WorldWideScience

Sample records for basophils

  1. Basophils in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Christian; Eberle, Joerg U; Voehringer, David

    2016-05-01

    Basophils are functionally closely related to mast cells. Both cell types express the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) and rapidly release preformed mediator from intracellular stores upon IgE-mediated activation. However, in contrast to mast cells basophils finish their maturation in the bone marrow and have a lifespan of only 2-3 days. Basophil numbers increase in response to IL-3 or TSLP and migrate into tissues to promote type 2 immune responses. Here we review recent advances regarding the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of basophils in murine models and human allergic inflammation of the skin, lung and intestine. PMID:25959388

  2. Basophil degranulation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjaj, B; Cherruault, Y; Sainte Laudy, J

    1992-08-01

    We first present a global simulation model describing inhibition of human basophil degranulation by means of high dilutions. Then we study an optimal control problem associated to a non-linear compartmental model. This control is associated to an antigen concentration. For solving this control problem we used a dynamic programming method. PMID:1517003

  3. Basophil responsiveness in chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sarbjit S

    2009-07-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common skin disease without an etiology in the majority of cases. The similarity of symptoms and pathology to allergen-induced skin reactions supports the idea that skin mast cell and blood basophil IgE receptor activation is involved; however, no exogenous allergen trigger has been identified. Recent evidence supports a role for blood basophils in disease expression. Specifically, blood basopenia is noted in active disease with the recruitment of blood basophils to skin lesional sites. In addition, blood basophils display altered IgE receptor-mediated degranulation that reverts in disease remission. In active chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) subjects, changes in IgE receptor-signaling molecule expression levels accompany the altered degranulation function in blood basophils. The arrival of therapies targeting IgE has further shown that altered blood basophil degranulation behavior has potential use as a disease biomarker in CIU. PMID:19656475

  4. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  5. Regulation of type 2 immunity by basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voehringer, David

    2013-01-01

    The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils. Basophils represent a relatively rare population of effector cells and their in vivo functions are incompletely understood. Recent studies with basophil-depleting antibodies revealed that these cells might play an important role during the early and late stages of type 2 immune responses. To further characterize the relevance of basophils for protective immunity and orchestration of allergic inflammation, we generated constitutively basophil-deficient mice. We observed a normal Th2 response induced by helminth infections or immunization with alum/OVA or papain/OVA. However, basophils contributed to worm expulsion during secondary helminth infection and mediated an IgE-dependent inflammatory response of the skin. These results argue against a critical role of basophils as antigen-presenting cells for induction of Th2 polarization and highlight their effector cell potential during later stages of a type 2 immune response. PMID:23456835

  6. Basophil Markers for Identification and Activation in the Indirect Basophil Activation Test by Flow Cytometry for Diagnosis of Autoimmune Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Zehwan; Choi, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Kun; Won, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Background The indirect basophil activation test using flow cytometry is a promising tool for autoimmune urticaria diagnosis. We aimed to identify better donor basophils (from atopic vs. non-atopic donors and interleukin-3 primed vs. unprimed basophils) and improve basophil identification and activation markers (eotaxin CC chemokine receptor-3 [CCR3] vs. CD123 and CD63 vs. CD203c). Methods Donor basophils were obtained from non-atopic and atopic group O donors. Positive control sera were arti...

  7. Human basophils express interleukin-4 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a multipotential lymphokine reputed to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses, interacts with a variety of hemopoietic target cells through specific cell surface membrane receptors. The present study was designed to investigate whether human basophils express IL-4 binding sites. For this purpose, basophils were enriched to homogeneity (93% and 98% purity, respectively) from the peripheral blood of two chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) donors using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and complement. Purified basophils bound 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human (rh) IL-4 in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity IL-4 binding sites (280 +/- 40 sites per cell in donor 1 and 640 +/- 45 sites per cell in donor 2) with an apparent dissociation constant, kd, of 7.12 x 10(-11) +/- 2.29 x 10(-11) and 9.55 +/- 3.5 x 10(-11) mol/L, respectively. KU812-F, a human basophil precursor cell line, was found to express a single class of 810 to 1,500 high affinity IL-4 binding sites with a kd of 2.63 to 5.54 x 10(-10) mol/L. No change in the numbers or binding constants of IL-4 receptors was found after exposure of KU812-F cells to rhIL-3 (a potent activator of basophils) for 60 minutes. No effect of rhIL-4 on 3H-thymidine uptake, release or synthesis of histamine, or expression of basophil differentiation antigens (Bsp-1, CD11b, CD25, CD40, CD54) on primary human CGL basophils or KU812-F cells was observed

  8. Diagnostic tests based on human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Erdmann, Stephan; Knol, Edward F;

    2006-01-01

    -maximal responses, termed 'intrinsic sensitivity'. These variables give rise to shifts in the dose-response curves which, in a diagnostic setting where only a single antigen concentration is employed, may produce false-negative data. Thus, in order to meaningfully utilize the current basophil activation tests for...

  9. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael; Glue, Christian; Millner, Anders; Jensen, Bettina M; Jinquan, Tan; Stahl Skov, Per

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified by the...... increased with time between 5 and 45 min. The histamine release in both spontaneous and induced basophil adhesion was lower than 3.1%. This microtiter assay is simple and reproducible and can be applied for basic and clinical studies using a limited number of partially purified basophils....

  10. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael;

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified by the...... increased with time between 5 and 45 min. The histamine release in both spontaneous and induced basophil adhesion was lower than 3.1%. This microtiter assay is simple and reproducible and can be applied for basic and clinical studies using a limited number of partially purified basophils....

  11. Pros and Cons of Clinical Basophil Testing (BAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Knol, Edward F; Ferrer, Martha;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review basophil testing by flow cytometry with an emphasis on advantages and disadvantages. RECENT FINDINGS: There are many tools available to assess the presence and severity of allergic diseases in patients. For 50 years, peripheral blood basophils have been used as tools ...

  12. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles of β1 andβ2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR). Methods Basophils (purity of 10%-50%) were preincubated with anti-CD29 or anti-CD18 blocking antibodies before used for adhesion study. Basophils were preincubated with the pharmacological inhibitors wortmannin, PP1, PD98059 before used for adhesion and HR study. Cell adherence to bovine serum albumin (BSA) or fibronectin (Fn) was monitored using cell associated histamine as a basophil marker and the histamine was measured by the glass fiber assay.Results Basophil spontaneous adhesion to Fn was inhibited by anti-CD29. Interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA was inhibited by anti-CD18. Wortmannin at 1 μmol/L and PP1 at 20 μmol/L strongly interfered with, whereas PD98059 at 50 μmol/L weakly inhibited basophil spontaneous adhesion to Fn. One μmol/L wortmannin strongly inhibited IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF and anti-IgE induced adhesion to BSA. PP1 at 20 μmol/L partly inhibited anti-IgE induced adhesion. Fifty μmol/L PD98059 marginally inhibited IL-5, weakly inhibited anti-IgE, partly inhibited GM-CSF induced adhesion. Wortmannin, PP1 and PD98059 inhibited anti-IgE (1:100 or 1:1000) induced basophil HR in a dose dependent manner. They inhibited calcium ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L) induced basophil HR in a dose dependent manner, but to different extend with PP1 being the most efficient.Conclusions Basophil spontaneous adhesion to Fn is mediated by β1-integrins whereas cytokine induced adhesion

  13. The expression of CD123 can decrease with basophil activation: implications for the gating strategy of the basophil activation test

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alexandra F; Bécares, Natalia; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Background Basophil activation test (BAT) reproduces IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and has been used as a diagnostic test. Different markers can be used to identify basophils in whole blood and have implications for the outcome of the test. We aimed to assess changes in the expression of CD123 and HLA-DR following basophil activation and to select the best gating strategy for BAT using these markers. Methods BAT was performed in whole blood from 116 children. Peanut extract, anti-I...

  14. Modulation of mast cell and basophil functions by benzene metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Massimo; Loffredo, Stefania; Granata, Francescopaolo; Staiano, Rosaria I; Marone, Gianni

    2011-11-01

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound used in industrial manufacturing and a common environmental pollutant mostly derived from vehicle emissions and cigarette smoke. Benzene exposure is associated with a variety of clinical conditions ranging from hematologic diseases to chronic lung disorders. Beside its direct toxicity, benzene exerts multiple effects after being converted to reactive metabolites such as hydroquinone and benzoquinone. Mast cells and basophils are primary effector cells involved in the development of respiratory allergies such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma and they play an important role in innate immunity. Benzene and its metabolites can influence mast cell and basophil responses either directly or by interfering with other cells, such as T cells, macrophages and monocytes, which are functionally connected to mast cells and basophils. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone inhibit the release of preformed mediators, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production in human basophils stimulated by IgE- and non IgE-mediated agonists. Furthermore, these metabolites reduce IgE-mediated degranulation of mast cells and the development of allergic lung inflammation in rats. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that benzene metabolites alter biochemical and functional activities of other immunocompetent cells and may impair immune responses in the lung. These inhibitory effects of benzene metabolites are primarily mediated by interference with early transduction signals such as PI3 kinase. Together, currently available studies indicate that benzene metabolites interfere by multiple mechanisms with the role of basophils and mast cells in innate immunity and in chronic inflammation in the lung. PMID:22103854

  15. Mast cells, basophils and B cell connection network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Betto, Elena; Ceccaroni, Alice Amaranta; Magris, Raffaella; Giunta, Marina; Mion, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    It has been proven that both resting and activated mast cells (MCs) and basophils are able to induce a significant increase in proliferation and survival of naïve and activated B cells, and their differentiation into antibody-producing cells. The immunological context in which this regulation occurs is of particular interest and the idea that these innate cells induce antibody class switching and production is increasingly gaining ground. This direct role of MCs and basophils in acquired immunity requires cell to cell contact as well as soluble factors and exosomes. Here, we review our current understanding of the interaction between B cells and MCs or basophils as well as the evidence supporting B lymphocyte-MC/basophil crosstalk in pathological settings. Furthermore, we underline the obscure aspects of this interaction that could serve as important starting points for future research in the field of MC and basophil biology in the peculiar context of the connection between innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24671125

  16. [Application of basophil activation test in diagnosing aspirin hypersensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawinowska, Marika; Specjalski, Krzysztof; Chełmińska, Marta; Łata, Jakub; Zieliński, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    In the face of increasing prevalence of hypersensitivity reactions, introduction of effective, reliable and safe methods plays a crucial role in their diagnosing. Among the currently available laboratory (in vitro) methods is basophil activation test (BAT). It is a flow- cytometry based assay that allows to identificate in the blood sample basophils and additionally to asses the degree of cell activation after exposure to an antigen. The most common superficial identification markers are CD63 and CD203c, which increase in number after activation. Basophil actvation test can be applied to confirm diagnosis of allergy to Hymenoptera venoms, food, pollens and hypersensitivity to drugs. The aim of present paper is to present theoretical methods of this test as well as its pros and cons. We focus also on presentation of clinical case where BAT seemed to be a necessary addition to a routine diagnostic pathway. We present a case of identification of the culprit drug which caused an anaphylactic reaction. PMID:25577537

  17. Interactions cellulaires et moléculaires entre basophiles et lymphocytes T CD4+

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Basophils are the rare granulocytes and play an important role in the polarization of Th2 responses, differentiation of B cells and protection against helminths. Basophils have a major influence on immune responses and various roles of these cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are emerging. Recent reports showed that murine basophils function as antigen presenting cells (APCs) to induce Th2 and IgE responses to allergens and helminths. Therefore, I explored whether human basophils p...

  18. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens; Ødum, Niels; Skov, Per Stahl

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...

  19. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  20. 89 Is Basophil Specific Response to Hymenoptera Venom Related to T Regulatory Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Petr; Hulikova, Katarina; Cvackova, Milada; Planska, Daniela; Riegerova, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    Background The exact mechanism of systemic hypersensitivity to venom is not exactly understood. It is suggested T cells with regulatory potential can downregulate other T cell subsets and effector cells, ex. mast cell or basophils. We focused on relationship of specific basophil reactivity in relationship to proportion of regulatory T cells. Methods Forty-five patients with history of systemic symptoms of allergy to Hymenoptera venom were included. Basophil reactivity before the treatment and...

  1. Circulating human basophils lack the features of professional antigen presenting cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Beau, Remi; Sénéchal, Helene; Poncet, Pascal; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports in mice demonstrate that basophils function as antigen presenting cells (APC). They express MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, capture and present soluble antigens or IgE-antigen complexes and polarize Th2 responses. Therefore, we explored whether human circulating basophils possess the features of professional APC. We found that unlike dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, steady-state circulating human basophils did not express HLA-DR and co-stimulatory mo...

  2. C-type Lectin Receptor Expression on Human Basophils and Effects of Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, K; Rydnert, F; Broos, S; Andersson, M; Greiff, L; Lindstedt, M

    2016-09-01

    Basophils are emerging as immunoregulatory cells capable of interacting with their environment not only via their characteristic IgE-mediated activation, but also in an IgE-independent manner. Basophils are known to express and respond to stimulation via TLR2, TLR4, DC-SIGN and DCIR, but whether basophils also express other C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the CLR expression profile of human basophils using multicolour flow cytometry. As FcRs as well as some CLRs are associated with allergen recognition and shown to be involved in subsequent immune responses, the expression of CLRs and FcRs on peripheral blood basophils, as well as their frequency, was monitored for 1 year in subjects undergoing subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Here, we show that human basophils express CLECSF14, DEC205, Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and MRC2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequencies of basophils expressing the allergy-associated CLRs Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 were significantly reduced after 1 year and 8 weeks of AIT, respectively. In contrast, the frequency of basophils positive for FcγRII, as well as the fraction of total basophils, significantly increased after 1 year of AIT. The herein demonstrated expression of various CLRs on basophils, and their altered CLR and FcR expression profile upon AIT, suggest yet unexplored ways by which basophils can interact with antigens and may point to novel immunoregulatory functions targeted through AIT. PMID:27354239

  3. Molecular targets on mast cells and basophils for novel therapies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harvima, I.T.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Dráber, Petr; Friedman, S.; Polakovičová, Iva; Gibbs, B.F.; Blank, U.; Nilsson, G.; Maurer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2014), s. 530-544. ISSN 0091-6749 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cell activation * mast cells and basophils * treatment of allergic diseases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  4. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the te...

  5. Basophil Sensitivity Decreases During the Updosing of SCIT in Subjects Allergic to Grass Pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    ).This corresponds to an approximately 14-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity. No significant changes were observed in the baseline, washed cells or control group. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the main mechanism leading to a reduction of basophil sensitivity is humoral. PII: S0091-6749(10)02749-1 doi:10.1016...

  6. Interleukin 3 activates human blood basophils via high-affinity binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure populations of human basophilic granulocytes were obtained from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blood by negative selection using a mixture of monoclonal antibodies and complement. 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) bound to purified basophils in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analyses performed on samples from two donors revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity IL-3 binding sites. Purified CML basophils maintained in suspension in the presence of rhIL-3 incorporated up to 12 times more [3H]thymidine than basophils in control cultures. Furthermore, after preincubation in vitro with rhIL-3 for 30 min, normal blood basophils released 2- to 3-fold more histamine than basophils pretreated with control medium when exposed to various concentrations of an anti-IgE antibody. Together, these results show that rhIL-3 binds to a specific receptor on blood basophils and is a regulator of basophil function

  7. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikado, Hideto [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko [Laboratory of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, BioMedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takai, Toshiro, E-mail: t-takai@juntendo.ac.jp [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  8. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity

  9. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. PMID:25778870

  10. Expression of the Transcription Factor E4BP4 in Human Basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Gohr, Maria; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard

    2014-01-01

    by Alcian blue. RNA was extracted (0.005-0.02 µg RNA from 0.5 - 1 x 106 cells), and the corresponding cDNA analyzed by real-time PCR where E4BP4 expression was calculated as 2-(CT(E4BP4) - CT(β-actin)). E4BP4 protein expression was visualized in basophil lysates (107 cells/ml) by Western blot......Rationale The cytokine IL-3 plays an important role for human basophil development, function and survival. IL-3 is also reported to induce the expression of the transcription factor E4BP4, but it is not known whether E4BP4 is expressed in basophils and influences basophil responsiveness. The aim of...... this study was to determine whether human basophils express E4BP4 and if so, to compare the expression of E4BP4 with basophil histamine release. Methods Buffy coat blood (<6h) was analyzed for anti-IgE mediated histamine release. Basophils were purified by negative selection and purity was determined...

  11. Interval shifts in basophil measures correlate with disease activity in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, E T; Sterba, P M; Saini, S S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) significantly impacts the quality of life of those affected through symptoms of pruritus and recurrent skin lesions. In active CSU disease, reduced IgE-mediated basophil histamine release (HR) and basopenia are observed. We sought to examine the relationship between interval changes in basophil measures and shifts in patient-reported disease impairment. Simultaneous symptom and basophil evaluations were completed at two sequential study visits, and interval changes in measures were compared between visits for each subject (n = 38). These measures included Skindex-29, current itch and hives scores, total leukocyte histamine content (an indirect measure of blood basophil presence), and basophil HR in response to anti-IgE and formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine. Overall, interval improvements in disease measures in CSU subjects were associated with increased basophil numbers (total leukocyte histamine content) and IgE-mediated HR. This suggests these measures are potential biomarkers for CSU disease improvement and further implicates a role for basophils in CSU. PMID:25631394

  12. Differential response of human basophil activation markers: a multi-parameter flow cytometry approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solero Pietro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basophils are circulating cells involved in hypersensitivity reactions and allergy but many aspects of their activation, including the sensitivity to external triggering factors and the molecular aspects of cell responses, are still to be focused. In this context, polychromatic flow cytometry (PFC is a proper tool to investigate basophil function, as it allows to distinguish the expression of several membrane markers upon activation in multiple experimental conditions. Methods Cell suspensions were prepared from leukocyte buffy coat of K2-EDTA anticoagulated blood specimens; about 1500-2500 cellular events for each tested sample, gated in the lymphocyte CD45dim area and then electronically purified as HLADRnon expressing/CD123bright, were identified as basophilic cells. Basophil activation with fMLP, anti-IgE and calcium ionophore A23187 was evaluated by studying up-regulation of the indicated membrane markers with a two-laser six-color PFC protocol. Results Following stimulation, CD63, CD13, CD45 and the ectoenzyme CD203c up-regulated their membrane expression, while CD69 did not; CD63 expression occurred immediately (within 60 sec but only in a minority of basophils, even at optimal agonist doses (in 33% and 14% of basophils, following fMLP and anti-IgE stimulation respectively. CD203c up-regulation occurred in the whole basophil population, even in CD63non expressing cells. Dose-dependence curves revealed CD203c as a more sensitive marker than CD63, in response to fMLP but not in response to anti-IgE and to calcium ionophore. Conclusion Use of polychromatic flow cytometry allowed efficient basophil electronic purification and identification of different behaviors of the major activation markers. The simultaneous use of two markers of activation and careful choice of activator are essential steps for reliable assessment of human basophil functions.

  13. Basophil sensitivity through CD63 or CD203c is a functional measure for specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Ronald

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subcutaneous Immunotherapy (SCIT modifies the allergic response and relieves allergic symptoms. SCIT is the only and a very effective treatment for insect venom allergy. We hypothesized that basophil sensitivity, measured through the basophil activation test, would decrease during SCIT up dosing. Expression of CD203c was compared to CD63 as marker for basophil activation, using a Bland Altman plot and ROC curves. Methods Patients (n = 18 starting subcutaneous SCIT for wasp allergy with an up dosing scheme of 7 to 11 weeks were enrolled. Heparinised blood samples were drawn at weeks 1-4, 7 and at the first maintenance visit. Basophils were stimulated at 7 log dilutions of V. vespula allergen for 15 min, and were stained with CD203c and CD63. Basophils were identified as CD203c+ leukocytes, and the proportion of CD63+ and CD203c+ cells were plotted against allergen concentration. A sigmoid curve was fitted to the points, and the allergen concentration at which half of the maximal activation was achieved, LC50, was calculated. In another series of experiments, LC50 calculated in whole blood (AP was subtracted from LC50 calculated with basophils suspended in plasma from a nonatopic donor (HS to determine the protective effect of soluble factors in blood of patients treated with SCIT. Results Heparin blood basophil activation was similar through CD63 and CD203c. Basophils were significantly more sensitized three weeks after initiation of SCIT compared to baseline (p Conclusion Basophil activation is a versatile and sensitive tool that measures changes in the humoral immune response to allergen during SCIT.

  14. Modulation of mTOR Effector Phosphoproteins in Blood Basophils from Allergic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gernez, Yael; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Reshamwala, Neha; Yu, Grace; Weldon, Brittany C.; Galli, Stephen J.; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Nadeau, Kari C.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway contributes to various immunoinflammatory processes. Yet, its potential involvement in basophil responses in allergy remains unclear. In this pilot study, we quantified two key mTOR effector phosphoproteins, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (peIF4E) and S6 ribosomal protein (pS6rp), in blood basophils from nut allergy patients (NA, N= 16) and healthy controls (HC, N= 13).Without stimulation in vitro, basophil peIF4E levels were higher in NA ...

  15. Isolation of a basophilic membrane protein binding the anti-allergic drug cromolyn.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurek, N; Bashkin, P.; Pecht, I

    1982-01-01

    The membrane protein component in basophils, responsible for the specific, Ca2+-dependent, binding of the anti-allergic drug cromolyn [disodium cromoglycate, DSCG; the disodium salt of 1,2 bis(2- carboxychromon -5- yloxy )-2-hydroxy propane] was isolated by two procedures based on affinity for the drug. In the first procedure, involving immunoprecipitation, rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3), surface labeled by 125I were reacted with a polyvalent conjugate of DSCG and bovine serum albumi...

  16. Extensive FUS-immunoreactive Pathology in Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Basophilic Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Eric J.; Zhang, Jiasheng; Geser, Felix; Trojanowski, John Q.; Strober, Jonathan B.; Dickson, Dennis W; Brown, Robert H.; Shapiro, Barbara E.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with basophilic inclusions is a well-recognized entity. However, the molecular underpinnings of this devastating disease are poorly understood. Here, we present genetic and neuropathological characterizations in two young women with fatal rapidly progressive ALS with basophilic inclusions. In one case, a germline mutation (P525L) was detected in the FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) gene, whereas no mutation was identified in t...

  17. Mutual interaction of Basophils and T cells in chronic inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eSarfati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basophils are, together with mast cells, typical innate effector cells of allergen-induced IgE-dependent allergic diseases. Both cell types express the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεR1, release histamine, inflammatory mediators and cytokines following FcεR1 cross-linking. Basophils are rare granulocytes in blood, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and the difficulties to detect and isolate these cells has hampered the study of their biology and the understanding of their possible role in pathology. Furthermore, the existence of other FcεR1-expressing cells, including professional Ag-presenting dendritic cells, generated some controversy regarding the ability of basophils to express MHC Class II molecules, present Ag and drive naïve T cell differentiation into Th2 cells. The focus of this review is to present the recent advances on the interactions between basophils and peripheral blood and tissue memory Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, as well as their potential role in IgE-independent non allergic chronic inflammatory disorders, including human inflammatory bowel diseases. Basophils interactions with the innate players of IgE-dependent allergic inflammation, particularly innate lymphoid cells, will also be considered. The previously unrecognized function for basophils in skewing adaptive immune responses opens novel perspectives for the understanding of their contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

  18. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reaction to phytohemagglutinin in repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship was explored between general immune reactivity, as estimated by the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reaction (CBHR to phytohemagglutinin (PHA, and the level of anti-sperm antibodies of the Ig A and Ig G class in the cervical mucus and sera of cows with different reproductive results. The hypersensitivity test was performed on the day of artificial insemination when cervical mucus and sera samples were also collected. The animals were divided into groups according to the total number of inseminations, number of inseminations per calving and their age. The titer of antibodies was determined by the indirect immunofluorescence method using sperm cells suspended in Tris egg-yolk extender. Our results indicate that the intensity of CBHR is lowest in cows inseminated once or twice and in younger animals, while, there were no differences between the groups when they were formed according to the number of inseminations per calving. Titers of antisperm antibodies (ASA of the Ig A class in cervical mucus (CM increased with the number of artificial inseminations, number of inseminations per calving and age of the cows.

  19. Difference in motility of basophilic, granulocytes from atopic subjects following antigen- and Ca inophore A23187-stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro; Kitani,Hikaru; Mifune, Takashi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Ochi, Koji; Harada, Hideo; Nakagawa, Saburo; Soda, Ryo; Takahashi,Kiyoshi; Kimura,Ikuro

    1993-01-01

    We examined histamine release and morphological changes in basophilic granulocytes from atopic subjects, in response to stimulation with antigen and Ca ionophore A23187. 1. Histamine release and a reduction in the rumber of basophils were more rapid and greater in extent at an early stage of antigen stimulation compared with Ca ionophore A23187 stimulation. 2. Morphological changes in basophils, represented by increased motility, in terms of an increased ratio of short to long axis diameter (...

  20. Basophil phenotypes in chronic idiopathic urticaria in relation to disease activity and autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, John A; Hamilton, Robert G; Gober, Laura M; Sterba, Patricia M; Saini, Sarbjit S

    2008-08-01

    Potentially pathogenic IgG autoantibodies to IgE or its receptor, Fc epsilonRIalpha, have been detected in approximately 40% of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) patients. CIU patients' basophils display distinct altered Fc epsilonRIalpha-mediated degranulation. CIU patients with basophil histamine release in response to polyclonal goat anti-human IgE > or = 10% are classified as CIU responders (CIU-R) and CIU non-responders (CIU-NR). We compared the presence of autoantibodies to basophil degranulation phenotypes and to disease status (active or inactive). Sera were collected from non-CIU subjects and CIU subjects who participated in a longitudinal study of disease severity and had defined basophil degranulation phenotypes. Immunoenzymetric assays (IEMA) quantified IgG anti-Fc epsilonRIalpha and anti-IgE. IgG anti-Fc epsilonRIalpha antibody was detected in 57% of CIU-R (n=35), 55% of CIU-NR (n=29), and 57% of non-CIU subjects (n=23), whereas IgG anti-IgE was present in 43% of CIU-R, 45% of CIU-NR, and 30% of non-CIU subjects. Both the autoantibody levels and the functional basophil phenotype remained stable in subjects with active disease (n=16), whereas there was an enhancement in basophil function as subjects evolved into a state of remission (n=6), which appears independent of the presence of autoantibody. IEMAs detected a similar frequency of autoantibodies in CIU-R, CIU-NR, and non-CIU subjects. Basophil function may be independent of IEMA-detected autoantibodies. PMID:18356810

  1. FK506 inhibition of histamine release and cytokine production by mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoku, T; Kishi, S; Sakuma, S; Ohkubo, Y; Goto, T

    2000-03-01

    Histamine release and cytokine production by mast cells and basophils are thought to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Some reports show that FK506 (tacrolimus hydrate) inhibited histamine release and cytokine production by mast cells and basophils. However, as the effects of FK506 has not been compared with those of clinically used drugs in those reports, the clinical relevancy of FK506 inhibition remained unclear. In this paper, we compared the actions of FK506 with those of steroids or disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) which has been clinically used. FK506 inhibited histamine release by Brown-Norway rat peritoneal mast cells more potently than steroids and especially DSCG. FK506 also inhibited histamine release by a mast rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cell line and human peripheral blood basophils, whereas steroids failed to inhibit histamine release by human basophils. FK506 as well as steroids inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-4 production by RBL-1 cells. FK506 was therefore more effective than steroids and DSCG in inhibiting histamine release, and it also had the ability of inhibiting cytokine production by mast cells as steroids do. We concluded that FK506 might regulate allergic diseases via these actions, judging from the viewpoint of clinical relevancy. PMID:10685002

  2. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunie Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI, a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  3. Single-step enrichment of basophils from human peripheral blood by a novel method using a Percoll density gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Takuya; Okada, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a novel continuous flow-through cell separation method using a Percoll density gradient. This method can continuously separate a large number of cells into five fractions according to their densities. To apply this method to the separation of basophils, Percoll density gradients were modified to improve basophil enrichment. When a set of Percoll density gradients was prepared (1.071, 1.075, 1.080, 1.084, and 1.090 g/mL) the basophils in a healthy volunteer were enriched by an average of 23.1 and 63.5% at Percoll densities of 1.075 (fraction 3) and 1.080 g/mL (fraction 4), respectively. On average, the yield of basophils was 1.66 × 10(5) cells in fraction 3 and 1.61 × 10(5) cells in fraction 4 from 9 mL of peripheral blood. The expression of CD203c (cluster of differentiation 203c) on separated basophils was upregulated by anti-immunoglobulin E stimulation similar to basophils in whole blood. Histamine release induced by calcium ionophore was also observed in the separated basophils. The present method will be useful for basophil enrichment since it preserves their function without using counterflow elutriation and immunological reagents, and this method will be effective as a preparative separation for cell purification by flow cytometry. PMID:27293108

  4. Segmental bronchoprovocation in allergic rhinitis patients affects mast cell and basophil numbers in nasal and bronchial mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Braunstahl (Gert-Jan); S.E. Overbeek (Shelley); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A. Kleinjan (Alex); A.R. McEuen; A.F. Walls; H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); J-B. Prins (Jan-Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMast cells and basophils are cells that play an important role in the initiation and control of allergic inflammation in asthma and rhinitis. This study was undertaken to determine the presence and dynamics of mast cells and basophils in the nasal and bronchial mucosa o

  5. The JAK2V617 mutation induces constitutive activation and agonist hypersensitivity in basophils from patients with polycythemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Pieri, Lisa; Bogani, Costanza; Guglielmelli, Paola; Zingariello, Maria; Rana, Rosa Alba; Bartalucci, Niccolò; Bosi, Alberto; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2009-01-01

    The JAK2 (V617F) mutation is found in almost all patients with polycythemia vera and an important fraction of patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. This study shows that basophil counts are increased in JAK2 (V617F)-positive patients, and that the basophils contain an increased number of granules. See related article on page 1484.

  6. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  7. Complexity of the influence of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Svendsen, U G; Thastrup, Ole; Stahl Skov, P; Leon, A; Norn, S

    The influence of exogenous addition of gangliosides on histamine release from human basophils and rat mast cells was examined in vitro. Gangliosides dose-dependently inhibited histamine release, and this inhibition was dependent on the ganglioside sialic acid content, since GT1b, having 3 sialic...... acid moieties, was more potent than gangliosides with 2 moieties (GD1a and GD1b), which again were more potent inhibitors than GM1 with one moiety. Asialo-GM1 was without effect. In high concentrations the gangliosides potentiated basophil histamine release. The modulation of histamine release was...

  8. Critical role of P1-Runx1 in mouse basophil development

    OpenAIRE

    Mukai, Kaori; BenBarak, Maya J.; Tachibana, Masashi; Nishida, Keigo; Karasuyama, Hajime; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Galli, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Runx1P1N/P1N mice are deficient in the transcription factor distal promoter-derived Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) and have a > 90% reduction in the numbers of basophils in the BM, spleen, and blood. In contrast, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of the other granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils). Although basophils and mast cells share some common features, Runx1P1N/P1N mice have normal numbers of mast cells in multiple tissues. Runx1P1N/P1N mice fail to develop a ba...

  9. Organic cation transporter 3 modulates murine basophil functions by controlling intracellular histamine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Elke; Machavoine, François; Pléau, Jean-Marie; Bertron, Anne-France; Thurmond, Robin L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takehiko; Schinkel, Alfred H; Dy, Michel

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we identify the bidirectional organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3/Slc22a3) as the molecule responsible for histamine uptake by murine basophils. We demonstrate that OCT3 participates in the control of basophil functions because exogenous histamine can inhibit its own synthesis—and that of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-13—through this means of transport. Furthermore, ligands of H3/H4 histamine receptors or OCT3 inhibit histamine uptake, and outward transport of newly synthesiz...

  10. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S;

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the cell membrane content of sialic acid on basophil histamine release was examined in vitro in allergic patients and normal controls. Enzymatical removal of sialic acid enhanced histamine release induced by allergen and anti-IgE, whereas an increase in membrane sialic acid content...

