NOS pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liping; Li, Jing; Tang, Yan; Han, Ting; Wei, Chuanfei; Yu, Xiao; Li, Jingxin; Wang, Rong; Ma, Xuelian; Liu, Kejing; Geng, Lingyun; Liu, Shaozhuang; Yan, Bing; Liu, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oxytocin (OT) on visceral hypersensitivity/pain and mast cell degranulation and the underlying mechanisms. We found that oxytocin receptor (OTR) was expressed in colonic mast cells in humans and rats, as well as in human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1), rat basophilic leukemia cell line (RBL-2H3) and mouse mastocytoma cell line (P815). OT decreased 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity, colonic mast cell degranulation and histamine release after mast cell degranulation in rats. Also, OT attenuated the compound 48/80 (C48/80)-evoked histamine release in P815 cells and inward currents, responsible for the mast cell degranulation, in HMC-1, RBL-2H3 and P815 cells. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against visceral hypersensitivity and mast cell degranulation were eliminated by coadministration of OTR antagonist atosiban or a nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NG-Methyl-L-arginine acetate salt (L-NMMA). Notably, OT evoked a concentration-dependent increase of intracellular Ca2+ in HMC-1, RBL-2H3 and P815 cells, which was responsible for the activation of neuronal NOS (NOS1) and endothelial NOS (NOS3). Our findings strongly suggest that OT might exert the antinociception on colonic hypersensitivity through inhibition of mast cell degranulation via Ca2+-NOS pathway. PMID:27538454

  6. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Kidney

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    Takashi Kawahara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The case was a 40-year-old female. She visited a local doctor with a chief complaint of right side abdominal pain. A right kidney tumor measuring 10 cm in diameter was observed in an abdominal Computed Tomography (CT scan. Based on the CT image, the possibility of angiomiolipoma (AML could not be ruled out, but a high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax of 7.8 was observed in a Positron Emission Tomography CT (PET-CT scan and there was a possibility of malignancy. We therefore performed a transperitoneal right radial nephrectomy. Although adhesion of the tumor to the duodenum and the inferior vena cava was observed, it was possible to perform an excision. The tumor accounted for a large proportion of the excised kidney; the surrounding areas had taken on a cyst-like structure, and the interior comprised grayish brittle tissue exhibiting solid growth. Histologically, gland-like and cyst-like structures composed of cylindrical cuboidal cells and mainly characterized by the solid growth of short fusiform-shaped and oval-shaped basophilic cells were observed, and we believed it was a synovial sarcoma. There were no malignant findings in the adrenal gland. There have been approximately 30 reported cases around the world of synovial sarcoma that developed in the kidney, and we herein report this case with bibliographic considerations.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of IgE mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate current knowledge and recent advances in molecular mechanism behind the immediate type hypersensitivity of foods. Food allergy is a growing concern of human health in developed as well as developing countries now days. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity or type I reaction. This review encompasses a wide range of molecular events during IgE mediated reactions like primary exposure of allergens, processing of allergens by antigen presenting cells, role of transcription factors like GATA-3, STAT-6, NF-AT, c-maf, c-kit and NF-κB, Treg cells, toll like receptors, cytokines and chemokines, class switch to IgE, FcεR1 receptor, priming of IgE on mast cells or basophils, signaling events followed by secondary exposure of allergens, degranulation and release of mediators like leukotrienes, histamines, prostaglandins, β-hexosaminidase and ultimately anaphylaxis. This review may be helpful to beginners as well as experts working in the field of allergy and immunology because of the stepwise explanations of molecular mechanisms involved in IgE mediated reactions. PMID:22668720

  8. Mechanisms of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Ozge U; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative approach in the treatment of allergic diseases defined up-to-date. Peripheral T-cell tolerance to allergens, the goal of successful allergen-SIT, is the primary mechanism in healthy immune responses to allergens. By repeated administration of increased doses of the causative allergen, allergen-SIT induces a state of immune tolerance to allergens through the constitution of T regulatory (Treg) cells, including allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells; induction of suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor β; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4 and IgA; and suppression of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and inflammatory dendritic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen-SIT with emphasis on the roles of Treg cells in allergen-SIT. PMID:21530813

  9. Subsets of regulatory T cells and their roles in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyun; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Guo, Lianyi; Sun, Xiaoyun; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it is recognized that acquired immunity is controlled by regulatory T cell (Treg). Since fundamental pathophysiological changes of allergy are mainly caused by hyperresponsiveness of immune system to allergens that acquires after birth, Tregs likely play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, particularly during the sensitization phase. However, accumulated information indicate that there are several distinctive subtypes of Tregs in man, and each of them seems to play different role in controlling immune system, which complicates the involvement of Tregs in allergy. The aim of the present study is to attempt to classify subtypes of Tregs and summarize their roles in allergy. Tregs should include natural Tregs (nTreg) including inducible costimulator (ICOS)(+) Tregs, inducible/adaptive Tregs (iTreg), interleukin (IL)-10-producing type 1 Tregs (Tr1 cells), CD8(+) Tregs and IL-17-producing Tregs. These cells share some common features including expression of Foxp3 (except for Tr1 cells), and secretion of inhibitory cytokine IL-10 and/or TGF-β. Furthermore, it is noticeable that Tregs likely contribute to allergic disorders such as dermatitis and airway inflammation, and play a crucial role in the treatment of allergy through their actions on suppression of effector T cells and inhibition of activation of mast cells and basophils. Modulation of functions of Tregs may provide a novel strategy to prevent and treat allergic diseases. PMID:24886492

  10. Mucosal immunization application to allergic disease: sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Franco; Moingeon, Philippe; Marcucci, Francesco; Puccinelli, Paola; Sensi, Laura; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2007-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an effective and safe treatment for respiratory allergy, and its mechanism of action currently is investigated with increasing attention. Studies of pharmacokinetics showed that allergen extracts administered via the sublingual route are not directly absorbed by the oral mucosa but are long retained at mucosal level, where the allergen molecules are captured by dendritic cells and, following their migration in the draining lymph nodes, presented to T cells. This seems to be the pivotal factor underlying the mechanisms of action of SLIT, at least for the long-term effects, and for the short-term efficacy, observed with ultrarush or coseasonal treatment, a down-regulation of mast cells resulting in hyporeactivity at the peak of the pollen season may be suggested. Regarding the clinically established long-lasting effects, the core mechanism is likely to consist of T regulatory (Treg) cell activation. In particular, Treg cells differentiate from naive T cells after application of soluble antigens to the mucosae, a crucial factor being the tolerogenic function of dendritic cells, and exert a suppressive effect on both Th1 and Th2 responses. Moreover, at least for the type 1 cells (Treg1), a production of IL-10 with consequent down-modulation of the immune response has been reported. Another characteristic of sublingual immunization is the absence of effectors cells, viz., mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils, in the oral mucosa of allergic subjects, which account for the excellent tolerability of SLIT. PMID:17390755

  11. Mechanisms of immunotherapy to wasp and bee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, C; Kucuksezer, U C; Akdis, M; Akdis, C A

    2011-09-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are important allergens that can elicit both local and systemic allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) remains the most effective treatment, reducing the risk of systemic reactions in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy. VIT can restore normal immunity against venom allergens and provide patients with a lifetime of tolerance to venoms. During VIT, peripheral tolerance is induced by the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress proliferative and cytokine responses against the venom allergens. Treg cells are characterized by IL-10 secretion that directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Treg cells also have influence on B cells, suppressing IgE production and inducing the production of blocking type IgG4 antibodies against venom allergens. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Treg cells may affect allergen sensitization and methods for enhancing this cell population may eventually improve the efficacy of VIT. In this article, immune mechanisms enrolled in bee and wasp VIT are reviewed. PMID:21729181

  12. Functions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in immunity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlu; Zhou, Baohua

    2012-06-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin 7-like cytokine expressed mainly by epithelial cells. Current studies provide compelling evidence that TSLP is capable of activating dendritic cells to promote T helper (Th) 2 immune responses. TSLP has also been shown to directly promote Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cell and activate natural killer T cells, basophils and other innate immune cells at the initial stage of inflammation. In addition, TSLP affects B cell maturation and activation and can also influence regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation and development. TSLP-induced Th2 responses are associated with the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and rhinitis. Based on recent findings in humans and mouse models, TSLP might also be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and progression of cancer. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of the biology of TSLP and highlight the important issues for future investigations. PMID:22274860

  13. Cellular networks controlling Th2 polarization in allergy and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Mirjam; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the development of Th1 (type 1 T helper cells), Th17 and Treg (regulatory T cells), little is known of the mechanisms governing Th2 development, which is important for immunity to helminths and for us to understand the pathogenesis of allergy. A picture is emerging in which mucosal epithelial cells instruct dendritic cells to promote Th2 responses in the absence of IL-12 (interleukin 12) production and provide instruction through thymic stromal lymphopoieitin (TSLP) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). At the same time, allergens, helminths and chemical adjuvants elicit the response of innate immune cells like basophils, which provide more polarizing cytokines and IL-4 and reinforce Th2 immunity. This unique communication between cells will only be fully appreciated if we study Th2 immunity in vivo and in a tissue-specific context, and can only be fully understood if we compare several models of Th2 immune response induction. PMID:22403589

  14. Asthma: the importance of dysregulated barrier immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2013-12-01

    Chronic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airway wall that leads to bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity and airway obstruction, caused by inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and airway wall remodeling. In response to allergen presentation by airway DCs, T-helper lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system control many aspects of the disease through secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-22, and these are counterbalanced by cytokines produced by Treg cells. Many cells of the innate immune system such as mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells also play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Barrier epithelial cells are being ever more implicated in disease pathogenesis than previously thought, as these cells have in recent years been shown to sense exposure to allergens via pattern recognition receptors and to activate conventional and inflammatory-type DCs and other innate immune cells through the secretion of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-1, IL-33, and IL-25. Understanding this cytokine crosstalk between barrier epithelial cells, DCs, and immune cells provides important insights into the mechanisms of allergic sensitization and asthma progression as discussed in this review. PMID:24165907

  15. Role of Treg in immune regulation of allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Oscar; Yaman, Görkem; Azkur, Ahmet K; Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-05-01

    Allergy is a Th2-mediated disease that involves the formation of specific IgE antibodies against innocuous environmental substances. The prevalence of allergic diseases has dramatically increased over the past decades, affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. The understanding of mechanisms underlying allergic diseases as well as those operating in non-allergic healthy responses and allergen-specific immunotherapy has experienced exciting advances over the past 15 years. Studies in healthy non-atopic individuals and several clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy have demonstrated that the induction of a tolerant state in peripheral T cells represent a key step in healthy immune responses to allergens. Both naturally occurring thymus-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg and inducible type 1 Treg inhibit the development of allergy via several mechanisms, including suppression of other effector Th1, Th2, Th17 cells; suppression of eosinophils, mast cells and basophils; Ab isotype change from IgE to IgG4; suppression of inflammatory DC; and suppression of inflammatory cell migration to tissues. The identification of the molecules involved in these processes will contribute to the development of more efficient and safer treatment modalities. PMID:20148422

  16. Heterogeneity and plasticity of T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E

    2010-01-01

    CD4 T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in adaptive immune responses. They recruit and activate other immune cells including B cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Based on their functions, their pattern of cytokine secretion and their expression of specific transcription factors, Th cells, differentiated from naïve CD4 T cells, are classified into four major lineages, Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells, although other Th lineages may exist. Subsets of the same lineage may express different effector cytokines, reside at different locations or give rise to cells with different fates, whereas cells from different lineages may secrete common cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-9 and IL-10, resulting in massive heterogeneity of the Th cell population. In addition, the pattern of cytokine secretion may switch from that of one lineage toward another under certain circumstances, suggesting that Th cells are plastic. Tregs are also more heterogeneous and plastic than were originally thought. In this review, we summarize recent reports on heterogeneity and plasticity of Th cells, and discuss potential mechanisms and implications of such features that Th cells display. PMID:20010916

  17. Mechanisms and treatment of allergic disease in the big picture of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2009-04-01

    Various populations of regulatory T (Treg) cells have been shown to play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and the establishment of controlled immune responses. Their identification as key regulators of immunologic processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens has opened an important era in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Both naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and inducible populations of allergen-specific, IL-10-secreting Treg type 1 (T(R)1) cells inhibit allergen-specific effector cells in experimental models. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears to be a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in allergen-specific immunotherapy. Forkhead box protein 3-positive CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and T(R)1 cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector T(H)1, T(H)2, and T(H)17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils; interaction with resident tissue cells and remodeling; and suppression of effector T-cell migration to tissues. Current strategies for drug development and allergen-specific immunotherapy exploit these observations, with the potential for preventive therapies and cure for allergic diseases. PMID:19348912

  18. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Soyka, Michael B; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases. PMID:22409879

  19. T regulatory cells in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M; Quecchia, C; Cavallucci, E; Di Giampaolo, L; Schiavone, C; Petrarca, C; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    The progressive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the last decade has changed the concept of immune tolerance, that is no longer considered as a mere lack of immune reactivity but as a finely regulated process that requires specific activity of cells, adhesion and secreted molecules. Tregs play a key role in maintenance of self-tolerance and induction of tolerance against ubiquitous innocuous non-self antigens, so preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review will focus on the Treg response in allergy that is characterized by a down-regulation of allergen specific T cell proliferation and inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines production. Hence, Treg cells suppress allergen-specific Th1 and Th2 cell responses playing an important role in the physiological immune response to allergens. Further, Treg cells are able to suppress IgE production by B lymphocytes and directly or indirectly inhibit the activity of allergic inflammation effector cells, namely eosinophils, basophils and mastcells. Finally, increasing evidence suggests that Treg cells are also implicated in chronicity development of inflammatory diseases. This appears to happen through a fine interaction they entertain with resident tissue cells and has been particularly highlighted in the study of airways remodeling in asthma. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergen tolerance has brought new interest in the development of new allergy treatment, able to target Treg cells, both in allergy prevention and in the therapy of established allergy. PMID:21329567

  20. [The immunological mechanisms contributing to the clinical efficacy of allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Ilan; Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Sthoeger, Zev

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased dramatically in the western world. In the last 2 decades, the frequency of asthma and allergic rhinitis has doubled. Allergen specific immunotherapy [SIT] has been used successfully for more than 100 years for the treatment of allergic disorders. Allergen SIT provides not only symptomatic relief, but it is potentially curative. The immunologic mechanisms of allergen SIT include all parts of the immune system. Regulatory T cells (TR1, Treg), have a major pivotal role in the success of immunotherapy. Along with the regulatory T cells, elevated suppressor cytokines (IL-10), suppression of TH2 cells, increasing titer of specific IgG4 and gradual decline in the number and function of basophils and mast cells also contribute to the success of the treatment (SIT). The above immune mechanisms are connected and related to each other acting at different times with the treatment with SIT. In this review we focused on the current knowledge and understanding of the different immune mechanisms which are involved in the success of SIT. PMID:24364093

  1. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  2. Hematological markers and biochemical profiles in terms of gender and age of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, E M; Silva, C J O; Ritter, R A; Monteiro, M V B; Albuquerque, N I; Kahwage, P R; Monteiro, F O B; Costa, C T C; Rahal, S C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-01-01

    Complete blood counts and blood biochemical analyses are laboratory tests that allow the monitoring of physiological condition, nutrition, and health in free-living or captive wild animals. When interpreting these tests, it is essential to compare the results with reference ranges that are suitable for the species. Few studies have been conducted on the hematological and biochemical characteristics of Tayassu tajacu, particularly for animals raised in the Amazon biome. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the hematological and biochemical profiles of captive T. tajacu, and to establish reference intervals for these parameters. Complete blood counts and biochemical analyses were performed using manual methods and semi-automatic equipment, respectively. There were significant differences in relation to age in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and mean cell volumes, in captive T. tajacu. No basophils were observed, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio was less than 1. Levels of total protein, urea, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly affected by age (P < 0.05). Gender did not affect any of the results. The hematological and biochemical parameters for this species were determined, and may be used as reference ranges for captive T. tajacu. PMID:26634461

  3. The effects of ionizing radiation on the B lymphocyte immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the experimental work concerning the effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system was performed prior to the current developments in immunology. Most of the experiments must be repeated in order to study the radiation effects on defined populations of cells or cooperative immune mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is possible at the present time to conclude that: I) The humoral responses are generally more radiosensitive than the cellular immune responses; II) correspondingly, B lymphocytes are quite radiosensitive and probably are subject to interphase as well as mitotic death following irradiation; III) Conversely, activated B cells such as B lymphoblasts or plasmablasts are radioresistant while non-dividing antibody-synthesizing cells are highly radioresistant. The consequences of the ionizing radiation exposure to the humoral immune system are clearly important. The nature of the alterations or damages caused to the infection related immunity can be measured at two levels: 1) a decrease of specific antibody synthesis and as a consequence, 2) a diminution of all antibody dependent cytotoxicity which can include, directly or indirectly, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, etc. Further studies on all presently evoked aspects are clearly required. (orig./MG)

  4. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  5. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis. PMID:18758634

  6. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia

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    Dyachenko Viktor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that Anaplasma (A. platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, few reports are available from the Balkans. This case report describes a dog, which was imported from Croatia to Germany in May 2010. One month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in Germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. Diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Borrelia burgdorferi and/or Dirofilaria immitis. Findings Haematological examination of a blood smear revealed basophilic inclusions in thrombocytes, which were confirmed as A. platys with a species-specific real-time PCR. Additionally, an infection with Babesia (B. vogeli was also detected (PCR and serology. No specific antibodies against Anaplasma antigen were detectable. Although the dog showed no specific clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP were observed. Sequencing of a 1,348-bp partial ribosomal RNA gene revealed highest homology to A. platys sequences from Thailand, Japan and France. Conclusions A. platys was detected for first time in a dog imported from Croatia. As the dog was also co-infected by B. vogeli, unique serological and haematological findings were recorded. Thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated values of C-reactive protein were the laboratory test abnormalities observed in this case. A. platys infections should be considered in dogs coming from Croatia and adjacent regions.

  7. Hematological Indices of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Nigeria.

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    Sagir G. Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the fourth highest prevalence of TB and the highest prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia (SCA in the world. SCA patients have impaired immunity and are vulnerable to TB. Hence, we studied the haematological indices of SCA patients with TB in Nigeria. A total of 23 SCA patients with TB were studied in parallel with equal number of age and sex matched SCA patients without TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly lower haematocrit, higher level of circulating sickle cells (CSCs and similar level of reticulocyte count in comparison to patients without TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly higher mean WBC count associated with higher frequency of neutrophilia in comparison to those without TB. Monocytosis and eosinopenia were exclusively found in SCA patients with TB at frequencies of 52% and 65% respectively. Lymphocyte and basophil counts were normal in all patients with and without TB. Mean platelet counts were high in both patient groups but the frequency of thrombocytosis was significantly higher in patients with TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly higher mean ESR than their counterparts without the infection. The findings of this study  revealed that TB in SCA patients was associated with rising level of CSCs, falling level of haematocrit, sub-optimal reticulocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytosis, eosinopenia and rising level of ESR. Hence, SCA patients presenting with these haematological indices should be investigated for TB.

  8. Acute myeloid leukemia of donor origin after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a sibling who harbors germline XPD and XRCC3 homozygous polymorphisms

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    da Silva Dayse A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed with infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma. Two years after treatment, the patient developed an acute myeloid leukemia (AML which harbored del(11q23 in 8% of the blast cells. The patient was submitted for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT from her HLA-compatible sister. Ten months after transplantation, she relapsed with an AML with basophilic maturation characterized by CD45low CD33high, CD117+, CD13-/+, HLA Drhigh, CD123high, and CD203c+ blast cells lacking expression of CD7, CD10, CD34, CD15, CD14, CD56, CD36, CD64, and cytoplasmic tryptase. Karyotype analysis showed the emergence of a new clone with t(2;14 and FISH analysis indicated the presence of MLL gene rearrangement consistent with del(11q23. Interestingly, AML blast cell DNA tested with microsatellite markers showed the same pattern as the donor's, suggesting that this AML emerged from donor cells. Additionally, polymorphisms of the XPA, XPD, XRCC1, XRCC3 and RAD51 DNA repair genes revealed three unfavorable alleles with low DNA repair capacity. In summary, we report the first case of AML involving XPD and XRCC3 polymorphisms from donor origin following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and highlight the potential need for careful analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms in selecting candidate donors prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  9. The Quintiles Prize Lecture 2004. The identification of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2005-08-01

    Adenosine is a powerful bronchoconstrictor of asthmatic, but not normal, airways. In vitro studies on isolated human mast cells and basophils revealed that adenosine and selective analogues augmented inflammatory mediator release from mast cells by stimulating A(2) receptors. Pharmacological blockade of mast cell mediator release in vivo also attenuated adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, as did theophylline, by adenosine A(2) receptor antagonism. Further in vitro studies revealed that the asthmatic response to adenosine is likely to be mediated via the A(2B) subtype which is selectively antagonised by enprofylline. Studies in animal models, especially mice, have shown a close synergistic interaction between adenosine, Th2 and airway remodelling responses. The recent description of A(2B) receptors on human airway smooth muscle cells that mediate cytokine and chemokine release and induce differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts strengthens the view that adenosine maybe more than an inflammatory mediator in asthma but also participates in airway wall remodelling in this disease. These data have provided a firm basis for developing adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonists as a new therapeutic approach to this disease. PMID:15980878

  10. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Earth Mover's Distance (EMD: A True Metric for Comparing Biomarker Expression Levels in Cell Populations.

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    Darya Y Orlova

    Full Text Available Changes in the frequencies of cell subsets that (coexpress characteristic biomarkers, or levels of the biomarkers on the subsets, are widely used as indices of drug response, disease prognosis, stem cell reconstitution, etc. However, although the currently available computational "gating" tools accurately reveal subset frequencies and marker expression levels, they fail to enable statistically reliable judgements as to whether these frequencies and expression levels differ significantly between/among subject groups. Here we introduce flow cytometry data analysis pipeline which includes the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD metric as solution to this problem. Well known as an informative quantitative measure of differences between distributions, we present three exemplary studies showing that EMD 1 reveals clinically-relevant shifts in two markers on blood basophils responding to an offending allergen; 2 shows that ablative tumor radiation induces significant changes in the murine colon cancer tumor microenvironment; and, 3 ranks immunological differences in mouse peritoneal cavity cells harvested from three genetically distinct mouse strains.

  12. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.

  13. Ovicides paralithodis (Nemertea, Carcinonemertidae, a new species of symbiotic egg predator of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815 (Decapoda, Anomura

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    Hiroshi Kajihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovicides paralithodis sp. n. is described from the egg mass of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815 from the Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan, and Alaska, USA. Among four congeners, O. paralithodis can be distinguished from O. julieae Shields, 2001 and O. davidi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 byno eyes; from O. jonesi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the presence of basophilic, vacuolated glandular lobes in the precerebral region; and from O. jasoni Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the arrangement of the acidophilic submuscular glands, which are not arranged in a row. Ovicides paralithodis represents the third described species of egg-predatory nemertean from P. camtschaticus, the second described carcinonemertid species from Japan, and the 21st described species in the family. The intensity of infestations may exceed 24,000 worms per a single egg-bearing pleopod of P. camtschaticus. A preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 28S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes among selected monostiliferous hoplonemertean species supported the monophyly of Carcinonemertidae, suggesting that within the lineage of the family, evolution of the unique vas deferens, Takakura’s duct, preceded loss of accessory stylets and accessory-stylet pouches.

  14. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium in a neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum

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    R. Salazar-Lugo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum. Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light microscopy. The concentration of Cd in the head and trunk kidneys was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cd produced histopathological changes in the head kidney, the most evident of these being: the thickening of the vein wall, an increase in the number of basophils/mast cells close to blood vessels and a severe depletion of hematopoietic precursors especially the granulopoietic series. In the blood, a decrease in the total leucocytes and hemoglobin concentration was observed. Cd-exposed fish showed higher Cd concentrations in the trunk kidney than the head kidney. In conclusion, exposure to Cd affected precursor hematopoietic cells in C. macropomum.

  15. Case report. First description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Italy

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    Daniela Malatesta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of the ubiquitous fungus Emmonsia spp., a common soil inhabitant. Information about the replication and dissemination of the fungus from the primary site is lacking. Members of the Family Mustelidae seem to be highly susceptible to this infection, which has been previously reported in otters (Lutra lutra in Czech Republic/Slovakia, Finland and in the UK. In many cases, Emmonsia-associated lesions have also been reported as incidental findings during necropsies of otherwise healthy animals. A road-killed male Eurasian otter was submitted for the post-mortem examination on 21st December 2009 at the Veterinary Pathology Unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Teramo, as part of the RECAL [RECovery and post‑mortem Analysis of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Salerno, Italy, and surrounding areas] project. Histologically, multifocal round structures with a PAS-positive thick tri-laminar wall and a central basophilic granular mass were observed within the alveoli. The adiaspores were surrounded by a severe granulomatous reaction with high number of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. Numerous multifocal cholesterol granulomas were observed close to those fungal-induced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter in Italy.

  16. Characterization of rabbit ileal receptors for Clostridium difficile toxin A. Evidence for a receptor-coupled G protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the surface receptor for toxin A, the enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, on rabbit intestinal brush borders (BB) and on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. Purified toxin A was radiolabeled using a modified Bolton-Hunter method to sp act 2 microCi/micrograms, with retention of full biologic activity. 3H-Toxin A bound specifically to a single class of receptors on rabbit BB and on RBL cells with dissociation constants of 5.4 x 10(-8) and 3.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively. RBL cells were highly sensitive to toxin A (cell rounding) and had 180,000 specific binding sites per cell, whereas IMR-90 fibroblasts were far less sensitive to toxin A and lacked detectable specific binding sites. Exposure of BB to trypsin or chymotrypsin significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Preincubation of BB with Bandeirea simplicifolia (BS-1) lectin also reduced specific binding, and CHAPS-solubilized receptors could be immobilized with WGA-agarose. The addition of 100 nM toxin A accelerated the association of 35S-GTP gamma S with rabbit ileal BB, and preincubation of BB with the GTP analogues GTP gamma S or Gpp(NH)p, significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Our data indicate that the membrane receptor for toxin A is a galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine-containing glycoprotein which appears to be coupled to a G protein

  17. Lipid raft-dependent FcepsilonRI ubiquitination regulates receptor endocytosis through the action of ubiquitin binding adaptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Molfetta

    Full Text Available The best characterized role for ubiquitination of membrane receptors is to negatively regulate signaling by targeting receptors for lysosomal degradation. The high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI expressed on mast cells and basophils is rapidly ubiquitinated upon antigen stimulation. However, the nature and the role of this covalent modification are still largelly unknown. Here, we show that FcepsilonRI subunits are preferentially ubiquitinated at multiple sites upon stimulation, and provide evidence for a role of ubiquitin as an internalization signal: under conditions of impaired receptor ubiquitination a decrease of receptor entry is observed by FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy. We also used biochemical approaches combined with fluorescence microscopy, to demonstrate that receptor endocytosis requires the integrity of specific membrane domains, namely lipid rafts. Additionally, by RNA interference we demonstrate the involvement of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors in FcepsilonRI internalization and sorting. Notably, the triple depletion of Eps15, Eps15R and Epsin1 negatively affects the early steps of Ag-induced receptor endocytosis, whereas Hrs depletion retains ubiquitinated receptors into early endosomes and partially prevents their sorting into lysosomes for degradation. Our results are compatible with a scenario in which the accumulation of engaged receptor subunits into lipid rafts is required for receptor ubiquitination, a prerequisite for efficient receptor internalization, sorting and delivery to a lysosomal compartment.

  18. Lipid rafts in immune signalling: current progress and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Pallavi; Yadav, Vikas; Saini, Neeru

    2016-09-01

    Lipid rafts are dynamic assemblies of proteins and lipids that harbour many receptors and regulatory molecules and so act as a platform for signal transduction. They float freely within the liquid-disordered bilayer of cellular membranes and can cluster to form larger ordered domains. Alterations in lipid rafts are commonly found to be associated with the pathogenesis of several human diseases and recent reports have shown that the raft domains can also be perturbed by targeting raft proteins through microRNAs. Over the last few years, the importance of lipid rafts in modulating both innate and acquired immune responses has been elucidated. Various receptors present on immune cells like B cells, T cells, basophils and mast cells associate with lipid rafts on ligand binding and initiate signalling cascades leading to inflammation. Furthermore, disrupting lipid raft integrity alters lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion, IgE signalling, and B-cell and T-cell activation. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent progress in understanding the role of lipid rafts in the modulation of immune signalling and its related therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders.

  19. IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotua, M; Lomidze, N; Dolidze, N; Gotua, T

    2008-04-01

    Food allergy has become a serious health concern especially in developed countries in the past two decades. In general population approximately 4-6% of children and 1-3% of adults experience food allergy. The article reviews IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders. Epidemiology, Mechanism, Clinical manifestations, Genetically modified crops (GMOs), Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are discussed. The investigations show that over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish and shellfish. Also the causes of food allergy are food additives, genetically modified crops. Risk factors for food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis include asthma and previous allergic reactions to the causative food. Food allergy is one of the most common causes of systematic anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, with an annual incidence of four cases per million populations and estimated 500 deaths annually. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, individuals may experience urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hypotension, shock and cardiac arrhythmias, caused by the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophiles. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE in blood serum and challenge tests. Treatment and prevention includes: avoidance diet, application of auto-injectable epinephrine, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, cromolyn sodium, etc. PMID:18487689

  20. Transnasal stereotactic surgery of pituitary adenomas concomitant with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metyolkina, L; Peresedov, V

    1995-01-01

    Since 1960 we have performed stereotactic transsphenoidal cryohypophysectomy in 70 patients with pituitary adenomas, 42 women and 28 men, aged 11-59 years. The dominant clinical syndrome was acromegaly in 50 patients, galactorrhea in 9, amenorrhea in 5, adiposogenital dystrophy in 4 and gigantism with mild endocrine symptomatology in 2 patients. In 67 patients the histological structure of the tumor was established by biopsy (50 patients with eosinophil adenoma, 10 with mixed-type adenoma, 4 with chromophobe adenoma and 3 with basophil adenoma). Somatotropic hormone, human growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH and 17-ketosteroid levels indicated active/inactive adenomas. In 42 cases the adenoma was only intrasellar, which was confirmed by contrast X-ray investigations, CT scanning, angiography and ophthalmological investigation. Transnasal stereotactic cryohypophysectomy was performed in all 70 cases using a stereotactic apparatus especially designed for operations on the pituitary. All patients (except 2) tolerated the operation well. No complications occurred. Vision deteriorated after operation in 1 patient. Thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery developed in another patient. All the other patients noted improvement directly after operation - rapid diminution of signs of acromegaly and rapid restoration of normal values in hormonal tests. Six patients with continuing growth of the tumor underwent a second operation 1.5-6 years after the first operation. We conclude from our own clinical experience and information from the literature that transnasal stereotactic cryodestruction is highly effective and relatively safe in the management of pituitary adenoma. PMID:8916351

  1. Coinfection of a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, with adenovirus- and dependovirus-like viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W; Kennedy, F A; Funk, R S

    1996-05-01

    Four neonate bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps, from two collections became ill and died. Multiple tissues were collected and processed for light microscopy. In hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of liver of one lizard, numerous basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed. In three lizards, intranuclear inclusions were primarily seen within enterocytes in the small intestine. A portion of paraffin-embedded liver of one lizard and small intestine of a second lizard were removed, deparaffinized, and examined by electron microscopy. For the most part, inclusions in the liver consisted of nonenveloped viral particles 60-66 nm in diameter. Smaller nonenveloped virions 15-17 nm in diameter were occasionally seen in association with these particles. In the intestine, inclusions consisted only of 60-70 nm particles. Based on morphology and location, the larger particles were consistent with an adenovirus. Based on size and presence within nuclei of host cells coinfected with the adenovirus-like virus, the smaller viral agent was consistent with members of the genus Dependovirus. PMID:8740710

  2. Systemic microsporidiosis in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E R; Green, D E; Undeen, A H; Cranfield, M; Vaughn, K L

    1998-09-01

    One laboratory-hatched and -reared inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) (No. 1) and two privately owned inland bearded dragons (Nos. 2 and 3) died, showing nonspecific signs of illness. Light microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections from lizard No. 1 revealed severe hepatic necrosis with clusters of light basophilic intracytoplasmic microorganisms packing and distending hepatocytes and free in areas of necrosis. Similar microorganisms were within cytoplasmic vacuoles in distended renal epithelial cells, pulmonary epithelial cells, gastric mucosal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and capillary endothelial cells and ventricular ependymal cells in the brain. In lizard Nos. 2 and 3, microorganisms of similar appearance were in macrophages in granulomatous inflammation in the colon, adrenal glands, and ovaries. The microorganism was gram positive and acid fast and had a small polar granule that stained using the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Electron microscopic examination of deparaffinized liver of lizard No. 1 revealed merogonic and sporogonic stages of a protozoan compatible with members of the phylum Microspora. This report provides the first description of microsporidiosis in bearded dragons and is only the second report of this infection in a lizard. PMID:9809606

  3. Consequences of smoking during pregnancy for mother and child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Gustavo Horacio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the consequences of maternal smoking METHODS: a prospective study of 1.103 pregnant women. A survey in the state Hospital San Martin, de La Plata, Buenos Aires determined general data. Newborn and placenta data were also reported. Mother and child cord samples were obtained to determine blood elements and flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte subsets performed. Data from smoking (S and non-smoking (NS groups were evaluated through relative risk, chi square and Student's t test. RESULTS: of all patients, 887 were NS and 226 said they smoked over five-cigarettes/day (S. The S group showed a higher probability of premature deliveries when compared to the NS group, with newborns weighing under 2,5kg, small in relation to gestational age, with Apgar scores at the 5th minute under six and hyaline membrane syndrome; intrauterine death risk was higher in this group who attended less medical appointments than scheduled. Umbilical cord blood analysis indicated lower reticulocyte index for S mothers, neutrophil count and CD4/CD8 ratio and increased erythroblast, eosinophil, basophil, total and CD8+T lymphocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: data could explain the observations by other authors related to an increased incidence of allergy and infections in newborns caused by maternal smoking.