  11. Evaluation of the antigenicity of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein formulas using the mouse basophil activation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Takeshi; Nakazato, Yuki; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are widely used for infants with cow's milk allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the mouse basophil activation test (BAT) in the evaluation of residual antigenicity in these formulas. Whole blood samples derived from β-lactoglobulin- or casein-immunized mice were incubated with one of the following formulas: conventional, partially hydrolyzed, or extensively hydrolyzed. Basophilic activation was analyzed by flow cytometry using an IgE-dependent activation marker CD200R1 and an IgG-dependent activation marker CD200R3. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by i.v. injection of milk formula and results were compared. Conventional formula induced pronounced changes in CD200R1 and CD200R3 expression on basophils, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not elicit any changes in these markers. Similarly, challenge with conventional formula induced anaphylaxis, whereas extensively hydrolyzed formulas did not induce anaphylaxis. Although the partially hydrolyzed formula also induced basophilic activation and systemic anaphylaxis, the magnitude of these effects was smaller than that observed with the conventional formula. Compared to CD200R1, the observed trend in CD200R3 expression resembled the results obtained from systemic anaphylaxis test more closely. These findings show that mouse BAT, in particular using CD200R3, is highly useful for the evaluation of antigenicity of milk formulas. PMID:26626100

  12. Mast cells and basophils: trojan horses of conventional lin- stem/progenitor cell isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2011-11-01

    Cancer microenvironment is increasingly recognized as an important factor affecting cancer onset and progression. Since Wirchow reported in 1863 that tumors contain inflammatory cells, the field shifted significantly forward, and immune cells residing in tumors appear to be attractive targets of cancer therapies. For some methods, such as stem/progenitor cell isolation from both cancer and healthy tissues, removal of contaminating immune cells is crucial to achieve consistent, reproducible and accurate results. Despite current methods of lineage negative selection accounts for removal of over 99 % of immune cells from stem/progenitor cell isolates, the vast majority of lineage antibody cocktails retain basophils, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Here we discuss the ability of the most commonly used lineage markers to bind to the plasma membrane of mast cells and/or basophils, and suggest alternatives, which may be used for negative selection of these cellular populations. Both, mast cells and basophils, were shown to participate actively in cancer-associated angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and recruitment of other immune cell types, including eosinophils, B cells, memory T cells and Treg cells. In turn, tumor-derived peptides and chemotactic factors are known to recruit and activate mast cells in neoplasias, resulting in altered tumor progression. Repeated findings of CD34+ populations of mast cells and basophils further highlight necessity of their separation from stem/progenitor cell isolates in both, preclinical experiments and clinical praxis. PMID:22103846

  13. IgE-mediated basophil tumour necrosis factor alpha induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 from monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Poulsen, Lars K.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Anders Woetmann; Ødum, Niels; Poulsen, Britta Cathrina; Blom, L.; Jensen, B. M.; Gibbs, B. F.; Yasinska, I. M.; Sumbayev, V. V.; Skov, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated activation of mast cells has been reported to induce the release of tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α), which may display autocrine effects on these cells by inducing the generation of the tissue remodelling protease matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). While mast cells and basophils have...

  14. Segmental bronchoprovocation in allergic rhinitis patients affects mast cell and basophil numbers in nasal and bronchial mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstahl, Gert-Jan; Overbeek, Shelley; Fokkens, Wytske; KleinJan, Alex; McEuen, A.R.; Walls, A F; Hoogsteden, Henk; Prins, Jan-Bas

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMast cells and basophils are cells that play an important role in the initiation and control of allergic inflammation in asthma and rhinitis. This study was undertaken to determine the presence and dynamics of mast cells and basophils in the nasal and bronchial mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients after segmental bronchial provocation (SBP). Eight nonasthmatic, grass pollen-allergic rhinitis patients and eight healthy controls were included. Bronchial and nasal biopsies, as well a...

  15. Chronic myeloid leukemia presenting with absence of basophils and marked dyspoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year old woman presented to us with fever, weakness and ecchymotic patches for one year. She had leucocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Peripheral blood smear showed 62% neutrophils, 32% myelocytes and metamyelocytes, 2% promyelocytes, 1% blasts, 2% monocytes, 1% lymphocytes but no basophils and marked dyspoiesis. Bone marrow picture was essentially the same. A diagnosis of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia was suggested. The correct diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia - accelerated phase was, however, made on cytogenetic analysis which showed Philadelphia chromosome (Ph and isochromosome 17q [i(17q]. This case describes a rare and diagnostically difficult presentation of CML arising out of a combination of prominent dyspoiesis and near absence of peripheral blood basophils.

  16. Basophil-associated OX40 ligand participates in the initiation of Th2 responses during airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Yuan, Yufan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Junling; Xia, Zhenwei

    2015-05-15

    Asthma is characterized by increased airway submucosal infiltration of T helper (Th) cells and myeloid cells that co-conspire to sustain a chronic inflammation. While recent studies have demonstrated that the myeloid basophils promote Th2 cells in response to various types of allergens, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found for the first time that in a mouse model of allergic asthma basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Interestingly, blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction suppressed basophils-primed Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic eosinophilic inflammation mediated by Th2 activation. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of basophils derived from mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of OVA-immunized mice triggered a robust Th2 response and eosinophilic inflammation in wild-type mice but largely muted in OX40(-/-) mice and mice receiving OX40L-blocked basophils. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of OX40L presented by the activated basophils to initiate Th2 responses in an allergic asthma model, implicating OX40-OX40L signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25839234

  17. Basophil-associated OX40 Ligand Participates in the Initiation of Th2 Responses during Airway Inflammation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Yuan, Yufan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Junling; Xia, Zhenwei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by increased airway submucosal infiltration of T helper (Th) cells and myeloid cells that co-conspire to sustain a chronic inflammation. While recent studies have demonstrated that the myeloid basophils promote Th2 cells in response to various types of allergens, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found for the first time that in a mouse model of allergic asthma basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Interestingly, blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction suppressed basophils-primed Th2 cell differentiation in vitro and ameliorated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic eosinophilic inflammation mediated by Th2 activation. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of basophils derived from mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of OVA-immunized mice triggered a robust Th2 response and eosinophilic inflammation in wild-type mice but largely muted in OX40−/− mice and mice receiving OX40L-blocked basophils. Taken together, our results reveal a critical role of OX40L presented by the activated basophils to initiate Th2 responses in an allergic asthma model, implicating OX40-OX40L signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25839234

  18. The GIT–PIX complexes regulate the chemotactic response of rat basophilic leukaemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, Manuela; Za, Lorena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; Curtis, Ivan de

    2010-01-01

    Background information. Cell motility entails the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking for effective protrusion. The GIT–PIX protein complexes are involved in the regulation of cell motility and adhesion and in the endocytic traffic of members of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. We have investigated the function of the endogenous GIT complexes in the regulation of cell motility stimulated by fMLP (formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) peptide, in a rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-...

  19. Cutaneous Basophil Hypersensitivity and Contact Sensitivity After Cutaneous Trichophyton mentagrophytes Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Frederick; Anderson, John W.; Balish, Edward

    1980-01-01

    The histopathology of cutaneous lesions and trichophytin skin test responses was examined by light microscopy after the infection of strain 2 guinea pigs with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Skin biopsies were fixed and stained with procedures which allowed differentiation of the polymorphonuclear granulocytic leukocytes that were present in lesions or skin test reactions. Basophils comprised about one-third of the leukocytes infiltrating the 24 to 48-h trichophytin skin test reactions of guinea...

  20. Basophil response to antigen and anti-IgE 3. Ca(2+) influx and histamine release

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki,Yoshiro; Kitani,Hikaru; Okazaki, Morihiro; Mifune, Takashi; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Kimura,Ikuro

    1992-01-01

    The release mechanism of chemical mediators from basophils and mast cells was discussed when these cells were stimulated by different antigens and anti-IgE. 1. Ca(2+) influx into mast cells increased after stimulation by antigen. The increased Ca(2+) uptake by mast cells was inhibited by antiallergic agents, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and tranilast, and calcium antagonists, nifedipine and nicardipine. 2. The dose-response curve of histamine release by antigen was different from that by anti...

  1. Chronic myeloid leukemia presenting with absence of basophils and marked dyspoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Anand M; Kumar Rajive; Kumar L; Barge S; Singh S

    2003-01-01

    A 61-year old woman presented to us with fever, weakness and ecchymotic patches for one year. She had leucocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Peripheral blood smear showed 62% neutrophils, 32% myelocytes and metamyelocytes, 2% promyelocytes, 1% blasts, 2% monocytes, 1% lymphocytes but no basophils and marked dyspoiesis. Bone marrow picture was essentially the same. A diagnosis of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia was suggested. The correct diagnosi...

  2. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO...

  3. Basophil-derived amphiregulin is essential for UVB irradiation-induced immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell function in vivo. Here we determined whether AREG has a role in UVB-induced, Treg cell-mediated suppression of CHS reactions in the skin. Our data show that AREG is essential for UVB-induced CHS suppression. In contrast to the general assumption, however, mast cells were dispensable for UVB-induced immune suppression, whereas basophil-derived AREG was essential. These data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported function for basophils in the homeostasis of immune responses in the skin. Basophils thus fulfill a dual function: they contribute to the initiation of effective type 2 immune responses and, by enhancing the suppressive capacity of local Treg cell populations, also to local immune regulation in the skin. PMID:25089660

  4. Extensive FUS-immunoreactive Pathology in Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Basophilic Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eric J.; Zhang, Jiasheng; Geser, Felix; Trojanowski, John Q.; Strober, Jonathan B.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Brown, Robert H.; Shapiro, Barbara E.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with basophilic inclusions is a well-recognized entity. However, the molecular underpinnings of this devastating disease are poorly understood. Here, we present genetic and neuropathological characterizations in two young women with fatal rapidly progressive ALS with basophilic inclusions. In one case, a germline mutation (P525L) was detected in the FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) gene, whereas no mutation was identified in the other case. Postmortem examination in both cases revealed severe loss of spinal motor neurons with remaining neurons showing basophilic inclusions that contain abnormal aggregates of FUS proteins and disorganized intracellular organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In both patients, the FUS-positive inclusions were also detected in neurons in layers IV–V of cerebral cortex and several brainstem nuclei. In contrast, spinal motor neurons in patients with late-onset sporadic ALS showed no evidence of abnormal accumulation of FUS protein. These results underscore the importance of FUS mutations and pathology in rapidly progressive juvenile ALS. Furthermore, our study represents the first detailed characterizations of neuropathological findings in rapidly progressive juvenile ALS patients with a mutation in the FUS/TLS gene. PMID:20579074

  5. Mast cells and basophils in inflammatory and tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Gianni; Varricchi, Gilda; Loffredo, Stefania; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis, namely, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is an essential process of embryonic development and post-natal growth. In adult life, it may occur in physiological conditions (menstrual cycle and wound healing), during inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases and allergic disorders) and in tumor growth. The angiogenic process requires a tightly regulated interaction among different cell types (e.g. endothelial cells and pericytes), the extracellular matrix, several specific growth factors (e.g. VEGFs, Angiopoietins), cytokines and chemokines. Lymphangiogenesis, namely, the growth of new lymphatic vessels, is an important process in tumor development, in the formation of metastasis and in several inflammatory and metabolic disorders. In addition to tumors, several effector cells of inflammation (mast cells, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, etc.) are important sources of a wide spectrum of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Human mast cells produce a large array of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic molecules. Primary human mast cells and two mast cell lines constitutively express several isoforms of angiogenic (VEGF-A and VEGF-B) and the two lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and VEGF-D). In addition, human mast cells express the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) and 2 (VEGFR-2), the co-receptors neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and -2 (NRP2) and the Tie1 and Tie2 receptors. Immunologically activated human basophils selectively produce VEGF-A and -B, but not VEGF-C and -D. They also release Angiopoietin1 that activates Tie2 on human mast cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that human mast cells and basophils might participate in the complex network involving inflammatory and tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:25941082

  6. Non-genomic inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on activated peripheral blood basophils through suppression of lipid raft formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, S; Tomita, K; Sano, H; Itoh, Y; Fukai, Y; Okimoto, N; Watatani, N; Inbe, S; Miyajima, H; Tsukamoto, K; Santoh, H; Ichihashi, H; Sano, A; Sato, R; Tohda, Y

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the non-genomic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on inhibition of plasma membrane lipid raft formation in activated human basophils. Human basophils obtained from house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive volunteers were pretreated with hydrocortisone (CORT) or dexamethasone (Dex) for 30 min and then primed with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 10 ng/ml) or HDM (10 µg/ml). The expression of CD63, a basophil activation marker, was assessed by flow cytometry. Membrane-bound GC receptors (mGCRs) were analysed by flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy. Lipid rafts were assessed using a GM1 ganglioside probe and visualization by confocal laser microscopy. Pretreatment of basophils with CORT (10(-4) M and 10(-5) M) and Dex (10(-7) M) significantly inhibited CD63 expression 20 min after addition of PMA or HDM. The inhibitory effects of GCs were not altered by the nuclear GC receptor (GCR) antagonist RU486 (10(-5) M) or the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10(-4) M) (P < 0·05). CORT coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA-CORT) mimicked the rapid inhibitory effects of CORT, suggesting the involvement of mGCRs. mGCRs were detectable on the plasma membrane of resting basophils and formed nanoclusters following treatment with PMA or HDM. Pretreatment of cells with BSA-CORT inhibited the expression of mGCRs and nanoclustering of ganglioside GM1 in lipid rafts. The study provides evidence that non-genomic mechanisms are involved in the rapid inhibitory effect of GCs on the formation of lipid raft nanoclusters, through binding to mGCRs on the plasma membrane of activated basophils. PMID:22943204

  7. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Glue, C; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    . However, a relationship between the AS status and FcepsilonRI has not been investigated. We aimed to characterize basophils from AS by looking at histamine release (HR) (sensitivity and reactivity) and the FcepsilonRI molecule, and compare it with nonatopic (NA) or allergic (A) persons.......Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells...

  8. CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka Lun; Chen, Huanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Jianfang; Ho, Ho Pui; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kong, Siu Kai

    2012-07-01

    The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs.The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30435j

  9. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance. PMID:3606408

  10. Influence of nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum on histamine release from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Thastrup, Ole; Norn, S; Skov, P S

    1987-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that the membrane content of sialic acid influences histamine release from human basophils by interfering with the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release. In this study we investigated a possible interaction between membrane sialic acid and the...... calcium channels, using the calcium antagonists nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was inhibited by verapamil, nimodipine and lanthanum. When cells were pretreated with sialidase in order to remove sialic acid from the cell membrane, the inhibitory action of nimodipine...... was abolished, whereas the inhibition by verapamil or lanthanum was unaffected. This difference may be explained by the different mode of action of the calcium channel antagonists, and the results suggest an association between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channel....

  11. Regulation of intracellular calcium in resting and stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular calcium regulation was studied in a cell line of mast cells, the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells with the purpose of determining (1) The properties of the plasma membrane calcium permeability pathway and (2) The role of intracellular calcium stores. The first set of experiments showed that depolarization did not induce calcium entry or secretion in resting cells and did inhibit antigen-stimulated calcium uptake and secretion. In the second set of experiments the ionic basis of antigen-induced depolarization was studied using the fluorescent potential-sensitive probe bis-oxonol. The properties of the calcium entry pathway were more consistent with a calcium channel than a calcium transport mechanism such as Na:Ca exchange. The third set of experiments examined the effects of the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on RBL cells. CCCP inhibited antigen-stimulated 45Ca uptake and secretion by depolarizing the plasma membrane

  12. Basophil histamine release in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity with and without allergic symptoms to fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Galleani, M; Jeep, S; Pilz, B; Baisch, A; Kunkel, G

    1992-12-01

    Histamine release (HR) studies were performed in 40 birch pollen-allergic patients (positive case history, positive SPT, positive birch pollen-specific serum IgE: RAST > or = 3) with (n = 20, A) and without (n = 20, B) fruit hypersensitivity, and 10 nonatopic volunteers (C). Several fruit allergens were used and characterized by protein determination and immunoblot techniques. Dose-dependent HR (apple peel = apple pulp > peach = cherry) was demonstrated in both allergic groups, but to a higher extent in patients with fruit allergy (P < 0.01). Increased basophil sensitivity to birch pollen was found in the group with fruit allergy (P < 0.001). Strong correlations between the mediator response induced by several fruits indicate common allergens within the extracts. We conclude that fruit-related symptoms require not only high specific serum IgE, but a strong cellular sensitization to birch pollen allergens together with an increased cellular reactivity to fruit allergens. PMID:1283657

  13. Establishment of a new cell line (MTT-95 showing basophilic differentiation from the bone marrow of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (M7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizobuchi N

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A new myeloid cell line, MTT-95, was established from the bone marrow of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, M7. MTT-95 cells differentiate into mature basophilic cells in culture medium with no chemical component or cytokine. Surface phenotypes were as follows: CD11b 79.3%, CD13 92.4%, CD33 99.8%, CD34 87.9%, CD41a 77.6% and HLA-DR 0.3%. MTT-95 cells were strongly positive for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa by immunohistochemical staining and revealed metachromatic granules. MTT-95 cells seem to possess characteristics of both megakaryocytes and basophils. These findings suggest that MTT-95 cells are basophil progenitors. MTT-95 cells might be useful in the study not only of the biological aspects of basophils, but also of the diversities of AML (M7.

  14. Interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor render human basophils responsive to low concentrations of complement component C3a.

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, S C; de Weck, A. L.; Dahinden, C A

    1990-01-01

    Complement component C3a is an anaphylatoxin known to induce plasma exudation and smooth muscle contraction in tissues. The effects on inflammatory effector leukocytes, however, are poorly defined and controversial, being at best weak and occurring at very high C3a concentrations. Here, we examined the effect of C3a upon mediator release from human basophils, with and without pretreatment with interleukin 3 (IL-3), a hematopoietic growth factor recently found to profoundly modify the basophil...

  15. Contrast media are incomplete secretagogues acting on human basophils and mast cells isolated from heart and lung, but not skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, A; Stellato, C; Patella, V; Lamparter-Schummert, B; de Crescenzo, G; Adt, M; Marone, G

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of anaphylactoid reactions to radiocontrast media, in vitro mediator release induced by three iodinated contrast agents was examined using peripheral blood basophils and mast cells purified from human lung parenchyma, heart, and skin tissues. Three iodinated contrast agents, sodium and meglumine salts of ioxaglic acid, sodium and meglumine salts of ioxithalamic acid, and ioversol, were incubated with basophils purified from peripheral blood and human mast cells isolated and purified from different anatomical sites. Release of preformed (histamine and tryptase) and de novo synthesized mediators (prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4) into the supernatans was determined at various contrast medium concentrations after incubation for 60 min. Ioxaglate (0.2-0.3 M), ioxithalamate (0.3-0.5 M), and to a lesser extent ioversol (0.3-0.5 M) induced histamine release from basophils in a concentration-dependent manner. All three induced the release of preformed mediators (histamine and tryptase) from human lung, but not from skin mast cells. They also induced histamine and tryptase release from human heart mast cells. However, they did not induce the de novo synthesis of leukotriene C1 or prostaglandin D2 from human basophils or any type of mast cell examined. Cross-linking of IgE by anti-IgE induced the release of leukotriene C4 or prostaglandin D2 from human basophils or mast cells. Mannitol, an osmotic stimulus, induced the release of histamine from human basophils, but to a lesser extent from mast cells. These results show that different contrast media can differ in their ability to release mediators from enriched preparations of human basophils and mast cells. The three contrast agents examined act on basophils and mast cells as incomplete secretagogues, causing the release of preformed mediators, but not these novo synthesis of chemical mediators. It may be useful to measure plasma tryptase levels to detect adverse reactions caused by iodinated

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits basophil maturation and activation but promotes its apoptosis in T helper type 2-mediated allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenwei; Di, Caixia; Lv, Jiajia; Zhang, Yanjie; Lin, Xiaoliang; Yuan, Yufan; Lv, Jie; Xia, Zhenwei

    2016-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been studied extensively in many disease models including asthma. Many cell types are anti-inflammatory targets of HO-1, such as dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. In contrast to previous reports that HO-1 had limited effects on basophils, which participate in T helper type 2 immune responses and antigen-induced allergic airway inflammation, we demonstrated in this study, for the first time, that the up-regulation of HO-1 significantly suppressed the maturation of mouse basophils, decreased the expression of CD40, CD80, MHC-II and activation marker CD200R on basophils, blocked DQ-ovalbumin uptake and promoted basophil apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the inhibition of T helper type 2 polarization. These effects of HO-1 were mimicked by exogenous carbon monoxide, which is one of the catalytic products of HO-1. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of HO-1-modified basophils reduced ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. The above effects of HO-1 can be reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor Sn-protoporphyrin IX. Moreover, conditional depletion of basophils accompanying hemin treatment further attenuated airway inflammation compared with the hemin group, indicating that the protective role of HO-1 may involve multiple immune cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that HO-1 exerted its anti-inflammatory function through suppression of basophil maturation and activation, but promotion of basophil apoptosis, providing a possible novel therapeutic target in allergic asthma. PMID:26879758

  17. A Case of Korean Ginseng-Induced Anaphylaxis Confirmed by Open Oral Challenge and Basophil Activation Test

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Young; Jin, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Jung, Soon Kwang; Jang, Jeng-Yun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2011-01-01

    Two case reports discussing Korean ginseng-induced allergic reactions have been published; both were inhalation-induced respiratory allergies in occupational settings. In this report we discuss the first case of anaphylaxis that developed after an oral intake of ginseng, confirmed by an open oral challenge, a skin prick test (SPT), and a basophil activation test (BAT). A 44-year-old man experienced rhinorrhea and nasal stiffness, followed by respiratory difficulty with wheeze and abdominal pa...

  18. Basophil activation test compared to skin prick test and fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for aeroallergen-specific Immunoglobulin-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Faisal M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin prick test (SPT and fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA are widely used for the diagnosis of Immunoglobulin-E (IgE-mediated allergic disease. Basophil activation test (BAT could obviate disadvantages of SPT and FEIA. However, it is not known whether BAT gives similar results as SPT or FEIA for aeroallergens. Objectives In this study, we compared the results of SPT, BAT and FEIA for different aeroallergens. Methods We performed BAT, SPT and FEIA in 41 atopic subjects (symptomatic and with positive SPT for at least 1 of 9 common aeroallergens and 31 non-atopic subjects (asymptomatic and with negative SPT. Results Correlations between SPT and BAT, SPT and FEIA, and BAT and FEIA results were statistically significant but imperfect. Using SPT as the "gold standard", BAT and FEIA were similar in sensitivity. However, BAT had lower specificity than FEIA. False positive (BATposSPTneg results were frequent in those atopic subjects who were allergic by SPT to a different allergen and rare in non-atopic subjects. The false positivity in atopic subjects was due in part to high levels of serum Total-IgE (T-IgE levels in atopic individuals that lead to basophil activation upon staining with fluorochrome-labeled anti-IgE. Conclusion As an alternative to SPT in persons allergic to aeroallergens, BAT in its present form is useful for distinguishing atopic from non-atopic persons. However, BAT in its present form is less specific than FEIA when determining the allergen which a patient is allergic to. This is due to IgE staining-induced activation of atopic person's basophils and/or nonspecific hyperreactivity of atopic person's basophils.

  19. A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Kamran; Bhargava, Kapil; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The electronic records of 398 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who had had a serum basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) performed as a marker of functional autoantibodies were audited. The BHRA was positive in 105 patients (26.4%). Fifty eight were treated with ciclo...... ciclosporin because they were H1 anti-histamine unresponsive. CSU patients with a positive BHRA were more likely to respond clinically (P...

  20. Modulation of basophils' degranulation and allergy-related enzymes by monomeric and dimeric naphthoquinones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida R Pinho

    Full Text Available Allergic disorders are characterized by an abnormal immune response towards non-infectious substances, being associated with life quality reduction and potential life-threatening reactions. The increasing prevalence of allergic disorders demands for new and effective anti-allergic treatments. Here we test the anti-allergic potential of monomeric (juglone, menadione, naphthazarin, plumbagin and dimeric (diospyrin and diosquinone naphthoquinones. Inhibition of RBL-2H3 rat basophils' degranulation by naphthoquinones was assessed using two complementary stimuli: IgE/antigen and calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, we tested for the inhibition of leukotrienes production in IgE/antigen-stimulated cells, and studied hyaluronidase and lipoxidase inhibition by naphthoquinones in cell-free assays. Naphthazarin (0.1 µM decreased degranulation induced by IgE/antigen but not A23187, suggesting a mechanism upstream of the calcium increase, unlike diospyrin (10 µM that reduced degranulation in A23187-stimulated cells. Naphthoquinones were weak hyaluronidase inhibitors, but all inhibited soybean lipoxidase with the most lipophilic diospyrin, diosquinone and menadione being the most potent, thus suggesting a mechanism of competition with natural lipophilic substrates. Menadione was the only naphthoquinone reducing leukotriene C4 production, with a maximal effect at 5 µM. This work expands the current knowledge on the biological properties of naphthoquinones, highlighting naphthazarin, diospyrin and menadione as potential lead compounds for structural modification in the process of improving and developing novel anti-allergic drugs.

  1. Effects of Echium plantagineum L. Bee Pollen on Basophil Degranulation: Relationship with Metabolic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Moita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3. Two different stimuli were used: calcium ionophore A23187 and IgE/antigen. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated in a cell-free system using soybean lipoxygenase. Additionally, the extract was analysed by HPLC-UV for organic acids and by GC-IT/MS for fatty acids. In RBL-2H3 cells stimulated either with calcium ionophore or IgE/antigen, the hydromethanolic extract significantly decreased β-hexosaminidase release until the concentration of 2.08 mg/mL, without compromising cellular viability. No effect was found on lipoxygenase. Concerning extract composition, eight organic acids and five fatty acids were determined for the first time. Malonic acid (80% and α-linolenic acid (27% were the main compounds in each class. Overall, this study shows promising results, substantiating for the first time the utility of intake of E. plantagineum bee pollen to prevent allergy and ameliorate allergy symptoms, although a potentiation of an allergic response can occur, depending on the dose used.

  2. Effects of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen on basophil degranulation: relationship with metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Eduarda; Sousa, Carla; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinho, Brígida R; Silva, Luís R; Valentão, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3). Two different stimuli were used: calcium ionophore A23187 and IgE/antigen. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated in a cell-free system using soybean lipoxygenase. Additionally, the extract was analysed by HPLC-UV for organic acids and by GC-IT/MS for fatty acids. In RBL-2H3 cells stimulated either with calcium ionophore or IgE/antigen, the hydromethanolic extract significantly decreased β-hexosaminidase release until the concentration of 2.08 mg/mL, without compromising cellular viability. No effect was found on lipoxygenase. Concerning extract composition, eight organic acids and five fatty acids were determined for the first time. Malonic acid (80%) and α-linolenic acid (27%) were the main compounds in each class. Overall, this study shows promising results, substantiating for the first time the utility of intake of E. plantagineum bee pollen to prevent allergy and ameliorate allergy symptoms, although a potentiation of an allergic response can occur, depending on the dose used. PMID:25054443

  3. Leukotriene formation by purified 5-lipoxygenase from rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-1) cell high speed (105,000 x g for 60 min) supernatants was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by gel filtration and anion-exchange protein-high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 5-LO rapidly converted [14C]arachidonate at 200C to [14C]5-hydroperoxyeicosate-traenoic acid (HPETE) as determined by reversed phase-HPLC, scanning spectrophotometry and radiochemical detection. In addition, 5-LO converted both 5-HPETE and arachidonate to 5,12-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs). The 5,12-diHETEs were identified as 6-trans-leukotriene (LT) B4 and 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4 as determined by reversed phase HPLC, scanning spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data indicate that the RBL-1 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase activities reside on the same protein and that it catalyzes the bioconversion of arachidonate to not only 5-HPETE but also to LTA4. The results suggest that a critical regulatory step in LT biosynthesis in mammalian systems involves the intricate coupling of the enzymes 5-LO and LTA4 synthetase and the interactions of their respective cofactors, substrates and reaction products

  4. Immunoprecipitation of membrane proteins from rat basophilic leukemia cells by the antiganglioside monoclonal antibody AA4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous studies, mAb AA4 inhibited IgE binding, induced rapid morphologic changes, and blocked histamine release in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. It bound to two novel derivatives of ganglioside GD1b (Ag I and Ag II) that appear to be present only in rat mast cells. The present study demonstrates the importance of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II for binding of mAb AA4 to intact cells. We also investigated the presence of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II and proteins immunoprecipitated with mAb AA4 in the parental and four variant cell lines. In comparison with the parental RBL-2H3, two variant cell lines had very low (0.5% and 2.0%) and two others had intermediate levels (9% and 18%) of 125I-AA4 binding. mAb AA4 inhibited 125I-IgE binding to the parental RBL-2H3 cells and to only one variant with intermediate amounts of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II. Therefore, there are variations in the proximity of these gangliosides to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) among different cell lines. mAb AA4 immunoprecipitated proteins of 50 to 60, 120, and 135 kDa from 125I-surface labeled cells. These were different from the subunits of Fc epsilon RI. The amount of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II in cell extracts correlated with the number of mAb AA4 binding sites on the cell surface and with the quantity of proteins precipitated from the different cell lines. Thus, these membrane proteins appear to be associated with gangliosides Ag I and Ag II. The binding of mAb AA4 to the surface gangliosides could induce intracellular changes through transmembrane signaling by these proteins

  5. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones: The expression of basophil activation markers depends on the clinical entity and the culprit fluoroquinolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tahia D; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J

    2016-06-01

    Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity-specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = -0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = -0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers. PMID:27281069

  6. Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the basophilic cells in the hepatopancreas ofAplysia depilans(Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-da-Cunha, A

    1999-02-01

    The basophilic cells ofAplysia depilanshave a pyramidal shape and a large nucleus usually located near the center or in the basal half of the cell. The nucleus possesses several clumps of condensed chromatin and a prominent nucleolus. The great profusion of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns in a major feature of these cells. Secretion granules are accumulated in the apical zone, and arylsulphatase was detected in some of them. In some basophilic cells a very substantial part of the cell volume was occupied by clear vacuoles, some of them reaching 9 mum. However, in other cells only a few vacuoles were observed. Probably the cells with just a few vacuoles are still young, and after a progressive accumulation, the vacuoles become abundant in old cells. The presence of a dark nucleus in the cells with a large number of vacuoles suggests that they are in a final stage of their life. Arylsulphatase was detected in the vacuoles and also in small secondary lysosomes containing substances in digestion. Bundles of tubules with 50 nm in diameter were found within some cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum. A cell fraction enriched in mannitol oxidase, extracted from the hepatopancreas of a terrestrial slug, consisted in very similar tubular structures. Using a histochemical method, mannitol oxidase was detected in the basophilic cells ofA. depilans, and it may be associated with the tubular structures of the endoplasmic reticulum. This is the first report of mannitol oxidase in opisthobranch molluscs. Almost spherical peroxisomes with a small nucleoid were abundant in these cells. The nucleoids presented a rectangular section, but a crystalline structure was not evident. The peroxisomes were stained after the cytochemical detection of catalase activity. PMID:18627851

  7. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice, then...... be a cellular desensitisation after 1 year. Selected for presentation during the Poster Walk on Friday. (2011), Abstracts of the 11th Euroconference on Clinical Cell Analysis. Dublin, Ireland, 14–17 September 2011. Cytometry, 80B: 390–429. doi: 10.1002/cyto.b.20619...

  8. IL-33 induces IL-9 production in human CD4+ T cells and basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Britta Cathrina; Jensen, Bettina M.;

    2011-01-01

    IL-33, an IL-1 family member and ligand for the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2, has been associated with induction of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Here, we report that IL-33 can initiate IL-9 protein secretion in vitro in human CD4+ T cells and basophils isolated from peripheral...... important, although not an absolute requirement, for IL-9 production in CD4+ T cells. IL-9 production by purified (>95%) human basophils, cultured for 24 h with IL-3 or IL-33, was found, with a strong synergy between the two, likely to be explained by the IL-3 upregulated ST2 expression. Collectively, these...... blood. TGF-β has been described as a critical factor for IL-9 induction in Th2 cells; however, we found that TGF-β also induces co-production of IL-9 in purified, naïve (>99%) CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD45RO(-)CD25(-) T cells differentiated towards a Th1 profile. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that TGF-β is...

  9. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole;

    1987-01-01

    Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S...

  10. Histamine release from basophil leukocytes in asthma patients after in vitro provocation with various neuromuscular blocking drugs and intravenous anaesthetic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H; Søndergaard, I

    1987-01-01

    Basophil histamine release is a relatively new investigation technique, which can be used in the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Our aim in this investigation was to determine reference values for asthma patients and normal subjects. Blood from eight asthmatic patients and eight normal...