  4. Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit Influence on Aberrant Crypt Formation and Blood Cells in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Chung-Teng; Wu, Wang-Hung; Chien, Se-Ping; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) fruit is rich in bioactive functional components such as polysaccharides, triterpenoid acid, flavonoids and oleamide. It has been commonly used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes, digestive disorders, diarrhea, skin infections, liver and urinary complaints. However, dietary effects with regard to chemoprevention of colon cancer have not been studied. The present study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of dietary ZJ against colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-treated mice. AOM was injected (10 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) and three cycles of 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days with 14 days of normal drinking water in-between were administered to induce colitis-associated colon cancer. ZJ fruit was supplemented into feed at levels of 5 and 10%. Dietary ZJ significantly attenuated aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and also decreased the progression of hyperplasia to dysplasia. In addition, it significantly reduced circulating white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelets compared to colon cancer mice. We conclude that ZJ supplementation may delay the progression of colon cancer from hyperplasia to dysplasia and ultimately adenocarcinoma and cancer. In addition, it decreased circulating tumor-related leukocytes, main regulators of cancer inflammation. Dietary consumption of ZJ fruit attenuated the formation of ACF and delayed the progression of colon cancer.

  5. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment.

  6. Deranged aortic intima-media thickness, plasma triglycerides and granulopoiesis in Sl/Sld mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottarappat N. Dileepan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES were carried out to evaluate the impact of a high-fat dietary regimen on aortic wall thickness, peripheral blood leukocyte profile, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the mast cell-deficient Sl/Sld mouse. The results demonstrated that the mean aortic wall thickness of Sl/Sld mice was significantly higher than their normal littermates, and were increased in both genotypes after a 17-day high-fat regimen. In comparison with normal littermates, Sl/Sld genotypes had elevated levels of plasma triglycerides with normal levels of plasma cholesterol, and the high-fat diet markedly lowered the triglyceride levels. Total peripheral blood leukocytes, the monocyte and granulocyte counts, and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in Sl/Sld mice, although the number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the same in both genotypes. Interestingly, the high-fat diet regimen elevated leukocyte counts and the number of monocytes and granulocytes in Sl/Sld mice.

  7. Signal transduction around thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in atopic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuepper Michael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, a novel interleukin-7-like cytokine, triggers dendritic cell-mediated inflammatory responses ultimately executed by T helper cells of the Th2 subtype. TSLP emerged as a central player in the development of allergic symptoms, especially in the airways, and is a prime regulatory cytokine at the interface of virus- or antigen-exposed epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs activated by epithelium-derived TSLP can promote naïve CD4+ T cells to adopt a Th2 phenotype, which in turn recruite eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes as well as mast cells into the airway mucosa. These different cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines operative in inducing an allergic inflammation and atopic asthma. TSLP is, thus, involved in the control of both an innate and an adaptive immune response. Since TSLP links contact of allergen with the airway epithelium to the onset and maintainance of the asthmatic syndrome, defining the signal transduction underlying TSLP expression and function is of profound interest for a better understandimg of the disease and for the development of new therapeutics.

  8. Yeast Ca(2+)-signal transduction inhibitors isolated from Dominican amber prevent the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells through the inhibition of Ca(2+)-influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Miki; Okawa, Yusuke; Inui, Tomoki; Yoshida, Jun; Higashio, Hironori; Shinden, Hisao; Uesugi, Shota; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    A new norlabdane compound, named kujigamberol has previously been isolated from Kuji amber (but not from Baltic amber) by activity guided fractionation. However, there has been no study of biological compounds in Dominican amber. Biological activities were examined using the hypersensitive mutant yeast (zds1Δ erg3Δ pdr1Δ pdr3Δ) with respect to Ca(2+)-signal transduction, enzymes and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis including high resolution (HR)-EI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR. Three diterpenoid compounds, 5(10)-halimen-15-oic acid (1), 3-cleroden-15-oic acid (2) and 8-labden-15-oic acid (3), which are different from the bioactive compounds in Kuji and Baltic ambers, were isolated from Dominican amber. They inhibited both calcineurin (CN) (IC50=40.0, 21.2 and 34.2μM) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) (IC50=48.9, 43.8 and 41.1μM) which are involved in the growth restored activity against the mutant yeast. The most abundant compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against both degranulation and Ca(2+)-influx in RBL-2H3 cells. The compounds having the growth restoring activity against the mutant yeast have potential as anti-allergic compounds.

  9. Molecular and immunological characterization of arginine kinase from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, a novel cross-reactive invertebrate pan-allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, M; Mahler, V; Hayek, B; Sperr, W R; Schöller, M; Prozell, S; Wiedermann, G; Valent, P; Valenta, R; Duchêne, M

    2001-11-01

    IgE recognition of indoor allergens represents a major cause of allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We found that 52 of 102 patients suffering from allergic symptoms indoors contained IgE Abs against allergens from the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella), a ubiquitous food pest. Using serum IgE from a moth-sensitized patient we screened an expression cDNA library constructed from P. interpunctella larvae. cDNAs coding for arginine kinase (EC 2.7.3.3), a 40-kDa enzyme commonly occurring in invertebrates that is involved in the storage of such high-energy phosphate bonds as phosphoarginine, were isolated. Recombinant moth arginine kinase, designated Plo i 1, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein with enzymatic activity, and purified to homogeneity by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. Purified recombinant arginine kinase induced specific basophil histamine release and immediate as well as late-phase skin reactions. It reacted with serum IgE from 13 of the 52 (25%) moth-allergic patients and inhibited the binding of allergic patients' IgE to an immunologically related 40-kDa allergen present in house dust mite, cockroach, king prawn, lobster, and mussel. Our results indicate that arginine kinases represent a new class of cross-reactive invertebrate pan-allergens. Recombinant arginine kinase may be used to identify a group of polysensitized indoor allergic patients and for immunotherapy of these individuals.

  10. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Rühle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384, pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553, and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955 and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome.

  11. Ocean acidification weakens the immune response of blood clam through hampering the NF-kappa β and toll-like receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Guo, Cheng; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Peng, Chao; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of pCO2 driven ocean acidification on marine bivalve immunity remains poorly understood. To date, this impact has only been investigated in a few bivalve species and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels (pH at 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the total number of haemocyte cells (THC), phagocytosis status, blood cell types composition, and expression levels of twelve genes from the NF-kappa β signaling and toll-like receptor pathways of a typical bottom burrowing bivalve, blood clam (Tegillarca granosa), were investigated. The results obtained showed that while both THC number and phagocytosis frequency were significantly reduced, the percentage of red and basophil granulocytes were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, upon exposure to elevated pCO2. In addition, exposure to pCO2 acidified seawater generally led to a significant down-regulation in the inducer and key response genes of NF-kappa β signaling and toll-like receptor pathways. The results of the present study revealed that ocean acidification may hamper immune responses of the bivalve T. granosa which subsequently render individuals more susceptible to pathogens attacks such as those from virus and bacteria.

  12. The Quintiles Prize Lecture 2004: The identification of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine is a powerful bronchoconstrictor of asthmatic, but not normal, airways. In vitro studies on isolated human mast cells and basophils revealed that adenosine and selective analogues augmented inflammatory mediator release from mast cells by stimulating A2 receptors. Pharmacological blockade of mast cell mediator release in vivo also attenuated adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, as did theophylline, by adenosine A2 receptor antagonism. Further in vitro studies revealed that the asthmatic response to adenosine is likely to be mediated via the A2B subtype which is selectively antagonised by enprofylline. Studies in animal models, especially mice, have shown a close synergistic interaction between adenosine, Th2 and airway remodelling responses. The recent description of A2B receptors on human airway smooth muscle cells that mediate cytokine and chemokine release and induce differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts strengthens the view that adenosine maybe more than an inflammatory mediator in asthma but also participates in airway wall remodelling in this disease. These data have provided a firm basis for developing adenosine A2B receptor antagonists as a new therapeutic approach to this disease. PMID:15980878

  13. The Quintiles Prize Lecture 2004. The identification of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2005-08-01

    Adenosine is a powerful bronchoconstrictor of asthmatic, but not normal, airways. In vitro studies on isolated human mast cells and basophils revealed that adenosine and selective analogues augmented inflammatory mediator release from mast cells by stimulating A(2) receptors. Pharmacological blockade of mast cell mediator release in vivo also attenuated adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, as did theophylline, by adenosine A(2) receptor antagonism. Further in vitro studies revealed that the asthmatic response to adenosine is likely to be mediated via the A(2B) subtype which is selectively antagonised by enprofylline. Studies in animal models, especially mice, have shown a close synergistic interaction between adenosine, Th2 and airway remodelling responses. The recent description of A(2B) receptors on human airway smooth muscle cells that mediate cytokine and chemokine release and induce differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts strengthens the view that adenosine maybe more than an inflammatory mediator in asthma but also participates in airway wall remodelling in this disease. These data have provided a firm basis for developing adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonists as a new therapeutic approach to this disease.

  14. Characterisation of an atypical manifestation of black band disease on Porites lutea in the Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David A.; Schleyer, Michael H.; Chabanet, Pascale; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD) presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation. Surveys conducted within two geomorphological zones over two consecutive summers and winters showed spatial and seasonal patterns consistent with those found for typical BBD. Genetic analyses suggested an uncharacteristically high level of Vibrio spp. bacterial infection within PorBBD. However, microscopic analysis revealed high densities of cyanobacteria, penetrating the compromised tissue as well as the presence of basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates in the living tissue, adjacent to the bacterial mat. Additionally, classical BBD-associated cyanobacterial strains, genetically related to Pseudoscillatoria coralii and Roseofilum reptotaenium were identified and isolated and the presence of sulfate-reducers or sulfide-oxidizers such as Desulfovibrio and Arcobacter, previously shown to be associated with anoxic microenvironment within typical BBD was also observed, confirming that PorBBD is a manifestation of classical BBD. PMID:27441106

  15. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greineisen, William E; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J; Turner, Helen

    2014-09-01

    There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcɛRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signaling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcɛRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signaling pathway and its downstream targets.

  16. 1株湿地稀有放线菌的多相分类鉴定%Polyphasic Taxonomy of a Rare Marine Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐树戈; 张柳; 于基成; 刘秋; 齐小辉

    2014-01-01

    Strain S402003 was isolated from marine sediment collected from Yalu River in Dandong, Liaoning Province. Based on the polyphasic studies, including the morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, chemotaxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the results showed that strain S402003 had lipase activity and was capable to reduce nitrate, belongs to the mild salt-tolerant and basophilic bacteria. It was primarily identified as Brevibacterium linens with the similarity 98.834%.%从鸭绿江滨海湿地样品中分离得到1株稀有海洋放线菌S402003,通过形态观察、培养特征、生理生化特征、化学组分鉴定以及16S rRNA基因序列分析对其进行多相分类鉴定。结果表明:该菌株具有脂酶活性,能还原硝酸盐,属于轻度耐盐、嗜碱菌。该菌株属于Brevibacterium linens,相似性为98.834%。

  17. The potential pharmacologic mechanisms of omalizumab in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tse Wen; Chen, Christina; Lin, Chien-Jen; Metz, Martin; Church, Martin K; Maurer, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    In patients given a diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), there are no obvious external triggers, and the factors that initiate the clinical symptoms of wheal, flare, and itch arise from within the patient. Most patients with CSU have an autoimmune cause: some patients produce IgE autoantibodies against autoantigens, such as thyroperoxidase or double-stranded DNA, whereas other patients make IgG autoantibodies against FcεRI, IgE, or both, which might chronically activate mast cells and basophils. In the remainder of patients with CSU, the nature of the abnormalities has not yet been identified. Accumulating evidence has shown that IgE, by binding to FcεRI on mast cells without FcεRI cross-linking, can promote the proliferation and survival of mast cells and thus maintain and expand the pool of mast cells. IgE and FcεRI engagement can also decrease the release threshold of mast cells and increase their sensitivity to various stimuli through either FcεRI or other receptors for the degranulation process. Furthermore, IgE-FcεRI engagement potentiates the ability of mast cells to store and synthesize de novo inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Administration of omalizumab, by virtue of its ability to deplete IgE, attenuates the multiple effects of IgE to maintain and enhance mast cell activities and hence reduces the ability of mast cells to manifest inflammatory mechanisms in patients with CSU.

  18. 17-N-Allylamino-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  19. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  20. Inflammatory and degranulation effect of yellow sand on RBL-2H3 cells in relation to chemical and biological constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Parida; Hatta, Tamao; Du, Mingyuan; Wakimizu, Kenji; Han, Junkyu; Maki, Taichi; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-10-01

    Recent studie pointed out that allergic diseases have increased during the Asian dust storm event (ADSE) in Japan. Daily observations and the atmospheric concentrations of yellow sand (YS) aerosol have been increasing. In this study, YS samples collected from three sites of Japan during ADSE in 2009-2010 were used. The particles were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectrometer (XRF-EDS). We investigate ability of YS extract on enhancing the chemical mediator release and cytokine production from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. The dust particles at Fukuoka and Tsukuba were abundant in aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), potassium (K) and titan (Ti) than those at Naha. Concentration of the trace endotoxin and Cryptomeria japonica pollen allergen (Cry j 1) were measured in YS extract. After exposure of RBL-2H3 cells to YS extract, the β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) release, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production were enhanced in RBL-2H3 cells. This process depends on endotoxin, Cry j 1 and other allergen present in the YS extract. YS water extract also show a strong cytotoxic effect on the cells. This data suggest that low levels of endotoxin and Cry j 1 in YS may cause allergy during the ADSE. PMID:22835726

  1. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (HV) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. HV channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H+ concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The HV channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. In higher species, HV channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. HV channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, HV functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hHV1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hHV1. PMID:23589829

  2. Voltage-gated proton channels: molecular biology, physiology, and pathophysiology of the H(V) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2013-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (H(V)) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. H(V) channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H(+) concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The H(V) channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels. In higher species, H(V) channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. H(V) channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, H(V) functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hH(V)1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hH(V)1. PMID:23589829

  3. Re-evaluation of the kidney tumors and renal histopathology occurring in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Gordon C; Seely, John Curtis; Betz, Laura J; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2007-04-01

    Renal histopathology in the most recent 2-year carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin, in Fischer 344 rats, was re-evaluated in an attempt to determine a mode of action underlying a small increase in renal tubule tumors reported in the males (). The re-evaluation confirmed the reported increase in renal tumors in mid- and high-dose males, including a single carcinoma in a high-dose male, as well as an exacerbation of spontaneous, chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) in male rats only. The re-evaluation also showed that there were no cellular alterations in the kidney indicative of chemical toxicity at 6 months, 15 months, or 2 years. The evidence linked the occurrence of the predominant basophilic adenomas and foci of atypical tubule hyperplasia (ATH) with the exacerbation of CPN to advanced grades of severity, supporting a mode of action involving quercetin interaction with CPN. This mode of action represents a secondary mechanism for renal tumor development, with no relevance for extrapolation to humans. In addition, the single carcinoma present in the high-dose males, along with 4 other lesions ranging from ATH to adenoma in male and female groups, were considered to have a unique phenotype associated previously with neoplasms of spontaneous and familial origin.