  11. Flow cytometric analysis of the inhibition of human basophil activation by histamine high dilutions – a replication study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Wälchli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhibition of human basophil activation by highly diluted histamine was reported to be a reliable experimental model to examine biological effects of high dilutions. However, independent replications did not always yield concordant results. Aims: We aimed at performing an independent replication of a former study [1] using rigorously controlled experimental conditions to minimise confounding factors. Materials and Methods: In 20 independent experiments, human basophils were treated with highly diluted histamine (15cH, 16cH, corresponding to 10-30-10-32 M prior to activation by fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine peptide. Controls were treated with analogously diluted water (15cH, 16cH. The dilutions were prepared freshly for each experiment in deionised water by successive steps of centesimal dilution and agitation (10 s vortex at high speed. Highly diluted samples were blinded and randomised. All samples were set in triplicates. Activated basophils were determined by flow cytometry using anti-CD203c. 20 independent systematic negative control (SNC experiments were carried out to investigate possible systematic errors. Results: No difference in basophil activation was observed between the highly diluted histamine samples and the highly diluted water controls. There was no evidence for a blood donor specificity of the results. The SNC experiments demonstrated the stability of the test system. Experimental variability within and between experiments was slightly reduced for the highly diluted histamine samples. Discussion: This study was designed as an independent reproduction of a former study [1]. Though we strictly adopted the experimental procedure described in [1], our results do not confirm the large inhibitory effects observed for histamine 15cH and 16cH. This lack of reproducibility might be due to minor differences in the experimental design, such as blinding and randomising of the samples, which we chose to

  12. NOD2 and TLR2 ligands trigger the activation of basophils and eosinophils by interacting with dermal fibroblasts in atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Delong; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Qiu, Huai-Na; Dong, Jie; Cai, Zhe; Chu, Man; Hon, Kam-Lun; Tsang, Miranda Sin-Man; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

    2016-01-01

    The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) has a unique predisposition for colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which contributes to the inflammation and grim prognosis of AD. Although the mechanism underlying the S. aureus-induced exacerbation of AD remains unclear, recent studies have found a pivotal role for pattern recognition receptors in regulating the inflammatory responses in S. aureus infection. In the present study, we used a typical mouse model of AD-like skin inflammation and found that S. aureus-associated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands exacerbated AD-like symptoms, which were further deteriorated by the in vivo expansion of basophils and eosinophils. Subsequent histological analyses revealed that dermal fibroblasts were pervasive in the AD-like skin lesions. Co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts with basophils and eosinophils resulted in a vigorous cytokine/chemokine response to the NOD2/TLR2 ligands and the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on the dermal fibroblasts. Basophils and eosinophils were primarily responsible for the AD-related cytokine/chemokine expression in the co-cultures. Direct intercellular contact was necessary for the crosstalk between basophils and dermal fibroblasts, while soluble mediators were sufficient to mediate the eosinophil–fibroblast interactions. Moreover, the intracellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways were essential for NOD2/TLR2 ligand-mediated activation of basophils, eosinophils, and dermal fibroblasts in AD-related inflammation. This study provides the evidence of NOD2/TLR2-mediated exacerbation of AD through activation of innate immune cells and therefore sheds light on a novel mechanistic pathway by which S. aureus contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:26388234

  13. Down-regulation of FcεRI-mediated CD63 basophil response during short-term VIT determined venom-nonspecific desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čelesnik Smodiš

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed a desensitization of FcεRI-mediated basophil response after short-term VIT. Our aim was to evaluate the allergen specificity of this desensitization. METHODS: In 11 Hymenoptera-venom double positive subjects, basophil threshold sensitivity (CD-sens to anti-FcεRI, honeybee, and Vespula venom was assessed at the beginning and just before the first maintenance dose (MD of single ultra-rush VIT. In some patients we also monitored CD-sens to rApi m 1 and/or rVes v 5 or other co-sensitizations (i.e., grass pollen. In additional 7 patients, basophils were stripped and sensitized with house dust mite (HDM IgEs at the same time points. RESULTS: We demonstrated a marked reduction of CD-sens to anti-FcεRI and VIT-specific venom before the first MD in all 18 subjects included. Furthermore, in 10 out of 11 double positive subjects, a significant and comparable decrease before the first MD was also evident for non-VIT venom; this nonspecific decrease was further supported by the opposite recombinant species-specific major allergen. In one subject with additional grass pollen allergy, a decrease of CD-sens to grass allergen was also demonstrated. Similarly, in 7 cases of patients with passively HDM-sensitized basophils, a significant reduction of CD-sens was also evident to de novo sensitized HDM allergen. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term VIT induced basophil desensitization to VIT-specific as well as to VIT-nonspecific venom. As opposed to long-term VIT, which induces venom-specific changes, the effect of short-term VIT seems to be venom-nonspecific.

  14. Adhesion of human basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils to interleukin 1-activated human vascular endothelial cells: contributions of endothelial cell adhesion molecules

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) promote adhesiveness in human umbilical vein endothelial cells for leukocytes including basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils, and induce expression of adherence molecules including ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), ELAM-1 (endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In the present study, blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing ICAM-1, ELAM-1, and VCAM-1 have been used to compare their ...

  15. Peripheral basophil reactivity, CD203c expression by Cryj1 stimulation, is useful for diagnosing seasonal allergic rhinitis by Japanese cedar pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yoshimasa; Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Sakashita, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Takahiro; Ito, Yumi; Narita, Norihiko; Yamada, Takechiyo; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    Measuring specific IgE can yield direct, accurate, and objective data. Nevertheless, clinical symptoms of allergy are often inconsistent with these data. Recently, the expression of CD203c, a surface marker of basophils, has been reported as capable of distinguishing allergic patients. This study compared specific IgE in serum and skin tests against antigen to assess CD203c as a biomarker correlated with allergic rhinitis (AR). We asked 3,453 subjects whether they experienced any AR related symptom. All subjects were assessed for six specific IgEs for common aeroallergens. Skin tests were also conducted for six aeroallergens. We observed the reactivity of peripheral basophil by measuring the levels of CD203c by Cryj1 stimulation using flow cytometry. Of the 3,453 participants, 1,987 (57.5%) possessed Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) specific IgE in their serum. Among those 1,987 JCP specific IgE positive participants, 552 (27.8%) had not experienced any allergic symptom during the JCP season. The levels of CD203c in the peripheral basophil by Cryj1 stimulation were significantly higher in SAR-JCP subjects than in non-SAR-JCP subjects (Cryj1 0.5 ng/ml: 2.25 ± 0.90% vs. 60.2 ± 27.4%, p < 0.01, Cryj1 50 ng/ml: 1.89 ± 0.90% vs. 68.0 ± 21.2%, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that the levels of CD203c in peripheral basophils by Cryj1 stimulation is a more objective and reliable marker that better reflects the allergic reaction by SAR-JCP in vivo than measuring specific IgE in serum or skin tests. PMID:26417444

  16. Low Counts of B Cells, Natural Killer Cells, Monocytes, Dendritic Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils are Associated with Postengraftment Infections after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Peter J; Pratt, Laura M; Liu, Yiping; Dharmani-Khan, Poonam; Luider, Joanne; Auer-Grzesiak, Iwona; Mansoor, Adnan; Williamson, Tyler S; Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Khan, Faisal M; Larratt, Loree; Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Stewart, Douglas A; Russell, James A; Daly, Andrew; Storek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are immunocompromised and thus predisposed to infections. We set out to determine the deficiency of which immune cell subset(s) may predispose to postengraftment infections. We determined day 28, 56, 84, and 180 blood counts of multiple immune cell subsets in 219 allogeneic transplant recipients conditioned with busulfan, fludarabine, and Thymoglobulin. Deficiency of a subset was considered to be associated with infections if the low subset count was significantly associated with subsequent high infection rate per multivariate analysis in both discovery and validation cohorts. Low counts of monocytes (total and inflammatory) and basophils, and low IgA levels were associated with viral infections. Low plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) counts were associated with bacterial infections. Low inflammatory monocyte counts were associated with fungal infections. Low counts of total and naive B cells, total and CD56(high) natural killer (NK) cells, total and inflammatory monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs), PDCs, basophils and eosinophils, and low levels of IgA were associated with any infections (due to any pathogen or presumed). In conclusion, deficiencies of B cells, NK cells, monocytes, MDCs, PDCs, basophils, eosinophils, and/or IgA plasma cells appear to predispose to postengraftment infections. PMID:26363444

  17. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hirahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS, which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administration of glucose degradation products, such as methylglyoxal (MGO or formaldehyde (FA, chlorhexidine gluconate (CG, and talc. In rats treated with MGO, peritoneal fibrous thickening with the appearance of basophilic spindle cells with podoplanin, cytokeratin, and α-smooth muscle actin at the surface of the peritoneum was observed. These cells may have been derived from mesothelial cells by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In FA- or CG-treated rats, the peritoneum was thickened, and mesothelial cells were absent at the surface of the peritoneum. The CG- or MGO-treated rats presented with a so-called abdominal cocoon. In the talc-treated rats, extensive peritoneal adhesion and peritoneal thickening were observed. MGO-induced peritoneal injury model may reflect human histopathology and be suitable to analyze the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS.

  18. The LINA Study: Higher Sensitivity of Infant Compared to Maternal Eosinophil/Basophil Progenitors to Indoor Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hörnig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Enhanced eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B progenitor cell levels are known to be associated with allergic inflammation and atopy risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different indoor exposures on the recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in mother-child pairs. Methods. In 68 mother-child pairs of the LINA study peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess Eo/B colony forming units (CFUs. Information about disease outcomes and indoor exposures was obtained from questionnaires. Indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by passive sampling. Results. Infant’s Eo/B CFUs were positively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, disinfectants, or VOCs. In contrast, for maternal Eo/B CFUs, only a few associations were seen. Higher numbers of infant Eo/B CFUs were observed in children with wheezing symptoms within the second year of life. Conclusions. We demonstrate that infant’s hematopoietic cells seem to respond with more sensitivity to environmental exposure compared to maternal cells. At least in infants, an activation of these hematopoietic cells by environmental exposure could contribute to an enhanced risk for the development of respiratory outcomes.

  19. Isolation and in vitro translation of mRNA from rat peritoneal mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, H; Lee, T D; Swieter, M; Saito, A; Tamaoki, T; Befus, A D

    1988-11-10

    In the absence of any specific literature on the isolation of RNA from mast cells, our initial attempts established that unusual measures would be needed to prepare acceptable yields of high quality RNA from peritoneal mast cells of normal adult rats. Accordingly, we developed procedures for the isolation and characterization of RNA from rat peritoneal mast cells (PMC) and basophilic leukemia cells (RBL). The significant components of the procedures include: separation and removal of mast cell granules to minimize contamination of RNA with proteins and proteoglycans; use of bentonite in phenol extractions; and repetition of extractions and precipitation. The amounts of total RNA extracted from PMC were about 15% of those from RBL, although the percentage mRNA of total RNA in PMC and RBL was similar (1.8 and 2.0%). Ribosomal RNA banding patterns in agarose gel electrophoresis and in vitro translation experiments indicate that the isolated RNA can be employed for analysis of molecular mechanisms of mast cell function and heterogeneity. PMID:3183393

  20. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, Ichiro; Sato, Hideki; Imai, Toshimi; Onishi, Akira; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administration of glucose degradation products, such as methylglyoxal (MGO) or formaldehyde (FA), chlorhexidine gluconate (CG), and talc. In rats treated with MGO, peritoneal fibrous thickening with the appearance of basophilic spindle cells with podoplanin, cytokeratin, and α-smooth muscle actin at the surface of the peritoneum was observed. These cells may have been derived from mesothelial cells by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In FA- or CG-treated rats, the peritoneum was thickened, and mesothelial cells were absent at the surface of the peritoneum. The CG- or MGO-treated rats presented with a so-called abdominal cocoon. In the talc-treated rats, extensive peritoneal adhesion and peritoneal thickening were observed. MGO-induced peritoneal injury model may reflect human histopathology and be suitable to analyze the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. PMID:26064894

  1. The effects of thermal stimuli on intracellular calcium change and histamine releases in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zu-Hui; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2012-05-01

    The effects of thermal stimuli on rat basophilic leukemia mast cells were studied. The cells in calcium-contained or calcium-free buffers were thermally stimulated in the temperature range of 25-60 °C. The corresponding calcium ion concentration in cells [Ca2+]i as well as the released histamine from cells was measured with fluorescence staining methods. The ruthenium red (RR), a block of membrane calcium channels (transient receptor potential family V (TRPV)), was used in experiments. Under the stimulus of 25-50 °C, no significant difference on [Ca2+]i was found between these three groups of the cells in calcium-contained buffer without or with RR and cells in calcium-free saline, indicating that the increased calcium in cytosol did not result from the extracellular buffer but came from the intracellular calcium stores. The [Ca2+]i continuously increased under the temperature of 50-60 °C, but the RR and calcium-free saline can obviously diminish the [Ca2+]i increase at these high temperatures, reflecting that the opening of the TRPV2 channels leads to a calcium influx resulting in the [Ca2+]i increment. The histamine release also became significant in these cases. Since the released histamine is a well-known mediator for the microcirculation promotion, the histamine release from mast cells could be one of the mechanisms of thermal therapy.

  2. The structure at 2.5 Å resolution of human basophilic leukemia-expressed protein BLES03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the 27.5 kDa BLES03 protein was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. Despite having an undetectable sequence relationship, the structure adopts a fold similar to that of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E with minor variations. The crystal structure of the human basophilic leukemia-expressed protein (BLES03, p5326, Hs.433573) was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction and refined to an R factor of 18.8% (Rfree = 24.5%) at 2.5 Å resolution. BLES03 shows no detectable sequence similarity to any functionally characterized proteins using state-of-the-art sequence-comparison tools. The structure of BLES03 adopts a fold similar to that of eukaryotic transcription initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a protein involved in the recognition of the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA. In addition to fold similarity, the electrostatic surface potentials of BLES03 and eIF4E show a clear conservation of basic and acidic patches. In the crystal lattice, the acidic amino-terminal helices of BLES03 monomers are bound within the basic cavity of symmetry-related monomers in a manner analogous to the binding of mRNA by eIF4E. Interestingly, the gene locus encoding BLES03 is located between genes encoding the proteins DRAP1 and FOSL1, both of which are involved in transcription initiation. It is hypothesized that BLES03 itself may be involved in a biochemical process that requires recognition of nucleic acids

  3. Structural analysis of the endogenous glycoallergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis and its recognition by human basophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Adela, E-mail: adela@unam.mx; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico); Palomares, Laura A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, 62250 Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian [Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Orozco-Martínez, Socorro [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Insurgentes Sur 3700C, 04530 Cuicuilco, DF (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the three-dimensional structure of the endogenous glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase), which exhibits three post-translational modifications that form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be an allergenic IgE epitope. Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 constitute a potentially important IgE-binding epitope that could be responsible for its cross-reactivity. Here, the structure of the endogenous isoform II of Hev b 2 that exhibits three post-translational modifications, including an N-terminal pyroglutamate and two glycosylation sites at Asn27 and at Asn314, is reported from two crystal polymorphs. These modifications form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be one of the binding sites for IgE. A structure is also proposed for the most important N-glycan present in this protein as determined by digestion with specific enzymes. To analyze the role of the carbohydrate moieties in IgE antibody binding and in human basophil activation, the glycoallergen was enzymatically deglycosylated and evaluated. Time-lapse automated video microscopy of basophils stimulated with glycosylated Hev b 2 revealed basophil activation and degranulation. Immunological studies suggested that carbohydrates on Hev b 2 represent an allergenic IgE epitope. In addition, a dimer was found in each asymmetric unit that may reflect a regulatory mechanism of this plant defence protein.

  4. Inhibition of IgE-mediated Secretion from Human Basophils with a Highly Selective Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase, Btk, Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    MacGlashan, Donald; Honigberg, Lee; Smith, Ashley; Buggy, Joseph; Schroeder, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The study of receptor-mediated signaling in human basophils is often limited by the availability of selective pharmacological agents. The early signaling reaction mediated by FcεRI aggregation is thought to require the activity of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (btk), an enzyme that has been identified as important in B cells signaling because mutations lead to X-linked agammaglobulinemia. This study uses the btk selective irreversible inhibitor, PCI-32765, to explore the role of btk in a variety o...

  5. Modulation of human basophil histamine release by protein kinase C inhibitors differs with secretagogue and with inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, H; Lundquist, B; Karabelas, K; Michelsen, P

    1992-03-01

    To assess possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in human basophil degranulation, the present work compared effects of various purported PKC inhibitors on leukocyte histamine release triggered by different stimuli. The effects recorded varied with the inhibitor and the secretagogue used; moreover, with a given secretagogue, different inhibitors often displayed different activities. Thus, histamine release triggered by the PKC activator 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was blocked by K252a, staurosporine and the purported specific PKC inhibitor Ro 31-7549, and reduced by calphostin C, H-7, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by polymyxin B; it was augmented by 2.1 microM palmitoyl carnitine. The leukocyte response induced by another putative activator of PKC, 1,2-isopropylidene-3-decanoyl-sn-glycerol, was also enhanced by 2.1 microM palmitoyl carnitine, slightly increased by staurosporine, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by calphostin C, H-7, K252a or Ro 31-7549, whereas the hyperosmolar mannitol-induced response was reduced by H-7, calphostin C, TMB-8 and W-7 and slightly augmented by staurosporine. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was blocked by staurosporine and K252a and reduced by calphostin C, sphingosine, TMB-8 and W-7 but not affected by H-7, polymyxin B or retinal. It was enhanced by Ro 31-7549. In contrast, leukocyte histamine release induced by calcium ionophore A23187 or by ionomycin was blocked by retinal, TMB-8 and W-7 and reduced by calphostin C and palmitoyl carnitine but enhanced by H-7, staurosporine and polymyxin B; K252a and Ro 31-7549 did not affect such responses. Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-triggered histamine release was barely affected by any agent used. Thus, the specific PKC inhibitor Ro 31-7549 selectively blocked 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-triggered leukocyte histamine release. These results imply that examined secretagogues trigger human leukocyte histamine release through partly separate pathways

  6. The Effects of Electrical Stimuli on Calcium Change and Histamine Release in Rat Basophilic Leukemia Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Zu-Hui; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2013-06-01

    We apply electric fields at different frequencies of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 kHz to the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) mast cells in calcium-containing or calcium-free buffers. The stimuli cause changes of the intracellular calcium ion concentration [Ca2+]i as well as the histamine. The [Ca2+]i increases when the frequency of the external electric field increases from 100 Hz to 10 kHz, and then decreases when the frequency further increases from 10 kHz to 100 kHz, showing a peak at 100 kHz. A similar frequency dependence of the histamine release is also found. The [Ca2+]i and the histamine releases at 100 Hz are about the same as the values of the control group with no electrical stimulation. The ruthenium red (RR), an inhibitor to the TRPV (transient receptor potential (TRP) family V) channels across the cell membrane, is used in the experiment to check whether the electric field stimuli act on the TRPV channels. Under an electric field of 10 kHz, the [Ca2+]i in a calcium-concentration buffer is about 3.5 times as much as that of the control group with no electric stimulation, while the [Ca2+]i in a calcium-free buffer is only about 2.2 times. Similar behavior is also found for the histamine release. RR blockage effect on the [Ca2+]i decrease is statistically significant (~75%) when mast cells in the buffer with calcium are stimulated with a 10 kHz electric field in comparison with the result without the RR treatment. This proves that TRPVs are the channels that calcium ions inflow through from the extracellular environment under electrical stimuli. Under this condition, the histamine is also released following a similar way. We suggest that, as far as an electric stimulation is concerned, an application of ac electric field of 10 kHz is better than other frequencies to open TRPV channels in mast cells, and this would cause a significant calcium influx resulting in a significant histamine release, which could be one of the mechanisms for electric therapy.

  7. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Member LIGHT (TNFSF14 on the Activation of Basophils and Eosinophils Interacting with Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Na Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma can cause airway structural remodeling, involving the accumulation of extracellular matrix and thickening of smooth muscle. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF family ligand LIGHT (TNFSF14 is a cytokine that binds herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM/TNFRSF14 and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR. LIGHT induces asthmatic cytokine IL-13 and fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β release from allergic asthma-related eosinophils expressing HVEM and alveolar macrophages expressing LTβR, respectively, thereby playing crucial roles in asthmatic airway remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effects of LIGHT on the coculture of human basophils/eosinophils and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines/chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP was measured by flow cytometry, multiplex, assay or ELISA. Results showed that LIGHT could significantly promote intercellular adhesion, cell surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, release of airway remodeling-related IL-6, CXCL8, and MMP-9 from BEAS-2B cells upon interaction with basophils/eosinophils, probably via the intercellular interaction, cell surface receptors HVEM and LTβR on BEAS-2B cells, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, and NF-κB signaling pathways. The above results, therefore, enhance our understanding of the immunopathological roles of LIGHT in allergic asthma and shed light on the potential therapeutic targets for airway remodeling.

  8. Comparative effect of recombinant IL-1, -2, -3, -4, and -6, IFN-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and histamine-releasing factors on the secretion of histamine from basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most cytokines possess multiple biologic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of rIL-1 beta, -2, -3, -4 and -6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF on basophils from 16 donors and the amount of histamine released was compared with that by partially purified mononuclear cell-derived histamine-releasing factor (HRF) and anti-IgE. We found that only IL-3 and GM-CSF at relatively high doses (50 to 500 ng/ml) released small amounts of histamine (3 to 14%) from two allergic donors. In contrast, both HRF and anti-IgE released significant amounts of histamine from all donors. Other cytokines did not release any measurable quantity of histamine. Simultaneous addition of several cytokines to the basophils also failed to release histamine. IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-1 can also release histamine at lower concentrations (less than 5 ng/ml) when incubated with basophils in the presence of D2O. Basophils from 6 out of 13 allergic donors released histamine in response to IL-3, whereas three donors responded to IL-1 beta and two responded to GM-CSF. The results of this study demonstrated that although IL-3 and GM-CSF release small amounts of histamine only from a select group of allergic patients, mononuclear cell-derived HRF is more potent in their action and release histamine from normals as well as allergic patients

  9. Clinical effects of HC 20-511 (ketotifen in bronchial asthma and its inhibitory effect on antigen-induced morphological changes of basophils

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    Tanizaki,Yoshiro

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four patients with confirmed bronchial asthma were treated with HC 20-511 (Ketotifen. HC20-511 was evaluated to be very effective in 6.3%, effective in 50.0% and slightly effective in 10.9% of these patients. The appearance of reactive basophils was inhibited by HC 20-511 in 5 out of 6 cases of reaction to house dust, in all three cases with buckwheat allergy to their allergen and in 7 out of 11 cases to anti-IgE. These results confirm that HC 20-511 inhibits type I allergic reactions induced by specific allergen and IgE.

  10. Studies on the mechanisms of activation of potassium efflux and receptor-cytoskeleton association by aggregated immunoglobulin E-receptor complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for the activation of an outwardly-directed K+ permeability pathway was obtained by studying changes in plasma membrane potential that result from the aggregation of immunoglobulin E-complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells. With the potential-sensitive dye, bisoxonol, we observe that activation by multivalent antigen causes membrane depolarization that is followed by a return towards the resting potential that we term repolarization. The depolarization response may reflect a Ca2+ influx pathway, and it exhibits the same antigen-dose dependence and temperature dependence as the degranulation response. The polarization phase of the membrane potential response is selectively inhibited by the K+ channel blockers quinidine and Ba2+ in parallel with their inhibition of the degranulation response, suggesting an important role for a K+ efflux pathway in antigen-stimulated degranulation. 86Rb+ efflux measurements were used to characterize the K+ permeability pathways responsible for the repolarization response

  11. Use of humanised rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RS-ATL8 for the assessment of allergenicity of Schistosoma mansoni proteins.

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    Daniel Wan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasite-specific IgE is thought to correlate with protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection or re-infection. Only a few molecular targets of the IgE response in S. mansoni infection have been characterised. A better insight into the basic mechanisms of anti-parasite immunity could be gained from a genome-wide characterisation of such S. mansoni allergens. This would have repercussions on our understanding of allergy and the development of safe and efficacious vaccinations against helminthic parasites.A complete medium- to high-throughput amenable workflow, including important quality controls, is described, which enables the rapid translation of S. mansoni proteins using wheat germ lysate and subsequent assessment of potential allergenicity with a humanised Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL reporter cell line. Cell-free translation is completed within 90 minutes, generating sufficient amounts of parasitic protein for rapid screening of allergenicity without any need for purification. Antigenic integrity is demonstrated using Western Blotting. After overnight incubation with infected individuals' serum, the RS-ATL8 reporter cell line is challenged with the complete wheat germ translation mixture and Luciferase activity measured, reporting cellular activation by the suspected allergen. The suitability of this system for characterization of novel S. mansoni allergens is demonstrated using well characterised plant and parasitic allergens such as Par j 2, SmTAL-1 and the IgE binding factor IPSE/alpha-1, expressed in wheat germ lysates and/or E. coli. SmTAL-1, but not SmTAL2 (used as a negative control, was able to activate the basophil reporter cell line.This method offers an accessible way for assessment of potential allergenicity of anti-helminthic vaccine candidates and is suitable for medium- to high-throughput studies using infected individual sera. It is also suitable for the study of the basis of allergenicity of helminthic proteins.

  12. An autopsy case of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with the appearance of fused in sarcoma inclusions (basophilic inclusion body disease) clinically presenting corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Arifumi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Fukatsu, Reiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasushi; Hisanaga, Kinya

    2016-02-01

    We describe an autopsy case of basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD), a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with the appearance of fused in sarcoma (FUS) inclusions (FTLD-FUS), clinically presenting corticobasal syndrome (CBS). A 54-year-old man initially developed worsening of stuttering and right hand clumsiness. Neurological examinations revealed rigidity in the right upper and lower extremities, buccofacial apraxia, and right-side dominant limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Neuroimaging showed asymmetric left-dominant brain atrophy and a cerebral blood flow reduction in the ipsilateral frontal region. At 56 years, his apraxia had advanced, and ideational apraxia was observed. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia had disappeared, and both conditions had become bilateral. He had a new onset of aphasia. His symptoms progressed and he died 9 years after the initial symptoms. The brain weighed 955 g. Diffuse brain atrophy was most obvious in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. The atrophy of the left superior frontal and precentral gyri and bilateral basal ganglia was remarkable. Histologically, there was a marked loss of neurons with gliosis in the affected areas, where basophilic neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were observed. The inclusions were immunoreactive for FUS, p62, and TATA-binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15), but not for phosphorylated tau, transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), neurofilament protein, or Ewing sarcoma (EWS). From these pathological findings, this case was diagnosed as having BIBD as an FTLD-FUS variant. Spinal cord lower motor neurons were spared in number, similar to primary lateral sclerosis. Mutations in FUS were undetectable. Common background pathologies for CBS include corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, PSP, FTLD with phosphorylated TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP), Pick's disease, Lewy body disease and CJD. However, FTLD-FUS (BIBD

  13. 嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的研究进展与展望%Research on Progress of Halophilic Basophilic Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加苏尔·阿不都克里木; 旭格拉; 塔衣尔; 阿不都克里木·热依木; 木尼热木·阿力木江; 迪丽拜尔·托合提

    2015-01-01

    Haloalkaliphilic extremophiles were survied in saline alkali soil. Halophilic basophilic Actinomycetes with the genetic characteristics and the special supersedes way, produced a variety of secondary me⁃tabolites, was one of microbial resources with great application prospect. This paper mainly reviewed Halophilic ba⁃sophilic Actinomycetes Resources, standard classification, distribution, system science, development and utilization prospects.%嗜盐嗜碱极端微生物主要分布于地球上的盐碱土壤中,嗜盐嗜碱放线菌适应并长期生存这一特殊极端环境,已具备独特的遗传特性和新陈代谢途径,能够产生具有开发利用价值的多种次生代谢产物,是一类极具应用前景的微生物资源。文章主要综述了嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的资源、分类标准、分布、系统学及其发展趋势、开发利用前景。

  14. The clinical values of peripheral blood basophil activation test in children with allergic diseases%过敏性疾病患儿外周血嗜碱性粒细胞百分比及活化率检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨皓征; 曹兰芳; 王利民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical values of basophil activation test in childhood allergic diseases by the analysis of CRTH2+ cells, percent of basophil, and activation of basophil in peripheral blood.Methods The peripheral basophils activation in healthy children and allergic patients ( asthma and/or rhinitis and/or dermatitis ) were analyzed with a combination of CD3/CRTH2/CD63 antibodies by flow cytometric.Results Ninty-three subjects ( 25 in control group, 68 in allergy group ) completed the study.The peripheral CRTH2+ cell level in the allergy group ( 0.53% ± 0.22% ) was significantly higher than that in control group ( 0.44% ± 0.14% )( P < 0.05 ).The peripheral basophil level of the allergy group ( 0.39% ± 0.19% ) was significantly higher than that of control group ( 0.130% ± 0.073% )( P < 0.01 ).The basophil activation ratio was higher in allergic patients ( 85.77% ± 10.63% ) than that in control group ( 31.62% ± 17.41% ).In addition, Spearman correlation coefficients indicated a moderate positive correlation between basophil activation ratio and slgE calss categorized by Unicap calss.Moreover, Spearman correlation coefficients indicated medium positive correlation between basophil activation ratio and standardized skin prick test.Conclusions The peripheral CRTH2+ cell level and basophil level increase in allergic children.It suggests that basophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.Moreover, basophil activation test may have some values in the diagnosis and screening of allergic diseases in children.%目的 探讨嗜碱性粒细胞在儿童过敏性疾病中的临床参考价值.方法 应用流式细胞仪,采用识别CRTH2/CD63/CD4组合抗体,检测过敏性疾病患儿与正常儿童外周血中CRTH2阳性细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞百分比及其活化率,并将检测结果与血清总IgE、特异性IgE、皮肤点刺试验结果作比较,分析其内在联系.结果 68例过

  15. Evaluation of an in vitro method for the measurement of specific IgE antibody responses: the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of allergenic potential is a key parameter in the safety assessment of novel proteins, including those expressed in genetically modified crops and foodstuffs. The majority of allergic reactions to food proteins are immediate type hypersensitivity reactions in which the principal biological effector is IgE antibody; the accurate measurement of specific IgE antibody is therefore a critical factor in experimental systems designed to characterize protein allergenic potential. Due to the presence of much higher concentrations of other immunoglobulin isotypes, the assessment of specific serum IgE antibody poses substantial technical challenges. We have examined the utility of the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line for the measurement of murine IgE responses. RBL cells were sensitized with mouse monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody and challenged with DNP-albumin conjugates with various hapten substitution ratios (SR). Polyclonal anti-OVA IgE antisera were also assessed for activity in the RBL assay. Results were compared with titers measured in homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay. Marked degranulation of RBL cells was induced by conjugates with SRs of between 16 and 32, whereas conjugates with lower SRs (of 10 or 3) failed to elicit significant serotonin release. All conjugates were able to induce mast cell degranulation in vivo in a PCA assay. Anti-OVA antisera with PCA titers of 1/32 to 1/64 failed to stimulate RBL cell degranulation, whereas high titer antibody (1/2048 to 1/4096 by PCA) induced a positive RBL cell response. Successful stimulation of RBL cell degranulation requires not only appropriate epitope densities but also high affinity antibody. These data indicate that this assay is inappropriate for the routine analysis of specific polyclonal IgE antibody responses such as those that are induced by exposure to complex protein allergens

  16. Resveratrol Suppresses Cytokine Production Linked to FcεRI-MAPK Activation in IgE-Antigen Complex-Exposed Basophilic Mast Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon-Young; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A complicated interplay between resident mast cells and other recruited inflammatory cells contributes to the development and progression of allergic inflammation entailing the promotion of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine responses. The current study examined whether resveratrol suppressed the production of inflammatory Th2 cytokines in cultured rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Cells pre-treated with resveratrol nontoxic at 1–25 μM were sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP), and subsequently stimulated by dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP–HSA) antigen. Resveratrol dose-dependently diminished the secretion of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-4, IL-13 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by the antigen stimulation from sensitized cells. It was found that resveratrol mitigated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK elevated in mast cells exposed to Fc epsilon receptor I (FcεRI)-mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antigen complex. The FcεRI aggregation was highly enhanced on the surface of mast cells following the HSA stimulation, which was retarded by treatment with 1–25 μM resveratrol. The IgE-receptor engagement rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Src-related focal adhesion protein paxillin involved in the cytoskeleton rearrangement. The FcεRI-mediated rapid activation of c-Src and paxillin was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the paxillin activation entailed p38 MAPK and ERK-responsive signaling, but the JNK activation was less involved. Consistently, oral administration of resveratrol reduced the tissue level of phosphorylated paxillin in the dorsal skin of DNP–HSA-challenged mice. The other tyrosine kinase Tyk2-STAT1 signaling was activated in the dorsal epidermis of antigen-exposed mice, which was associated with allergic inflammation. These results showed that resveratrol inhibited Th2 cytokines- and paxillin-linked allergic responses dependent upon MAPK signaling. Therefore, resveratrol may possess the

  17. Substantial depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores is required for macroscopic activation of the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current in rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, L; Parekh, A B