  4. Chronic urticaria: pathophysiology and etiology, or the what and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocket, Alan L

    2006-01-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is a relatively common but vexing disease. The pathophysiology is based on the cutaneous mast cell release of mediators, predominantly histamine. Release can be induced via specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), components of complement activation and nonspecifically by various compounds including endogenous peptides, endorphins, and enkephalins. In >30% of CU patients, autoimmune phenomena have been found, characterized by positive autologous serum skin test, antibodies to the alpha-subunit of the basophil IgE receptor, to IgE itself, and, perhaps, the most clinically relevant, thyroid autoimmunity. Studies suggest that the products of the activated immune system can lower the cutaneous mast cell release threshold, possibly allowing activation by endogenous compounds. The resulting release of mediators produces the clinical picture of recurrent hives. Although the goal of management of CU is the identification of a treatable cause, in most CU patients, especially adults, a cause is not frequently found. Identified causes include drugs, foods, infections, immune complex production leading to urticarial vasculitis, autoantibody production, and underlying autoimmune disease, particularly autoimmune thyroiditis. The treatment of the thyroiditis with suppressive doses of thyroid hormone often results in the remission of the CU. Given the marginally effective and sometimes dangerous medical therapy available for CU, a systematic and thorough approach to identify a treatable cause in difficult CU patients is warranted. PMID:16724623

  5. Autoimmunity in chronic urticaria and urticarial vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, D C; Freeman, T M

    2001-07-01

    In contrast to acute urticaria, etiology cannot be identified in most cases of chronic urticaria. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of patients with chronic urticaria may have an autoimmune basis for their condition. The demonstration of antithyroid autoantibodies in some patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) provides support for an association. However, the discovery of a positive skin test response to intradermal injection of autologous serum in as many as 60% of patients with CIU led to the identification of autoantibodies to IgE and the alpha-chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI alpha. Additional studies have demonstrated that some of these autoantibodies are capable of releasing histamine from donor basophils and mast cells. This article reviews the literature that addresses a possible autoimmune etiology in a subset of patients with CIU. Urticarial vasculitis is differentiated from chronic urticaria based on clinical features and biopsy findings of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Most cases of urticarial vasculitis are secondary to an underlying systemic disease. The presence of autoantibodies has also been demonstrated in a subset of patients with primary urticarial vasculitis. This article briefly reviews some of this data. PMID:11892055

  6. Immunocalization of telomerase in cells of lizard tail after amputation suggests cell activation for tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2016-02-01

    Tail amputation (autotomy) in most lizards elicits a remarkable regenerative response leading to a new although simplified tail. No information on the trigger mechanism following wounding is known but cells from the stump initiate to proliferate and form a regenerative blastema. The present study shows that telomerases are mainly activated in the nuclei of various connective and muscle satellite cells of the stump, and in other tissues, probably responding to the wound signals. Western blotting detection also indicates that telomerase positive bands increases in the regenerating blastema in comparison to the normal tail. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry localization of telomerase shows that 4-14 days post-amputation in lizards immunopositive nuclei of sparse cells located among the wounded tissues are accumulating into the forming blastema. These cells mainly include fibroblasts and fat cells of the connective tissue and satellite cells of muscles. Also some immature basophilic and polychromatophilic erytroblasts, lymphoblasts and myelocytes present within the Bone Marrow of the vertebrae show telomerase localization in their nuclei, but their contribution to the formation of the regenerative blastema remains undetermined. The study proposes that one of the initial mechanisms triggering cell proliferation for the formation of the blastema in lizards involve gene activation for the production of telomerase that stimulates the following signaling pathways for cell division and migration.

  7. Tanespimycin and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  8. A prospective comparative clinical study of peripheral blood counts and indices in patients with primary brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeikshanan, V; Dutt, A; Basu, D; Tejus, MN; Maurya, VP; Madhugiri, VS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevation of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis in many malignancies including recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing if the NLR and other leukocyte counts and indices were deranged in treatment-naïve patients with primary brain tumors when compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative clinical observational study by design. A healthy control population was compared with treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors. Leukocyte counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts) as well as leukocyte ratios such as the NLR and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were calculated. We also evaluated if the counts and indices were related to the tumor volume. Results: In all patients with tumors, the platelet and neutrophil counts were elevated when compared to the controls. In contrast, monocyte counts and the MLR were found to be decreased in patients with tumors when compared to the controls. The subset of patients with glioblastoma showed a significant increase in NLR when compared to the controls. Conclusions: Significant changes in the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts as well as NLR and MLR were observed. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:27089106

  9. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Does Not Reduce the Biological Reactivity of Soybean Proteins for All Allergic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Tetteh, Afua O; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Many soybean protein products are processed by enzymatic hydrolysis to attain desirable functional food properties or in some cases to reduce allergenicity. However, few studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of soybean products. In this study the allergenicity of soybean protein isolates (SPI) hydrolyzed by Alcalase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, bromelain, or papain was evaluated by IgE immunoblots using eight soybean-allergic patient sera. The biological relevance of IgE binding was evaluated by a functional assay using a humanized rat basophilic leukemia (hRBL) cell line and serum from one subject. Results indicated that hydrolysis of SPI by the enzymes did not reduce the allergenicity, and hydrolysis by chymotrypsin or bromelain has the potential to increase the allergenicity of SPI. Two-dimensional (2D) immunoblot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the chymotrypsin-hydrolyzed samples indicated fragments of β-conglycinin protein are responsible for the apparent higher allergenic potential of digested SPI. PMID:26447491

  10. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients. PMID:27193929

  11. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1 cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases.

  12. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SharmaYashaswini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

  13. Haem-regulated eIF2α kinase is necessary for adaptive gene expression in erythroid precursors under the stress of iron deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Han, Anping; Suragani, Rajasekhar N. V. S.; Zhao, Wanting; Fry, Rebecca C.; Chen, Jane-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Summary Haem-regulated eIF2α kinase (HRI) is essential for the regulation of globin gene translation and the survival of erythroid precursors in iron/haem deficiency. This study found that that in iron deficiency, fetal definitive erythropoiesis is inhibited at the basophilic erythroblast stage with increased proliferation and elevated apoptosis. This hallmark of ineffective erythropoiesis is more severe in HRI deficiency. Microarray gene profiling analysis showed that HRI was required for adaptive gene expression in erythroid precursors during chronic iron deficiency. The number of genes with expression affected more than twofold increased, from 213 in iron deficiency and 73 in HRI deficiency, to 3135 in combined iron and HRI deficiencies. Many of these genes are regulated by Gata1 and Fog1. We demonstrate for the first time that Gata1 expression in developing erythroid precursors is decreased in iron deficiency, and is decreased further in combined iron and HRI deficiencies. Additionally, Fog1 expression is decreased in combined deficiencies, but not in iron or HRI deficiency alone. Our results indicate that HRI confers adaptive gene expression in developing erythroblasts during iron deficiency through maintaining Gata1/Fog1 expression. PMID:18665838

  14. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  15. Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Rigby, Neil M.;

    2011-01-01

    , such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their ‘normal’ matrix. Methods: Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3...... times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical...... level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, had a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Conclusions: Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally...

  16. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus. PMID:21380805

  17. Cytological features of NUT midline carcinoma arising in sino-nasal tract and parotid gland: Report of two new cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijanienko, Jerzy; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Rodriguez, José; Caly, Martial; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear Protein in Testis (NUT) Midline Carcinoma (NMC) represents a recently described, uncommon, high-grade and extremely lethal malignancy mainly occurring in children and young adults. Such tumors are genetically characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the NUT gene. Cytological description of NUT carcinoma is limited and only seven cases were reported up to date. We show here another two cases studied cytologically with molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation. In both cases smears were hypercellular and composed of isolated or clustered small to medium-sized in size with roundish and oval shape cells. Nuclei were either regular or roundish containing dusty chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Mitotic figures were prominent. Cytoplasm was scant, strongly basophilic. Cell debris, necrosis, and apoptosis were also prominent. One of the cases was studied by FISH and the second case was studied by RT-PCR and BRD4-NUT translocation was found in both cases. Moreover, the clinical evolution was aggressive in both cases with rapid fatal clinical outcome. NUT carcinomas are an underdiagnosed entity which should be taken into consideration when poorly differentiated carcinomas was diagnosed in children or young adults. Cytology material may be successfully used for morphological and molecular diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:753-756. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27338676

  18. Formation of 11-trans slow reacting substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrache, V; Sok, D E; Pai, J K; Sih, C J

    1981-01-01

    Under strongly basic conditions [excess LiOH, dimethoxyethane/water (4:1, vol/vol)], purified slow reacting substances (SRSs) SRS-GSH and SRS-Cys were not isomerized to their corresponding 11-trans isomers. However, addition of thiols such as glutathione (GSH) or L-cysteine to this basic medium produced various amounts of 11-trans-SRS, depending on the thiol concentration. This chemical isomerization was inhibited by the radical scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy free radical (HTMP); the inhibition suggests that the thiyl radical (RS) is added reversibly to the triene system at C-12, resulting in the overall cis leads to trans isomerization of the 11,12 double bond. Because the amount of 11-trans-SRS-Cys produced by intact rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1) cells was consistently higher than the amount produced in boiled cells, we believe that intact RBL-1 cells contain enzyme systems that form peroxides, which are known to enhance the formation of thiyl radicals, required for cis leads to trans isomerization. Likewise, HTMP inhibited the formation of 11-trans-SRS-Cys in this cell system. PMID:6112746

  19. Universal quantitative kinase assay based on diagonal SCX chromatography and stable isotope dimethyl labeling provides high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and human Mps1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennrich, Marco L; Marino, Fabio; Groenewold, Vincent; Kops, Geert J P L; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R

    2013-05-01

    In order to understand cellular signaling, a clear understanding of kinase-substrate relationships is essential. Some of these relationships are defined by consensus recognition motifs present in substrates making them amendable for phosphorylation by designated kinases. Here, we explore a method that is based on two sequential steps of strong cation exchange chromatography combined with differential stable isotope labeling, to define kinase consensus motifs with high accuracy. We demonstrate the value of our method by evaluating the motifs of two very distinct kinases: cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PKA) and human monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) kinase, also known as TTK. PKA is a well-studied basophilic kinase with a relatively well-defined motif and numerous known substrates in vitro and in vivo. Mps1, a kinase involved in chromosome segregation, has been less well characterized. Its substrate specificity is unclear and here we show that Mps1 is an acidophilic kinase with a striking tendency for phosphorylation of threonines. The final outcomes of our work are high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and Mps1. Our generic method, which makes use of proteolytic cell lysates as a source for peptide-substrate libraries, can be implemented for any kinase present in the kinome.

  20. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  1. Transtracheal wash from a puppy with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew; Olver, Christine; Thrall, Mary Anna

    2006-12-01

    A 4-month-old, intact male Boxer puppy was presented to the Animal Emergency and Critical Care Services of South Florida because of nasal discharge, dehydration, dyspnea, and coughing. The dog had been diagnosed with intestinal parasites and kennel cough approximately 10 days before presentation. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs of the thorax revealed an increased bronchointerstitial pattern throughout the lungs. A transtracheal wash was performed. On cytologic examination of direct, Wright-Giemsa-stained smears, small basophilic coccoid structures (0.3-0.9 microm in diameter) were observed in low to moderate numbers within neutrophils and adherent to epithelial cells. The small size of the organisms raised suspicion for Mycoplasma. Culture of the transtracheal wash fluid resulted in growth of a Mycoplasma sp. The patient was treated with enrofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate and made a full recovery. Recognizing Mycoplasma in transtracheal washes could aid in recommending the appropriate culture media or immunologic techniques, which could result in an accurate diagnosis of mycoplasmosis. PMID:17123258

  2. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use.

  3. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. PMID:25528359

  4. Histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yan; Meng Fan-yu; Hu Zhen-hua; Liu Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Rat model of PCOS was established in 6 immature female SD rats and another 6 immature rats treated with placebo were as control. The tissues of hypothalamus and pituitary were obtained and observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope.Results: Light microscopy revealed little difference in morphology of neurons in arcuate nucleus or basophilic cells in pituitary between PCOS rats and normal rats. Electron microscopic examination showed that, compared with those in normal rats, GnRH neurons in PCOS rats were larger and fuller, with Golgi complex and mitochondria increased. The mitochondria were small, round and swelling. More high-density secretory granules and bright vesicles were observed in the cytoplasm. The Golgi complex near nucleus in pituitary gonadotropin cell in PCOS rats was fractured and expanded, and there were increased number mitochondria and different sizes of the higher electron density secretory granules in the cytoplasm. Conclusion: The morphological alterations in hypothalamus and pituitary could play a very important role in the development of PCOS.

  5. Multiple cementoblastoma: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaci, G; Luise, R; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Salierno, A

    2013-01-01

    Benign cementoblastoma is a rare ectomesenchymal odontogenic tumor that originates from the root of the tooth and that is characterized by the formation of cementum-like tissue. A 60-year old man was referred to us complaining of pain in his right jaw. The patient underwent TC dental scan of the mandible, which highlighted the presence of three well-circumscribed, round, unilocular neoformations of radiopaque appearance with a radiotransparent edge, one of which was in close contact with the roots of the lower right second molar. Microscopic examination of the greater sample consisted, in its central portion, of dense mineralized acellular trabeculae of basophilic tissue cement-like, devoid of vessels, adhering to the root of the tooth, while peripherally was observed a zone of vascularized osteoid surrounded, occasionally, by a thin rim of cementoblasts mixed with fibrous tissue and inflammatory elements. This lesion was diagnosed as cementoblastoma. The second lesion appeared radiologically and histologically entirely identical to cementoblastoma, but it did not show the intimate association with the root of involved tooth. After a careful review of the literature, the diagnosis of residual cementoblastoma was made. The clinicopathologic features, treatment, and prognosis of this rare tumor are here discussed for the young dental practitioner. PMID:24027644

  6. Multiple Cementoblastoma: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iannaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cementoblastoma is a rare ectomesenchymal odontogenic tumor that originates from the root of the tooth and that is characterized by the formation of cementum-like tissue. A 60-year old man was referred to us complaining of pain in his right jaw. The patient underwent TC dental scan of the mandible, which highlighted the presence of three well-circumscribed, round, unilocular neoformations of radiopaque appearance with a radiotransparent edge, one of which was in close contact with the roots of the lower right second molar. Microscopic examination of the greater sample consisted, in its central portion, of dense mineralized acellular trabeculae of basophilic tissue cement-like, devoid of vessels, adhering to the root of the tooth, while peripherally was observed a zone of vascularized osteoid surrounded, occasionally, by a thin rim of cementoblasts mixed with fibrous tissue and inflammatory elements. This lesion was diagnosed as cementoblastoma. The second lesion appeared radiologically and histologically entirely identical to cementoblastoma, but it did not show the intimate association with the root of involved tooth. After a careful review of the literature, the diagnosis of residual cementoblastoma was made. The clinicopathologic features, treatment, and prognosis of this rare tumor are here discussed for the young dental practitioner.

  7. Insight of EDX analysis and EFTEM: are spherocrystals located in Strombidae digestive gland implied in detoxification of trace metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Jean-Marie; Lechaire, Jean-Pierre; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Ramdine, Gaëlle; Gros, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Digestive tubules of Strombidae are composed by three cell types: digestive cells, vacuolated cells, and crypt cells. The last one is characterized by the presence of intracellular granules identified as spherocrystals. Such structures are known to occur in basophilic cells of gastropod digestive gland, where they are supposed to be involved in the regulation of some minerals and in detoxification. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) were used to determine the elemental content of spherocrystals in two Strombidae, Strombus gigas and Strombus pugilis. In freshly collected individuals of both species, the following elements were detected: Ca, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn. Aluminum and Mn were also detected in S. gigas. Their presence in spherocrystals indicates that, in Strombidae, spherocrystals are involved in the regulation of minerals and essential trace metals. In order to answer the question "are spherocrystals involved in nonessential trace metals scavenging?," artificial cadmium and lead exposure by both waterborne and dietary pathways was applied to S. pugilis. No evidence of cadmium (Cd(NO(3))(2)) or lead (Pb(NO(3))(2)) provided by food was found in spherocrystals. Cadmium provided in water (Cd(NO(3))(2) and CdCl(2)) causes structural modifications of the digestive gland; however, this element was not trapped in spherocrystals. These results suggest that spherocrystals are not involved in detoxification of such nonessential trace metals. PMID:21919125

  8. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus

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    Naser Tayyebi Meibodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis presents with perinuclear vacuolization of the keratinocytes in spinous and granular layers, keratinocytes with ill-defined limits, which leads to a reticulate appearance of the epidermis, an increased number of variously shaped and sized basophilic keratohyalin granules and the same sized eosinophilic trichohyalin granules, at any level of epidermis, mainly in the stratum granulosum, and compact hyperkeratosis. This minor reactive pathologic reaction pattern of skin is found in large variety of diseases. This paper is the first case report of such pattern in inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus. Our case is of a 23-year-old man with pruritic verrucous lesions of trunk and extremities initiated since 13 years ago. Physical examination revealed white linear hyperkeratotic lesions, some of them on erythematous background and also classic epidermal nevus. No skeletal, ophthalmic, and nervous system involvement was detected. Microscopic study of pruritic verrucous lesions showed psoriasiform acanthosis, mild papillomatous, hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic hyperkeratotic changes in hair follicles and acrosyrinx accompanied with moderate perivascular inflammation.

  9. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  10. Ultrastructural study of the mast cells of the human duodenal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; de Korwin, J D; Tisserant, J; Grignon, M; Claudot, N

    1984-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the process of degranulation of mast cells of human duodenal mucosa was examined. In normal controls little degranulation was seen, but in persons with false food allergy (pseudo-allergy) considerable degranulation of mast cells was detected. This is consistent with the hypothesis that some persons have an abnormal fragility of duodenal mast cells in the presence of histamine-releasing substances. Incubation of duodenal biopsy material with various histamine-releasing agents (compound 48/80, Concanavalin A, the calcium ionophore A 23187, and anti-IgE) confirmed the susceptibility of duodenal mast cells for antigen non-specific release of histamine, or that mediated by IgE. In a group of patients with immediate-type, anaphylactic, food allergy, mast cells in the absence of antigen are in a normal state, but degranulation occurs on exposure in vitro or in vivo to specific antigen. The susceptibility to degranulation continues in persons cured of their food allergy. This suggests that a clinical cure is not due to a change of susceptibility of duodenal mast cells to release histamine, but is possibly associated with formation of blocking antibodies, and/or a modification in reactivity of basophils and mast cells of other organs. PMID:6207955

  11. Dupuytren type fibromatoses. A clinicopathologic study of 62 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, M; Tsuneyoshi, M; Enjoji, M

    1984-09-01

    This clinicopathologic study concerns 62 patients with one of the Dupuytren type fibromatoses. Of the 62 patients, 42 had the lesion in the palm (palmar fibromatosis), 12 in the sole (plantar fibromatosis), 2 in the penis (penile fibromatosis), and 6 in the ectopic locations, the dorsal aspect of the hand in 3 patients, the dorsum of the fingers in 2, and the forearm in 1. The clinically palpable nodules were histologically classified into those of the following three phases, according to LUCK'S classification: proliferative phase (27), involutional phase (23), and residual phase (12). In addition to fibroblastic proliferation, the lesion of the proliferative phase exhibited vascular features consisting of one or more layers of cells with oval nuclei around the vessels within the nodule. In the lesions of the late proliferative and involutional phase, the intracytoplasmic fine filaments were visible in cells compatible with myofibroblasts by Masson's trichrome stain. The nuclei of the elemental fibroblasts in the same phases were often crossed transversely by one or more fine basophilic lines.

  12. The inhibitory effect of piperine from Fructus piperis extract on the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Han, Shengli; Cao, Jingjing; Chen, Qinhua; Wang, Sicen

    2014-12-01

    Allergy is an abnormal immune response to an allergen. Type I hypersensitivity is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic disorder. Fructus piperis is derived from the ripe fruit of the pepper, which is widely used as a spice in human diets and is also administered as a medicine in many countries. Piperine has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-depressant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of piperine on IgE-mediated allergic responses has not been reported. Here, the rat basophilic leukemia cells by membrane chromatography (RBL-2H3/CMC) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) to discover and identify piperine can bind to RBL-2H3 cell membranes. Piperine inhibited the expression of cytokines, and the release of both β-hexosaminidase and histamine, which could be stimulated by antigen in RBL-2H3 mast cells. We found that the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) also decreased. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α were significantly suppressed by piperine. The inhibitory effect of piperine on IgE-mediated degranulation and cytokine production by RBL-2H3 cells may be caused by the inhibition of IgE-mediated signaling pathways, including the phosphorylation of Lyn, p38, Erk, and Ras. In summary, piperine can inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions that control degranulation.

  13. Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of A3 receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Pnina; Bar-Yehuda, Sara

    2003-01-01

    The present study summarizes the biological effects elicit upon A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) activation in normal and tumor cells. Anti-inflamatory response is mediated upon A(3)AR activation in neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages via direct effect on cell degranulation or the production of anti-inflamatory cytokines. In basophils, which highly express A(3)AR, degranulation and mediator release upon receptor activation lead to pro-inflammatory effects resulting in bronchospasm and asthma. In other normal cells such as cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells and bone marrow cells A(1)AR activation induces cytoprotective effects in vitro. In vivo, A(3)AR agonists act as cardio- and neuroprotective agents and attenuate ischemic damage. Furthermore, agonists to A(3)AR induce granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and myeloprotective effect in chemotherapy treated mice. Interestingly, A(3)AR agonists inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo through a cytostatic effect mediated via the de-regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The variety of activities elicit by A(3)AR agonists suggest their potential use as therapeutic agents in inflammation, brain/cardiac ischemia and cancer. Antagonists to A(3)AR may be implemented to the therapy of asthma and additional allergic conditions.

  14. Possible contribution of rubiadin, a metabolite of madder color, to renal carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Takahashi, Miwa; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Kuniyoshi; Nakashima, Koichi; Shibutani, Makoto; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Madder color (MC) has been shown to exert carcinogenic potential in the rat kidney in association with degeneration, karyomegaly, increased cell proliferation of renal tubule cells and increased renal 8-OHdG levels. To clarify the causal relationship of components and metabolites of MC to renal carcinogenesis, male F344 rats were fed lucidin-3-O-primeveroside (LuP) or alizarin (Alz), and the genotoxic LuP metabolites lucidin (Luc) or rubiadin (Rub) for up to 26 weeks. After one week and four weeks, Luc did not induce any renal changes. In contrast, after one week, cortical tubule degeneration was apparent in the Alz and LuP groups, and cytoplasmic swelling with basophilic change and karyomegaly in the outer medulla was observed only in the Rub group. LuP and Rub increased the proliferative activity of tubule cells in the outer medulla, and Alz and LuP increased renal 8-OHdG levels. After 26 weeks, Rub but not Alz induced atypical tubules, a putative preneoplastic lesion, and karyomegaly in the outer medulla. These results indicate that Rub may be a potent carcinogenic metabolite of MC, targeting proximal tubule cells in the outer medulla, although oxidative stress increased by Alz or LuP might also be involved in renal carcinogenesis by MC.

  15. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeota, Judith A; Napier, Julia E; Armstrong, Douglas L; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Rogers, Douglas G

    2009-07-01

    Seven juveniles and 3 adults from a closed group of 19 rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) housed in a zoo's indoor rock exhibit died or were euthanized after developing blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers over a 2-week period. Histopathologic examination of dermal ulcers and ulcerated tongues revealed amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells bordering ulcers. Epithelial cells with inclusion bodies were often characterized by cytomegaly and karyomegaly, and many cells had formed syncytia. Examination of inclusion bodies in tongue epithelium by transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral nucleocapsids, approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with morphologic features consistent with herpesvirus. Cytopathic effect (CPE) typical of alphaherpesvirus infection was seen in bovine turbinate, equine dermal, and Vero cell monolayers after inoculation with homogenates of the skin lesions, but CPE was not seen after inoculation onto Madin-Darby canine kidney or swine testicle cell monolayers. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using degenerate primers that targeted a portion of the herpesvirus polymerase gene generated a product of approximately 227 base pairs. The product was cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed using BLAST. At the nucleotide level, there was 86%, 77%, and 76% shared identity with Eidolon herpesvirus 1, Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2, respectively. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes have not been characterized. The data presented in the current study suggest that a novel alphaherpesvirus caused the lesions seen in these rock hyraxes. The molecular characteristics of this virus would tentatively support its inclusion in the genus Simplexvirus.

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

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    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, M. van [Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boheemen, S. van [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jong, A.A.W. de [Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuiken, T., E-mail: t.Kuiken@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  17. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients.

  18. Dermal mass aspirate from a Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Feldman, Bernard; Robertson, John; Herring, Erin S; Manning, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female Persian cat with alopecia and weight loss had numerous variably ulcerated dermal nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of one of the nodules revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with septate hyphae and basophilic round bodies, 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter, surrounded by a thin clear halo (arthrospores). The cytologic diagnosis was dermatophytic pseudomycetoma. Histologically, there were dermal granulomas containing poorly staining, septate hyphae with bulbous spores embedded within abundant amorphous eosinophilic material (Splendore-Hoeppli reaction), and the histologic diagnosis was pseudomycetoma-associated chronic multifocal severe granulomatous dermatitis with lymphocytic perifolliculitis and furunculosis. Microsporum canis was cultured from the lesion. Pseudomycetomas are distinguished from fungal mycetomas, or eumycotic mycetomas, by the findings of multiple lesions, lack of a history of skin trauma, an association with dermatophytes, most commonly Microsporum canis, and, histologically, lack of true cement material and a more abundant Splendore-Hoeppli reaction in pseudomycetomas. Additionally, pseudomycetomas differ from dermatophytosis, in which lesions are restricted to epidermal structures. Persian cats have a high incidence of pseudomycetoma formation, suggesting a heritable predisposition. The prognosis is fair with systemic antifungal therapy. When examining cytologic specimens from Persian cats with single or multiple dermal nodules, especially if pyogranulomatous inflammation is present, a diagnosis of pseudomycetoma should be suspected and is warranted if arthrospores and refractile septate hyphae are present.

  19. Multicentric epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Ul-Soo

    2014-12-01

    A 2-year-old female African hedgehog was presented with a 5-month history of pruritus, and diffuse spine and hair loss. A dermatologic examination revealed erythema, excoriation, scales, and crusting affecting the face, flanks, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and dorsal and ventral abdomen. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and skin biopsies were taken from several lesions for cytologic and histologic evaluation. The aspirates yielded smears characterized by a monomorphic population of medium-sized to large lymphocytes with scant to moderate amounts of clear to moderately basophilic cytoplasm and distinct nucleoli along with a low number of cytoplasmic fragments. On histopathologic examination, there were dense dermal lymphoid infiltrates invading the dermis and a monomorphic population of round cells that had infiltrated the overlying epidermis. Epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed based on morphologic features. Additional immunochemical analysis using anti-CD3 and anti-CD79a antibodies revealed strong CD3 expression by the tumor cells, which confirmed epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This is the first description of a multicentric pattern of epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:25204556

  20. Proteasome dysfunction induces muscle growth defects and protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yasuo; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Naoki; Warita, Hitoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Tateyama, Maki; Ando, Risa; Izumi, Rumiko; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Ito, Hidefumi; Urushitani, Makoto; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Aoki, Masashi

    2014-12-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways are the two major routes of protein and organelle clearance. The role of the proteasome pathway in mammalian muscle has not been examined in vivo. In this study, we report that the muscle-specific deletion of a crucial proteasomal gene, Rpt3 (also known as Psmc4), resulted in profound muscle growth defects and a decrease in force production in mice. Specifically, developing muscles in conditional Rpt3-knockout animals showed dysregulated proteasomal activity. The autophagy pathway was upregulated, but the process of autophagosome formation was impaired. A microscopic analysis revealed the accumulation of basophilic inclusions and disorganization of the sarcomeres in young adult mice. Our results suggest that appropriate proteasomal activity is important for muscle growth and for maintaining myofiber integrity in collaboration with autophagy pathways. The deletion of a component of the proteasome complex contributed to myofiber degeneration and weakness in muscle disorders that are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal inclusions.

  1. Colonic malakoplakia in a cardiac transplant recipient

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    Niamathullah Sadiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition which is usually seen in the urogenital tract and less commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal malakoplakia may be associated with organ transplantation. There are previously only three reported cases of malakoplakia in cardiac transplant recipient. We report a case of colonic malakoplakia in a 38‑year‑old male who underwent cardiac transplantation for dilated cardiomyopathy 4 years previously and who had been on tacrolimus and mycophenolate. The patient presented with history of diarrhea associated with fecal incontinence for the past 6 months. Ileocolonoscopic examination was within normal limits. A rectal biopsy was done to exclude microscopic pathology. Microscopy revealed expansion of the lamina propria by histiocytes admixed with a few lymphocytes. The histiocytes showed granular eosinophilic cytoplasm with intracytoplasmic presence of Michaelis‑Gutmann bodies, rounded basophilic laminated structures having central core with a targetoid appearance. These stained positively for Von kossa stain for calcium and were diagnostic for malakoplakia. Although rare, malakoplakia may be associated with chronic diarrhea even if there are no macroscopic lesions seen during colonoscopy. The patient’s symptoms resolved with long‑term ciprofloxacin therapy

  2. Multiple Congenital Granular Cell Epulis: Case Report and Immunohistochemical Profile with Emphasis on Vascularization

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    Patricia Roccon Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital granular cell epulis is a rare benign soft tissue lesion arising from the alveolar ridge in neonates. A rare case of multiple congenital granular cell epulis is reported, alongside a description of its vascular immunohistochemical profile. A female newborn presented with two exophytic pedunculated red nodules located on the alveolar ridge between the future eruption sites of the incisors and canines of the mandible and maxilla. A conservative surgical excision was performed on the second day of life. Histology revealed proliferation of round granular cells containing an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with basophilic nuclei, ranging from round to oval in shape. Numerous blood vessels were also seen. Immunohistochemical analysis of the granular cells revealed positivity for CD68, D2-40, Ki67, VEGF, and FGF and negativity for S100, CD34, and CD105. Immunostaining for CD34, CD105, and D2-40 confirmed the presence of a large number of blood and lymphatic vessels. Although rare, an understanding of this lesion is paramount for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. In the present report, the immunohistochemical profile confirmed increased vascularization, proving that these lesions are composed of not only new and preexisting blood vessels, but also lymphatic vessels.

  3. Mielograma de ratas com disfunção tireoidiana

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    R.D Castro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cells of the myelo id, lymphoid , and erythroid lineage s of the bone marrow were quantified in rats with hypo and hyperthyroidism. Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups: hypothyroid (n=5, hyperthyroid (n=5 , and control (n=5. Three months after the onset of the treatment s, euthanasia was performed . Bone marrow was aspirated from femurs of each animal to perform smear s that were stained with Quick Panoptic. T he percentage s of rubroblast, prorubrocyte, metarubrocyte, myeloblast, promyelocytes, metamyelocytes, myel ocytes, segmented, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and monocytes in were determined a total of 500 cells. The bone marrow of animals with hypothyroidism had hypoplasia. The myeloid:erythroid ratio was higher in animals with thyroid dysfun ction. In hypo and hyperthyroidism, there was a significant reduction of the percentage of rubrocyte, metarubrocyte , and lymphocytes and increase of myelocytes and segmented cells. In hypothyroidism, there was a significant increase in the percentage of me tamyelocytes. It is c oncluded that both hypo and hyperfunction of thyroid increase the myeloid:erythroid ratio by increasing the number of cells of the myeloid lineage and reducing the cells of the erythroid lineage.