    2000-01-15

    1. Tight-seal whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed to examine the ability of different intracellular Ca2+ mobilising agents to activate the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current (ICRAC) in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-1) cells under conditions of weak cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. 2. Dialysis with a maximal concentration of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) routinely failed to activate macroscopic ICRAC in low buffer (0.mM EGTA, BAPTA or dimethyl BAPTA), whereas it activated the current to its maximal extent in high buffer (10 mM EGTA). Dialysis with a poorly metabolisable analogue of IP3, with ionomycin, or with IP3 and ionomycin all failed to generate macroscopic ICRAC in low Ca2+ buffering conditions. 3. Dialysis with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump blocker thapsigargin was able to activate ICRAC even in the presence of low cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering, albeit at a slow rate. Exposure to IP3 together with the SERCA blockers thapsigargin, thapsigargicin or cyclopiazonic acid rapidly activated ICRAC in low buffer. 4. Following activation of ICRAC by intracellular dialysis with IP3 and thapsigargin in low buffer, the current was very selective for Ca2+ (apparent KD of 1 mM) Sr2+ and Ba2+ were less effective charge carriers and Na+ was not conducted to any appreciable extent. The ionic selectivity of ICRAC was very similar in low or high intracellular Ca2+ buffer. 5. Fast Ca2+-dependent inactivation of ICRAC occurred at a similar rate and to a similar extent in low or high Ca2+ buffer. Ca2+-dependent inactivation is not the reason why macroscopic ICRAC cannot be seen under conditions of low cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering. 6. ICRAC could be activated by combining IP3 with thapsigargin, even in the presence of 100 microM Ca2+ and the absence of any exogenous Ca2+ chelator, where ATP and glutamate represented the only Ca2+ buffers in the pipette solution. 7. Our results suggest that a threshold exists within the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ store

  18. Interleukin-4 (IL-4 enhances and soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL-4R inhibits histamine release from peripheral blood basophils and mast cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Niggemann

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of interleukin-4 (IL-4 on allergen and anti-IgE mediated histamine release from basophils and human skin mast cells and to assess whether soluble recombinant interleukin-4 receptor (sIL4R can inhibit these effects. Anti-IgE stimulated histamine release from peripheral blood basophils and mast cells of atopic donors was enhanced after preincubation with IL-4, whereas after preincubation with sIL-4R it was inhibited. These effects were even more pronounced when samples were stimulated with a clinically relevant allergen. In IL-4 preincubated skin mast cells, there was a similar enhancement of anti-IgE stimulated histamine release, which could again be inhibited by sIL-4R. The effects of IL-4 and sIL4R were dose- and time-dependent. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin and treated with soluble recombinant murine sIL-4R showed significantly reduced immediate-type cutaneous hypersensitivity responses compared with untreated mice. These in vivo effects were IgE independent, since there were no significant differences in total and allergen specific IgE/IgG1 antibody titres between treated and untreated mice. This indicates that IL4 exerts priming effects on histamine release by effector cells of the allergic response and that these effects are potently antagonized by soluble IL-4R both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Activation of basophilic granulocyte in Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and the influence of glucocorticoid on it%肺炎支原体肺炎患儿嗜碱性粒细胞活化及激素对其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑜; 蒋俊晔; 曹兰芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨嗜碱性粒细胞与肺炎支原体肺炎(MPP)发病的关系,以及糖皮质激素在治疗中对嗜碱性粒细胞的影响.方法 60例难治性MPP患儿随机分成治疗组和对照组,另选择30例非难治性MPP患儿和30例正常对照儿童.难治性MPP治疗组接受阿奇霉素 + 地塞米松(Dx)治疗,阿奇霉素剂量为10 mg/(kg·d)(最大量不超过0.5 g/d),Dx为0.2 mg/(kg·d)(最大量不超过5 mg/d),疗程5 d;难治性MPP对照组和非难治性MPP患儿仅接受阿奇霉素治疗,剂量同上,疗程5 d.采用流式细胞仪检测所有MPP组患儿治疗前、后及正常对照组儿童外周血CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率.结果 MPP组CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率均高于正常对照组(P < 0.05);难治性MPP组CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率明显高于非难治性MPP组(P < 0.05);难治性MPP患儿在常规用阿奇霉素治疗同时加用地塞米松治疗后CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率明显下降至正常水平,未加用地塞米松的难治性MPP患儿CRTH2+CD63+双阳性细胞百分率仍显著高于正常对照儿童(P < 0.01);治疗5 d后,难治性MPP治疗组患儿咳嗽评分明显低于难治性MPP对照组患儿.结论 嗜碱性粒细胞可能参与了MPP的发病;糖皮质激素能够有效抑制难治性MPP嗜碱性粒细胞的活化,改善临床症状.%Objective To explore whether basophilic granulocyte takes part in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), and to study the influence of glucocorticoid via basophilic granulocyte. Methods Sixty refractory MPP patients were randomly divided into two groups : group 1 (n= 30) and group 2 (n= 30). Patients of group 1 were administered with both azithromycin (10 mg/kg·d, ≤ 0.5 g/d) and dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg-1·d-1,≤ 5 mg/d) for five days. The patients of group 2 were administered only with azithromycin (10 mg/kg-1·d-1 , ≤ 0.5 g/d)for five days. The 30 non-refractory MPP patients were included to group 3 and

  20. Gambaran Sel Eosinofil, Monosit, dan Basofil Setelah Pemberian Spirulina pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi Virus Flu Burung (OBSERVATION OF EOSINOPHILS, MONOCYTES, AND BASOPHILS AFTER TREATED WITH SPIRULINA IN CHICKENS THAT INFECTED WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High Pathogenecity Avian Influenza (HPAI viruses have high virulence and can frequently causesudden death on birds. The aims of this research was to know the role of Spirulina to a number ofmonocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of chickens which infected with the H5N1 virus. This researchconsisted of three levels of treatment in which each level given Spirulina 0%, 10%, 20% in the fresh wateralgae as drinking water. Each treatment consisted of seven replicates, and the treatment was done sincethe chickens at age 19 until 44 days ( for 25 days. Artificial infection of the chickens with the virus waschallenged by using AI (H5N1 104 EID 50 (A/Ck/Indonesia/BL/03 with route to the respiratory tract (nosedrops 0,1 mL starting on day 19. The results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05 ontreatment that given Spirulina at doses of 0%, 10% and 20% for the number ofn monocytes, eosinophils,whereas no significant difference (p > 0.05 was observed in basophils.

  1. Inhibitory effects of an ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside, on antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Agarie, Kengo; Sakima, Rina; Imamura, Shihoko; Tsuha, Kazuyo; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Gima, Shinichi; Matsuzaki, Goro; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Degranulation inhibitors in plants are widely used for prevention and treatment of immediate-type allergy. We previously isolated a new ellagic acid glucoside, okicamelliaside (OCS), from Camellia japonica leaves for use as a potent degranulation inhibitor. Crude extracts from leaves also suppressed allergic conjunctivitis in rats. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of OCS using a pure sample and performed in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanism underlying the extraordinary high potency of OCS and its aglycon. The IC(50) values for degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) were 14 nM for OCS and 3 μM for aglycon, indicating that the two compounds were approximately 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more potent than the anti-allergic drugs ketotifen fumarate, DSCG, and tranilast (0.17, 3, and >0.3 mM, respectively). Antigen-induced calcium ion (Ca(2+)) elevation was significantly inhibited by OCS and aglycon at all concentrations tested (p<0.05). Upstream of the Ca(2+) elevation in the principle signaling pathway, phosphorylation of Syk (Tyr525/526) and PLCγ-1 (Tyr783 and Ser1248) were inhibited by OCS and aglycon. In DNA microarray-screening test, OCS inhibited expression of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13], cytokine-producing signaling factors, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase 2, indicating that OCS broadly inhibits allergic inflammation. During passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice, OCS significantly inhibited vascular hyperpermeability by two administration routes: a single intraperitoneal injection at 10 mg/kg and per os at 5 mg/kg for 7 days (p<0.05). These results suggest the potential for OCS to alleviate symptoms of immediate-type allergy. PMID:22330086

  2. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels;

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...... stimulated by the calcium ionophore A 23187 was found to be highly dependent on the storage time of the EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, which should be carefully controlled....

  3. Silver impregnation of Alzheimer's neurofibrillary changes counterstained for basophilic material and lipofuscin pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braak, H; Braak, E; Ohm, T; Bohl, J

    1988-07-01

    A method is described in which selective silver staining of Alzheimer's neurofibrillary changes is combined with staining of cell nuclei, Nissl material, and lipofuscin granules. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of human autopsy tissue are silver stained according to a method proposed by Gallyas. Lipofuscin is stained by crotonaldehyde fuchsin following performic acid oxidation. Nissl substance is visualized by either Darrow red or gallocyanin-chrome alum staining. Architectonic units showing the specific pathology and the neuronal types prone to develop the neurofibrillary changes can be recognized using this technique. PMID:2464205

  4. Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha activates basophils by means of CXCR4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jacobi, H H; Jing, C; Reimert, C M; Quan, S; Dissing, S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Skov, P S

    2000-01-01

    The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is predominantly expressed on inactivated naive T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is the only known ligand for CXCR4. To date, the CXCR4 expression and function o...

  5. Control of T cell infiltration and tumor rejection by regulatory T cells, basophils and macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sektioglu, Ibrahim Murathan

    2015-01-01

    Most solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to immune rejection due to immunosuppressive mechanisms operative within the tumor microenvironment. Cancer patients frequently harbor elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which inhibit efficient anti-tumor T cell responses. We employed different mouse models for Treg depletion in order to study the mechanisms that control tumor rejection. Depletion of about 99% Tregs in Foxp3DTR knock-in mice resulted in complete rejection of transplan...

  6. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J.A.M.; Zaiss, Dietmar M.W.

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell...

  7. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epiderma

  8. IgE receptor-activated calcium permeability pathway in rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When antigen-stimulated 45Ca uptake is measured in RBL cells loaded with > 3 mM quin2, re-extrusion of 45Ca is minimized and the initial rate of 45Ca uptake reflects the true unidirectional influx of Ca. This influx correlates more closely with secretion than with the number of IgE receptors aggregated by antigen. The antigen-induced permeability pathway is saturable, having a Km of about 0.7 mM and a Vmax of 0.9 nmol Ca/106 cells/min and it persists for at least an hour provided that receptor aggregation is maintained. The negatively charged fluorescent probe bis-oxonol is insensitive to changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and is, therefore, a useful plasma membrane potential indicator. Antigen-stimulation of RBL cells equilibrated with bis-oxonol causes a rapid depolarization that peaks within 2-3 minutes and persists until receptor aggregates are disrupted. Antigen-induced depolarization is seen in the absence of extracellular calcium, but is almost completely abolished when both sodium and calcium are replaced by glucose. Addition of calcium restores this response even when sodium is absent. This suggests that the IgE receptor-activated permeability pathway has a similar conductance for sodium and calcium ions

  9. The number of FceRI receptors on basophils decreases during subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, J. M.; Dahl, R.; Hoffmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only disease modifying treatment of allergic diseases. It induces complex cellular and humoral changes leading to an inhibition of type-1 allergic reactions. Method: Twenty four young grass pollen allergic adults suffering from seasonal rhino-con...

  10. Basophils Initiate IL-4 Production during a Memory T-dependent Response

    OpenAIRE

    Khodoun, Marat V.; Orekhova, Tatyana; Potter, Crystal; Morris, Suzanne; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize and identify the cellular sources of the secondary interleukin (IL)-4 response to a T cell–dependent antigen. Mice were primed by immunization with goat anti–mouse immunoglobulin (Ig)D antibody (GaMD), which stimulates naive CD4+ T cells to secrete IL-4 in 3–4 d. When challenged with goat serum 14 d after immunization, GaMD-primed mice generated an IL-4 response that exceeded the primary response by ∼100-fold, started in

  11. Regulation of Cys-based protein tyrosine phosphatases via reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in mast cells and basophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heneberg, Petr; Dráber, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 16 (2005), s. 1859-1871. ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0594; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/03/0596; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5052310; GA MZd(CZ) NR8079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0506; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OE158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mast cell * tyrosine phosphatase * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.904, year: 2005

  12. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiro Hirahara; Hideki Sato; Toshimi Imai; Akira Onishi; Yoshiyuki Morishita; Shigeaki Muto; Eiji Kusano; Daisuke Nagata

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common treatment for patients with reduced or absent renal function. Long-term PD leads to peritoneal injury with structural changes and functional decline. At worst, peritoneal injury leads to encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), which is a serious complication of PD. In order to carry out PD safely, it is important to define the mechanism of progression of peritoneal injury and EPS. We prepared rat models of peritoneal injury by intraperitoneal administrat...

  13. Exposure study by determination of blood lead levels using electro-thermal atomic absorption in correlation with basophilic stippling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood lead levels were determined in fifty traffic police personnel exposed to open traffic deputed at various crossings in Rawalpindi/Islamabad by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique to monitor the levels. Blood comparison of lead concentration in the blood samples of policemen working at high density area versus those working at low density area was made. The range of the blood lead levels of subjects working in the high density traffic is 7.2 - 19.6 up/dl whereas the blood lead levels of subjects at lean traffic is 0.4 - 6.9 Mu g /dL. The accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing SRM wheat flour, rice flour and bovine liver. The results obtained were compared with reported values of other countries as well as with the exposure limits of WHO. (author)

  14. Suppression of basophil histamine release and other IgE-dependent responses in childhood Schistosoma mansoni/hookworm coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Jones, Frances M;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The poor correlation between allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (asIgE) and clinical signs of allergy in helminth infected populations suggests that helminth infections could protect against allergy by uncoupling asIgE from its effector mechanisms. We investigated this hypothesis in U...

  15. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Member LIGHT (TNFSF14) on the Activation of Basophils and Eosinophils Interacting with Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huai Na Qiu; Chun Kwok Wong; Jie Dong; Christopher Wai-Kei Lam; Zhe Cai

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma can cause airway structural remodeling, involving the accumulation of extracellular matrix and thickening of smooth muscle. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a cytokine that binds herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM)/TNFRSF14 and lymphotoxin β receptor (LT β R). LIGHT induces asthmatic cytokine IL-13 and fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor- β release from allergic asthma-related eosinophils expressing HVEM and alveolar macrophages expressing ...

  16. Atividade peroxidásica em basófilos de Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines Chelidae) Peroxidase activity in the basophils of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Afonso da Silva; Maria Tercilia Vilela de Azeredo Oliveira; Claudia Regina Bonini-Domingos

    2010-01-01

    As peroxidases, presentes nos peroxissomos e lisossomos, pertencem às oxidases e atuam como catalítico para o peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2), posteriormente decomposto pela oxidação de cossubstratos, evitando danos celulares.(¹) Foi aplicada a técnica da peroxidase(2) em esfregaços sanguíneos de Phrynops geoffroanus, comparando com sangue humano, para avaliação da atividade e controle da reação. O esfregaço sanguíneo humano apresentou marcações em neutrófilos, fagócitos com muitos lisossomos e...

  17. Structure-activity relationships of vanillic acid ester analogs in inhibitory effect of antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimata, Nao; Ito, Hideyuki; Tai, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Methyl vanillate (1) showed strong degranulation inhibitory activity among vanillin derivatives tested. In order to find structure-activity relationships for developing anti-allergic agents with simple structures and potent activity, we synthesized several vanillic acid (VA) ester derivatives with C1-C4 and C8 alkyl chains and evaluated their degranulation inhibitory activities. The most active compound of VA ester derivatives was derivative 5 with a C4 straight alkyl chain, and derivative 5 exhibited approximately three-fold greater inhibitory activity than that of 1. Moreover, we designed 8 types of analogs based on 5, and we found that the minimum structure for potent degranulation inhibitory activity requires direct connection of the butyl ester moiety on the benzene ring and at least one hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. Butyl meta or para hydroxyl benzoate (10 or 11) has a simpler structure than that of 5 and exhibited more potent degranulation inhibitory activity than that of 5. PMID:27324979

  18. Role for Na/sup +/, H/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/ during (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release from rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stump, R.F.; Oliver, J.M.; Deanin, G.G.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have investigated the roles of Na/sup +/, pH, and Ca/sup 2 +/ in the release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin from RBL-2H3 cells. The importance of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ for antigen-induced mediator release is well known. The authors report that mediator release also depends on extracellular Na/sup +/ and that the Na/sup +/ ionophore, monensin, like the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophores A23187 and ionomycin, mimics antigen in causing release. Amiloride suppresses serotonin release, indicating that antigen activates the Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiport. Antigen-stimulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange (and/or the resulting cytoplasmic alkalinization) may affect mediator release in part by controlling cytoplasmic free Ca/sup 2 +/ levels. The authors report that antigen normally causes a spike followed by a plateau of Ca/sup 2 +/-Quin 2 fluorescence. Only the spike occurs when cells are incubated with antigen in low Na/sup +/ medium. Conversely, monensin produces a Ca/sup 2 +/ plateau without a spike phase. In addition, cytoplasmic alkalinization due to increased Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange may directly cause secretion. Both NH/sub 4/Cl and monensin cause mediator release in Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium: these reagents increase pH by about 0.1 units as measured by the fluorescent dye, BCECF. TPA that stimulates Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange in other cells does not cause release directly but it potentiates both antigen and Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore-induced release in RBL-2h3 cells. This further suggests synergistic roles for Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange and Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in the control of mediator release.

  19. Different sensitivity of activation via Thy-1 and the high-affinity IgE receptor to acute lowering of cholesterol in rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr

    Chevy Chase, 2000, s. 90. [Meeting of International Research Scholars from Argentina , Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Venezuela. Chevy Chase (US), 20.06.2000-23.06.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Different sensitivity of activation via Thy-1 and the high-affinity IgE receptor to acute lowering of cholesterol in rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Surviladze, Zurab; Dráberová, Lubica; Kovářová, Martina; Dráber, Petr

    Chevy Chase, 2000. s. 90. [Meeting of International Research Scholars from Argentina , Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Venezuela. 20.06.2000-23.06.2000, Chevy Chase] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. 特異抗原による末梢血好塩基球の形態学的変化に関する研究 第2編 微分干渉顕微鏡映画による観察

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木,良英

    1986-01-01

    Morphological changes, i.e., increased motility and degranulation, of basophils of 5 atopic asthmatics after antigen stimulation were observed in differenctial-interference microscopic motion pictures. Among basophil granulocytes with increased motility and without degranulation after antigen stimulation, the incidence of A(1) type basophils, which showed random movement, and A(2) type basophils, which showed oriented movement, clearly increased during the 15-min. microscopic observation. Amo...

  2. Anaphylactoid reaction induced by Qingkailing injection via basophils cells degranulation%清开灵注射液诱导嗜碱性粒细胞脱颗粒致类过敏反应作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓亮; 李钦; 赵吟; 颜冬梅; 屠凌岚; 张信岳

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察清开灵注射液诱导大鼠嗜碱性粒细胞白血病细胞株RBL-2H3细胞脱颗粒,释放组胺,探讨其诱发类过敏反应的可能机制.方法:清开灵注射液孵育RBL-2H3细胞30 min后,透射电镜观察细胞发生脱颗粒反应形态学变化,阿利新蓝染色试验、Annexin V 结合试验β-氨基己糖苷酶测定试验检测细胞脱颗粒率,ELISA检测细胞组胺释放率.结果:不同浓度清开灵注射液可诱导细胞发生典型的脱颗粒反应形态学变化,与对照组相比脱颗粒率及组胺释放率显著升高,且具有浓度依赖性.结论:清开灵注射液单次给药即可诱导RBL-2H3细胞脱颗粒,释放组胺,诱发类过敏反应,这可能是其临床首次用药即引起严重不良反应的机制之一.

  3. Increase in histidine decarboxylase activity in skin of genetically mast-cell-deficient W/Wv mice after application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate: evidence for the presence of histamine-producing cells without basophilic granules.

    OpenAIRE

    TAGUCHI, Y.; Tsuyama, K.; Watanabe, T.; Wada, H; Kitamura, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase (HisDCase, EC 4.1.1.22) activity in mouse skin increased by a factor of more than 10 after a single application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The cell type that was responsible for the increase in HisDCase activity was examined by using (WB X C57BL/6)F1-W/Wv mice, which are genetically deficient in tissue mast cells. In contrast to a report that increase of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) activity occurs in the epidermis [O'Brien, T. G., Simisiman, R. C. & ...

  4. Urticaria crónica: Evolución clínica, prueba del suero autologo, recuento y activación de basofilos Chronic urticaria: Follow up, autologous serum skin test, basophil count and activation

    OpenAIRE

    N. Galassi; N. Riera; Rey, G.; M. M. E. Bracco; A. Malbran

    2003-01-01

    Recientes estudios sugieren que algunos pacientes con urticaria crónica tienen autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra la IgE o a la cadena alfa de su receptor de alta afinidad FceRIa. La detección de éstos se realiza in vivo mediante la prueba del suero autólogo (PSA) o in vitro mediante una variedad de técnicas. Describimos aquí nuestra experiencia con 37 pacientes, 28 mujeres y 9 varones con una relación femenino/masculino de 3.1 y edad promedio de 36.5 años (16-78). La PSA fue positiva en 25 (68...

  5. Hochregulierung des Aktivierungsmarkers E-NPP3 (CD203c) auf der Oberfläche basophiler Granulozyten nach In-vitro-Stimulation mit definierten Bienen- und Wespengiftallergenen bei Insektengiftallergikern

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Einleitung: Der Einsatz definierter Einzelallergene anstelle von Allergenextrakten hat in der Diagnostik von IgE-Antikörper-vermittelten Soforttypallergien zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Die Gifte der Biene (Apis mellifera) und der Wespe (Vespula vulgaris) enthalten zahlreiche verschiedene Einzelkomponenten. Eine allergene Wirkung ist vor allem für die hochmolekularen Proteine der Insektengifte bekannt. Um die Sensibilisierung gegenüber definierten Bienen- und Wespengiftallergenen zu unters...

  6. Fc receptor-γ subunits with both polar or non-polar amino acids at position of T22 are capable of restoring surface expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor and degranulation in γ subunit-deficient rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rashid, A.; Housden, J.E.; Helm, B.A.; Dráber, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2013), s. 270-273. ISSN 0161-5890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA MŠk 1M0506 Grant ostatní: European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) BM1007; AV ČR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : allergy * high-affinity IgE receptor * plasma membrane * transmembrane signaling * 3-helix assembly model Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.003, year: 2013

  7. Retinoblastoma: genetic considerations and report of a new animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, D.M.; O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary, intraocular neoplasm of childhood. Histologically, retinoblastoma resembles, in many respects, other pediatric malignancies such as medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma. These tumors are composed of small, basophilic cells with scanty cytoplasm and often form

  8. Development of Chemiluminscence Immunoaasy Kit for Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropic hormone, and it is synthesized and secreted by basophilic cell of anterior lobe of hypophysis. Detection of FSH levels in human serum is useful in

  9. 好塩基球の反応性に関する研究 第2編 Ca. ionophore A23187刺激時の好塩基球の経時的形態的変化とヒスタミン遊離

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 三郎

    1990-01-01

    Morphological changes in human basophils from 11 atopic asthmatics were observed in whole blood smears with respect to histamine release after the cells were challenged by Ca. ionophore A23187. A decreased number of basophils and granules in the cells as well as increase in cell diameters were observed upon histamine release after stimulation with Ca. ionophore A23187. Compared to cell reactions to antigen or anti-IgE, Ca. ionophore A23187 produced both more gradual morphological changes and ...

  10. STIM1-cytoskeleton cross-talk in mast cell degranulation and chemotaxis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr

    Southampton, 2011. [International Mast Cell and Basophil Meeting 2011 in partnership to the COST Annual Conference on Mast Cells and Basophils 2011. Southampton (GB), 24.11.2011-25.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : STIM1 * chemotaxe * žírná buňka Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during the perioperative period

    OpenAIRE

    Lagopoulos, V; Gigi, E

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylactic reactions in the peri-operative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, involving multiple organ systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils. Anaphylaxis is an immune mediated type I allergic reaction following the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophils as a response to an allergen. Anaphylactoid reactions are defined as those reactions that p...

  12. Anaphyllaxis management: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Mali, Shrikant; Jambure, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock is medical emergency characterized by circulatory collapse resulted from severe acute allergic reactions, namely anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reaction. Anaphylaxis is an acute, systemic, IgE-mediated, and immediate hypersensitivity reaction caused by the release of mediators by mast cells and basophils after exposure to antigens. The pathophysiology involves activated mast cells and basophils releasing preformed, granule-associated mediators, and newly formed lipid mediato...

  13. Die Bedeutung des Human-Basophilen-Degranulationstests (HBDT) in der Diagnostik der Insektengiftallergie

    OpenAIRE

    Rüter, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Der "Human Basophile Degranulations Test"(HBDT), der die Degranulationsreaktion angereicherter Basophiler auf mit Allergen beschichteten Objektträgern mikroskopisch quantifiziert, wurde in der Diagnostik der Insektengiftallergie bei 50 Patienten und 15 Kontrollpersonen mit Hauttests, RAST und Histaminfreisetzungstest(HRT) verglichen. Bei Testung auf Bienengift/Wespengift zeigten HBDT und HRT eine Konkordanz von 68%/74%, HBDT und RAST von 72%/90% und HBDT und Hauttests von 59%/80%. Die Spezifi...

  14. Functionalized gold nanoparticle-based immuno-PCR, a new method for sensitive detection of cytokines produced or utilized by mast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potůčková, Lucie

    Southampton, 2011. [International Mast Cell and Basophil Meeting 2011 in partnership to the COST Annual Conference on Mast Cells and Basophils 2011. Southampton (GB), 24.11.2011-25.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytokines * gold nanoparticles * PCR * mast cells

  15. A novel karyotype in acute myeloid leukemia with basophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servitzoglou, Marina; Grenzelia, Maria; Baka, Margarita; Harisi, Marietta; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Varvoutsi, Maria; Doganis, Dimitrios; Dana, Helen; Divane, Aspasia; Kosmidis, Helen

    2014-03-01

    Acute basophilic leukemia is a distinct entity of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with primary differentiation to basophils. Increased basophil count has been described in AML cases with translocation t(6;9)(p23;q34) or other chromosomal abnormalities. We describe a 15-year old female teenager with AML and excess peripheral blood and bone marrow basophils. Her white blood cell count at diagnosis was 15.4 G/L with 53% basophils and 17% blasts. The bone marrow cytogenetics analysis did not reveal any of the usual abnormalities. The karyotype showed two closely related leukemic clones: the first (16 metaphases), with a total of 48 chromosomes, had an extra chromosome 8 with deletion of the long arm and an additional 21 (48,XX, +del(8)(q24.2q24.3), t21[16]), while the second clone (2 metaphases), with a total of 47 chromosomes, did not contain the extra 21 chromosome (47, sl, -21[2]). In summary, in this case of AML-M2 with excess basophils, there is a novel chromosomal abnormality, not previously reported in this entity. PMID:24552500

  16. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153

  17. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Heneberg

    Full Text Available Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20, hymenopteran venoms (n = 23 and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164 was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.

  18. Loxoprofen sodium induces the production of complement C5a in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Tomoaki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Kodani, Yoshiko; Hashiguchi, Akihiko; Haida, Michiko; Nakamura, Masataka

    2016-04-01

    Basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro allergy test that is useful to identify allergens that cause IgE-dependent allergies. The test has been used to detect not only food allergies and allergies caused by environmental factors but also to detect drug hypersensitivity, which has been known to include IgE-independent reactions. In our preliminary studies in which BAT was applied to detect hypersensitivity of loxoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), conventional BAT with incubation for 30min did not show basophil activation by means of increased CD203c expression. In this study, we extended the incubation time to 24h on the basis of the hypothesis that loxoprofen indirectly activates basophils. Basophils from healthy control donors as well as allergic patients showed up-regulation of CD203c after incubation with loxoprofen for 24h. Activation was induced using loxoprofen-treated serum. Proteomic and pharmacologic analyses revealed that serum incubation with loxoprofen generated an active complement component C5a, which induced CD203c expression via binding to the C5a receptor on basophils. Because C3a production was also detected after incubation for 24h, loxoprofen is likely to stimulate the complement classical pathway. Our findings suggest that the complement activation is involved in drug hypersensitivity and the suppression of this activation may contribute to the elimination of false positive of BAT for drug allergies. PMID:26854577

  19. The cell composition of the red pulp of mice. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cytokinetic and morphological cell analysis was performed, with autoradiograms of thin sections in red pulp of untreated mice. The following cells could be differentiated in the thin preparations: 1) basophilic blasts (large and small), 2) erythroblasts (basophilic and poly- and orthochromatic), 3) lymphocytes, 4) plasma cells, 5) reticulum cells (without and with phagocytosis), 6) endothelial cells, 7) myelopoietic cells, and 8) megakaryocytes. Erythropoiesis essentially takes place in the interfollicular zones whilst myelopoiesis predominates in the subcapsular and peritrabecular zones. The autoradiographic study has suggested that in the interfollicular zone, basophilic blasts and erythroblasts can be classified as locally arising cells, whilst small lymphocytes, reticulum cells without and with phagocytosis (macrophages) can be regarded as migrating cells. (orig.)

  20. Deletion of ABL/BCR on der(9 associated with severe basophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantashri Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic basophilic leukemia is a rare form in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Only limited number of reports are available. Herein, we describe a patient who presented with fatigue, weight loss, leucocytosis, prominent basophilia, and mild eosinophilia. On biopsy, bone marrow was hypercellular with marked basophils. The immunophenotype showed abnormal expression of CD7, which is suggestive of basophilic maturation. Chromosomal analysis from GTG-banded metaphases revealed Ph positivity, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with BCR/ABL dual color, dual fusion probe showed single fusion on the der(22 chromosome and ABL/BCR fusion was deleted on the der(9 chromosome. The deletion (ABL/BCR on der(9 may be associated with basophilia which may be also indicative of the transformation of CML to acute myeloid leukemia.

  1. Reversible alterations in epithelial cell turnover in digestive gland of winkles (Littorina littorea) exposed to cadmium and their implications for biomarker measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldibar, B. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, I. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Marigomez, I. [Cell Biology and Histology Laboratory, Zoology and Animal Cell Biology Department, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: ionan.marigomez@ehu.es

    2007-02-28

    In marine molluscs, the epithelium of the digestive gland is composed of two cell types, namely, digestive and basophilic cells. Under normal physiological conditions digestive cells outnumber basophilic cells, but under different stress situations the composition of the epithelium changes, basophilic cells apparently replace digestive cell. Winkles, Littorina littorea, were exposed to 1.25 mg/l Cd for 20 days to provoke cell type replacement. Then, animals were depurated in clean seawater for 10 days to determine whether cell type replacement was reversible. Digestive glands were fixed in Carnoy and paraffin embedded for histological analysis. The volume densities of basophilic cells (Vv{sub BAS}) and digestive cells (Vv{sub DIG}) were calculated by stereology on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Vv{sub BAS} increased and Vv{sub DIG} decreased in Cd-exposed animals. After estimation of cell size and absolute cell numbers, these changes were attributed to digestive cell loss and concomitant basophilic cell hypertrophy but not to increased numbers of basophilic cells. Cell type composition and cell size almost fully returned to normal values after 10-day depuration. Accordingly, PCNA immunohistochemistry demonstrated that proliferating digestive cells were more abundant in winkles exposed to Cd and after 10-day depuration than in control specimens, suggesting that net digestive cell loss was accompanied by increased digestive cell proliferation. Thus, Cd-exposure seems to provoke an enhanced digestive cell turnover in order to cope with Cd detoxification. Intralysosomal accumulation of metals (autometallographied black silver deposits; BSD) was used as a biomarker of exposure to Cd and lysosomal structural changes as an effect biomarker to see whether cell type composition might have any effect on these endpoints. BSD formed around Cd ions, in digestive cell lysosomes of Cd-exposed winkles whereas basophilic cells appeared devoid of them. After depuration, BSD

  2. Important role of IL-3 during intiation of collagen induced arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brühl, E.; Cihak, J.; Niedermeier, M.; Denzel, A.; Gomez, M.R.; Talke, Y.; Goebel, N.; Plachý, Jiří; Stangassinger, M.; Mack, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 5 (2009), s. 1352-1361. ISSN 0004-3591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : experimental arthritis * interleukin-3 * basophils Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.332, year: 2009

  3. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni Mumba; David Squarre; Maxwel Mwase; John Yabe; Tomoyuki Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  4. Antihistaminic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiallergic Properties of the Nonsedating Second-Generation Antihistamine Desloratadine: A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Canonica, G. Walter; Blaiss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The allergy cascade presents widespread inflammatory and proinflammatory activation, robust cytokine and chemokine signaling, and heterogeneous immune and endothelial responses that lead ultimately to the manifestations of allergic reaction. Histamine, a small peptide with inherent vasoactive properties, is released from granules contained within mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and other reservoirs and interacts with histamine receptors to regulate numerous cellular functions in...