  4. Characterization of rabbit ileal receptors for Clostridium difficile toxin A. Evidence for a receptor-coupled G protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothoulakis, C.; LaMont, J.T.; Eglow, R.; Gao, N.; Rubins, J.B.; Theoharides, T.C.; Dickey, B.F. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the surface receptor for toxin A, the enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, on rabbit intestinal brush borders (BB) and on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. Purified toxin A was radiolabeled using a modified Bolton-Hunter method to sp act 2 microCi/micrograms, with retention of full biologic activity. 3H-Toxin A bound specifically to a single class of receptors on rabbit BB and on RBL cells with dissociation constants of 5.4 x 10(-8) and 3.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively. RBL cells were highly sensitive to toxin A (cell rounding) and had 180,000 specific binding sites per cell, whereas IMR-90 fibroblasts were far less sensitive to toxin A and lacked detectable specific binding sites. Exposure of BB to trypsin or chymotrypsin significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Preincubation of BB with Bandeirea simplicifolia (BS-1) lectin also reduced specific binding, and CHAPS-solubilized receptors could be immobilized with WGA-agarose. The addition of 100 nM toxin A accelerated the association of 35S-GTP gamma S with rabbit ileal BB, and preincubation of BB with the GTP analogues GTP gamma S or Gpp(NH)p, significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Our data indicate that the membrane receptor for toxin A is a galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine-containing glycoprotein which appears to be coupled to a G protein.

  5. [Blood biological constants in the deer Rusa (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia. I. Hematologic constants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1990-01-01

    Since the beginning of year 1987, the deer "Rusa" breeding has been developing in New Caledonia. In 1988, during a slaughter operation amidst the herds, nearly ninety blood samples were collected in order to define the blood biological parameters (or constants) of this species. Regarding haematology, the study concerns the following parameters: erythrocyte count (9.32 x 10(12)/l), leucocyte count (4.51 x 10(9)/l), various leucocyte lines and their formula, i.e. (neutrophile polymorphonuclear: 2.08 x 10(9)/l [46.6 p. 100]; lymphocytes: 1.75 x 10(9)/l [38.4 p. 100]; monocytes: 0.33 x 10(9)/l [7.5 p. 100]; eosinophiles polymorphonuclear leucocytes: 0.4 x 10(9)/l [7.46 p. 100]; basophile polymorphonuclear leucocytes: 0.01 x 10(9)/l [0.28 p. 100]), hematocrite (36.8 l/l), hemoglobin ratio (14.1 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (40.3 dl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin rate (15.3 pg/cell), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (38.7 g/dl). In the course of the study, variations of these parameters were detected according to various physiological criteria and to the sampling conditions as deer is a stress sensitive animal. PMID:2218039

  6. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

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    A. J. Theron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1 antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5′-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies.

  7. Melanocortins contribute to sequential differentiation and enucleation of human erythroblasts via melanocortin receptors 1, 2 and 5.

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    Eriko Simamura

    Full Text Available In this study, we showed that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH promoted erythroblast differentiation and increased the enucleation ratio of erythroblasts. Because ACTH was contained in hematopoietic medium as contamination, the ratio decreased by the addition of anti-ACTH antibody (Ab. Addition of neutralizing Abs (nAbs for melanocortin receptors (MCRs caused erythroblast accumulation at specific stages, i.e., the addition of anti-MC2R nAb led to erythroblast accumulation at the basophilic stage (baso-E, the addition of anti-MC1R nAb caused accumulation at the polychromatic stage (poly-E, and the addition of anti-MC5R nAb caused accumulation at the orthochromatic stage (ortho-E. During erythroblast differentiation, ERK, STAT5, and AKT were consecutively phosphorylated by erythropoietin (EPO. ERK, STAT5, and AKT phosphorylation was inhibited by blocking MC2R, MC1R, and MC5R, respectively. Finally, the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2, which is essential for the formation of contractile actomyosin rings, was inhibited by anti-MC5R nAb. Taken together, our study suggests that MC2R and MC1R signals are consecutively required for the regulation of EPO signal transduction in erythroblast differentiation, and that MC5R signal transduction is required to induce enucleation. Thus, melanocortin induces proliferation and differentiation at baso-E, and polarization and formation of an actomyosin contractile ring at ortho-E are required for enucleation.

  8. A hypoallergenic hybrid molecule with increased immunogenicity consisting of derivatives of the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 2 and Phl p 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Vrtala, Susanne; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently based on the administration of allergen extracts containing natural allergens. However, its broad application is limited by the poor quality of these extracts. Based on recombinant allergens, well-defined allergy vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy can be produced. Furthermore, they can be modified to reduce their allergenic activity and to avoid IgE-mediated side effects. Here, we demonstrate that the immunogenicity of two grass pollen-derived hypoallergenic allergen derivatives could be increased by engineering them as a single hybrid molecule. We used a hypoallergenic Phl p 2 mosaic, generated by fragmentation of the Phl p 2 sequence and reassembly of the resulting peptides in an altered order, and a truncated Phl p 6 allergen, to produce a hybrid protein. The hybrid retained the reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of its components as shown by ELISA and basophil activation assays. Immunization with the hybrid molecule demonstrated the increased immunogenicity of this molecule, leading to higher levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies compared to the single components. These antibodies could inhibit patients' IgE binding to the wild-type allergens. Thus, the described strategy allows the development of safer and more efficacious vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy.

  9. Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy and Novel Ways for Vaccine Development

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    Marek Jutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only available curative treatment of allergic diseases. Recent evidence provided a plausible explanation to its multiple mechanisms inducing both rapid desensitization and long-term allergen-specific immune tolerance, and suppression of allergic inflammation in the affected tissues. During SIT, peripheral tolerance is induced by the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T cells, which suppress proliferative and cytokine responses against the allergen of interest. Regulatory T cells are characterized by IL-10 and TGF-beta secretion and expression of important cell surface suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1 that directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Regulatory T cells and particularly IL-10 also have an influence on B cells, suppressing IgE production and inducing the production of blocking type IgG4 antibodies. In addition, development of allergen-specific B regulatory cells that produce IL-10 and develop into IgG4 producing plasma cells represent essential players in peripheral tolerance. These findings together with the new biotechnological approaches create a platform for development of the advanced vaccines. Moreover, reliable biomarkers could be selected and validated with the intention to select the patients who will benefit most from this immune-modifying treatment. Thus, allergen-SIT could provide a complete cure for a larger number of allergic patients and novel preventive approaches need to be elaborated.

  10. Evaluation of the accuracy of the diff3/50 with a cell by cell comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, G S; Wilson, M K; Adelmeyer, S G; Chang, C K

    1983-09-01

    The traditional approach to the evaluation of accuracy of discrete differential counters uses a graphic comparison of automated and manual counts. This type of comparison introduces so much sampling variation that significant differences often are obscured. To exclude this sampling variability, one of three technologists, a reference technologist and the Coulter diff3/50, each performed a differential count on exactly the same 100 cells of 47 normal and 56 abnormal blood smears. Linear regression analysis demonstrated excellent agreement between the technologists for all cell types with the exception of band neutrophils. Comparison of the instrument results with the technologists' results showed very good agreement for segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. The identification of band neutrophils, basophils, immature granulocytes and atypical lymphocytes requires improvement. The overall performance is acceptable, with only 11 leukocytes, on the average normal smear, misclassified out of 100 normal leukocytes (four bands called segs, four segs called bands, and three non-neutrophils incorrectly classified). We recommend similar evaluations for all discrete differential counters.

  11. An Investigation on Body Condition Score, Body Weight, Calf Weight and Hematological Profile in Crossbred Dairy Cows Suffering from Dystocia

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    Hamit Yıldız*, Nevzat Saat and Halil Şimşek1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of hematological values is useful in diagnosing various pathological and metabolic disorders, which can adversely affect reproductive performance of cows. The aim of this study was to investigate body condition score (BCS, body weight, calf weight, blood erythrocyte parameters and total and differential leukocyte count changes in dystocia-affected crossbred dairy cows. Values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV and neutrophil count were markedly increased (P<0.001 in the dystocia group compared to normal calving group. The levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and hematocrit in dystocia-affected cows were significantly lower (P<0.001 than normal control group. However, in cow suffering from dystocia, counts of the white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were not different from the normal parturient group. In cows with dystocia, BCS, age and parity of dams did not show significant difference compared to normal parturition. However, body weight in cows with difficult calving was lower (P<0.05 than spontaneous calving cows. These results suggest that hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and neutrophil counts were significantly affected due to dystocia in cattle. BCS, age and parity of the cow had no affect on the occurrence of dystocia.

  12. Burkitt Lymphoma Presenting as Unilateral Deafness in an Immunocompetent Patient

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    Andre Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old HIV-negative white male presented with right ear deafness, right axillary lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. Laboratory findings included anemia, marked leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the peripheral smear demonstrated the presence of increased circulating blast-like cells of intermediate size, with basophilic cytoplasm and nuclei with open chromatin. MRI of the brain was compatible with hemorrhagic labyrinthitis. Excisional biopsy of the axillary mass revealed an enlarged lymph node with effaced architecture and “starry sky” appearance. The cells expressed CD20, CD10, BCL6, and surface kappa immunoglobulin light chain, with a high proliferative index by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Subsequent bone marrow biopsy was hypercellular (approximately 95%, with blast-like cells virtually replacing all hematopoietic elements. Routine karyotype as well as FISH analysis of bone marrow cells demonstrated rearrangement of the MYC gene at chromosome 8q24 region, IGH/MYC fusion, and additional signal for IGH gene. We present herein a case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma occurring in a previously healthy HIV-negative male. The unusual clinical findings in this case include the relatively older age at presentation (55 years, an immunocompetent patient who had nodal involvement and leukemic phase of Burkitt, coupled with partial deafness. A brief educational review of this neoplasm is made.

  13. Animal models of complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, János; Alving, Carl R; Rosivall, László; Bünger, Rolf; Baranyi, Lajos; Bedöcs, Péter; Tóth, Miklós; Barenholz, Yezheckel

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous injection of some liposomal drugs, diagnostic agents, micelles and other lipid-based nanoparticles can cause acute hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a high percentage (up to 45%) of patients, with hemodynamic, respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. The phenomenon can be explained with activation of the complement (C) system on the surface of lipid particles, leading to anaphylatoxin (C5a and C3a) liberation and subsequent release reactions of mast cells, basophils and possibly other inflammatory cells in blood. These reactions can be reproduced and studied in pigs, dogs and rats, animal models which differ from each other in sensitivity and spectrum of symptoms. In the most sensitive pig model, a few miligrams of liposome (phospholipid) can cause anaphylactoid shock, characterized by pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, decreased cardiac output and major cardiac arrhythmias. Pigs also display cutaneous symptoms, such as flushing and rash. The sensitivity of dogs to hemodynamic changes is close to that of pigs, but unlike pigs, dogs also react to micellar lipids (such as Cremophor EL) and their response includes pronounced blood cell and vegetative neural changes (e.g., leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, fluid excretions). Rats are relatively insensitive inasmuch as hypotension, their most prominent response to liposomes, is induced only by one or two orders of magnitude higher phospholipid doses (based on body weight) compared to the reactogenic dose in pigs and dogs. It is suggested that the porcine and dog models are applicable for measuring and predicting the (pseudo)allergic activity of particulate "nanodrugs". PMID:17613700

  14. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gambo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments groups, although the haemoglobin (Hb and white blood cells (WBC were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by the treatments. The number of basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were not affected by the levels of inclusion, however, only the monocytes differed significantly (P<0.05 among the treatments. All values for blood parameters were within the normal range for growing rabbit. Thus, the study indicated that up to 40% CBRCM could be incorporated into the diets of growing rabbits without compromising the health status of the rabbits.

  15. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens.

  16. Extramedullary plasmacytoma in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu

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    Roberio G. Olinda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An extramedullary plasmacytoma case in a captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu is reported. The animal, a female aging three years old, had a medical history of diffusely distributed skin and mucocutaneous junction lesions, associated with swollen lymph nodes. Clinical examination and complementary exams (complete blood count, biochemical analysis, skin scraping to search mites and fungal culture were performed. Thirty days after examination, the animal died. At necropsy, multiple consistent nodules, aseptic pustules and swollen lymph nodes were found. On histological exams of the skin and oral mucosa, we observed a large number of round cells forming masses organized in nests, sheets, and cords of cells in a well-vascularized fibrovascular tissue. Neoplastic plasma cells infiltrated between the fibers and the lamina propria of smooth muscle. Spaces among the cell masses were filled with some eosinophil and fluid. Most of the cells were well differentiated, presenting a perinuclear clear zone. In some points, the cells were pleomorphic. The plasma cells presented eccentric, basophilic and spherical nuclei, showing a dense to organized chromatin with distinct nucleoli. Binucleate cells were observed, but multinucleated giant cells were rare. Oral mucosa and lymph nodes tested by immunohistochemical analyses were positive for Mb-1, with a multifocal distribution. In regard to Bcl-2, the neoplastic cells were intermittent weakly positive. So, an extramedullary plasmacytoma was diagnosed in the collared peccary considering the location, the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.

  17. XK469R in Treating Patients With Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis.

  19. [Rocuronium anesthesia induced anaphylactic shock: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Min; Zong, Ya-nan; Lu, Jian; Ma, Lu-lin; Zheng, Qing; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-10-18

    Anaphylaxis is an acute and fatal systemic allergic reaction to an allergen, and it could be an unpredictable and life-threatening cause during anesthesia. The main purpose of this paper is to report a case of anaphylactic shock during the anesthesia induction and to review the prophylaxis and treatment of anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions during the anesthesia period. A 63-year-old man, with a mass on his adrenal, was scheduled to a laparoscopic adrenal tumor excision. During the anesthesia induction period, after administrated sulfentanil, propofol and rocuronium, the blood pressure was decreased and the heart rate was increased. Then, the patient had rash on his whole body and developed an anaphylactic shock. After being treated with the anti-allergic agents and norepinephrine, the rash disappeared and the vital sign become stable. The patient felt nothing uncomfortable during the two weeks'follow-up. Anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions are not rare during the anesthesia period. The most common inducements are muscle relaxant, latex and antibiotics. Anaphylactic reactions in the perioperative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, involving multiple organ systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils. Before anesthesia, we should acquire the allergic history. During the anesthesia period, the vital sign and the skin should be observed carefully. PMID:26474637

  20. Rocuronium anesthesia induced anaphylactic shock:a case report%罗库溴铵致过敏性休克1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱敏; 宗亚楠; 卢剑; 马潞林; 郑清; 郭向阳

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Anaphylaxis is an acute and fatal systemic allergic reaction to an allergen , and it could be an unpre-dictable and life-threatening cause during anesthesia .The main purpose of this paper is to report a case of anaphy-lactic shock during the anesthesia induction and to review the prophylaxis and treatment of anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions during the anesthesia period .A 63-year-old man, with a mass on his adrenal , was scheduled to a laparoscopic adrenal tumor excision .During the anesthesia induction period , after administrated sul-fentanil, propofol and rocuronium , the blood pressure was decreased and the heart rate was increased .Then, the patient had rash on his whole body and developed an anaphylactic shock .After being treated with the anti-allergic agents and norepinephrine , the rash disappeared and the vital sign become stable .The patient felt nothing uncom-fortable during the two weeks ’ follow-up.Anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions are not rare during the anesthesia period .The most common inducements are muscle relaxant , latex and antibiotics .Anaphylactic reac-tions in the perioperative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions , involving multiple or-gan systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils .Before anesthesia , we should acquire the allergic history .During the anesthesia period , the vi-tal sign and the skin should be observed carefully .

  1. Allergy-like reactions to iodinated contrast agents. A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idée, Jean-Marc; Pinès, Emmanuelle; Prigent, Philippe; Corot, Claire

    2005-06-01

    Allergy-like reactions may occur following administration of iodinated contrast media (CM), mostly in at-risk patients (patients with history of previous reaction, history of allergy, co-treated with interleukin-2 or beta-blockers, etc.) but remain generally unpredictable. Severe and fatal reactions are very rare events. All categories of CM may induce such reactions, although first generation (high osmolar CM) have been found to induce a higher rate of adverse events than low osmolar CM. However, no differences were found between the two categories of CM with respect to mortality. Delayed reactions can also occur. There are no differences between the various categories of CM except for non-ionic dimers, which are more likely to induce such effect. Numerous clinical studies have evaluated the prophylactic value of drugs (mostly antihistamines and corticosteroids). Results are unclear and highly variable. Any prevention depends upon the mechanism involved. However, the mechanism of CM-induced allergy-like reaction remains disputed. Relatively recent data revived the hypothesis of a type-I hypersensitivity mechanism. Positive skin tests to CM have been reported. However, the affinity of IgE towards CM has been found to be very low in the only study which actually evaluated it. Other pathophysiological mechanisms (involving direct secretory effects on mast cells or basophils, or activation of the complement system associated or not with the plasma contact system) are also much debated. Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions are, in the end, clinically undistinguishable. PMID:15910651

  2. The radiocontrast molecule in anaphylaxis: a surprising antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Elliott C

    2004-01-01

    X-ray contrast media are individually injected into human blood vessels in greater quantities than any other pharmacological substance. Adverse reactions to these substances have heretofore been considered anaphylactoid in nature. Others and we have demonstrated that the mechanisms involved are multifactorial and may involve activation of mast cells and basophils, activation of the complement system, activation of the contact system, and the conversion of L-arginine into nitric oxide. Appropriate pretreatment with corticosteriods will diminish the incidence of reactions. Most recently we have demonstrated that the contrast media function as 'pseudoantigens' (PsA). They can combine with antibodies, but cannot themselves produce antibodies. This property appears to be dependent on aggregation in high concentrations and varies with the individual media. It furthermore appears to be non-specific in relation to antibodies, and suggests that binding occurs to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. We have now demonstrated that the least toxic of current media demonstrate the best antibody binding and in sufficient concentration can inhibit contrast induced mast cell activation and/or non-contrast antigen induced mast cell activation, apparently due to in vivo pseudoantigen excess. In lesser concentrations and/or lesser binding, the media can trigger mast cell activation. PMID:15025400

  3. Imidacloprid inhibits IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linbo; Zou, Li; Gao, Jinyan; Xu, Huaing; Shi, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Imidacloprid has been commonly used as a pesticide for crop protection and acts as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Little information about the relationship between imidacloprid and allergy is available. Objective This study aims to examine the effects of imidacoprid on IgE-mediated mast cell activation. Methods The rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 (RBL-2H3 cells) were treated with 10-3 – 10-12 mol/L imidacloprid, followed by measuring the mediator production, influx of Ca2+ in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells, and the possible effects of imidacoprid on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). Results It was shown that imidacoprid suppressed the production of histamine, β-hexosaminidase, leukotriene C4, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and Ca2+ mobilization in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells and decreased vascular extravasation in IgE-induced PCA. Conclusion It is the first time to show that imidacloprid suppressed the activation of RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:27803884

  4. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  5. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  6. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Greineisen

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies (LB are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3 and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses.

  7. Reassessment of H&E stained clot specimens and immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated Stat5 for histological diagnosis of MDS/MPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Aini, Wulamujiang; Hiratsuka, Takuya

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have comprehensively analysed histopathological findings of bone marrow clots for diagnosis of haematopoietic cell dysplasia. In particular, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, which is generally considered less informative than May-Giemsa staining. In the current study, the utility of bone marrow clot specimens for diagnosis was examined using H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), including chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML), atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML) lacking Philadelphia chromosome, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), were selected for histological evaluation. H&E stained specimens were advantageous for observation of atypical basophilic staining of the cytoplasm and nucleus related to dysplasia. This finding was significantly supported for both MDS and MDS/MPN (p < 0.05 versus May-Giemsa staining); therefore, we concluded that H&E staining could be used for identification of dysplastic cells. In addition, despite the loss of tissue structure, phosphorylated Stat5 immunostaining was sufficiently useful for the observation of myelodysplastic blasts. Thus, clot specimens are useful for diagnosis of haematopoietic dysplasia by pathologists.

  8. Hematological Parameters in Broilers Reared in a Closed Production Farm in the Low Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Lucía Avilez Colón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hematology and blood chemistry are useful tools to establish a definitive diagnosis, to guide and explore the nature of pathophysiological situations that affect birds. Several diseases of poultry can change blood parameters, which are little studied in Colombia. This study aims to determine degrees of blood hematological parameters in broilers (1-42 days old reared under experimental conditions. Blood samples were taken during the second, fourth and sixth weeks of age. Average results were: hematocrit (PCV %: 27.53; hemoglobin (Hb g/dL: 9.20; mean corpuscular volume (MCV fl: 43.10; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC g/dL: 33.17; erythrocytes (Eri 106 μl: 6.98; leukocytes (Leu 103μL: 19.69; absolute relative values for lymphocyte (Lin %: 72.58; heterophile (Het %: 35; monocytes (Mon %: 9.8; eosinophils (Eos %: 17.8, and basophils (Bas %: 1.08. These results are within normal ranges, and present small variations attributable to environmental conditions and to those of confinement. Therefore, further studies are needed on this topic in the region.

  9. Self-reactive IgE exacerbates interferon responses associated with autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, Jill; Riggs, Jeffrey M; Karnell, Jodi L; Liarski, Vladimir M; Li, Jianqing; Shirinian, Lena; Xu, Linda; Casey, Kerry A; Smith, Michael A; Khatry, Deepak B; Izhak, Liat; Clarke, Lorraine; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel; Petri, Michelle; Clark, Marcus R; Mustelin, Tomas; Kolbeck, Roland; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Canonically, immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and type 2 helper cytokines. Here we found that in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a type of cell of the immune system linked to viral defense, which led to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α (IFN-α). The concentration of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC function by triggering phagocytosis via the high-affinity FcɛRI receptor for IgE, followed by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated sensing of DNA in phagosomes. Our findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses.

  10. Granulocytes in helminth infection -- who is calling the shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, B L; Martin, C; Turner, J D; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as "worms" due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host's immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections.

  11. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  12. Antiallergic activity of ginseng and its ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we measured the antiallergic activities of ginsenosides isolated from the root of Panax ginseng ( Araliaceae), and of their metabolites, as produced by human intestinal bacteria. Compound K, which was identified as a main metabolite, had the most potent inhibitory activity on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells and on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory activity of compound K was more potent than that of disodium cromoglycate, one of the commercial anti-allergic drugs. This compound demonstrated a membrane stabilizing action on differential scanning calorimetry. However, compound K did not inhibit the activation of hyaluronidase and did not scavenge active oxygen. These results suggest that the antiallergic action of compound K originates from its cell membrane stabilizing activity and that the ginsenosides of ginseng are prodrugs with extensive antiallergic properties. Abbreviations. compound K:20- O-beta- D-glucopyranosyl-20( S)-protopanaxadiol DNP:dinitrophenol DSCG:disodium cromoglycate DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl HSA:human serum albumin IC 50 :50% inhibitory concentration EC 50 :50% effective concentration XOD:xanthine oxidase ICR:Institute of Cancer Research PBS:phosphate buffered saline PCA:passive cutaneous anaphylaxis RAW264.7:mouse monocyte leukemiaRBL-2H3: rat basophil leukemia SD:Sprague-Dawley PMID:12865969

  13. COMPARATIVE MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ADRENAL GLANDS IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    S. Yu. Alyabyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of morphological changes of the adrenal glands in arterial hyperten-sion. Adrenals investigated persons who do not suffer in life and suffering from hypertension during the life of hypertension and died from various causes – is incompatible with the life of a mechanical trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, and acute left ventricular failure. In each case, each of the adrenal glands were assessed: the presence and severity of focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltration, the number of lympho-cytes, monocytes, plasma cells and fibroblasts arranged in the respective zones of the cortex and medulla, the severity of hyperemia and edema of various structural parts, the number of zones cortex and medulla endocrinocytes with pycnotic nuclei in the reticular zone evaluated the distribution of secretory cells with lipofuscin and the degree of saturation of the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, in secretory cells of medul-la evaluated nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the severity of vacuolization and basophils cytoplasm revealed a number of regularities of morphological changes depending from the various clinical manifestations of hypertension, defining the ultimate option of dying. At the heart tanatogenesis version are more pro-nounced morphological features hyperfunctions glomerular zone – namely delipidization left and right glands. The beam and netted areas contralateral glands embodiment of dying of a heart compared to the brain, is more pronounced hyperemia. When cardiac variant tanatogenesis more pronounced focal lym-phoid infiltration and vacuolization in secretory cells of left adrenal medulla.

  14. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

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    Haahtela Tari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria. Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli. Structural alterations (that is, remodeling of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened. Conclusion Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites.

  15. Lead poisoning in a West Bank Arab Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Abrahamov, A; Moreb, J; Hersh, M; Shiffman, R; Shahin, A; Richter, E D; Konijn, A M; Weissenberg, E; Graver, F

    1984-10-01

    Eleven patients from the West Bank village of Es-Sawiyeh were admitted with lead poisoning to two Jerusalem hospitals between November 1982 and January 1983. They all belonged to several households of a single large family. Colicky abdominal pains were present in five patients, weakness in four, behavioral changes ranging from irritability to frank psychosis in four, and paralysis in one. Anemia of various degrees was seen in all patients. Basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis were encountered in all patients with moderate to severe anemia. Therapy with edetate disodium calcium and penicillamine resulted in clinical improvement in all patients. A preliminary survey of 270 subjects in the same village disclosed 84 subjects with abnormally elevated blood lead levels, 17 of whom had grade IV lead burden according to the Centers for Disease Control risk classification. Contamination of homemade flour by lead used for stabilizing the metal parts of stone mills was the source of poisoning. As the method of milling in many West Bank villages is similar, these findings may have important implications to the well being of a large section of the rural West Bank population.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p hypoallergenic food extracts.

  17. Molecular characterization of recombinant T1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the Bet v 1 plant allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, Sylvia; Hamdi, Said; Lupinek, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Grote, Monika; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Scheiner, Otto; Kraft, Dietrich; Rideau, Marc; Valenta, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    More than 25% of the population suffer from Type I allergy, an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease. Allergens with homology to the major birch ( Betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. T1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the Bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T1 (rT1) did not react with IgE antibodies from allergic patients, and failed to induce basophil histamine release and immediate-type skin reactions in Bet v 1-allergic patients. Antibodies raised against purified rT1 could be used for in situ localization of natural T1 by immunogold electron microscopy, but did not cross-react with most of the Bet v 1-related allergens. CD analysis showed significant differences regarding secondary structure and thermal denaturation behaviour between rT1 and recombinant Bet v 1, suggesting that these structural differences are responsible for the different allergenicity of the proteins. T1 represents a non-allergenic member of the Bet v 1 family that may be used to study structural requirements of allergenicity and to engineer hypo-allergenic plants by replacing Bet v 1-related allergens for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:12656672

  18. Determination of the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the percentages of peripheral blood leukocytes and histology of lymphoid organs of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the effects of very weak, extremely low frequency (50Hz) electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the relative spleen weight, lymphoid organ histology, peripheral blood leukocyte and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase positive (ANAE-positive) lymphocyte percentages of mouse. The study was carried out in the Scientific Research and Application Center of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey in 2005. A total of 120 Swiss albino mice were divided into 6 groups (20 in each group). The experimental animals were exposed to 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 uT flux intensities (rms) of EMF at 50 Hz for 40 days. In the exposure groups with 20 animals, the body weight (BW) increased gradually in higher field intensities and reached at peak level in the 4 uT and then slightly decreased. The relative spleen weight (% of BW) was not affected. The ELF-EMF treatment did not cause any significant change in lymphocyte, monocyte and ANA-positive lymphocyte ratios, whereas percentages of neutropholis and basophiles changed non-linearly. Any change in the lymphoid organ histology which attributable to the field effect, was not observed in the exposure groups. Extremely frequency-EMF exposure with the flux intensities between 1-5 uT for 40 days did not cause any effect on the relative spleen weight, lymphoid organ histology, leukocyte and ANAE-positive lymphocyte percentages of the mouse. (author)

  19. Hematology and serum biochemistry values of free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, J C; Moreau, B; de Thoisy, B; Fournier, P; Genty, C

    1998-06-01

    One hundred twenty-two wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were translocated during flooding of the forest at a hydroelectric dam site in French Guiana. Blood samples from 103 animals were evaluated for 13 hematologic and/or 22 serum chemistry parameters. Significant age-specific variation was found for white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and platelet counts and for alkaline phosphatase values. Adult males and females had significant differences in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin, creatinine, cholesterol, and calcium values. In juveniles, amylase and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in males than in females. Significant differences associated with reproductive status were also observed; i.e., lower cholesterol level in pregnant females and higher packed cell volume in lactating females. Chronic stress due to habitat disappearance may have been responsible for significant differences between thin animals and those in good condition. Thin animals had lower WBC, eosinophil, basophil, and monocyte counts and higher platelet counts. Capture stress was probably responsible for high and variable levels of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:9732027

  20. Cytochemical and functional characterization of blood and inflammatory cells from the lizard Ameiva ameiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberio, Sanny O; Diniz, Jose A; Silva, Edilene O; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato A

    2005-06-01

    The fine structure and differential cell count of blood and coelomic exudate leukocytes were studied with the aim to identify granulocytes from Ameiva ameiva, a lizard distributed in the tropical regions of the Americas. Blood leukocytes were separated with a Percoll cushion and coelomic exudate cells were obtained 24 h after intracoelomic thioglycollate injection. In the blood, erythrocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and four types of granulocytes were identified based on their morphology and cytochemistry. Types I and III granulocytes had round intracytoplasmic granules with the same basic morphology; however, type III granulocyte had a bilobued nucleus and higher amounts of heterochromatin suggesting an advance stage of maturation. Type II granulocytes had fusiformic granules and more mitochondria. Type IV granulocytes were classified as the basophil mammalian counterpart based on their morphology and relative number. Macrophages and granulocytes type III were found in the normal coelomic cavity. However, after the thioglycollate injection the number of type III granulocyte increased. Granulocytes found in the coelomic cavity were related to type III blood granulocyte based on the morphology and cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase and basic proteins in their intracytoplasmic granules. Differential blood leukocyte counts showed a predominance of type III granulocyte followed by lymphocyte, type I granulocyte, type II granulocyte, monocyte and type IV granulocyte. Taken together, these results indicate that types I and III granulocytes correspond to the mammalian neutrophils/heterophils and type II to the eosinophil granulocytes. PMID:15936356

  1. Anti-allergic activity of Thai medicinal plants used in longevity formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawanee Kraithep

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic (EtOH and water extracts of six plants including Piper nigrum, Streblus asper, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa, Diospyros rhodocalyx and Albizia procera used in Thai traditional longevity formulation, were examined for anti-allergic activity on antigen-induced b-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat-basophilic leukemia cell line, a tumor analog of mast cell. It was revealed that Piper nigrum (EtOH extract exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 14.0 μg/ml, which was higher than that of ketotifen fumarate, a positive control IC50 = 20.2 μg/ml. It was also found that the preparations of Piper-Diospyros (EtOH and Piper-Tinospora (EtOH in the ratio of 1 : 1 appreciably inhibited antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells with IC50 values of 23.5 and 26.7 μg/ml, respectively. The antiallergic effects of these two preparations were higher than that of the original longevity formulation (IC50 = 66.6 μg/ml.

  2. Rickettsia-like organism infection in a freshwater cultured fish Ophiocephalus argus C.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; JIA Weizhang; HAN Xianpu; CAI Taozhen; GONG Xiaoning; SUN Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    From 2001 to 2002,a new and emergent infectious disease of Ophiocephalus argus occurred in a fishery in Hubei Province,China,with an incidence of 60%~70% and a mortality as high as 100%.The diseased fish showed an enlarged abdomen,the millet-like nodules in internal organs,and the swollen kidney which was composed of 5~10 sarcoma-like bodies in cream or gray-white colour or ulcerated into beandregs-like substance.Light microscopic observation revealed the basophilic or acidphilic inclusions in cytoplasm of the cells and the granulomas,a diffusive chronic inflammation in internal organs.Further analysis under an electron microscope indicated that the intracytoplasmic inclusions were rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) that are either spherical or coccoid,with variable size,ranging from 0.5~1.5 μm in diameter,and enclosed within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles.RLO had a central nucleoid region with some fine filamentous structures and an electron-dense granule.Its cytoplasm contained abundant ribosomal bodies.Occasionally,RLO appeared to be divided by binary fission.RLOs were also observed in the homogenized tissue of infected fish.The results suggested that the death of cultured O.Argus was caused by RLO infection.