  5. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Gomez-Rial, Jose; Valcarcel, Catalina;

    2011-01-01

    glycoconjugate containing bromelain-type N-glycans. The same conjugate, CCD-bearing allergens, and wine extracts activated basophils in patients with high-titer CCD-specific IgE but not in healthy controls. There was no relationship between immunoblot reactivity and consumption of any specific type of wine. No...

  6. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also pl...

  7. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56-year-old Indian lady presented with one week history of abdominal pain, jaundice and chronic polyarthralgia. She had evidence of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis. Her blood lead level was high and a peripheral blood film showed dense basophilic stippling. It is believed that the lead toxicity was due to the use of Indian herbal medicine. (author)

  8. Significance of Charcot Leyden crystals in hepatic aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Vatsala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcot Leyden crystals are hexagonal bipyramidal structures localised in the primary granules of the cytoplasm of eosinophils and basophils. Their presence, along with eosinophilic infiltrate, is an indirect evidence of parasitic infestation particularly with Toxocara, Capilliriasis, Ascariasis, or Fasciola. We report here two cases where Charcot Leyden crystals with eosinophilic infiltrate were found in the smears prepared from hepatic abscess.

  9. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel; Nielsen, Bent Windelborg

    1990-01-01

    macroscopically inflamed and normal tissue. Mast cells and corresponding basophils were challenged with anti-IgE, anti-IgG, subclass anti-IgG4, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and results were compared with those from nine patient control subjects. The mast cell count in patients with ulcerative...... histamine per sample at anti-IgG4 challenge; however, the corresponding basophils did not respond to anti-IgG4. In addition, the anti-IgG4 mediated histamine release was primarily confined to patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This study substantiates previous histopathological findings that mast...... cells may play a functional role in the inflammatory process of inflammatory bowel diseases and provides evidence for a possible role of subclass IgG4 as a reaginic antibody....

  10. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl;

    &D), and histamine release determined with HR-test from RefLab ApS. RESULTS Stimulations with serum-pools demonstrated that CSU-serum, in contrast to healthy controls, was able to induce TNFα-release from isolated basophils. 10 sera from healthy controls and 22 sera from CSU-patients were tested for serum...... to be positive correlated to histamine and TNFα release and to a smaller degree to MMP-9 release. CONCLUSION We have shown for the first time that serum from CSU-patients, in contrast to serum from healthy controls, can induce TNFα release from isolated basophils as well as TNFα and MMP-9 from donor PBMCS...

  11. Novel Functional Aspect of Antihistamines: The Impact of Bepotastine Besilate on Substance P-Induced Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kitaba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides histamine, substance P (SP has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in pruritic skin diseases. Although antihistamines are frequently used for pruritic skin diseases, little is known concerning the effect on an SP-induced event such as mast cell degranulation and the upregulation of adhesion molecules or the nitric oxide (NO synthesis in endothelial cells. Our aim was to study the effect of bepotastine besilate on SP-induced degranulation of rat basophillic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells and expression of adhesion molecules and NO synthesis in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited SP-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and NO synthesis in HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited expression of adhesion molecules in HMVESs, while it failed to suppress SP-induced upregulation of the adhesion molecules in HMVECs. Therefore, bepotastine besilate is assumed to act favorably on SP-induced basophil degranulation and NO synthesis in HMVECs.

  12. Two galactose-α-1,3-galactose carrying peptidases from pork kidney mediate anaphylactogenic responses in delayed meat allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Christiane; Fischer, Jörg; Swiontek, Kyra;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum IgE-antibodies directed at galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) are associated with a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis occuring upon consumption of red meat or innards. Pork kidney is known as the most potent trigger of this syndrome, but the culprit allergens have not yet been...... resistent to heat denaturation. Pork kidney extract, isolated ACE I and AP-N were able to activate patient basophils and elicit positive responses in skin prick tests. CONCLUSION: Two cell-membrane proteins carrying α-Gal epitopes were identified in pork kidney. For the first time, isolated meat proteins...... were shown to induce basophil activation in patients with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat providing further confirmation for the clinical relevance of these α-Gal-carrying proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Menaquinone (vitamin K2 therapy for bronchial asthma. I. Mechanism of action menaquinone on allergic reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura,Ikuro

    1975-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of the drug was investigated from various points of view. The findings may be summarized as follows: 1. In the experiments of the degranulation of mesenteric mast cells of rats, menaquinone proved to significantly inhibit the degranulation either in active or passive sensitization with the reagin-like antibody. 2. Menaquinone did not inhibit the formation of the reagin-like antibody. 3. In the experiements of the degranulation of basophilic granulocytes from patients of bronchial asthma, the rate of appearance of A form basophilic cells upon addition of the antihuman IgE goat serum was not markedly but significantly inhibited in the patients treated with menaquinone for long periods, as compared with that in the control, whereas the in vitro addition of menaquinone did not exert a significant inhibitory action.

  14. Rational design, synthesis, and pharmacological properties of new 1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-on-3-carboxamide derivatives as highly selective cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manera, Clementina; Saccomanni, Giuseppe; Adinolfi, Barbara; Benetti, Veronica; Ligresti, Alessia; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Lucchesi, Valentina; Martinelli, Adriano; Nieri, Paola; Masini, Emanuela; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Ferrarini, Pier Luigi

    2009-01-01

    revealed that compound 12, which presented benzyl and carboxy-4-methylcyclohexylamide substituents bound in the 1 and 3 positions, exerted a CB(2)-mediated inhibitory action on immunological human basophil activation. On the human T cell leukemia line Jurkat the same derivative induced a concentration......-dependent decrease of cell viability. The obtained results suggest that 1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-on-3-carboxamides represent a new scaffold very suitable for the development of new promising CB(2) agonists....

  15. Inhibitory effect of tannins from galls of Carpinus tschonoskii on the degranulation of RBL-2H3 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Parida; Ono, Takako; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the anti-allergy potency of thirteen tannins isolated from the galls on buds of Carpinus tschonoskii (including two tannin derivatives) was investigated. RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells were incubated with these compounds, and the release of β-hexosaminidase and cytotoxicity were measured. Of the thirteen tannins, tetragalloylglucose (2), pentagalloylglucose (3), casuarictin (4), and casuarinin (9) were the most potent inhibitors, and all the tannins showed no cytotoxic...

  16. 90 Improving the Diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: Component Resolved Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes, Liliana; Balzer, Lukas; Simon, Blank; Seismann, Henning; Darsow, Ulf; Spillner, Edzard; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Up to 3% of the general population suffers from potentially life-threatening systemic reactions after honeybee and wasp stings. Unfortunately, there are still individuals who have a convincing history of an anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic, making difficult the decision for immunotherapy. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of using recombinant allergens in the Basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera allergy and to develop a high-t...

  17. Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity to Succinylated Corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Annett Isabel; Raewer, Helen-Caroline; Sieber, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite their frequent use, systemic corticosteroids have rarely elicited immediate-type reactions. Objective: We report two male patients, aged 26 and 70 years, respectively, with severe immediate-type hypersensitivity secondary to the administration of corticosteroids esterified with succinate. Methods: Skin tests, basophil activation tests and challenge tests were performed for diagnostic evaluation. Results: In both patients, immediate-type skin test reactions were found to me...

  18. Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chisoni; Mumba; David; Squarre; Maxwel; Mwase; John; Yabe; Tomoyuki; Shibahara

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah(Acinonyx jubatus).Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular,dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction,characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues.Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.

  19. The C60(FeCp22-Based Cell Proliferation Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Soldatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied structural and magnetic proprieties of the fulleride C60(FeCp22. The influence of fulleride particles on the cell proliferative activity was also investigated. We found that the proliferative activity of the RINmF5 cells increases (53% versus control in presence of the C60(FeCp22 nanosized particles. Moreover, it was registered that the cell culture became multilayered and secreted basophile matrix.

  20. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. T...

  1. Effects of Topical Intranasal Doxycycline Treatment in the Rat Allergic Rhinitis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Avincsal, Mehmet Ozgür; Ozbal, Seda; Ikiz, Ahmet Omer; Pekcetin, Cetin; Güneri, Enis Alpin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic upper respiratory tract disease that inflames the mucous membranes of the nose and occurs when circulating inflammatory cells including eosinophils and basophils migrate to and accumulate in the inflammation area by passing through the interstitium and capillary walls. To pass through these barriers, the inflammatory cells degrade extracellular matrix proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) released by inflammatory cells mediate the degradatio...

  2. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    -allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  3. Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Hattori, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Shigekawa, Munekazu

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of guarana seed extract (GSE) on an anti-allergic mechanism. GSE orally administered inhibited the anti-dinitrophenol IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases. PMID:19734657

  4. Chronic urticaria: new management options

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberger, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. “Autoimmune chronic urticaria” implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with label...

  5. Effector Cells and Mechanisms in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Borzova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterised by weals, angioedema, or both, which occur for six weeks or more. Itchy, red and raised weals in CSU are thought to occur as a result of skin mast cell activation, local vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability which are the cardinal features of the disease. Serum histamine-releasing activity and abnormal basophil function were implicated in the pathophysiology of CSU. We hypothesized that severe and/or persistent CSU ...

  6. Milia-like Idiopathic Calcinosis Cutis Occurring in a Toddler Born as a Premature Baby

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eun Joo; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Yoon, Tae Young

    2011-01-01

    Milia-like idiopathic calcinosis cutis (MICC) is characterized by smooth, firm, whitish papules resembling milia. Histologically, it appears as a well-defined, round, basophilic nodule within the upper dermis. Although the etiology and treatment remain unclear, it may resolve spontaneously. Some cases have been associated with Down syndrome, and the mean age of MICC patients was 9.9 years old. Herein, we report a rare case of MICC that was not associated with Down syndrome. Noticeably, the pa...

  7. Influence of MRI contrast media on histamine release from mast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Lucjusz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Mast cells, owing to diversity of secreted mediators, play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response. Together with basophils, mast cells constitute a central pathogenetic element of anaphylactic (IgE-dependent) and anaphylactoid (IgE-independent) reactions. In severe cases, generalized degranulation of mast cells may cause symptoms of anaphylactic shock. The influence of the classical, iodine-based contrast media on mastocyte degranulation has been fully d...

  8. Human heart as a shock organ in anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Marone, Gianni; Genovese, Arturo; Varricchi, Gilda; Granata, Francescopaolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal, immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Mast cells and basophils, by elaborating vasoactive mediators and cytokines, are the main primary effector cells of anaphylaxis. Mast cells have been identified in human heart between myocardial fibers, perivascularly, in the adventitia, and in the arterial intima. Mast cells isolated from human heart tissue (HHMC) of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation express high affinity immunglobulin E (IgE) receptor...

  9. Heterogeneity and plasticity of T helper cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E.

    2009-01-01

    CD4 T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in adaptive immune responses. They recruit and activate other immune cells including B cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Based on their functions, their pattern of cytokine secretion and their expression of specific transcription factors, Th cells, differentiated from naïve CD4 T cells, are classified into four major lineages, Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells, although other Th lineages ...

  10. Novel treatment strategies and regulation of IgE-mediated allergic disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Thunberg, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Allergic symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma or gastrointestinal symptoms, triggered by inhaled or ingested allergens cross-linking allergen-specific IgE on mast cells or basophils, are defined as IgE-mediated allergy. The major allergens from birch pollen (Bet v 1) and cat dander (Fel d 1) are two common allergens eliciting allergic disease. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative treatment for IgE-mediated allergy. It is long-lasting and involve...

  11. Functions of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Immunity and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanlu; Zhou, Baohua

    2012-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin 7 (IL-7)-like cytokine expressed mainly by epithelial cells. Current studies provide compelling evidence that TSLP is capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs) to promote T helper (Th) 2 immune responses. TSLP has also been shown to directly promote Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cell, and activate natural killer T (NKT) cells, basophils and other innate immune cells at the initial stage of inflammation. In addition, TSLP affects B ...

  12. Germination and seedling responses of subalpine plants to different soil substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Isselin-Nondedeu, F.; Bédécarrats, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explored the regeneration niche of 18 alpine plant species by testing the germination responses and seedling growth to soil mixtures made with gypsum, ophiolite, and quartzite, and a control soil. We analyzed different phases of germination: time of radicle emergence, germination duration, and germination percentage, and thereafter seedling performance measured using seedling biomasses. Species were grouped as acidophilous, basophilous and neutrophilous according to their Ell...

  13. "A system for the intracellular generation of triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and the sequence-specific inhibition of human MCP-1 gene expression"

    OpenAIRE

    Kautz, Kordula

    2006-01-01

    Chemokines play a key role in the cellular infiltration of inflamed tissue. They are released by a wide variety of cell types during the initial phase of host response to injury, allergens, antigens, or invading microorganisms, and selectively attract leukocytes to inflammatory foci, inducing both migration and activation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the CC chemokine superfamily, functions in attracting monocytes, T lymphocytes, and basophils to sites of inflammati...

  14. Anti-Allergic Effects of Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) Flesh Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Ida, Megumi; YAMASHITA, SHUYA; TSUKAMOTO, SHUNTARO; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Sumida, Mami; KAWAKAMI, Mitsuo; Yamada, Koji; TACHIBANA, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the inhibitory effect of the extract of kakrol extracted by 3 types of solvent (water, 50% and 100% ethanol) on histamine release in human basophilic KU812 cells. The water extract of kakrol flesh showed the strongest inhibitory effect on histamine release as compared with the other extracts. Therefore, we evaluated whether water extract of kakrol flesh had a suppressive effect on development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in picryl chloride-treated NC/Nga mice. The dietary kak...

  15. Pengaruh Ekstrak Etanol Daun Bangun-Bangun (Plectranthus Amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng) Terhadap Penghambatan Degranulasi Mastosit Yang Tersensititasi Aktif Pada Mencit Jantan Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ronal

    2013-01-01

    Mastocyte is important source in immune response is responsible for the occurrence of allergic reaction. Allergic reaction are caused by the bond between the antigen and antibody Immunoglobulin E (IgE) which will cause the degranulation of mastocyte and basophil and thereby releasing chemical mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinin, arachidonic acid. Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng is a plant and its leaf has an activity as antiallergy. The objective of ...

  16. Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of Crassostrea gigas in France: from occasional records to disease emergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Celine; Robert, Maeva; ARZUL, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; Joly, Jean-pierre; Miossec, Laurence; Comtet, Thierry; Berthe, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Viral gametocytic hypertrophy was reported for the first time in 2001 in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in France. Since this date, the number of reported cases and the distribution area have increased every year; however, the cases are not associated with macroscopic signs or increased mortality rates. Both male and female gametes were hypertrophied and basophilic inclusions were observed in gamete nuclei, Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of viral particles in these i...

  17. Fra a 1.02 Is the Most Potent Isoform of the Bet v 1-like Allergen in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Eberlein, Bernadette; Edelmann, Kathrin; Hücherig, Stephanie; Besbes, Fatma; Darsow, Ulf; Ring, Johannes; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-05-11

    The strawberry fruit proteins Fra a 1.01E-1.08 are homologues of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Three of the proteins are known to have essential biological functions in pigment formation during fruit ripening and seem to be responsible for allergic reactions to strawberry fruit. We evaluated the cross-reactive allergenic potential of these putative strawberry allergens in patients allergic to birch pollen. Activation of basophils of eight atopic patients was studied using different concentrations of Fra a 1 isoforms. Bet v 1a was used as control and as atopic patient selection criterion. Although Fra a 1.01E-1.08 have amino acid sequence identities of 74.5-97.5% with Fra a 1.02, the basophil activation mediated by the eight Fra a 1 proteins differed substantially. Fra a 1.03 and Fra a 1.02 showed the highest activation of basophils, 73 and 66% of total basophils, respectively. On the basis of the high relative expression of the gene Fra a 1.02 in ripe strawberry fruits of allergenic varieties, Fra a 1.02 was identified as the main strawberry allergen of the Bet v 1 superfamily. Knowledge of the allergenic potential of Fra a 1.02/1.03 will help to improve food safety and can serve as a valuable marker for the development of red-fruited hypoallergenic strawberry cultivars. PMID:27086707

  18. Enhanced histamine production through the induction of histidine decarboxylase expression by phorbol ester in Jurkat cells

    OpenAIRE

    NAGASHIMA, YUSUKE; Kako, Koichiro; KIM, JUN-DAL; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Histamine (HA), a mediator of inflammation, type I allergic responses and neurotransmission, is synthesized from L-histidine, the reaction of which is catalyzed by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). HDC has been reported to be induced by various stimuli, not only in mast cells and basophils, but also in T lymphocytes and macrophages. Although its mRNA has been shown to be increased in Jurkat cells when treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), little is known concerning the induced prod...

  19. Histology and Morphology of The Epigonal Organ with Special Referance to the Lymphomyeloid System in Rhinobatos rhinobatos

    OpenAIRE

    Bircan-Yıldırım, Yasemin; Çek, Şehriban; BAŞUSTA, Nuri; Atik, Esin

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first trial to describe the structure of the lymphomyeloid epigonal organ of the Rhinobatos rhinobatos. The morphological structure of the epigonal organ was similar in males and females and it was classified as stingray type. This organ possessed erythrocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and two distinct types of granulocyts (eosinophils and neutrophils). Basophils were not detected in this study. Thrombocytes were variable in shape and lacked visible granules and some...

  20. IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Cannabis in Laboratory Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Herzinger, T; Schöpf, P.; Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruëff, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There have been sporadic reports of hypersensitivity reactions to plants of the Cannabinaceae family (hemp and hops), but it has remained unclear whether these reactions are immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. Objective: We examined the IgE-binding and histamine-releasing properties of hashish and marijuana extracts by CAP-FEIA and a basophil histamine release test. Methods: Two workers at a forensic laboratory suffered from nasal congestion, rbinitis, sneezing and asthmatic ...

  1. Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of Lepechinia speciosa (St. Hill) Epling

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Patricia Fontes; Ricardo M. Kuster; Barbi, Nancy dos S.; Fabio S. Menezes

    2010-01-01

    The cell viability of Lepechinia speciosa (St. Hill) Epling fractions was measured by cell membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase assay) on rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3). All fractions and extract tested (100 μg/ml) increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), being the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions with LDH release of 94.5% and 91.2%, respectively. As these fractions showed decrease of cell viability, the antiproliferative activity on human breast ade...

  2. TOLERIZATION OF A TYPE I ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSE THROUGH TRANSPLANTATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS1

    OpenAIRE

    Baranyi, Ulrike; Linhart, Birgit; Pilat, Nina; Bagley, Jessamyn; Muehlbacher, Ferdinand; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Allergy represents a hypersensitivity disease which affects more than 25% of the population in industrialized countries. The underlying type I allergic immune reaction occurs in predisposed atopic individuals in response to otherwise harmless antigens (i.e. allergens) and is characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE, an allergen-specific T cell response and the release of biologically active mediators such as histamine from mast cells and basophils. Regimens permanently toleriz...

  3. Years in Review: Recent Progress in Cellular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Bernhard; Pickl, Winfried F

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the recent key advances in the biology of CD4+ effector T cells, antigen-presenting cells, Th17 and T regulatory cells, as well as immediate effector cells, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils, which are critically contributing to the better understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and are helping to improve their diagnosis and therapy. Some of the key advances with a direct impact on allergic asthma research and treatment are summarized. PMID:26953825

  4. Disease: H01359 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available logic, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic symptoms...lergen response, usually immunoglobulin E-mediated, which leads to mast cell and basophil activation and a combination of dermato...monest in adults. In addition to the environmental influences, studies suggest that a com... is almost always unanticipated and may lead to death by airway obstruction or vascular collapse. ...66:1-14 (2011) PMID:22085665 (description, env_factor, drug) Arnold JJ, Williams

  5. Leukocytes Detection, Classification and Counting in Smears of Peripheral Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Castro, J.; Reyes-Cadena, S.; E. Felipe-Riverón

    2014-01-01

    Using the k -NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to differentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because ...

  6. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Heneberg; Kamila Riegerová; Petr Kučera

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch polle...

  7. Perioperative anaphylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mertes, P M

    2010-07-01

    The incidence of immune-mediated anaphylaxis during anesthesia ranges from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000. Neuromuscular blocking agents are most frequently incriminated, followed by latex and antibiotics, although any drug or substance used may be a culprit. Diagnosis relies on tryptase measurements at the time of the reaction and skin tests, specific immunoglobulin E, or basophil activation assays. Treatment consists of rapid volume expansion and epinephrine administration titrated to symptom severity.

  8. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Rickson; Nayak Chitra; Deshpande Sunita; Bhatt Kalpana; Khatu Swapna; Dhurat Rachita

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud&...

  9. A case of anaphylaxis to peppermint

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Roian; Borici-Mazi, Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis, a form of IgE mediated hypersensitivity, arises when mast cells and possibly basophils are provoked to secrete mediators with potent vasoactive and smooth muscle contractile activities that evoke a systemic response. We report a case of IgE mediated anaphylaxis to peppermint (Mentha piperita) in a male shortly after sucking on a candy. Case presentation A 69 year old male developed sudden onset of lip and tongue swelling, throat tightness and shortness of breath within...

  10. Immunology and Homeopathy. 2. Cells of the Immune System and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Ortolani; Francesco Pontarollo; Anita Conforti; Paolo Bellavite

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe the results of some experimental laboratory studies aimed at verifying the efficacy of high dilutions of substances and of homeopathic medicines in models of inflammation and immunity. Studies carried out on basophils, lymphocytes, granulocytes and fibroblasts are reviewed. This approach may help to test under controlled conditions the main principles of homeopathy such as ‘similarity’ of drug action at the cellular level and the effects of dilution/dynamization on the drug a...

  11. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  12. Clinicopathological spectrum and therapeutic outcomes in Burkitt’s lymphoma: A ten year experience in a tertiary care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Farheen Mahar; Bushra Moiz; R. Sajid; Muhammad Owais Khan; S. N. Adil (1); M.Usman; Khurshid,, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinico-pathological spectrum of Burkitt’s Lymphoma and to evaluate treatmentoutcomes along with survival studies.Background: Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is one of the most aggressive non-hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)characterized morphologically by monomorphic population of medium sized cells with round nuclei,basophilic cytoplasm and prominent cytoplasmic vacuolation. Cytogenetically there is a translocationbetween the long arm of chromosome 8 and either one of the following t...

  13. Clinical diagnosis of type I allergy by means of SPR imaging with less than a microliter of peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhki Yanase

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of antigen that induces activation of mast cells and basophils by crosslinking IgE bound to the cell surface is crucial to avoid symptoms of allergic diseases. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI possesses a great potential for clinical diagnosis of allergy, in that it reveals living cell activation following the binding of antigens to IgE, on real-time and single cell basis without artificial labeling. However, present technique of SPRI requires freshly isolated basophils of patients and cannot analyze multiple samples in parallel. To overcome such problems, we developed devices for SPRI to make a broad observation area and a multi-well SPRI sensor chip with a hydrophobic membrane. The employment of human IgE receptor-expressing mast cell lines (RBL-48 cells sensitized with serum, collected and stored from less than a microliter of patient’s blood, allowed us to detect specific reactions of RBL-48 cells in response to antigens. This technique may be a useful tool as a high throughput screening system of type I allergy not only for freshly prepared basophils but also for sera stored in clinical practices.

  14. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  15. In vitro antiallergic effects of aqueous fermented preparations from Citrus and Cydonia fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Roman; Stintzing, Florian Conrad; Briemle, Daniel; Beckmann, Christiane; Meyer, Ulrich; Gründemann, Carsten

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory and antiallergic properties of preparations from lemon, Citrus medica L. (citrus), and quince, Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Cydonia), which are used in pharmaceutical products to treat patients suffering from allergic disorders. Preparations were analyzed with respect to their impact on the degranulation capacity from basophilic cells as well as mediator release from activated human mast cells in vitro, including IL-8 and TNF- α secretion. The results show that the degranulation of basophilic cells was diminished only in the presence of Citrus, and this effect was compared to the synthetic drug azelastine. Furthermore, Citrus and Cydonia both inhibited the production of IL-8 and TNF- α from human mast cells, and at low concentrations additive effects were observed. As a positive inhibition control, dexamethasone was used. LC-MS analyses showed that the major phenolic components in extracts from Citrus and Cydonia are eriocitrin and neochlorogenic acid, respectively. Nevertheless, these compounds do not show biological effects at concentration levels detected in their corresponding extracts. In conclusion, the present data provide a rational base for the use of the single pharmaceutical preparations from Citrus and Cydonia in a differentiated treatment of allergic disorders in part by the regulation of soluble allergic mediators from basophilic cells and mast cells. PMID:22193979

  16. Gender-based effects on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Kim H.; Ludwig, Elizabeth A.; Milad, Mark A.; Donovan, Kathleen; Middleton, Elliott; Ferry, James J.; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamic responses to methylprednisolone were investigated in six men and six premenopausal women after a dose of 0.6 mg/kg ideal body weight. Women (luteal phase) exhibited a greater methylprednisolone clearance (0.45 versus 0.29 L/hr/kg) and shorter elimination half-life (1.7 versus 2.6 hours) than men. The volume of distribution of methylprednisolone was similar when normalized for ideal body weight. Pharmacodynamic models were used to examine the methylprednisolone suppressive effects on cortisol secretion and basophil and helper T lymphocyte trafficking. A significantly smaller 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value (0.1 versus 1.7 ng/ml) was seen in the women for suppression of cortisol secretion, indicating increased sensitivity. However, the area under the concentration-time curve of effect was similar for both groups. The IC50 values for effects of methylprednisolone on basophil trafficking related to estradiol concentrations in a log-linear fashion in women, with increased sensitivity found at higher estradiol concentrations. Men displayed a greater 24-hour net suppression in blood basophil numbers, but no difference was observed in net cortisol and helper T lymphocyte suppression between the sexes. These findings suggest that methylprednisolone dosages should be based on ideal body weight. Although women are more sensitive to methylprednisolone as measured by cortisol suppression, they eliminate the drug more quickly, generally producing a similar net response. PMID:8222483

  17. Imaging of Biological Cells Using Luminescent Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Vira; Almemar, Zamavang; Jiang, Ke; Culhane, Kyle; Machado, Rosa; Hagen, Guy; Kotko, Andriy; Dmytruk, Igor; Spendier, Kathrin; Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-12-01

    The application of luminescent silver nanoparticles as imaging agents for neural stem and rat basophilic leukemia cells was demonstrated. The experimental size dependence of the extinction and emission spectra for silver nanoparticles were also studied. The nanoparticles were functionalized with fluorescent glycine dimers. Spectral position of the resonance extinction and photoluminescence emission for particles with average diameters ranging from 9 to 32 nm were examined. As the particle size increased, the spectral peaks for both extinction and the intrinsic emission of silver nanoparticles shifted to the red end of the spectrum. The intrinsic photoluminescence of the particles was orders of magnitude weaker and was spectrally separated from the photoluminescence of the glycine dimer ligands. The spectral position of the ligand emission was independent of the particle size; however, the quantum yield of the nanoparticle-ligand system was size-dependent. This was attributed to the enhancement of the ligand's emission caused by the local electric field strength's dependence on the particle size. The maximum quantum yield determined for the nanoparticle-ligand complex was (5.2 ± 0.1) %. The nanoparticles were able to penetrate cell membranes of rat basophilic leukemia and neural stem cells fixed with paraformaldehyde. Additionally, toxicity studies were performed. It was found that towards rat basophilic leukemia cells, luminescent silver nanoparticles had a toxic effect in the silver atom concentration range of 10-100 μM. PMID:26781288

  18. Serum IgE clearance is facilitated by human FcεRI internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Alexandra M.; Wu, Nan; Putnam, Amy L.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Wolters, Paul; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Jeoung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI is constitutively expressed in mast cells and basophils and is required for transmitting stimulatory signals upon engagement of IgE-bound allergens. FcεRI is also constitutively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in humans; however, the specific functions of the FcεRI expressed by these cells are not completely understood. Here, we found that FcεRI expressed by human blood DC antigen 1–positive (BDCA1+) DCs and monocytes, but not basophils, traffics to endolysosomal compartments under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, IgE bound to FcεRI on BDCA1+ DCs was rapidly endocytosed, transported to the lysosomes, and degraded in vitro. IgE injected into mice expressing human FcεRIα (FCER1A-Tg mice) was endocytosed by conventional DCs and monocytes, and endocytosis was associated with rapid clearance of circulating IgE from these mice. Importantly, this rapid IgE clearance was dependent on monocytes or DCs but not basophils. These findings strongly suggest that constitutive internalization of human FcεRI by DCs and monocytes distinctively contributes to serum IgE clearance. PMID:24569373

  19. Pathogenesis of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A P; Greaves, M

    2009-06-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as the presence of urticaria (hives) for at least 6 weeks with the assumption that it occurs daily or close to it. If we eliminate physical urticarias and urticarial vasculitis from consideration, the remainder can be divided into autoimmune chronic urticaria (45%) and idiopathic chronic urticaria (55%). The autoimmune subgroup is associated with the IgG anti-IgE receptor alpha subunit in 35-40% of patients and IgG anti-IgE in an additional 5-10%. These autoantibodies have been shown to activate blood basophils and cutaneous mast cells in vitro with augmentation of basophil activation by complement and release of C5a, in particular. Binding methods (immunoblot and ELISA) yield positives in many autoimmune diseases as well as occasional normal subjects or patients with other forms of urticaria but most such sera are non-functional. Activation of basophils or mast cells causing histamine release is quite specific for chronic urticaria and defines the autoimmune subgroup. Although pathogenicity is not formally proven, the antibodies cause wealing upon intradermal injection, and removal of the autoantibody leads to remission. A cellular infiltrate is seen to be characterized by mast cell degranulation and infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The intensity of the infiltrate and clinical severity of the disease (including accompanying angio-oedema) is more severe in the autoimmune subpopulation. This latter group also has a higher evidence of human leucocyte antigen DR alleles associated with autoimmunity and a 25% incidence of antithyroid antibodies with diagnosed hypothyroidism in some. Hypo-responsiveness of patients' basophils to anti-IgE and hyperresponsiveness to serum defines another subpopulation (at least 50%) that overlaps the idiopathic and autoimmune subgroups. Hypo-responsiveness to anti-IgE has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of cytoplasmic phosphatases that

  20. Changes in IgE- and Antigen-dependent histamine-release in peripheral blood of Schistosoma mansoni-infected Ugandan fishermen after treatment with praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazibwe Francis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite-specific IgE levels correlate with human resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma spp. after chemotherapy. Although the role of eosinophils in schistosomiasis has been the focus of a great deal of important research, the involvement of other Fcε receptor-bearing cells, such as mast cells and basophils, has not been investigated in relation to human immunity to schistosomes. Chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ kills schistosomes living in an in vivo blood environment rich in IgE, eosinophils and basophils. This releases parasite Ags that have the potential to cross-link cell-bound IgE. However, systemic hypersensitivity reactions are not induced by treatment. Here, we describe the effects of schistosomiasis, and its treatment, on human basophil function by following changes in total cellular histamine and in vitro histamine-release induced by schistosome Ags or anti-IgE, in blood samples from infected Ugandan fishermen, who are continuously exposed to S. mansoni infection, before and 1-day and 21-days after PZQ treatment. Results There was a significant increase in the total cellular histamine in blood samples at 1-day post-treatment, followed by a very significant further increase by 21-days post-treatment. In vitro histamine-release induced by S. mansoni egg (SEA or worm (SWA Ags or anti-IgE antibody, was significantly reduced 1-day post-treatment. The degree of this reduction correlated with pre-treatment infection intensity. Twenty-1-days post-treatment, SEA-induced histamine-release was still significantly lower than at pretreatment. Histamine-release was not correlated to plasma concentrations of total or parasite-specific IgE, nor to specific IgG4 plasma concentrations. Conclusion The biology of human blood basophils is modulated by S. mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment. Infection intensity-dependent suppression of basophil histamine-release, histamine-dependent resistance to infection, and

  1. "Siglec"ting the allergic response for therapeutic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    As a physician-scientist, I have pursued research related to translational immunology with the goal of improving our ability to diagnose and treat allergic, immunologic and other diseases involving eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. We have tried to delineate novel mechanisms of human disease, working whenever possible with primary human cells and tissues, attempting to identify targets that might be amenable to the development of new therapies. As a general strategy, we have compared eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and neutrophils to look for pathways in inflammation that were unique to distinct subsets of these cells. In doing so, the concepts of glycobiology did not enter my mind until we began noticing some intriguing functional differences involving selectins and their ligands among these cell types. One simple observation, that neutrophils were coated with a glycan that allowed them to interact with an endothelial adhesion molecule while eosinophils lacked this structure, pried open the glyco-door for me. Fruitful collaborations with card-carrying glycobiologists soon followed that have forever positively influenced our science, and have enhanced our hypotheses, experimental design, research opportunities and discoveries. Within a few years, we helped to discover Siglec-8, an I-type lectin expressed only on human eosinophils, basophils, mast cells. This receptor, together with its closest mouse counterpart Siglec-F, has been the primary focus of our work now for over a decade. If not for those in the fields of glycobiology and glycoimmunology, my lab would not have made much progress toward the goal of leveraging Siglec-8 for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26911285

  2. Isoquercitrin suppresses the expression of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Guang-Rong; Liu, Chang; Dong, Yin-Mao

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm. Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events, producing an array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The KU812 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). The inhibitory effects of isoquercitrin on the productions of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated KU812 cells were measured using cytokine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Western blotting analysis was used to assess the effects of isoquercitrin on the MAPKs and NF-κB protein levels. Our results indicated that the isoquercitrin treatment of PMACI-stimulated KU812 cells significantly reduced the production of histamine and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The treated cells exhibited decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), revealing the role of ERK MAPK in isoquercitrin-mediated allergy inhibition. Furthermore, isoquercitrin suppressed the PMACI-mediated activation of NF-κB in the human basophil cells. In conclusion, the results from the present study provide insights into the potential therapeutic use of isoquercitrin for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions. PMID:27473957

  3. Splenic irradiation before bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 229 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase were randomized between 1986 and 1990 to receive or not receive additional splenic irradiation as part of their conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Both groups, 115 patients with and 114 patients without splenic irradiation, were very similar regarding distribution of age, sex, donor/recipient sex combination, conditioning, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prevention method and blood counts at diagnosis or prior to transplant. 135 patients (59%) are alive as of October 1995 with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. 52 patients have relapsed (23%), 26 patients in the irradiated, 26 patients in the non-irradiated group (n.s.) with a relapse incident at 6 years of 28%. The main risk factor for relapse was T-cell depletion as the method for GvHD prevention, and an elevated basophil count in the peripheral blood prior to transplant. Relapse incidence between patients with or without splenic irradiation was no different in patients at high risk for relapse, e.g. patients transplanted with T-cell-depleted marrows (P = n.s.) and in patients with low risk for relapse, e.g. patients transplanted with non-T-cell-depleted transplants and basophil counts 3% basophils in peripheral blood). In this patient group, relapse incidence was 11% at 6 years with splenic irradiation but 32% in the non-irradiated group (P = 0.05). Transplant-related mortality was similar whether patients received splenic irradiation or not. This study suggests an advantage in splenic irradiation prior to transplantation for CML in this subgroup of patients and illustrates the need for tailored therapy. (Author)

  4. Isoquercitrin suppresses the expression of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-κB in human KU812 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Xiao-Hui; LIU Guang-Rong; LIU Chang; DONG Yin-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils are multifunctional effector cells that contain abundant secretory granules in their cytoplasm.Both cell types are involved in a variety of inflammatory and immune events,producing an array of inflammatory mediators,such as cytokines.The aim of the study was to examine whether isoquercitrin modulates allergic and inflammatory reactions in the human basophilic KU812 cells and to elucidate its influence on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation.The KU812 cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI).The inhibitory effects of isoquercitrin on the productions of histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated KU812 cells were measured using cytokine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays.Western blotting analysis was used to assess the effects of isoquercitrin on the MAPKs and NF-κB protein levels.Our results indicated that the isoquercitrin treatment of PMACI-stimulated KU812 cells significantly reduced the production of histamine and the pro-inflammatory cytokines,such as interleukin (IL)-6,IL-8,IL-1β,and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α.The treated cells exhibited decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK),revealing the role of ERK MAPK in isoquercitrin-mediated allergy inhibition.Furthermore,isoquercitrin suppressed the PMACI-mediated activation of NF-κB in the human basophil cells.In conclusion,the results from the present study provide insights into the potential therapeutic use of isoquercitrin for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions.