  3. Trichuris muris: a model of gastrointestinal parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementowicz, Joanna E; Travis, Mark A; Grencis, Richard K

    2012-11-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted gastrointestinal parasites, such as Trichuris trichiura, affects more than a billion people worldwide, causing significant morbidity and health problems especially in poverty-stricken developing countries. Despite extensive research, the role of the immune system in triggering parasite expulsion is incompletely understood which hinders the development of anti-parasite therapies. Trichuris muris infection in mice serves as a useful model of T. trichiura infection in humans and has proven to be an invaluable tool in increasing our understanding of the role of the immune system in promoting either susceptibility or resistance to infection. The old paradigm of a susceptibility-associated Th1 versus a resistance-associated Th2-type response has been supplemented in recent years with cell populations such as novel innate lymphoid cells, basophils, dendritic cells and regulatory T cells proposed to play an active role in responses to T. muris infection. Moreover, new immune-controlled mechanisms of expulsion, such as increased epithelial cell turnover and mucin secretion, have been described in recent years increasing the number of possible targets for anti-parasite therapies. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of experimental work conducted on the T. muris infection model, focusing on important findings and the most recent reports on the role of the immune system in parasite expulsion.

  4. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these "type 2 immune response-related" cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed.

  5. Molecular characterization of "Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola" gen. nov., sp. nov. (Chlamydiales: "Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae"), a novel Chlamydia-like epitheliocystis agent in the striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, M C; Polkinghorne, A; Miller, T L; Nowak, B F

    2013-08-01

    Histological analysis of gill samples taken from individuals of Latris lineata reared in aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia, and those sampled from the wild revealed the presence of epitheliocystis-like basophilic inclusions. Subsequent morphological, in situ hybridization, and molecular analyses were performed to confirm the presence of this disease and discovered a Chlamydia-like organism associated with this condition, and the criteria set by Fredericks and Relman's postulates were used to establish disease causation. Three distinct 16S rRNA genotypes were sequenced from 16 fish, and phylogenetic analyses of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA sequences generated for this bacterial agent indicated that they were nearly identical novel members of the order Chlamydiales. This new taxon formed a well-supported clade with "Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola" from the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi). On the basis of sequence divergence over the 16S rRNA region relative to all other members of the order Chlamydiales, a new genus and species are proposed here for the Chlamydia-like bacterium from L. lineata, i.e., "Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola" gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:23770893

  6. Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Wanda; Pokora, Ilona; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Pałka, Tomasz; Pilch, Paweł; Cisoń, Tomasz; Malik, Lesław; Wiecha, Szczepan

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Finnish sauna bathing on a white blood cell profile, cortisol levels and selected physiological indices in athletes and non-athletes. The study evaluated 9 trained middle-distance runners and 9 male non-athletes. The subjects from both groups participated in 15-minute sauna sessions until their core temperature rose by 1.2°C (mean temperature in the sauna room was 96° ± 2°C; relative humidity was 15 ± 3%) with a 2 minute cool down with water at a temperature of 19-20°C. Body mass was measured before and after the session and blood samples were taken for tests. Rectal temperature was monitored at five-minute intervals during the whole session. Serum total protein, haematological indices and cortisol levels were determined. Sauna bathing caused higher body mass loss and plasma volume in the athletes compared to the group of non-athletes. After the sauna session, an increased number of white blood cells, lymphocyte, neutrophil and basophil counts was reported in the white blood cell profile. Higher increments in leukocyte and monocyte after the sauna bathing session were recorded in the group of athletes compared to untrained subjects. The obtained results indicated that sauna bathing stimulated the immune system to a higher degree in the group of athletes compared to the untrained subjects.

  7. Histologia del sistema reproductor masculino de Helobdella hyalina (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae en Argentina Histology of the male reproductive system of Helobdella hyalina (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Sandra Gullo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed preliminary histological analysis of Helobdella hyalina Ringuelet, 1942 male system from Los Talas, Buenos Aires, Argentina is described. Six pairs of testisacs, located between the crop caeca, form the male reproductive system. Each testisac is clothed by the mesotelium. Inside it, the germinal cells are connected to the citophore and develop functional unit called poliplast. The spermatozoa are released into testisacs after the reabsortion of the citophore. Five stages of spermatogenesis are described taking into account the successive maturation stages of germinal cells and the changes in the citophore size. Lining cells and gland cells were found in the seminal vesicle. Five different types of gland cells are placed inside the ejaculatory ducts, as well as two kinds of cells are found in its distal portion: type 1, which produces eosinophilic granular secretion, type 2, with amorphous and slightly eosinophilic. Three distinct gland cells are located in the proximal portion of the duct: type 3, which produces a strongly eosinophilic granular secretion; type 4, with a negative eosinophilic amorphous secretion and type 5, with a basophilic granular secretion. Type 5 gland cells are described for the ducts of this species only.

  8. Ultrastructural study of the blood cells of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae (Rhipidistia: Coelacanthini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarial, M S

    2005-04-01

    The blood cells in the renal capillaries of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Smith were studied by transmission electron microscopic methods. On the basis of ultrastructural similarities of cytoplasmic granules of the leukocytes and by comparison with those of the fish and mammalian cells, erythrocytes and three types of granular leukocytes, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, and three types of agranular leukocytes, i.e., lymphocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes are characterized. The presence of granular and agranular leukocytes in the blood of Latimeria suggests that these cells appeared early in vertebrate evolution. The display of nuclear blebs on the cytoplasmic phase of the nuclear membrane and the presence of nuclear fragments in the cytoplasm of some erythrocytes suggest that these cells undergo apoptosis in order to delete older erythrocytes from the blood stream. The relatively small size of its nucleated erythrocytes and the striking resemblance of the ultrastructural features of its leukocytes to those of higher vertebrate leukocytes support the view that Latimeria is a close living relative of tetrapods.

  9. Second-line treatment of non small cell lung cancer by biweekly gemcitabine and docetaxel +/- granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and low dose aldesleukine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Pierpaolo; Tindara Miano, Salvatora; Remondo, Cinzia; Migali, Cristina; Rotundo, Maria Saveria; Macrì, Paolo; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Caraglia, Michele; Gotti, Giuseppe; Francini, Guido

    2009-03-15

    Background. The antitumor activity of a novel biweekly gemcitabine (G) + docetaxel (D) regimen +/- granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and aldesleukine (IL-2) has been evaluated in a phase II trial in advanced pretreated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results. The treatment was well tolerated. The 42.3% response rate exceeded the predefined target activity, while time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 7 and 11.2 months, respectively. A greater objective response rate (58.3% vs 28.6%) and an increased number of eosinophils, basophils and activated mononuclear blood cells were observed in those patients who also received cytokine administration. Methods. Twenty-six NSCLC patients received second line G (1000 mg/m2) and D (75 mg/m2) every 15 days. 12/26 patients also received s.c. GM-CSF (100µg, days 2-6) and s.c. IL-2 (0.5MIU/ twice daily, days 7-14 and 16-29) by random selection. Conclusion. The biweekly GD regimen is a safe and active second-line treatment in NSCLC. Addition of immune-adjuvant cytokines' may enhance the activity of this therapeutic combination. PMID:19242101

  10. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  11. Blunted HPA axis responsiveness to stress in atopic patients is associated with the acuity and severeness of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Ebrecht, M; Hellhammer, D H

    2010-11-01

    Previously we could demonstrate attenuated responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress in patients with chronic allergic inflammatory disease (i.e., atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma). The present study was designed to investigate HPA axis function in an acute manifestation of allergy. Patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR; n = 20) and non-atopic controls (n = 20) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor ('Trier Social Stress Test'; TSST). Cortisol responses to the TSST and cortisol awakening responses (CAR) were measured in SAR subjects while suffering from acute symptoms of SAR (pollen season), and during a non-active state of their disease (pollen-free season). To assess the acuity and severity of SAR, eosinophil and basophil numbers and SAR symptomatology were determined. Non-allergic control subjects were examined at identical times during the year. To control for possible sequence effects, a cross-over design was used. SAR patients showed significantly increased symptom severity (t = 9.4; presponses were found in SAR subjects during acute manifestation of the disease (pollen season) when compared to the pollen-free season (F(16,456) = 1.65; presponse to the stressor (r = .53; p.05). These findings support previous data of attenuated HPA axis responsiveness to stress in atopic conditions and further, suggest that HPA axis hyporesponsiveness in atopy may be linked to the severity of the allergic inflammatory process. PMID:20633637

  12. "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola", a novel Chlamydia-like agent of epitheliocystis in seven consecutive cohorts of farmed Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Stride

    Full Text Available Six consecutively hatched cohorts and one cohort of pre-hatch eggs of farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer from south Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To identify and characterise the bacteria, 59 gill samples and three pre-hatch egg samples were processed for histology, in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Cases of epitheliocystis were observed microscopically and characterised by membrane-enclosed basophilic cysts filled with a granular material that caused hypertrophy of the epithelial cells. In situ hybridisation with a Chlamydiales-specific probe lead to specific labelling of the epitheliocystis inclusions within the gill epithelium. Two distinct but closely related 16S rRNA chlamydial sequences were amplified from gill DNA across the seven cohorts, including from pre-hatch eggs. These genotype sequences were found to be novel, sharing 97.1 - 97.5% similarity to the next closest 16S rRNA sequence, Ca. Similichlamydia latridicola, from Australian striped trumpeter. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these genotype sequences against representative members of the Chlamydiales order and against other epitheliocystis agents revealed these Chlamydia-like organisms to be novel and taxonomically placed them within the recently proposed genus Ca. Similichlamydia. Following Fredricks and Relman's molecular postulates and based on these observations, we propose the epitheliocystis agents of barramundi to be known as "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola" (sp. nov..

  13. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  14. Practical toxicologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, M E; Feldman, B F

    1984-08-01

    Strychnine toxicosis is characterized by inducible tetanic seizures and metaldehyde poisoning by fine fasciculations progressing to generalized tremors and seizures. Intoxication with 1080 causes seizures, random running movements, vomiting, defecation, urination, acidosis and hyperglycemia. Intoxication with rodenticides causing coagulopathy is characterized by hemorrhage into body cavities but not necessarily external hemorrhage. Anticholinesterase insecticides cause salivation, urination and defecation, while chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides cause CNS disturbances. Ethylene glycol intoxication results in ataxia, depression, coma, vomiting and tachypnea, followed by acute renal failure. Urea poisoning causes bloat and CNS signs in cattle. Monensin intoxication in horses lasts several days and causes stiffness, colic, uneasiness and recumbency. Salt poisoning results in depression, seizures and hypernatremia. Lead poisoning is associated with central and peripheral nervous system signs, as well as increased numbers of nucleated RBC and basophilic stippling of RBC. Arsenic poisoning results in GI pain, diarrhea, weakness and death. Copper toxicosis in sheep is manifested by hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria. Plants that may intoxicate domestic animals include sorghum, greasewood, halogeton, water hemlock, Japanese yew, larkspur, lupine, milk-weed, philodendron, oleander, castor bean and precatory bean.

  15. Yeast Ca(2+)-signal transduction inhibitors isolated from Dominican amber prevent the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells through the inhibition of Ca(2+)-influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Miki; Okawa, Yusuke; Inui, Tomoki; Yoshida, Jun; Higashio, Hironori; Shinden, Hisao; Uesugi, Shota; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    A new norlabdane compound, named kujigamberol has previously been isolated from Kuji amber (but not from Baltic amber) by activity guided fractionation. However, there has been no study of biological compounds in Dominican amber. Biological activities were examined using the hypersensitive mutant yeast (zds1Δ erg3Δ pdr1Δ pdr3Δ) with respect to Ca(2+)-signal transduction, enzymes and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis including high resolution (HR)-EI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR. Three diterpenoid compounds, 5(10)-halimen-15-oic acid (1), 3-cleroden-15-oic acid (2) and 8-labden-15-oic acid (3), which are different from the bioactive compounds in Kuji and Baltic ambers, were isolated from Dominican amber. They inhibited both calcineurin (CN) (IC50=40.0, 21.2 and 34.2μM) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) (IC50=48.9, 43.8 and 41.1μM) which are involved in the growth restored activity against the mutant yeast. The most abundant compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against both degranulation and Ca(2+)-influx in RBL-2H3 cells. The compounds having the growth restoring activity against the mutant yeast have potential as anti-allergic compounds. PMID:27491756

  16. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity. Immunoallergologic tests and bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet-Chatelain, G; Prevost, M C; Escamilla, R; Migueres, J

    1991-02-01

    Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary toxicity but with a main underlying pulmonary disease, and four healthy volunteers. Daily and cumulative doses or duration of treatment were similar in the first two groups. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, CO-diffusing capacity, arterial blood gases), roentgenographic examinations, pulmonary biopsies or immunoallergologic tests (skin reaction, lymphoblastic transformation test and human basophile degranulation test) did not provide any discriminatory element. In APT+, we observed an increased cellularity of the bronchoalveolar lavage. Neither the differential cell count nor the presence of foamy macrophages were distinguishable between APT+ and APT-. The phospholipid composition of BAL fluid showed a decreased total phospholipid and phospholipid/protein ratio in all patients compared to normal subjects. These changes reflect more the severity of pulmonary disease than the specificity of the causative agent. However, we observed that the unique PL which decreases in APT- and remains normal in APT+ is phosphatidyl-serine + phosphatidylinositol (PS + PI). This has to be confirmed and should be evaluated at different stages of the disease to determine an eventual specific element. We conclude that there are no data currently available to establish the diagnosis of APT except perhaps for the analysis of BAL PL content.

  17. Enhanced histamine production through the induction of histidine decarboxylase expression by phorbol ester in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Yusuke; Kako, Koichiro; Kim, Jun-Dal; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    Histamine (HA), a mediator of inflammation, type I allergic responses and neurotransmission, is synthesized from L-histidine, the reaction of which is catalyzed by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). HDC has been reported to be induced by various stimuli, not only in mast cells and basophils, but also in T lymphocytes and macrophages. Although its mRNA has been shown to be increased in Jurkat cells when treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), little is known concerning the induced production of HA by HDC. The present study quantified the trace amounts of intracellular HA using ultra-high liquid chromatography in combination with the 6-aminoquinoline carbamate-derivatization technique. To test whether the cellular level of HA is elevated by the induction of HDC in Jurkat cells treated with TPA, the peak corresponding to authentic HA in the cell lysate was fractioned and its molecular weight determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of this study show that the HA level is increased by the induction of HDC expression by TPA in Jurkat cells. Therefore, this method is useful in elucidating the physiological significance of HA production. PMID:22940786

  18. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (Chiroptera: Myzopodidae) endemic to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of the endotheliomonochorial type. There was a single layer of trophoblast cells. The cells of the maternal endothelium were large and basophilic, contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and rested on an irregular basement membrane. Blunt projections of endometrium extended into the placental disk and clusters of large cells occurred between the endometrial stroma and labyrinth. At the margins of the disk folds of trophoblast occurred and at the cranial end they formed an haemophagous region. The folds lateral to the disk included some peculiar tubular-appearing structures. There was a persistent yolk sac containing large endodermal cells around a largely collapsed lumen. Several features of placentation, such as the interhaemal barrier and the haemophagous region, are consistent with an association of Myzopodidae with Emballonuridae. No support was found for alternative hypotheses that include Myzopodidae in the noctilionoid or vespertilionoid lineages. PMID:18374977

  19. Molecular confirmation of Trichomonas gallinae and other parabasalids from Brazil using the 5.8S and ITS-1 rRNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred S; Vilela, Daniel A R; Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Beckstead, Robert B; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Stimmelmayer, Raphaela; Gerhold, Richard W

    2012-11-23

    Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the sinuses of the skull. Histopathologically, marked necrotic and inflammatory lesions were associated with numerous round to oval, pale eosinophilic structures (6-10μm) with basophilic nuclei, consistent with trichomonads. Organisms similar to those described above also were found in the liver of the two green-winged saltators. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of trichomonosis in a striped owl and a toco toucan. Sequence analysis of the Trichomonas spp. internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region and partial 5.8S of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) disclosed significant genetic diversity. Two sequences had 100% identity to Trichomonas gallinae, whereas two sequences had a 99% and 92% identity to a Trichomonas vaginalis-like sequence, respectively. One sequence (green-winged saltator 502-08) had a 100% identity to a newly recognized genus Simplicomonas. PMID:22749289

  20. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause. PMID:27364782