  5. Effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda: implications for HIV biomedical prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Ruzagira

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda and determine its implications for HIV prevention and other clinical trials.Volunteers in a cross-sectional study to establish laboratory reference intervals were asked to return for a seasonal visit after the local season had changed from dry to rainy or vice versa. Volunteers had to be clinically healthy, not pregnant and negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and syphilis infection at both visits. At each visit, blood was taken for measurement of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, CD4/CD8 T cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total immunoglobulin gamma, total protein, creatinine, total amylase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Consensus dry season reference intervals were applied to rainy season values (and vice versa and the proportion of 'out-of-range' values determined. Percentage differences between dry and rainy season parameter mean values were estimated.In this cohort of 903 volunteers, less than 10.0% of consensus parameter (except LDH values in one season were "out-of-range" in the other. Twenty-two (22 percent of rainy season LDH values fell outside of the consensus dry season interval with the higher values observed in the rainy season. Variability between consensus seasonal means ranged from 0.0% (total WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and direct bilirubin to 40.0% (eosinophils. Within sites, the largest seasonal variations were observed for monocytes (Masaka, 11.5%, LDH (Lusaka, 21.7%, and basophils (Kigali, 22.2%.Seasonality had minimal impact on adult clinical laboratory parameter values in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda. Seasonal variation may not be an important factor in the

  6. Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana; Palomares, Francisca; Montañez, María I.; Salas, María; Martín-Serrano, Angela; Fernández, Rubén; Ruiz, Arturo; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although fluoroquinolones (FQs) are generally well-tolerated antibiotics, increasing numbers of hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These can be evaluated in vitro by basophil activation tests (BATs); however, sensitivity is not optimal. Many factors could influence sensitivity such as basophil activation markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 different activations markers, CD63 and CD203c, on the sensitivity of BAT to FQ. We studied 17 patients with immediate allergic reactions to FQ. BAT was performed with moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin using CD193 (CCR3) for basophil selection and CD203c or CD63 as activation markers. Stimulation with ciprofloxacin induced a significantly higher expression of CD63 in ciprofloxacin-allergic patients compared to moxifloxacin-allergic patients (P = 0.002). In patients allergic to moxifloxacin with anaphylactic shock, we have observed an increase in the percentage of cells that upregulate CD203c, whereas patients with anaphylaxis preferentially upregulate CD63. The best sensitivity–specificity was obtained using a cutoff of 3 and the culprit FQ, using CD203c for moxifloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 36.4%; specificity = 94.4%), and CD63 for ciprofloxacin-allergic patients (sensitivity = 83.3%; specificity = 88.9%). A negative correlation was found between the upregulation of CD63 and CD203c and the time interval between the reaction occurrence and the performance of the test (Spearman r = −0.446; P < 0.001 for CD63 and Spearman r = −0.386; P < 0.001 for CD203c). The performance of BAT for FQ allergy must be optimized for each drug, taking into account possible differences in the stimulation mechanism that leads to the upregulation of different activation markers. PMID:27281069

  7. In vitro apoptotic cell death during erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamai, L; Burattini, S; Luchetti, F; Canonico, B; Ferri, P; Melloni, E; Gonelli, A; Guidotti, L; Papa, S; Falcieri, E

    2004-03-01

    Erythropoiesis occurs in bone marrow and it has been shown that during in vivo erythroid differentiation some immature erythroblasts undergo apoptosis. In this regard, it is known that immature erythroblasts are FasL- and TRAIL-sensitive and can be killed by cells expressing these ligand molecules. In the present study, we have investigated the cell death phenomenon that occurs during a common unilineage model of erythroid development. Purified CD34+ human haemopoietic progenitors were cultured in vitro in the presence of SCF, IL-3 and erythropoietin. Their differentiation stages and apoptosis were followed by multiple technical approaches. Flow cytometric evaluation of surface and intracellular molecules revealed that glycophorin A appeared at day 3-4 of incubation and about 75% of viable cells co-expressed high density glycophorin A (Gly(bright)) and adult haemoglobin at day 14 of culture, indicating that this system reasonably recapitulates in vivo normal erythropoiesis. Interestingly, when mature (Gly(bright)) erythroid cells reached their higher percentages (day 14) almost half of cultured cells were apoptotic. Morphological studies indicated that the majority of dead cells contained cytoplasmic granular material typical of basophilic stage, and DNA analysis by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction revealed nuclear fragmentation. These observations indicate that in vitro unilineage erythroid differentiation, as in vivo, is associated with apoptotic cell death of cells with characteristics of basophilic erythroblasts. We suggest that the interactions between different death receptors on immature basophilic erythroblasts with their ligands on more mature erythroblasts may contribute to induce apoptosis in vitro. PMID:15004520

  8. [New data on the pathogenesis of endometriosis interna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damirov, M M; Kulakov, V I; Bakuleva, L P; Shabanov, A M; Sliusar', N N; Sarkisov, S E

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-six patients with histologically verified internal endometriosis were examined using histochemical, morphometric methods, and measurements of blood and myometrial tissue phosphatidyl inosites. Blood levels of phosphatidyl inosites were found reliably decreased in the patients vs. normal subjects, whereas their levels in myometrial tissue were significantly increased. Increased counts of tissue basophils, microcirculation disorders, lymphostasis and membranogenic stromal edema development were observed round endometriosis foci. Changes in the basic substance and fibrous structures of myometrial connective tissue complex were revealed, most marked in the areas adjacent to the endometrium. A possible mechanism of the development of pathologic shifts in internal endometriosis is discussed. PMID:8250133

  9. Omalizumab in the management of patients with allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Sandström

    2009-01-01

    Thomas SandströmDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital, Umeå, SwedenAbstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is central to the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, binds to the FcεRI binding site on free IgE. As a result, circulating free IgE is reduced, IgE is prevented from attaching to mast cells and basophils, and FcεRI receptor expression is down-regulated. The inflammatory respons...

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    The human type I allergic response is characterized by the presence of allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergen-mediated cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE on the surface of mast cells and circulating basophils triggers the release of mediators, resulting in the development of the......, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.65, b = 99.14, c = 108.90 A, alpha = 105.7, beta = 98.32, gamma = 97.62 degrees, and diffract to 2.9 A resolution when analyzed at 100 K using synchrotron-generated X--rays....

  11. Automatic cytometric device using multiple wavelength excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Ledroit, Sylvain; Chauvet, Laurence; Cremien, Didier; Urankar, Alexandra; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Precise identification of eosinophils, basophils, and specific subpopulations of blood cells (B lymphocytes) in an unconventional automatic hematology analyzer is demonstrated. Our specific apparatus mixes two excitation radiations by means of an acousto-optics tunable filter to properly control fluorescence emission of phycoerythrin cyanin 5 (PC5) conjugated to antibodies (anti-CD20 or anti-CRTH2) and Thiazole Orange. This way our analyzer combining techniques of hematology analysis and flow cytometry based on multiple fluorescence detection, drastically improves the signal to noise ratio and decreases the spectral overlaps impact coming from multiple fluorescence emissions.

  12. A new approach to the isolation and characterization of wheat flour allergens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šotkovský, Petr; Sklenář, Jan; Halada, Petr; Cinová, Jana; Šetinová, I.; Kainarová, Andrea; Goliáš, Jaroslav; Pavlásková, Kateřina; Honzová, S.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2011), s. 1031-1043. ISSN 0954-7894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA AV ČR IAA500200801; GA MŠk 2B06155; GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : basophil activation * IgE antibodies * isolation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.032, year: 2011

  13. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes. PMID:27083101

  14. Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Rigby, Neil M.; Mills, E.N. Clare; Rogers, Adrian; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is not known why some foods sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are prevalent allergenic foods and others are not. Eating habits, processing, and the food matrix have been suggested to influence the allergenicity of a given food. Factors related to protein structure, such as...... times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical...

  15. Anti-allergic activity of Thai medicinal plants used in longevity formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sawanee Kraithep; Kwunchit Oungbho; Supinya Tewtrakul*

    2008-01-01

    The ethanolic (EtOH) and water extracts of six plants including Piper nigrum, Streblus asper, Cyperus rotundus, Tinospora crispa, Diospyros rhodocalyx and Albizia procera used in Thai traditional longevity formulation, were examined for anti-allergic activity on antigen-induced b-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat-basophilic leukemia cell line), a tumor analog of mast cell. It was revealed that Piper nigrum (EtOH) extract exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 14...

  16. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto; Kazufumi Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells) and acquired (Th2 cells) allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy',...

  17. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells and acquired (Th2 cells allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.

  18. Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ji-Yao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.

  19. A Trp33Arg Mutation at Exon 1 of the MYH9 Gene in a Korean Patient with May-Hegglin Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    JANG, MOON JU; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Chong, So Young; Huh, Ji Young; Kim, In-Ho; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Oh, Doyeun

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a Korean patient with May-Hegglin anomaly from a mutation of the MYH9 gene. The proband was a 21-year-old man with thrombocytopenia. He did not have a bleeding tendency. His neutrophil count was normal at 7490/mm3; however, the neutrophils contained abnormal basophilic inclusions in their cytoplasm. The platelet count was decreased at 15000/mm3 with giant platelets. Coagulation test results were not remarkable. Direct sequencing of MYH9 revealed that he was heteroz...

  20. Mechanisms Underlying Induction of Tolerance to Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berin, M Cecilia; Shreffler, Wayne G

    2016-02-01

    Oral tolerance refers to a systemic immune nonresponsiveness to antigens first encountered by the oral route, and a failure in development of this homeostatic process can result in food allergy. Clinical tolerance induced by allergen immunotherapy is associated with alterations in immune mechanisms relevant to the allergic response, including reduction of basophil reactivity, induction of IgG4, loss of effector Th2 cells, and induction of Tregs. The relative contribution of these immune changes to clinical tolerance to foods, and the duration of these immune changes after termination of immunotherapy, remains to be identified. PMID:26617229

  1. Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemp Stephen F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, an acute and potentially lethal multi-system clinical syndrome resulting from the sudden, systemic degranulation of mast cells and basophils, occurs in a variety of clinical scenarios and is almost unavoidable inmedical practice. Healthcare professionalsmust be able to recognize its features, treat an episode promptly and appropriately, and be able to provide recommendations to prevent future episodes. Epinephrine, administered immediately, is the drug of choice for acute anaphylaxis. The discussion provides an overview of one set of evidence-based and consensus parameters for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis.

  2. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1

    OpenAIRE

    Grieco, Amanda J.; Billett, Henny H.; Green, Nancy S.; Driscoll, M. Catherine; Bouhassira, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF) expressing red blood cells (F-cells) and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es) derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fet...

  3. Bryophyte flora of the Uvac river gorge (Southwest Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the examined area, 165 taxa were found and identified: 139 taxa from the class Bryopsida and 26 taxa from the class Marchantiopsida. Nine species are red-listed in Serbia. Material was collected from 62 localities, which were analyzed for similarity of chorological and ecological features using the Jaccard similarity index. Analysis of floristic elements and phytogeographic distribution showed that the greatest number of taxa are temperate elements with Holarctic distribution. Results of ecological analysis showed that in regard to the substratum aspect, terricolous, basophilous, and indifferent species were dominant. In relation to the ecological parameter humidity, most species were mesophilous. The majority of identified bryophytes were sciophilous taxa. .

  4. Megalocytivirus infection in orbiculate batfish Platax orbicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwanayos, Preeyanan; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Stidworthy, Mark F; Petty, Barbara D; Kelley, Karen; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2013-07-01

    Megalocytiviruses cause systemic disease in both marine and freshwater fishes, negatively impacting ornamental and food fish aquaculture. In this report, we characterize a megalocytivirus infection in a captive marine ornamental fish, the orbiculate batfish Platax orbicularis. Histologic examination revealed cytomegalic cells characterized by strongly basophilic granular intracytoplasmic inclusions within various organs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virus particles within the cytoplasm of cytomegalic cells consistent with an iridovirus infection. Analysis of the major capsid protein gene sequence confirmed that the orbiculate batfish virus is a member of the family Iridoviridae and is identical to the only other megalocytivirus reported from a marine ornamental fish, the Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni iridovirus. PMID:23836765

  5. Studies on the Tolerating Mechanism for Sulfide in Urechis unicinctus ( Echiura : Urechidae) ——Cytological Observation on Urechis unicinctus in Different Hydrogen Sulfide Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志峰; 邵明瑜; 康庆浩; 金在敏

    2003-01-01

    This study on the cytological changes of the body wall, aspiratory intestine and crissalbursa in Urechis unicinctus by light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)showed that the difference between the body wall and the natural environment rich in H2 S was notobvious; that the wall color of the aspiratory intestine in H2 S rich environment changed from normalsemitransparency to dark brown; that its epithelia were disassembled and the electron density of itscytoplasm matrix was lower; and that in H2 S rich enviromnent many basophilic granules occurred inthe epithelia of the crissal bursa. Granules with single membrane and myelinefingure were foundwith TEM.

  6. Clonal xenobiotic resistance during pollution-induced toxic injury and hepatocellular carcinogenesis in liver of female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Angela; Alpermann, Tilmann; Lauritzen, Bjarne; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile and adult female flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) were caught either in the estuary of the most polluted European river, the Elbe, or as controls in a reference site to study pollution-induced xenobiotic resistance in their livers in relation to pathological alterations. In juvenile fish, livers displayed reversible and irreversible degenerative toxipathic lesion types but never showed (pre)neoplastic changes. Tumour frequencies up to 70% were found macroscopically in livers of adult female flounder which had progressed to adenomas and carcinomas in the most polluted site. Because male adult flounder show only up to 50% of livers containing early preneoplastic foci but never malignancies, we focussed our study on female individuals. (Pre)neoplastic changes ranged from early eosinophilic foci to basophilic foci, adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Adenomas were generally eosinophilic whereas carcinomas were mainly basophilic. These phenotypical sequential changes strongly resemble those found in chemically-induced liver carcinogenesis in mammals. Characteristic mutations known from mammalian cancers have not been found so far in these flounder livers. Therefore, we investigated whether epigenetic events had induced a metabolic "resistant phenotype" of (pre)malignant cancer cells during hepatocellular carcinogenesis. With a quantitative immunohistochemical approach, we studied expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), cytochrome P4501A1, glutathione-S-transferase-A which are key proteins in xenobiotic metabolism and elimination. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the major source of the reducing power NADPH which is needed for biotransformation, oxyradical scavenging and biosynthesis, was detected as well. We observed upregulation of G6PDH activity already in early preneoplastic eosinophilic foci and subsequent further upregulation in basophilic foci and carcinomas. P-gp started to become

  7. Subcellular Localization of Thiol-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots in Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mi, Lan; Xiong, Rongling; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Yang, Wuli; Wang, Changchun; Peng, Qian

    2009-07-01

    Internalization and dynamic subcellular distribution of thiol-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in living cells were studied by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. These unfunctionalized QDs were well internalized into human hepatocellular carcinoma and rat basophilic leukemia cells in vitro. Co-localizations of QDs with lysosomes and Golgi complexes were observed, indicating that in addition to the well-known endosome-lysosome endocytosis pathway, the Golgi complex is also a main destination of the endocytosed QDs. The movement of the endocytosed QDs toward the Golgi complex in the perinuclear region of the cell was demonstrated.

  8. Anaphylatoxin C3a receptors in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Panettieri Reynold A; Ali Hydar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The complement system forms the central core of innate immunity but also mediates a variety of inflammatory responses. Anaphylatoxin C3a, which is generated as a byproduct of complement activation, has long been known to activate mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and to cause smooth muscle contraction. However, the role of C3a in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma remains unclear. In this review, we examine the role of C3a in promoting asthma. Following allergen challenge, C3a i...

  9. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rickson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar grew Cladophialophora boppii. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole for a year and the response monitored with dermal ultrasound. This is the first case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cl. boppii in India.

  10. A role for interleukin-33 in T(H)2-polarized intestinal inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J B; Rogler, G; Nielsen, O H

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a recently discovered cytokine member of the IL-1 superfamily that is widely expressed in fixed tissue cells, including endothelial and epithelial cells. IL-33 induces helper T cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils to produce type-2 cytokines through binding to the...... ST2/IL-1 receptor accessory protein complex. Recent studies have shown IL-33 to be upregulated in intestinal parasite infection and in epithelial cells and myofibroblasts in ulcerative colitis (UC). The findings point to a role for IL-33 in directing the T(H)2-type immune responses in these types of...

  11. Spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2014-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) represents the second most common type of malignant renal epithelial tumor (represents the 10% of the kidney’s carcinoma) and can be subclassified in the basophile type I and eosinophile type II. We report a clinical case of spontaneous rupture of the kidney affected by multifocal (42 tumors foci) pRCC in a young man 53 years old, without showing earlier specific cancer signs and symptoms. Prognosis for type I pRCC is better than type II pRCC, but it is a...

  12. An in vitro study on the risk of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Sagkan, Rahsan Ilikci

    2013-01-01

    Background Momordica charantia (MC) is a tropical plant that is extensively used in folk medicine. However, the knowledge about side effects of this plant is relatively little according to knowledge about its therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of non-allergic type-I like hypersensitivity to MC by an experiment which was designed in vitro. Methods In the present study, the expression of CD63 and CD203c on peripheral blood basophils against different dilutions o...

  13. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  14. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F;

    2014-01-01

    intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the...

  15. IgE epitope proximity determines immune complex shape and effector cell activation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieras, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Roux, Kenneth H.; Dutta, Moumita; Khodoun, Marat; Zafred, Domen; Cabauatan, Clarissa R.; Lupinek, Christian; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Keller, Walter; Finkelman, Fred D.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-allergen complexes induce mast cell and basophil activation and thus immediate allergic inflammation. They are also important for IgE-facilitated allergen presentation to T cells by antigen-presenting cells. Objective To investigate whether the proximity of IgE binding sites on an allergen affects immune complex shape and subsequent effector cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Methods We constructed artificial allergens by grafting IgE epitopes in different numbers and proximity onto a scaffold protein. The shape of immune complexes formed between artificial allergens and the corresponding IgE was studied by negative-stain electron microscopy. Allergenic activity was determined using basophil activation assays. Mice were primed with IgE, followed by injection of artificial allergens to evaluate their in vivo allergenic activity. Severity of systemic anaphylaxis was measured by changes in body temperature. Results We could demonstrate simultaneous binding of 4 IgE antibodies in close vicinity to each other. The proximity of IgE binding sites on allergens influenced the shape of the resulting immune complexes and the magnitude of effector cell activation and in vivo inflammation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the proximity of IgE epitopes on an allergen affects its allergenic activity. We thus identified a novel mechanism by which IgE-allergen complexes regulate allergic inflammation. This mechanism should be important for allergy and other immune complex–mediated diseases. PMID:26684291

  16. Histopathological study of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in cultured false clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier, 1830) and true clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepede, 1802)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva; Thangapandi Marudhupandi; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in two species of marine ornamental fishes through histopathological investigation along with control for differentiating the tissue damage.Methods:killed by organ dissection. The infected fish organs were aseptically cut off and stored with 10%formalin solution for histological study. Samples were examined for gross pathology including location, distribution, shape, size, colour, consistency and special features of typical external lesions by standard method.Results:Six naturally infected fishes were collected. They were anaesthetized and subsequently 2.5 to 3.5 mm (Amphiprion percula). Light microscopic observation showed over growth of tumor like nodules on the skin or scales and ventral side as well. Numerous hypertrophied cells with basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were in the connective tissues of dermis and between scales on two species. The nucleus of lymphocystis cell were enlarged, irregular and containing basophilic marginated chromatin. Thus, the similarities among cellular patterns of different fish LCDV isolates from different hosts indicated that these profiles do not depend on the host species.Conclusions: In conclusion, this current study of histopathological statement of LCDV may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocystis disease from both marine as well as fresh water fish species. The findings of asymptomatic carriers by histology using infected skin and fin sampling, which does not imply animal killing, could be important tool to epizootics caused by LCDV. This study may be very useful for further molecular studies.

  17. Clinical and laboratory 2-year outcome of oral immunotherapy in patients with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, A; Appel, M Y; Goldberg, M R; Yichie, T; Levy, M B; Nachshon, L; Katz, Y

    2016-02-01

    Studies examining the long-term effect of oral immunotherapy in food-allergic patients are limited. We investigated cow's milk-allergic patients, >6 months after the completion of oral immunotherapy (n = 197). Questionnaires, skin prick tests, and basophil activation assays were performed. Of the 195 patients contacted, 180 (92.3%) were consuming milk protein regularly. Half experienced adverse reactions, mostly mild. Thirteen patients (6.7%) required injectable epinephrine. Higher reaction rate after immunotherapy was associated with more anaphylactic episodes before treatment and a lower starting dose (OR = 2.1, P = 0.035 and OR = 2.3, P = 0.035, respectively). Reaction rate in patients who were 6-15 months, 15-30 months, or >30 months post-treatment decreased from 0.28/month to 0.21/month to 0.15/month, respectively (P Milk-induced %CD63 and %CD203c expression was significantly lower in patients >24 months vs in patients <24 months post-treatment (P = 0.038 and P = 0.047, respectively). In conclusion, many patients experience mild adverse reactions after completing oral immunotherapy and some require injectable epinephrine. Progressive desensitization, both clinically and in basophil reactivity, occurs over time. PMID:26482941

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OVINE HAEMOGRAM: CELL-DYN 3500 VERSUS MANUAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrini V. Athanasiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual hematology techniques traditionally applied in farm animal medicine are time consuming and labor-intensive, especially when large numbers of samples have to be processed. As a result, several automated hematology instruments have been developed for use in these species. An automated hematology analyzer (Abbott Cell-Dyne 3500 system was used in performing a complete blood cell count and differential counts of white blood cells in sheep blood samples. The system was compared with basic manual hematologic techniques. A linear regression was used to assess correlation between the two methods. Correlation coefficients (R2 were good for the hematocrit, the total white blood cell count, the neutrophils, the lymphocytes and the platelet count, while a poor correlation existed in monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. The automated and the manual technique were also compared in terms of sensitivity using the Sensitivity Ratio (SR. The automated analyzer was slightly more sensitive than the manual technique for all parameters tested except for monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the difference was greater and the automated analyzer was 1.5, 2.5 and 2 times more reliable, respectively. The method bias was also calculated. It seems that the overall performance of the automated analyzer justifies its utilization in sheep blood analysis, although as for any analyzer used in any species, a stained blood film evaluation remains an indispensable technique to confirm the results being reported by the automated analyzer and provide additional information for the ovine haemogram.

  19. Pin p 1 is a major allergen in pine nut and the first food allergen described in the plant group of gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Crespo, Jesus F; Maleki, Soheila J; Rodriguez, Julia; Novak, Natalija

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to report the complete sequence of a 2S albumin purified from pine nut and to analyze its allergenic properties. Individual recognition of this protein by serum IgE from pine nut-allergic patients was assessed. IgE cross-linking capacity was analyzed in a basophil activation test. Inhibition of IgE-binding and stability to heating was also assessed. The complete nucleotide sequence was obtained and a phylogenetic study was carried out. 2S albumin from pine nut (registered as Pin p 1.0101) was recognized by IgE of 75% of sera. The allergen was heat-stable and had a robust capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to whole pine nut extract. The IgE cross-linking capacity of Pin p 1 on basophils was also demonstrated. Despite the low homology of Pin p 1 sequence with other allergenic 2S albumins from angiosperms, Pin p 1 contains the typical skeleton of 8 cysteine residues, important for its α-helixes enriched structure. PMID:27211622

  20. RARE BENIGN EYELID TUMOR IN CHILDREN (EPITHELIOMA OF MALHERBE, PILOMATRIXOMA, OR TRICHELEMMOMA

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    A. A. Ryabtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe clinical manifestations of rare eyelid tumor (epithelioma Malherbe and to improve differential diagnosis of benign eyelid tumors in children. Patients and methods. We observed 8 children aged 3,5‑8 years (sex ratio was 1:1. In all cases, examination, palpation, surgical excision of the tumor with histological examination were performed. Results. Trichilemmoma, or pilomatricoma, was suggested from clinical manifestations. Epithelioma Malherbe was diagnosed by histology only. Microscopically, the tumor is surrounded by a capsule which includes two cell types. Peripheral basophilic cells are small cells with poor cytoplasm, indistinct borders, and deeply basophilic nucleus. Central shadow cells have a distinct border and a central unstained area. Islands of small basaloid epithelial cells with squamous cell focuses and cornification are embedded in the stroma. Epithelial lesions are often necrotized. Epithelial mass is surrounded by granulations with giant cells. Osseous trabeculae are often adjacent to necrotic lesions. Further follow-up revealed no complications or recurrences. Conclusions. Our observations and literature data suggest that epithelioma Malherbe is occured in 1.3 % of benign eyelid tumors in childern. Tumor growth is slow and non-invasive. 

  1. New concepts in chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonakis, Becky M; Saini, Sarbjit S

    2008-12-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common skin disease without a clear etiology in the vast majority of cases. The similarity of symptoms and lesion pathology to allergen-induced skin reactions supports the idea that skin mast cell and blood basophil IgE receptor activation is involved; however, no exogenous allergen trigger has been identified. The presence of serum IgG autoantibodies targeting IgE or the IgE receptor in approximately 40% of CIU cases supports the theory of an autoimmune basis for the disease. However, issues remain with the assays to detect autoantibodies among other serum factors, the relationship of autoantibodies to CIU disease activity, and the occurrence of autoantibodies in healthy subjects. Other studies have identified altered IgE receptor degranulation that reverts in disease remission and is accompanied by changes in signaling molecule expression and function in mast cells and basophils in active CIU subjects. The arrival of therapies targeting IgE and the IgE receptor pathway elements has potential use in CIU. PMID:18832031

  2. Cultured peripheral blood mast cells from chronic idiopathic urticaria patients spontaneously degranulate upon IgE sensitization: Relationship to expression of Syk and SHIP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sarbjit S; Paterniti, Miya; Vasagar, Kavitha; Gibbons, Scott P; Sterba, Patricia M; Vonakis, Becky M

    2009-09-01

    Recently, signaling changes in the FcvarepsilonRI pathway involving inositol lipid phosphatases have been identified in the basophils of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) subjects. Based on the profile of basophil FcvarepsilonRI-mediated histamine degranulation, we have segregated CIU subjects into two groups, CIU Responder (CIU R) or CIU Nonresponder (CIU NR). In the present study, we compared expression of SHIP-1, SHIP-2, and Syk protein to histamine release (HR) from mast cells (MC) cultured from the peripheral blood of CIU R, CIU NR, and normal subjects. The MC of CIU R donors contained significantly increased Syk and decreased SHIP-2 as compared to CIU NR (Syk: p=0.038, SHIP-2: p=0.038) and normals (Syk: p=0.042, SHIP-2: p=0.027). Spontaneous HR from CIU donors was increased two-fold compared to normals (p=0.04). In summary, our results suggest a possible predilection for urticarial MC to spontaneously degranulate upon IgE sensitization contributing to the increased pruritus associated with CIU. PMID:19477690

  3. New routes for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  4. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests. PMID:26774053

  5. Occurrence, Development and Histochemical Characteristics of Lymphocystis in Cultured Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xiuzhen(绳秀珍); Zhan Wenbin

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence and development of lymphocystis cells in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and some histochemical features are studied using light and electron microscopy and histochemical methods. Fibroblasts engulf virus particles forming phagocytosis vacuole in the cytoplasm. The infected cells proliferate and turn round and hypertrophied; basophilic inclusion bodies, Feulgen-positive, are present in the cytoplasm, and a hyaline capsule, containing acid ploysaccharide and protein, appears outside cell membrane. The mature lymphocystis cells possess numerous virus particles (200~220nm in diameter with a central core 120~140nm) and high electron-dense inclusions with budding virions at the surface in the cytoplasm, and show margination of chromatin. Moderate electron density particles (70~80nm in diameter) fill out perinuclear cisterna and arrange in crystalloid arrays in nucleus, liberated into the cytoplasm by rupture of nuclear membrane. No virus particles are observed in nucleus. Therefore, inclusion bodies are the sites of virus assembly and maturity, while replication processes of lymphocystis virus are involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. Besides, strongly basophilic link-like structures are present between adjacent cells or through connective tissue, and virus particles are observed in somewhere of the capsule, thus where may be the spread route of virus from one cell to another or to the environment. The senile lymphocystis cells release virus by the rupture of cells.

  6. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

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    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  7. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway (BN) rats. To study these effects BN rats were sensitized to either 1 or 10 mg peanut or ovalbumin by daily oral gavage and the TBTO-groups were fed a diet containing 80 mg TBTO per kg diet. Co-exposure to TBTO not only resulted in decreased general immunologic parameters such as weights of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphocyte proliferation rates in splenocytes, but also on allergic parameters. In the peanut allergen-model TBTO decreased allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production by spleen cells, number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes in the blood and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. In the ovalbumin allergen-model TBTO decreased the number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, allergen-specific IgE and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. The data imply that in the process of risk assessment of food allergy attention should be given to immunomodulating compounds present in the diet

  8. Cytologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a lung carcinoid in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ul Soo; Alleman, A Rick; Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun Wook; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-06-01

    An 11-year-old neutered male Yorkshire Terrier was presented to the Haemaru Referral Animal Hospital with a history of unresponsive tracheal collapse and an incidental finding of a lung nodule in the left caudal lung lobe on radiography. Thorough physical examination and imaging studies revealed no other masses. Cytologic examination of C-arm mobile fluoroscopy-guided fine-needle aspirates revealed numerous free nuclei and a low number of small round cells with moderate to abundant pale basophilic cytoplasm. Some cells contained indistinct basophilic granules in their cytoplasm, and extracellular pink material was noted. A caudal lung lobectomy was performed, and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed round to polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and round nuclei with mild anisokaryosis and 0-3 mitotic figures per high-power field. Cells were arranged in packets separated by fine fibrovascular stroma, suggestive of a pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm, specifically a carcinoma/carcinoid. The cells were immunoreactive for chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase, and negative for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, calcitonin, thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, CD79a, light lambda, and vimentin. With these findings the tumor was diagnosed as a primary lung carcinoid. Eleven months after resection, there was no evidence of tumor regrowth or metastasis. The absence of necrosis, few mitotic figures, minimal pleomorphism, and benign behavior of this tumor resembled those of a typical carcinoid in humans. PMID:18533928

  9. A fluorescence-based centrifugal microfluidic system for parallel detection of multiple allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Cheung, K. L.; Kong, S. K.; Suen, Y. K.; Kwan, Y. W.; Li, W. J.; Wong, C. K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports a robust polymer based centrifugal microfluidic analysis system that can provide parallel detection of multiple allergens in vitro. Many commercial food products (milk, bean, pollen, etc.) may introduce allergy to people. A low-cost device for rapid detection of allergens is highly desirable. With this as the objective, we have studied the feasibility of using a rotating disk device incorporating centrifugal microfluidics for performing actuationfree and multi-analyte detection of different allergen species with minimum sample usage and fast response time. Degranulation in basophils or mast cells is an indicator to demonstrate allergic reaction. In this connection, we used acridine orange (AO) to demonstrate degranulation in KU812 human basophils. It was found that the AO was released from granules when cells were stimulated by ionomycin, thus signifying the release of histamine which accounts for allergy symptoms [1-2]. Within this rotating optical platform, major microfluidic components including sample reservoirs, reaction chambers, microchannel and flow-control compartments are integrated into a single bio-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The flow sequence and reaction time can be controlled precisely. Sequentially through varying the spinning speed, the disk may perform a variety of steps on sample loading, reaction and detection. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of using centrifugation as a possible immunoassay system in the future.

  10. Pyrimidine-specific 5' nucleotidase activity in bovine erythrocytes: effect of phlebotomy and lead poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythrocyte pyrimidine-specific 5' nucleotidase (PY5'N) (E.C. 3.1.3.5) was measured in healthy, anemic, and lead-poisoned calves to determine whether low activity of PY5'N is associated with the propensity of cattle to develop basophilic stippling of erythrocytes. Low activity of PY5'N has been associated with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes in persons with inherited hemolytic anemia and with lead poisoning. A radiometric technique, using [14C]cytidine monophosphate as the substrate, was used to measured PY5'N activity. The erythrocytes from 4 healthy calves had much lower activity (mean of 7.1 +/- 1.6 nmols of [14C]cytidine monophosphate hydrolyzed/min/g of hemoglobin) than has been reported for human erythrocytes. The pH response curve of bovine PY5'N was similar to that of the human enzyme, with maximal activity around pH 7. Experimental hemorrhagic anemia in these calves increased PY5'N activity 6-to 7-fold, with peak activity occurring concomitantly with maximum reticulocytosis. Two of the calves were then given lead per os, and the PY5'N activity decreased within 24 hours to base-line values. In the 2 other calves not given lead, the PY5'N activity declined slowly, but did not reach base-line values after 14 days

  11. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST, alanin aminotransferase (ALT and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT, in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartum. The highest values of total leukocytes count, neutrophiles, monocytes and basophiles count were recorded on the day of parturition, and then decreased, so that the minimum value established on d 45 of lactation. The lymphocytes count was the lowest on the day of parturation, while the eosinophils and basophiles counts were significantly different in observed time intervals. The concentration of glucose ranged from 3.07 mmol/L on d 15 prepartum to 2.71 mmol/L on d 15 postpartum. A high concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the postpartum period is a consequence of changes in energy balance and more intensive process of lypolisis in fat tissue, due to energy disbalance at the beginning of lactation. Established activity of enzymes AST, ALT and GGT was approximately the same in studied time intervals and was within physiological limits. The results of hematological and biochemical analysis in this paper do not indicate the development of postpartum ailments, because the investigated parameters were within physiological limits.

  12. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-07-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix. PMID:26330833

  13. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  14. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Sung Lee; Dai-In Kang; Seung Zhoo Yoon; Yeon Hee Ryu; Inhyung Lee; Hoon-Gi Kim; Byung-Cheon Lee; Ki Bog Lee

    2015-01-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-depen-dent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-depen-dent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increas-ing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  15. Allergy Testing and Drug Screening on an ITO-Coated Lab-on-a-Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chin Kwok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A lab-on-a-disc (LOAD is a centrifugal microfluidic set-up based on centrifugal force without using micro-pumps to drive reagents and cells to various chambers through channels and valves for reactions. A LOAD coated with conductive transparent indium tin oxide (ITO for thermal control was developed to screen allergy-blocking agents. When the acridine orange (AO-loaded KU-812 human basophilic cells were activated in the LOAD by stimuli, AO trapped in the cytoplasmic granules was released externally as an allergic mediator mimetic to report degranulation. This response was monitored by fluorescence when the released AO in supernatant had been transferred, with a higher spinning speed, from the reaction chamber to detection chamber in the LOAD where AO reacted with exogenous DNA. We report here the principles of the system and an improved LOAD set-up with the ITO-coated glass resistive microheater to run assays at 37 °C. By using this platform, we demonstrate here for the first time that triptolide, an active ingredient from the Chinese medicine herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., was able to suppress the fMLP-mediated degranulation in basophils. This serves as an example how LOADs can be used to screen agents to alleviate symptoms of allergy.

  16. Histological evaluation of immunologically mediated tumor regression of the line 10 guinea pig hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W H; Teppema, J S; Wagenaar, S S; Paques, M; Steerenberg, P A; Ruitenberg, E J

    1986-01-01

    The histology of immunologically mediated tumor regression was studied in the syngenic strain 2 guinea pig/line 10 hepatocellular carcinoma tumor system. Tumor regression was induced non-specifically by the intralesional injection of living Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in 7-day-old established tumors (diameter 8-10 mm). In untreated line 10 tumors at day 7 a mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was present, which consisted mainly of small mononuclear cells; in addition large mononuclear cells and basophils were present. Intratumoral BCG-treatment induced a prominent increase in the inflammatory reaction due to an influx of small and large mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Small mononuclear cells were identified mainly as lymphocytes whereas large mononuclear cells belonged mainly to the macrophage line. Intratumoral administration of BCG resulted in a granulomatous reaction. A time-related decrease in the number of tumor cells and an increase in inflammation, associated with purulent lysis of the granulomatous tissue, was observed. Specific immune-mediated tumor rejection occurred in animals both after active immunization and after adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells. In actively immunized animals the tumor cells were rapidly rejected and from day 4 onwards no tumor cells could be detected at the injection site. Lymphocytes were the major component of the inflammatory reaction; large mononuclear cells were present to a lesser extent and basophilic granulocytes were regularly observed. After adoptive transfer of immunity with immune spleen cells given simultaneously with an intradermal innoculation of tumor cells, an essentially similar rejection reaction was found, although tumor cell rejection was delayed. Lymphocytes and large mononuclear cells were found in equal proportions, whereas basophilic granulocytes were always present in smaller numbers. After BCG-induced regression and in adoptively transferred immune rejection, a fibroblast component was

  17. 杂交鲍苗种“病毒性萎缩症(AbSV)”病理学研究%Studies on Pathology of “Shriveling Syndrome Associated Virus(AbSV)” in Juvenile Hybrid Abalone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小强

    2013-01-01

    从福州地区患病杂交鲍苗种组织中分离到一种球形病毒用以感染健康鲍,通过对感染发病的鲍苗进行光镜和电镜观察,发现:病毒主要在消化腺嗜碱性细胞的细胞核中发生;消化腺消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞细胞核异形、染色质固缩,内质网扩张,线粒体嵴断裂、消失;消化腺小叶基膜肌纤维断裂、消失;消化道肠道具微绒毛的柱状细胞和纤毛柱状细胞发生自溶现象;足部肌细胞核浓缩,染色质固缩、边集,肌纤维断裂出现空泡.据此推测,病毒以鲍消化腺嗜碱性细胞为靶细胞,造成消化腺和胃、肠道等消化系统病变,机体因长期营养不良而萎缩,最后因全身性感染出现死亡.%Pathological analysis was done on juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotisdiscus discus Haliotis discus hannai)artificially infected by a spherical virus isolated from the diseased ones in Fuzhou.Examination of artificially infected juvenile hybrid abalone by optical and electron microscopy showed that the virion mainly developed in nucleus of basophilic cells in digestive gland,and led to nuclear heteromorphosis,chromatin condensation,endoplasmic reticulum expansion,and mitochondria cristae breakage in digestive gland cell and basophilic cell.Meanwhile,broken digestive gland lobule basal lamina muscle fibers,autolysis and pyknosis of microvillus and cilium columnar cell in digestive gland intestinal tract were observed.In foot muscle cells,muscle fibers were broken and vesicles emerged,together with chromatin condensation and margination.These results suggested that the digestive gland basophilic cells maybe the special target cell of this virus,the infection could cause lesion in digestive gland and digestive organs such as stomach,intestines.Atrophy due to long-term malnutrition and systemic infection would finally led to death.

  18. Mast cell proteases as pharmacological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, George H

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells are rich in proteases, which are the major proteins of intracellular granules and are released with histamine and heparin by activated cells. Most of these proteases are active in the granule as well as outside of the mast cell when secreted, and can cleave targets near degranulating mast cells and in adjoining tissue compartments. Some proteases released from mast cells reach the bloodstream and may have far-reaching actions. In terms of relative amounts, the major mast cell proteases include the tryptases, chymases, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A3, dipeptidylpeptidase I/cathepsin C, and cathepsins L and S. Some mast cells also produce granzyme B, plasminogen activators, and matrix metalloproteinases. Tryptases and chymases are almost entirely mast cell-specific, whereas other proteases, such as cathepsins G, C, and L are expressed by a variety of inflammatory cells. Carboxypeptidase A3 expression is a property shared by basophils and mast cells. Other proteases, such as mastins, are largely basophil-specific, although human basophils are protease-deficient compared with their murine counterparts. The major classes of mast cell proteases have been targeted for development of therapeutic inhibitors. Also, a human β-tryptase has been proposed as a potential drug itself, to inactivate of snake venins. Diseases linked to mast cell proteases include allergic diseases, such as asthma, eczema, and anaphylaxis, but also include non-allergic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune arthritis, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and scarring diseases of lungs and other organs. In some cases, studies performed in mouse models suggest protective or homeostatic roles for specific proteases (or groups of proteases) in infections by bacteria, worms and other parasites, and even in allergic inflammation. At the same time, a clearer picture has emerged of differences in the

  19. Generation and epitope analysis of human monoclonal antibody isotypes with specificity for the timothy grass major allergen Phl p 5a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, J.; Diethers, A.; Seismann, H.; Michel, Y.; Plum, Melanie; Bredehorst, R.; Blank, S.; Etzold, S.; Braren, I.; Spillner, E.

    cross-reactivity, standardisation of allergens as well as improvement of allergy diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we report the generation and application of the first set of authentic human IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies. On the basis of a Phl p 5a specific antibody fragment, a lambda light chain and......The scarcity of monoclonal human IgE antibodies with specificity for defined allergens is a bottleneck for the molecular characterisation of allergens and their epitopes. Insights into the characteristics of such antibodies may allow for analyses of the molecular basis underlying allergenicity and......, immunoreactivity of the antibodies with the allergen was assessed. Applicability in allergy diagnostics was confirmed by establishment of artificial human sera. Functionality of both antibodies was further demonstrated in receptor binding studies and mediator release assays using humanised rat basophil leukaemia...

  20. The ability of thapsigargin and thapsigargicin to activate cells involved in the inflammatory response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, H; Christensen, S B; Foreman, J C;

    1985-01-01

    The ability of thapsigargin and thapsigargicin to activate mast cells and leukocytes has been investigated. The thapsigargin-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells was found to be dependent on the concentration of thapsigargin, the purity of the mast cell preparations, and the...... number of mast cells in suspension. Thapsigargin induced histamine release from human basophil leukocytes. Thapsigargin induced beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme release from human neutrophil leukocytes. Thapsigargin caused a release of histamine from mesentery, lung, and heart mast cells of the rat, but...... only to a minor extent from the corresponding guinea-pig cells. Thapsigargicin induced histamine release from mesentery, lung, and heart mast cells of the rat at concentrations from 0.1 microM but provoked only a release from the corresponding guinea-pig cells in the concentration-range 0.16 to 1...

  1. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Suradkar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431

  2. Th2 cytokines and asthma — The role of interleukin-5 in allergic eosinophilic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Richard W

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interleukin-5 is produced by a number of cell types, and is responsible for the maturation and release of eosinophils in the bone marrow. In humans, interleukin-5 is a very selective cytokine as a result of the restricted expression of the interleukin-5 receptor on eosinophils and basophils. Eosinophils are a prominent feature in the pulmonary inflammation that is associated with allergic airway diseases, suggesting that inhibition of interleukin-5 is a viable treatment. The present review addresses the data that relate interleukin-5 to pulmonary inflammation and function in animal models, and the use of neutralizing anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of asthma in humans.

  3. Histopathological observation of lymphocystis disease and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) detection in cultured diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin; Xu, Songjuan; Cheng, Shunfeng

    2007-10-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70 80 nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70 80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  4. NF-κB Regulates B-Cell-Derived Nerve Growth Factor Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Heese; Noriko Inoue; Tohru Sawada

    2006-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, four neurotrophins have been identified: nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). NGF exerts an important role in the development and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. However, it has recently been documented that several types of immune cells, such as mast cells, lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils, produce,store and release NGF. Accumulating preclinical and clinical data indicate that dysfunctions of NGF and the other neurotrophins may contribute to impaired immune responses and concentration of NGF frequently correlates with disease severity. Thus, the aim of this study was to elucidate the potential signaling mechanisms of cytokineneurotrophins interactions contributing to increased NGF levels. Our data show that the transcription factorNF-κB plays a pivotal role in regulating B-cell-derived NGF expression.

  5. The efficiency of peptide immunotherapy for respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Montagni, Marcello; Ridolo, Erminia

    2016-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was introduced more than a century ago and is yet the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. AIT is currently conducted with whole allergen extracts and several studies clearly support its efficacy in the treatment of respiratory allergies, however the need for a long treatment - that affects costs and patients compliance - and possible IgE-mediated adverse events are still unresolved issues. Peptide immunotherapy is based on the use of short synthetic peptides which represent major T-cell epitopes of the allergen with markedly reduced ability to cross-link IgE and activate mast cells and basophils. Data from clinical trials confirmed the efficacy and tolerability of peptide immunotherapy in patients with cat allergy, with a sustained clinical effect after a short course treatment. Peptide therapy is a promising safe and effective new specific treatment for allergy to be developed for the most important allergens causing rhinitis or asthma. PMID:26901667

  6. Allergy to insect stings. IV. Diagnosis by radioallergosorbent test (R.A.S.T.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioallergosorbent tests (RAST(s)) have been developed and assessed for the diagnosis of insect hypersensitivity by using a purified allergen from honeybee venom, phospholipase A, and crude yellow jacket venom. Sera from 193 patients positive both by history and skin test to one of these insects were compared with various groups of control sera. Eighty percent of sera from skin test-positive patients were RAST positive; positive RAST were found in 16% of sera tested from skin test-negative patients. A highly positive RAST correlates well with a positive skin test and clinical sensitivity, but serum IgE is not measurable in many patients with mast cell or basophil bound antibody. Since biologically important reactions of antigen with IgE require that the antibody be cell bound, skin testing would be preferred to RAST if one were limited to a single test for the diagnosis of insect allergy

  7. Histopathology of Marine and Freshwater Fish Lymphocytosis Disease Virus (LCDV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)

  8. Cytodiagnosis of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extranodal natural killer (NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/T is relatively rare, associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. Histopathological findings, immunohistochemical study, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization are essential for the diagnosis. There are a few case reports in the literature describing the cytological findings of these uncommon lymphomas. We herein describe cytological findings in two cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type presenting as lacrimal gland and/or nasal masses. Fine-needle aspiration smears revealed small to medium-sized lymphoid cells showing irregular nuclear outline, moderate amounts of light basophilic cytoplasm containing fine azurophilic granules in most of the cells. Some of these atypical lymphoid cells showed tongue-like projections of cytoplasm from one or both sides of the cells. Histopathological examination revealed typical angoicentric, angiodestructive growth pattern of these lymphomas.

  9. Chronic radium intoxication: morphology of bone and marrow infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using direct and polarized light microscopy and a variety of standard histologic stains, the morphology of two groups of bone and marrow infarcts are compared. One group is from patients whose infarcts can, with confidence, be related to ischemia, trauma, or embolization and whose histories exclude radium ingestion or exposure. The second group is from radium dial painters whose pre-terminal body burdens of 226Ra ranged from 1.67 μCi to some value equal to or below 0.0042 μCi. The individual bone or marrow infarct among the radium cases does not differ radically from those in the ischemia-injury group, although taken as a whole, the radium-related infarcts are marked by less osteogenetic activity, a less prominent blood supply, much less cellular fibrous tissue and more extensive deposits of basophilic bone debris than the ischemia-injury group

  10. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Fumihiko; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath. PMID:26955331

  11. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Onishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath.

  12. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jacob Eli; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Suspected penicillin allergy is common among hospitalised patients, but the quality of the information given by the patient is often doubtful. Alleged penicillin allergic are likely to be treated with more toxic, broad-spectrum, and more expensive antibiotics, with effects on microbial resistance...... patterns and public economy as a consequence. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study with two visits to all clinical departments of a large university hospital in order to find in-patients with medical files labelled "penicillin allergy" or who reported penicillin allergy upon admission. Patient...... histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated. In a...

  13. Natural Sarcocystis gigantea infection in sheep from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Damboriarena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Protozoal diseases caused by species of Sarcocystis can cause serious damage in sheep flocks, inducing decreased growth conversion rates and partial or complete loss of carcasses at the slaughterhouse. This article describes an outbreak of Sarcocystis gigantea infection in sheep slaughtered in a farm in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Between July and September 2013, three sheep showed multiple nodules in the esophagus that were microscopically characterized as encapsulated cysts filled with elongated, basophilic, nucleated structures morphologically consistent with S. gigantea bradyzoites. Diagnosis was made based on the epidemiological, macroscopic, and microscopic findings. This is the first report of this infection in sheep in Rio Grande do Sul and should be recognized by veterinarians, especially during meat inspection.

  14. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium in a neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, R; Vargas, A; Rojas, L; Lemus, M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum). Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light microscopy. The concentration of Cd in the head and trunk kidneys was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cd produced histopathological changes in the head kidney, the most evident of these being: the thickening of the vein wall, an increase in the number of basophils/mast cells close to blood vessels and a severe depletion of hematopoietic precursors especially the granulopoietic series. In the blood, a decrease in the total leucocytes and hemoglobin concentration was observed. Cd-exposed fish showed higher Cd concentrations in the trunk kidney than the head kidney. In conclusion, exposure to Cd affected precursor hematopoietic cells in C. macropomum. PMID:26623329

  15. Histopathological changes in gill, liver and kidney of neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to paraquat at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Mata, Claunis; Oliveros, Aridays; Rojas, Luz Marina; Lemus, Mairin; Rojas-Villarroel, Evelin

    2011-05-01

    This work focused on the histological alterations in gill, liver and kidney of fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to different temperatures (18°C, 29°C, 35°C) with 10mg/L of herbicide Paraquat (PQ), during 21 days. The fish exhibited histopathological changes in these tissues; the most important alteration in gills was telangiectasis. Liver showed debris accumulation inside cytoplasm hepatocytes, karyolysis, karyohesis and a decrease in the size of sinusoids. Hyperplasia of melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) and an increase in basophils were observed in kidney. The lesion inducing by PQ and the damage in tissue depended of temperature exposure fish. The severity of lesions clearly differed among organs with the liver showing the most extensive damages followed in order by the kidney and gills. In PQ/18°C group it was observed the changes in the pattern of lesions, with kidney showing higher damage followed gills and liver. PMID:21787721

  16. DSCG binding protein and process for preparing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecht, I.; Mazurek, N.

    1987-07-28

    An essentially pure protein is described consisting essentially of the protein, (CBP), present in nature in membranes of basophile cells and in mast cells, having a molecular weight of about 60,000 +- 2,000 determined by SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis an isoelectric point of about 3.9 and an amino acid composition of about 4 units of asparagine, 3 units of threonine and serine, 3 units glycine, 2 units alanine, 2 units proline, 1 unit cysteine, 2 units valine, 1 unit methionine, 1 unit isoleucine, 2 units leucine, 1 unit tyrosine, 1 unit phenylalanine, 2 units histamine, 2 units lysine and 1 unit arginine. The protein is able to build calcium and having a calcium dependent affinity to the disodium salt of 1,2 bis(-2 carboxychromon-5-yloxy)-2-hydroxy propane (DSCG).

  17. A 13-Month-Old With Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis With Features of Renal Malakoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleson, Tova; Sharif, Asma; Setty, Suman; Liu, Dennis; Wang, Shihtien; Kanard, Robert; Czech, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory renal disorder caused by chronic infection with gram-negative bacteria leading to destruction of the renal parenchyma and replacement with foamy lipid-laden macrophages. Renal malakoplakia is another rare form of chronic inflammatory granulomatous disease in the kidney associated with infection usually occurring in adults with immunocompromised status or debilitating disease. It is hallmarked by the finding of foamy histiocytes with distinctive basophilic inclusions (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies). We present a case of a 13-month-old male with history of congenital hydronephrosis who presented with clinical and radiologic findings suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. However, further pathologic studies revealed the presence of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies, which are pathognomonic for renal malakoplakia. With this case we hope to bring further evidence to support that these two conditions are not mutually exclusive but rather represent two pathologic processes on the same disease spectrum. PMID:26894199

  18. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine. PMID:23404176

  19. Classification of tubulo-papillary renal cortical tumours using estimates of nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Olsen, S; Holm-Nielsen, P

    1993-01-01

    tubulo-papillary basophilic cell renal cortical tumours. There was no clear pattern of evolution of nuclear vv with increasing macroscopic tumour diameter. Estimates of nuclear vv could not distinguish between 21 tumours classified as renal adenomas with macroscopic diameters < 3 cm (average nuclear vv...... = 241 microns 3) and 15 tumours classified as renal cell carcinomas with diameters > 3 cm, or aggressive histological pattern (average nuclear vv = 229 microns 3) (2p = 0.68). In this subtype of renal cortical tumours, estimates of nuclear vv do not support the historical convention of using a 3 cm......The classification of renal cortical tumours is problematic, with no clear division of benign from malignant tumours. Unbiased stereological estimates of volume-weighted nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point sampling of nuclear intercepts in a retrospective study of 36 variably sized...

  20. Development of a hypoallergenic recombinant parvalbumin for first-in-man subcutaneous immunotherapy of fish allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Huber, Hans; Swoboda, Ines;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The FAST (food allergy-specific immunotherapy) project aims at developing safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy for fish allergy, using recombinant hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1. OBJECTIVES: Preclinical characterization and good manufacturing practice (GMP) production...... chromatography and mass spectrometry. Allergenicity was assessed by ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release assay, immunogenicity by immunization of laboratory animals and stimulation of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reference molecules were purified wild-type Cyp c 1 (natural...... and/or recombinant). GMP-compliant alum-adsorbed mCyp c 1 was tested for acute toxicity in mice and rabbits and for repeated-dose toxicity in mice. Accelerated and real-time protocols were used to evaluate stability of mCyp c 1 as drug substance and drug product. RESULTS: Purified mCyp c 1 behaves as...

  1. Chronic urticaria: new management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. "Autoimmune chronic urticaria" implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with labeled dosages of second generation H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines), there is evidence for reduction of urticaria using up to 4 fold increases in labeled dosages. The biologic modifier, omalizumab, helps to reduce lesions of chronic urticaria within 1-2 weeks. PMID:25383135

  2. Assessment of the potential allergenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC 12 using the FAO/WHO 2001 decision tree for novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev-Jensen, C; Sten, E; Earl, L K;

    2003-01-01

    modern biotechnology and derived from fish are being considered for use in food and other applications, and since allergy to fish is well established, a potential risk from such proteins to susceptible human beings exists. The overall aim of the study was to investigate the potential allergenicity of an......, methods for assessing degradability under standardised conditions, assays for detection of specific IgE against the protein (Maxisorb RAST) and histamine release from human basophils. In the present paper we describe the serum screening phase of the study and discuss the overall application of the...... sequence similarity to known allergens nor was it stable to proteolytic degradation using standardised methods. Using sera from 20 patients with a well-documented clinical history of fish allergy, positive in skin prick tests to ocean pout, eel pout and eel were used, positive IgE-binding in vitro to...

  3. Clinical and diagnostic study of trypanosomiasis of cattle in mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Rhaymah; B. A. AL-Badrani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the occurrence of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in Mosul, Iraq and its effect on their haemotology. The main clinical sings were anemia, lethargy, weakness, general weight loss and, loss of appetite. Blood samples from infected cattle were collected which showed decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and total erythrocytes count with leucopenia especially neutropenia and esonopenia. Blood smears showed short form of trypanosome in acute cases and long forms in chronic cases. Morphological changes of erythrocytes showed the presence of anisocytosis, poikelocytosis, target cells, macrocytes, punctuate basophile and sometimes monocytes. Anemia was basically normocytic normochromic. This study provides the baseline data for further studies on this parasite.

  4. IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Bi, Yutian; Sun, Kun; Wang, Changzheng

    2007-08-01

    As an important subset of regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1), have some different features to thymic-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells(nTreg cells). Similar to nTreg cells, Tr1 also play important roles in the control of allergic inflammation in several ways. There is a fine balance between Tr1 and Th2 responses in healthy subjects. Skewing of allergic-specific effector T cells to a Tr1 phenotype appears to be a critical event in successful allergen-specific immunotherapy and glucocorticoids and beta2-agonists treatment. Tr1 suppress Th2 cells and effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, through producing IL-10, and perhaps TGF-beta. Understanding of Tr1 may be helpful in developing new strategies for treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:17764617

  5. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH outbreak associated with fowl adenovirus type 8b in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH was identified as fowl adenovirus (FAdV type 8b, a member of the Fowl adenovirus E species, based on PCR results of adenoviral polymerase and the hexon gene in an outbreak of acute mortality that affected a broiler flock of 12,000 animals. In two waves of elevated mortality rate, a total of 264 chickens were found dead. Affected birds showed ruffled feathers, depression, watery droppings and limping. The most common pathological lesions seen on necropsy were pale, swollen and friable livers. On histological examination, acute hepatitis characterized by necrosis of hepatocytes, with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, were observed. In addition, infectious bursal disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus were detected in the same flock.

  6. Haematological studies of Gaolao Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Kapale,D.G.Jagtap; D. M. Badukale and S.K.Sahatpure

    2008-01-01

    Hematological study of 15 healthy Gaolao heifers has been carried out. The mean ±S.E. values of total erythrocyte (10.3 ±0.34 million/cu mm), Hb (11.92 ±0.33 gm%), PCV (34.07±1.11%), MCV (33.14±0.75cuμ), MCH (11.63±0.32 μμgm), MCHC (35.07 ±0.70%),TLC (9.51±0.92 thousand/cmm), Lymphocytes (64.93 ±1.74%),Neutrophil (28.93 ±1.8%), Monocyte (2.2 ±0.34%), Basophil (0.2&...

  7. IL-10-Producing Type 1 Regulatory T Cells and Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Wu; Yutian Bi; Kun Sun; Changzheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    As an important subset of regulatory T (Treg) cells, IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1), have some different features to thymic-derived naturally occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells(nTreg cells). Similar to nTreg cells, Tr1 also play important roles in the control of allergic inflammation in several ways. There is a fine balance between Tr1 and Th2 responses in healthy subjects. Skewing of allergic-specific effctor T cells to a Tr1 phenotype appears to be a critical event in successful allergen-specific immunotherapy and glucocorticoids and β2-agonists treatment. Tr1 suppress Th2 cells and effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, through producing IL-10, and perhaps TGF-β. Understanding of Tr1 may be helpful in developing new strategies for treatment of allergic diseases.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on the blood count of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-irradiation changes were investigated in 58-day-old chicken that had been exposed, in an open experimental gamma field, to continuous irradiation with Co60 at the rate of 60 R per day for a period of 30 days. Hematological examination was carried out after total exposure to 600 R, 780 R, 1020 R, 1500 R, and 1800 R. More marked changes were recorded in the leukocyte count and in the number of thrombocytes, whereas no significant changes were found in the number of erythrocytes even after 30 days' irradiation. Leukopenia was found to occur in the case of 780 R and more. A significant lymphopenia occurred only in the case of 600 R and 780 R. Basophils responded more sensitively than did eosinophils. A highly significant thrombocytopenia was ascertained in the case total exposure from 780 to 1800 R. Hemorrhage, as a symptom of post-irradiation diathesis, was not found. (author)

  9. The second case of chronic granulocytic leukemia with karyotypic evolution at acute crisis, occurring in so-called Nishiyama district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole process of a second case of chronic granulocytic leukemia in Nishiyama district where a very small amount of radiation existed for a long time was reported together with data measured by a human counter and the results of chromosomal analysis. No significantly high K or 137Cs values were measured by a human counter immediately after the onset. Chromosomal division aberration and chromosomal aberration, which seemed to be induced by radiation, also were not observed. However, granulocytic leukemia was diagnosed after chromosomal analysis of peripheral blood revealed Ph1 chromosomes, white cell count increased, juvenile cells appeared, and basophil cells increased. Clinical features of typical chronic granulocytic leukemia in the exposed were observed during the chronic stage (7 years). In the acute stage, abnormal clones were discovered in all 16 chromosomes analyzed. Much karyotypic evolution identical to that in persons directly exposed to the A-bomb was also observed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline;

    2008-01-01

    ) using basophils passively sensitized with patient serum and a PCR method detecting soy DNA. Eight food products were selected as model foods to test the performance of the methods. There was an overall good agreement between the methods in terms of ranks of soy content but not the quantity. The sandwich......Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...... ELISA aimed at native soy proteins had the lowest detection limit of 0.05 ppm, but only identified soy in 5/8 products, and generally in lower amounts compared to other methods. The competitive ELISA had a higher detection limit of 21 ppm, but seemed more successful in detecting processed soy. Only HR...

  11. Histological Studies on Pancreas of Goose (Anser Albifrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mobini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histological and histochemical studies on the pancreas of goose (Anser albifrons were carried out using special staining and light microscope. The pancreas in goose is serous tubuloacinar gland having exocrine and endocrine part. Smooth muscle fibres were absent in capsule of pancreas. Acinar cells have bizonal shape. Intralobular ducts, Interlobular and main excretory ducts were present within parenchyma. The intralobular ducts were lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium reach interlobular ducts lined with low columnar epithelium. The main excretory ducts were lined by simple to stratified columnar epithelium. The glands inside the connective tissue of the ducts and basophilic staining on the apical surface of pancreatic duct system were found from the interlobular ducts to the main excretory ducts. The endocrine part was consisted of various shapes and sizes of alpha and beta islets. Mixed islets were not observed in the goose pancreas. Parasympathetic ganglia were observed in the exocrine pancreas. No significant differences were noted between males and females.

  12. Novel developments in the mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiwegger, Thomas; Gruber, Saskia; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2012-10-01

    Allergy is the result of a disbalanced immune response to environmental innocuous antigens. Despite of accumulating data to define the pathomechanisms that take place in case of allergic diseases a detailed understanding of sequence of events that lead to the "normal" scenario of tolerance development are still under debate. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. It modifies the immune response to a particular antigen to achieve tolerance against the symptom-causing allergen. This process is considered to mirror physiological peripheral tolerance induction. A number of immunological changes have been described to occur under allergen immunotherapy, including the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T cells, the induction of allergen-specific IgG4, an increase in the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio and decreased activation and function of effector cells such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. PMID:23095863

  13. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  14. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated hemato-biochemical changes in pakistani horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and hemato-biochemical manifestations of brucellosis in horses. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT). Blood samples were evaluated for hemato-biochemical parameters following standard procedures. Results indicated seroprevalence of brucellosis 20.13 and 16.23% in horses by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Brucellosis does not lead to any significant change in hematological and biochemical parameters in relation to age, sex, body condition and lactation except few parameters. The values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophil, basophil and alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in brucellosis positive animals as compared to healthy animals whereas lymphocytes and alanine aminotransferase were in opposite order. It was concluded from the results that prevalence of brucellosis in horse population is of concern; therefore, control measures should be opted so that its zoonotic threat is curtailed. (author)

  15. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    We previously observed that human, recombinant interleukin-2 in a pharmacologic dose (200 u/ml) induced histamine release from monocyte-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Therefore, we studied the role of various pharmacologic doses of rIL-2 on in vitro histamine release....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (5 x 10(6) cells/ml), which also contain basophils, from 13 patients scheduled for elective colorectal cancer surgery and 10 age and sex matched healthy volunteers were stimulated with rIL-2 in concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 450, 900, 1,800 and 3,600 u/ml, respectively...... release. Supernatant histamine concentration from unstimulated cells was 17.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml in patients compared to 7.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml in volunteers (#p < 0.05) after 1 hour stimulation, and no further increase was observed after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Histamine concentration increased...

  16. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  17. Traditional medicine: a rare cause of lead poisoning in Western countries [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2c6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Muller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man from Bhutan was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced abdominal CT scan was found negative, however laboratory tests showed hemolytic anemia and basophilic stippling which are often seen in lead and heavy metal poisoning. Additional tests revealed a high level of lead in blood and urine. The patient was administered a chelator treatment with rapid improvement of the symptoms. A detailed interview revealed that the patient had been taking daily Bhutanese traditional medicines to treat a Bell’s palsy from which he had been suffering for a few months. The analysis of these medicines confirmed the presence of a high level of lead.

  18. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014

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    Atsuo Urisu

    2014-01-01

    The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  19. Accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia: evaluation of clinical criteria as predictors of survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fiorini Furtado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published criteria defining the accelerated phase in chronic myeloid leukemia are heterogeneous and little is known about predictors of poor outcome.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 139 subjects in the accelerated phase of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib at a single center in Brazil. The objective was to identify risk factors for survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase in this population. The factors analyzed were: blasts 10-29%, basophils ≥ 20%, platelets > 1 × 106/µL or 1 × 105/µL in the peripheral blood, as well as clonal evolution, splenomegaly, hemoglobin 12 months (p-value = 0.030.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that patients with the above risk factors have a worse prognosis. This information can guide the therapy to be used.

  20. The transcription factor XBP1 is selectively required for eosinophil differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettigole, Sarah E.; Lis, Raphael; Adoro, Stanley; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Spencer, Lisa A.; Weller, Peter F.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor XBP1 has been linked to the development of highly secretory tissues such as plasma cells and Paneth cells, yet its function in granulocyte maturation has remained unknown. Here we discovered an unexpectedly selective and absolute requirement for XBP1 in eosinophil differentiation without an effect on the survival of basophils or neutrophils. Progenitors of myeloid cells and eosinophils selectively activated the endoribonuclease IRE1α and spliced Xbp1 mRNA without inducing parallel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways. Without XBP1, nascent eosinophils exhibited massive defects in the post-translational maturation of key granule proteins required for survival, and these unresolvable structural defects fed back to suppress critical aspects of the transcriptional developmental program. Hence, we present evidence that granulocyte subsets can be distinguished by their differential reliance on secretory-pathway homeostasis. PMID:26147683

  1. Severe anaphylaxis to Propofol: first case of evidence of sensitization to soy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C; Beaudouin, E; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kohler, C; Nguyen-Grosjean, V M; Jacquenet, S

    2016-05-01

    The growing worldwide prevalence of food allergies is drawing attention to the risk of allergenic proteins found in intravenous medicinal products, particularly anaesthetics. Propofol induced anaphylaxis has been described. The presence of soybean oil and egg lecithins in the lipid emulsion highlights their suspected responsibility in certain cases. We report a case of anaphylaxis to propofol in an adult patient without food allergy to soy, but with a latent sensitization to soy. An IgE-dependent allergy to propofol was established by a basophil activation test. Here, we document for the first time the existence of specific IgEs to a 65kDa protein, found in soybean oil and soy flour. In the absence of data on the reactogenic threshold for allergenic food proteins injected intravenously, a risk appears to be established and leads us to recommend a systematic detection for proteins in the refined soybean oil used in the pharmaceutical industry for intravenous products. PMID:27152608

  2. A Leukemic Presentation of Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma in a 52-Year-Old Woman Without an Identifiable Primary Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jason B.; Hii, Anselm; Kruse, Matthew J.; Szabo, Zsolt; Argani, Pedram; Hibbard, Michele K.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Meyer, Christian; Zheng, Rui; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fatigue and thrombocytopenia. Imaging studies were unremarkable with the exception of a positron emission tomography scan, which demonstrated intense F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake fusing to the marrow. A bone marrow aspirate was notable for large discohesive cells with basophilic cytoplasm, and flow cytometric analysis identified a population of phenotypically unusual cells that coexpressed CD56 and CD71. Immunohistochemical findings in the marrow biopsy demonstrated that the neoplasm was alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, further supported by the presence of a t(2;13). This unusual case demonstrates that leukemic presentations of rhabdomyosarcoma can occur in older adults in the absence of an identifiable primary tumor. PMID:25305220

  3. Histopathological Observation of Lymphocystis Disease and Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Detection in Cultured Diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70-80nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70-80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  4. Further investigations on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation on blood corpuscles hemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ultraviolet irradiation, applied for one hour, with a relatively high enerqy output of 95.5x103 erg. cm-2. sn-1, on some biological parameters of chicken's blood was determined. At the 24th hour after irradiation erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were decreased, but total leucocyte, thrombocyte counts and percentage of pseudoeosinophils were increased, significantly (P< 0,01). No significant changes were obtained in all parameters, at the 24th hour after a second irradiation. There were also found no differences between the values obtained at 24th hour after the second, and at 48th hour after the single irradiation, but all these values had a tendency taward the initial determinations

  5. HAEMOGRAM OF KHASI LOCAL (MEGHALAYA LOCAL PIG AT DIFFERENT AGE

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    S. Naskar*

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The blood of Meghalaya Local pigs of different ages i.e. 0 day, 15 days, 1 month, 2 months, 4 months and 6 months were collected and studied various cytological parameters like Hb. (g.percent, TEC (million/cmm, PVC (percent, ESR (mm/hr., TLC (thousand/cmm, Neutrophil (percent, Eosinophil (percent and Lymphocyte (percent. Newborn piglets showed an average Hb% of 6.9 ± 0.17, RBC counts of 3.81± 0.39 million/cmm of blood and which increased with the advancement of age. PVC% was found to be lowest in newborn piglets 18.3 ± 0.69 and highest in 6 months age 45.5 ± 0.51. Neutrophil count was significantly higher in newborn piglets 52.67 ± 1.35 and basophil was also observed to be present in the age group of 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months.

  6. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on...... overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was...... associated with an increased frequency of CRP≥5 mg/l (28 v. 12 %; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS...

  7. Hematology and blood chemistry of macaws, Ara rubrogenys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García del Campo, A L; Huecas, V; Fernández, A; Puerta, M L

    1991-01-01

    1. The hematology and blood chemistry of 10 captive adult Ara rubrogenys is described. 2. They showed 3,650,000 erythrocytes/mm3, a hematocrit of 49.9% and a blood hemoglobin content of 15.2 g/100 ml. 3. Leukocyte number was 10,000 cells/mm3, the differential counts being 42.2% heterophils, 0.8% eosinophils, 2.4% basophils, 49.9% lymphocytes and 4.5% monocytes. 4. The number of thrombocytes was 21,800 cells/mm3. 5. Plasma composition was (mg/100 ml): glucose 295; triglycerides 102; cholesterol 166; urea 5.8; uric acid 5; creatinine 0.3; bilirubin was not detected and total protein concentration was 3.2 g/100 ml. Enzymatic activities were (units/1): GOT 188; GPT 10 and alkaline phosphatase 315. PMID:1685390

  8. [b][/b]The influence of 9-day trekking in the Alps on the level of oxidative stress parameters and blood parameters in native lowlanders

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    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The stimuli acting on a person in a high mountain environment (such as hypobaric hypoxia with subsequent reoxygenation, physical exercise can significantly increase oxidative stress, stimulate erythropoiesis, lead to changes in the blood count and participate in the development of altitude sickness. [b]Objective. [/b]The aim was to investigate changes in haematological parameters, indicators of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde – MDA and antioxidant defences: catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and total antioxidant status (TAS in the plasma of young, healthy people after a 9-day expedition in the Alps. [b]Materials and method[/b]. A total of 5 patients (4 men and 1 woman, members of the Wrocław Mountaineering Club, aged 24–26 years. Collection of blood samples was carried out immediately before departure and 3 days after the end of exposure to high-altitude conditions. During the expedition, the subjects were exposed to heights: 2,050–4,165 m.a.s.l., and exercise associated with climbing. [b]Results[/b]. Trekking in the Alps neither caused significant changes in the parameters of red blood cells nor increased the level of oxidative stress parameters in plasma. CAT activity increased, the ratio of SOD / CAT decreased. There was also a decrease in the total number of leukocytes, mainly monocytes and basophils. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 9-day exposure to high-altitude conditions is not a substantial burden for the organism of young, physically active people. The increase in antioxidant capacity is sufficient to stop oxidative processes, which are severe in these conditions, and to prevent the occurrence of significant oxidative stress. Discontinuation of exposure to allergens and dust pollution clears the airways, which is indicated by the reduction in the number of monocytes and basophils.

  9. Selective toxicity of dihydroartemisinin on human CD34+ erythroid cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemisinins are safely used in the combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria, but their employment during pregnancy is still controversial. In fact, animal studies reported that the active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), causes embryonic erythrocytes depletion, when the treatment is performed during a critical period of time. The present study investigates the effect of DHA on human developmental erythropoiesis in order to characterize the target erythroid stage and to predict the window of susceptibility in human pregnancy. As a model for human developmental erythropoiesis, peripheral blood purified, CD34+ cells were committed towards erythrocytes and DHA (0.5 or 2 μM) was added to different erythroid stages during 14 days culture. Erythroid differentiation was investigated by cytofluorimetric analysis of Glycophorin A expression, by morphological analysis and erythroid globin gene expression analysis with real-time PCR. It was found that the effect of DHA was dependent on the maturation stage of erythroid cells. In fact when DHA was added to the pro- and basophilic erythroblasts caused a significant dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and a significant delay of erythroid differentiation, as measured by morphological analysis, expression of Glycophorin A by immunofluorescence and of erythroid globin genes by real-time PCR. In contrast, the inhibition of stem cells and of early progenitors was transient and masked by the subsequent exponential cell growth. No effect was observed on mature erythroid stages. This is the first demonstration that DHA affects human erythropoiesis in vitro, in a dose- and time-dependent manner; the target population seems to be the pro-erythroblast and basophilic erythroblast stage, suggesting that DHA toxicity is limited to primitive human erythropoiesis. These findings outline the relevance of DHA dosage and timing to prevent embryotoxicity and support current WHO recommendations of avoiding malaria treatment

  10. Development of an in vitro model system for studying the interaction of Equus caballus IgE with its high-affinity receptor FcɛRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabban, Sari; Ye, Hongtu; Helm, Birgit

    2013-05-15

    The binding of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to its high-affinity receptor (FcɛRI) is the central protein interaction in IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The cross-linking of the IgE/FcɛRI complex, through cognate allergens, on the surface of mast cells and basophil cells results in mediator release, and thus leads to the symptoms of type I hypersensitivity responses in mammals. To develop a baseline value for subsequent equine anti-allergy drug and vaccine research, the interaction of equine IgE with its high-affinity FcɛRI receptor was investigated following the cloning and expression of equine IgE with specificity for NIP-HSA (4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenylacetic acid conjugated to human serum albumin). Receptor recognition and effector functions were assessed in Rat Basophil Leukemia (RBL-2H3.1) cells transfected with the α chain of equine and canine FcɛRI. Results obtained showed that the equine FcɛRI receptor recognizes both equine and canine IgE and supports similar β-hexosaminidase release levels from RBL cells transfected with equine FcɛRI, peaking at 36.68% at 100ngml(-1) antigen and 32.00% at 100ngml(-1) antigen respectively. Furthermore, the binding kinetics of the equine IgE to the equine FcɛRI receptor and the canine IgE to the same receptor was measured to be KA=6.33×10(9)M(-1) and KA=1.84×10(9)M(-1) respectively. This research established basic reagents and vitro assay systems to underpin the development of rational therapeutic intervention strategies to combat equine allergic manifestations. PMID:23485176

  11. Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossios Apostolos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk (CM allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of β-lactoglobulin (blg during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC. Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was

  12. Blockade of peanut allergy with a novel Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fcγ1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human FcεRIα and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFcεRIα transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking FcγRII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fcγ can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607

  13. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibit heterogeneous CD52 expression levels and show differential sensitivity to alemtuzumab mediated cytolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva P Rao

    Full Text Available Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes by cytolytic effects in vivo. Although the cytolytic effects of alemtuzumab are dependent on the density of CD52 antigen on cells, there is scant information regarding the expression levels of CD52 on different cell types. In this study, CD52 expression was assessed on phenotypically distinct subsets of lymphoid and myeloid cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from normal donors. Results demonstrate that subsets of PBMCs express differing levels of CD52. Quantitative analysis showed that memory B cells and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs display the highest number while natural killer (NK cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs and basophils have the lowest number of CD52 molecules per cell amongst lymphoid and myeloid cell populations respectively. Results of complement dependent cytolysis (CDC studies indicated that alemtuzumab mediated profound cytolytic effects on B and T cells with minimal effect on NK cells, basophils and pDCs, correlating with the density of CD52 on these cells. Interestingly, despite high CD52 levels, mDCs and monocytes were less susceptible to alemtuzumab-mediated CDC indicating that antigen density alone does not define susceptibility. Additional studies indicated that higher expression levels of complement inhibitory proteins (CIPs on these cells partially contributes to their resistance to alemtuzumab mediated CDC. These results indicate that alemtuzumab is most effective in depleting cells of the adaptive immune system while leaving innate immune cells relatively intact.

  14. Alternative splicing of interleukin-33 and type 2 inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erin D; Simpson, Laura J; Rios, Cydney L; Ringel, Lando; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Peters, Michael C; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Gonzalez, Jeanmarie R; MacLeod, Hannah J; Christian, Laura S; Yuan, Shaopeng; Barry, Liam; Woodruff, Prescott G; Ansel, K Mark; Nocka, Karl; Seibold, Max A; Fahy, John V

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 inflammation occurs in a large subgroup of asthmatics, and novel cytokine-directed therapies are being developed to treat this population. In mouse models, interleukin-33 (IL-33) activates lung resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) to initiate airway type 2 inflammation. In human asthma, which is chronic and difficult to model, the role of IL-33 and the target cells responsible for persistent type 2 inflammation remain undefined. Full-length IL-33 is a nuclear protein and may function as an "alarmin" during cell death, a process that is uncommon in chronic stable asthma. We demonstrate a previously unidentified mechanism of IL-33 activity that involves alternative transcript splicing, which may operate in stable asthma. In human airway epithelial cells, alternative splicing of the IL-33 transcript is consistently present, and the deletion of exons 3 and 4 (Δ exon 3,4) confers cytoplasmic localization and facilitates extracellular secretion, while retaining signaling capacity. In nonexacerbating asthmatics, the expression of Δ exon 3,4 is strongly associated with airway type 2 inflammation, whereas full-length IL-33 is not. To further define the extracellular role of IL-33 in stable asthma, we sought to determine the cellular targets of its activity. Comprehensive flow cytometry and RNA sequencing of sputum cells suggest basophils and mast cells, not ILC2s, are the cellular sources of type 2 cytokines in chronic asthma. We conclude that IL-33 isoforms activate basophils and mast cells to drive type 2 inflammation in chronic stable asthma, and novel IL-33 inhibitors will need to block all biologically active isoforms. PMID:27432971

  15. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:18817975

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

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    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  17. Identification, recombinant expression, and characterization of the 100 kDa high molecular weight Hymenoptera venom allergens Api m 5 and Ves v 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Bockisch, Benjamin; Braren, Ingke; Cifuentes, Liliana; McIntyre, Mareike; Rühl, Dana; Ring, Johannes; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Ollert, Markus W; Grunwald, Thomas; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-05-01

    Insect stings can cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in venom-allergic patients. Although several compounds have already been described as venom allergens, prominent allergen candidates especially in the higher m.w. range have still remained elusive. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing assigned a candidate gene to the most prominent putative high m.w. allergen Api m 5 (allergen C) in honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom and also allowed identification of its homologue Ves v 3 in yellow jacket (Vespula vulgaris) venom. Both proteins exhibit a pronounced sequence identity to human dipeptidyl peptidase IV or CD26. Reactivity of a human IgE mAb verified the presence of these proteins in the venoms. Both proteins were produced in insect cells and characterized for their enzymatic activity as well as their allergenic potential using sera and basophils from insect venom-allergic patients. Both Api m 5 and Ves v 3 were recognized by specific IgE of the majority of patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Serologic IgE reactivity closely matched activation of human basophils by Api m 5 or Ves v 3, thus underlining their relevance in functional assays. With Api m 5 and Ves v 3, a new pair of homologous allergens becomes available for future clinical applications in diagnosis and therapy that may also contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of insect venoms. Moreover, the patient IgE reactivity together with the cellular activation demonstrates for the first time the relevance of high m.w. allergens in the context of hymenoptera venom allergy. PMID:20348419

  18. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer. PMID:24594861

  19. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ni Mi

    Full Text Available The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer.

  20. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy and immune tolerance to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early desensitization effects, modulation of T- and B-cell responses and related antibody isotypes as well as inhibition of migration of eosinophils, basophils and mast cells to tissues and release of their mediators. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been identified as key regulators of immunological processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears as a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in AIT. Naturally occurring FoxP3(+) CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and inducible type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE, and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and suppression of effector T cell migration to tissues. New strategies for immune intervention will likely include targeting of the molecular mechanisms of allergen tolerance and reciprocal regulation of effector and regulatory T cell subsets. PMID:26023323

  1. Radioimmunometric analysis of histamine in myeloproliferative syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analysis of histamine is increasingly used in clinical haematology. The present study demonstrates the properties of and potential indication for a novel histamine radioimmunoassay (RIA) in clinical haematology. The sensitivity of this test assay corresponds to a histamine level of 0,1 to 0,5 nM, the non-specific cross reaction with endogeneous histamine metabolites appears to be less than 0,1%. The total histamine levels in the peripheral blood of healthy donors (n = 10) ranged from 10 to 100 ng/ml, the plasma histamine values from 0,02 to 0,6 ng/ml blood. Increased levels of total histamine were measured in myeloproliferative syndromes, i.e. in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)(8 of 9), myelofibrosis (OMS)(2 of 4), and polycythaemia vera (PCV)(1 of 2). An excessive increase in total histamine was observed in healthy rhesus monkeys (n = 10) treated with recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3). The total histamine value correlated with the absolute number of circulating blood basophils (correlation coefficient: 0,9). The calculated content of histamine per basophil was found to be 0,5 to 1,5 pg. Plasma histamine values in patients suffering from myeloproliferative syndromes were within the normal range. In contrast, a moderate to marked increase in plasma histamine values was observed in monkeys during IL-3 treatment. The radioimmunometric analysis of histamine clearly represents a useful new test system in clinical haematology, especially in the follow up of malignant as well as IL-3-induced myeloproliferation. (Authors)

  2. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (VvBAS) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the VvBAS increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals

  3. Role of IgE in autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Miguel A; Sagar, Divya; Kolbeck, Roland

    2016-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that IgE plays a significant role in autoimmunity. The presence of circulating self-reactive IgE in patients with autoimmune disorders has been long known but, at the same time, largely understudied. However, studies have shown that the increased IgE concentration is not associated with higher prevalence for atopy and allergy in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE-mediated mechanisms are conventionally known to facilitate degranulation of mast cells and basophils and promote TH2 immunity, mechanisms that are not only central to mounting an appropriate defense against parasitic worms, noxious substances, toxins, venoms, and environmental irritants but that also trigger exuberant allergic reactions in patients with allergies. More recently, IgE autoantibodies have been recognized to participate in the self-inflicted damaging immune responses that characterize autoimmunity. Such autoimmune responses include direct damage on tissue-containing autoantigens, activation and migration of basophils to lymph nodes, and, as observed most recently, induction of type 1 interferon responses from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The importance of IgE as a central pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity has now been clinically validated by the approval of omalizumab, an anti-IgE mAb, for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and for the clinical benefit of patients with bullous pemphigoid. In this review we summarize recent reports describing the prevalence of self-reactive IgE and discuss novel findings that incriminate IgE as central in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. PMID:27264000

  4. Effect of vitamin E levels on the cell-mediated immunity of broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis

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    ICM da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the relationships between animal nutrition and immunity have sought reliable methodologies to measure responses. Cell-mediated immune response is similarly studied in humans. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity test (CBH is one of the methods to measure that response and consists in the infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly of lymphocytes and basophils, as result of the application of substances capable of inducing cell proliferation in determined sites, such as wings, wattle, and interdigital space in birds. CBH is considered a simple and fast method and can be applied in birds of different ages. In immunocompetence studies with poultry, phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P is a commonly used substance, despite the variability of the response related to the method of application (intradermal injection and the antigens used. In the present experiment, PHA-P was used to observe the cell-mediated immune response of 216 chicks fed three dietary levels of vitamin E from 1 to 36 days of age. All birds were immunologically challenged by vaccination against coccidiosis at three days of age and against Newcastle Disease (NCD at 14 and 30 days of age. At 36 days of age, birds were submitted to the CBH test according to the methodology of Corrier & DeLoach (1990. Birds fed 65mg/kg of vitamin E presented lasting cell reaction (p<0.08, which indicates that this vitamin E level improved cell immune response of birds due to its antioxidant and immunomodulating properties. The use of this vitamin E level can be considered by nutritionists under practical conditions, aiming to improve broiler immunity.

  5. Cystatin SN upregulation in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Yoshimasa; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamada, Yuko; Ono, Mizuho; Yamada, Takechiyo; Ito, Yumi; Arinami, Tadao; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Noguchi, Emiko; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) to the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (JC) pollen is an IgE-mediated type I allergy affecting nasal mucosa. However, the molecular events underlying its development remain unclear. We sought to identify SAR-associated altered gene expression in nasal epithelial cells during natural exposure to JC pollen. We recruited study participants in 2009 and 2010 and collected nasal epithelial cells between February and April, which is the period of natural pollen dispersion. Fifteen patients with SAR-JC and 13 control subjects were enrolled in 2009, and 17 SAR-JC patients, 13 sensitized asymptomatic subjects (Sensitized), and 15 control subjects were enrolled in 2010. Total RNA was extracted from nasal epithelial cells and 8 SAR-JC patients and 6 control subjects in 2009 were subjected to microarray analysis with the Illumina HumanRef-8 Expression BeadChip platform. Allergen-stimulated histamine release was examined in the peripheral blood basophils isolated from patients with SAR. We identified 32 genes with significantly altered expression during allergen exposure. One of these, CST1 encodes the cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin SN. CST1 expression in nasal epithelial cells was significantly upregulated in both the 2009 and 2010 SAR-JC groups compared with the control groups. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the increased expression of CST1 in the nasal epithelial cells of SAR patients. Addition of exogenous CST1 to basophils inhibited JC allergen-stimulated histamine release in vitro. We propose that CST1 may contribute to inactivation of protease allergens and help re-establish homeostasis of the nasal membranes. PMID:23950865

  6. Gambaran Hitung Jenis Leukosit pada Pasien Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik yang Dirawat di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang

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    Revi Sofiana Martantya

    2014-05-01

    marrow that can affect leukocyte counts in peripheral blood. Other factors that can also affect leukocyte count in COPD patients is the presence of comorbidities. The design of this study was descriptive retrospective from medical record of 69 people with COPD who were treated at the lungs and internal medicine department of dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. The result of this study show in COPD patients without comorbidities (n=9 average value of basophil counts 0±0%, eosinophils 1.22±1.2%, neutrophils rod 3.33±2.5%, neutrophils segment 79.56±9.26%, lymphocytes 13.67±6.55%, and monocytes 2.22±2.44%. COPD patients with infectious comorbidities (n=41 obtained average value of basophil counts 0±0%, eosinophils 1.02±1.59%, neutrophils rod 1.98±2.63%, neutrophils segment 81.07±8.44%, lymphocytes 12.83±6.68%, and monocytes 3.1±2.71%. In COPD patients with non-infectious comorbidities (n=19 obtained average value of basophil counts 0±0%, eosinophils 2.16±5.65%, neutrophils rod 2.16±1.77%, neutrophils segment 79.0±10.44%, lymphocytes 14.16±8.03%, and monocytes 2.53±1.87%. This study shows that COPD patients without comorbidities, with infectious, and with non-infectious comorbidities obtained neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia.Keywords:COPD, differential leukocyte count

  7. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Javanbakht; Abbas Tavassoli; Atefeh Sabbagh; Mehdy Aghamohammmad Hassan; Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Radmehr Shafiee; Ali Lakzian; Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee; Sonia Shoja Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70-5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9-90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L;reference interval, 5-60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5-55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5-5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3-17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  8. Waterborne cadmium impacts immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic endpoints in green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus

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    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cadmium (Cd) significantly altered the proportional composition of haemocytes. •Subchronic exposure increased nuclear aberrations in gill cells. •Branchial nuclear aberrations correlated significantly with gill Cd accumulation. •Cd induced DNA damage in haemocytes. -- Abstract: Mussels are sentinel species that can be used to monitor coastal metal pollution through the application of biomarkers. Among the several important metal toxicants in coastal settings, cadmium (Cd) is of particular concern, being a non-essential metal that is known to cause harmful impacts in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of Cd on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, under laboratory conditions. The acute (96 h; 0, 2000 and 4000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) and subchronic (28 d; 0, 200 and 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) toxic effects of waterborne Cd were measured in haemocytes and gill cells using differential haemocyte cell count, the micronucleus test and the comet assay. During subchronic exposure to Cd the relative counts of eosinophils and hyalinocytes increased significantly in Cd-exposed mussels while the proportion of basophils decreased. All of these effects were time- and concentration-dependent. Conversely, the relative numbers of basophils and eosinophils increased significantly during acute Cd exposure. Nuclear aberrations such as the formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds, fragmented-apoptotic cells and binuclei were observed in gill cells of Cd-exposed mussels. All of these parameters increased significantly at 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1} during subchronic exposure to Cd, and all showed a strong and significant correlation to gill Cd accumulation. Comet assay results demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage in the haemocytes of mussels exposed to subchronic Cd concentrations. The results indicate that Cd has the capacity to induce immune system and genotoxic

  9. Morphological and cytochemical observations on the peripheral blood cells of Megalobrama pellegrini%厚颌鲂外周血细胞形态及细胞化学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 杜长雷; 金丽; 张耀光

    2011-01-01

    The Wright-Giemsa(W-G) and Cytochemical staining methods were used for observations on the morphological features and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells in Megalobrama pellegrini. Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and three type of granulocytes, were identified in the peripheral blood of M. pellegrini. Except mature erythrocytes, immature erythrocytes (IE) and old erythrocytes (OE) were observed, and IE and OE are relatively less;thrombocytes are the most abundant blood cells after erythrocytes, and the next are lymphocytes. Granulocytes- Ⅰ and granulocytes- Ⅱ are more common in granulocytes, whereas granulocytes- Ⅲ are very rare. Lymphocytes, thrombocytes and immature erythrocytes showed weakly ACP positive; monocytes showed ACP and ANAE positive; granulocytes- Ⅰ are heterophils, which showed POX, PAS, ACP and ANAE positive; granulocytes-I are PAS positive granular leucocytes,which stained intensely positive with PAS and positive with ACP; granulocyte-Ⅲ is the later stage of the Granulocyte- Ⅰ .PAS-GL may be eosinophil/basophil, which couldn’t be precursor of basophil.%采用血细胞常规染色和细胞化学染色对厚颌鲂(Megalobrama pellegrini)外周血细胞形态及细胞化学特征进行观察.结果显示:厚颌鲂外周血细胞可分为红细胞、血栓细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞和三种类型粒细胞.红细胞有幼稚、成熟和衰老三种形态,其中幼稚和衰老红细胞较少见;血栓细胞数量最多,其次是淋巴细胞.粒细胞中Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型较常见,Ⅲ型粒细胞少有.细胞化学染色显示幼红细胞、血栓细胞和淋巴细胞均呈ACP弱阳性;单核细胞呈ACP和ANAE阳性;Ⅰ型粒细胞是嗜中性粒细胞,POX、ACP和ANAE阳性;Ⅱ型粒细胞是PAS-GL,PAS强阳性和ACP阳性;Ⅲ型粒细胞是Ⅰ型粒细胞的晚期形态.厚颌鲂的PAS-GL可能是嗜酸性/嗜碱性粒细胞,而不是嗜碱性粒细胞的前体.

  10. Expression of Fused in sarcoma mutations in mice recapitulates the neuropathology of FUS proteinopathies and provides insight into disease pathogenesis

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    Verbeeck Christophe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS can cause familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and rarely frontotemproal dementia (FTD. FUS accumulates in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs in ALS patients with FUS mutations. FUS is also a major pathologic marker for a group of less common forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, which includes atypical FTLD with ubiquitinated inclusions (aFTLD-U, neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID and basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD. These diseases are now called FUS proteinopathies, because they share this disease marker. It is unknown how FUS mutations cause disease and the role of FUS in FTD-FUS cases, which do not have FUS mutations. In this paper we report the development of somatic brain transgenic (SBT mice using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV to investigate how FUS mutations lead to neurodegeneration. Results We compared SBT mice expressing wild-type human FUS (FUSWT, and two ALS-linked mutations: FUSR521C and FUSΔ14, which lacks the nuclear localization signal. Both FUS mutants accumulated in the cytoplasm relative to FUSWT. The degree of this shift correlated with the severity of the FUS mutation as reflected by disease onset in humans. Mice expressing the most aggressive mutation, FUSΔ14, recapitulated many aspects of FUS proteinopathies, including insoluble FUS, basophilic and eosiniphilic NCIs, and other pathologic markers, including ubiquitin, p62/SQSTM1, α-internexin, and the poly-adenylate(A-binding protein 1 (PABP-1. However, TDP-43 did not localize to inclusions. Conclusions Our data supports the hypothesis that ALS or FTD-linked FUS mutations cause neurodegeneration by increasing cyotplasmic FUS. Accumulation of FUS in the cytoplasm may retain RNA targets and recruit additional RNA-binding proteins, such as PABP-1, into stress-granule like aggregates that coalesce into

  11. T-cell response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Cevdet; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening IgE-dependent type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in which multiple organ systems are involved. The existence of allergen exposure and specific IgE are the major contributors to this systemic reaction. The decision of the immune system to respond to allergens is highly dependent on factors including the type and load of allergen, behavior and type of antigen-presenting cells, innate immune response stimulating substances in the same micromilieu, the tissue of exposure, interactions between T and B lymphocytes, costimulators, and genetic propensity known as atopy. Antigen-presenting cells introduce processed allergens to T-helper lymphocytes, where a decision of developing different types of T-cell immunity is given under the influence of several cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory signals and regulatory T cells. Among Th2-type cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are responsible for class switching in B cells, which results in production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies that bind to specific receptors on mast cells and basophils. After re-exposure to the sensitized allergen, this phase is followed by activation of IgE Fc receptors on mast cells and basophils resulting in biogenic mediator releases responsible for the symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis. Since the discovery of regulatory T cells, the concepts of immune regulation have substantially changed during the last decade. Peripheral T-cell tolerance is a key immunologic mechanism in healthy immune response to self antigens and non-infectious non-self antigens. Both naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible populations of allergen-specific, IL-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells inhibit allergen-specific effector cells and have been shown to play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and the establishment of controlled immune responses. On the other hand, Th17 cells are characterized by their IL-17 (or IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-6

  12. Waterborne cadmium impacts immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic endpoints in green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Cadmium (Cd) significantly altered the proportional composition of haemocytes. •Subchronic exposure increased nuclear aberrations in gill cells. •Branchial nuclear aberrations correlated significantly with gill Cd accumulation. •Cd induced DNA damage in haemocytes. -- Abstract: Mussels are sentinel species that can be used to monitor coastal metal pollution through the application of biomarkers. Among the several important metal toxicants in coastal settings, cadmium (Cd) is of particular concern, being a non-essential metal that is known to cause harmful impacts in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of Cd on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, under laboratory conditions. The acute (96 h; 0, 2000 and 4000 μg Cd L−1) and subchronic (28 d; 0, 200 and 2000 μg Cd L−1) toxic effects of waterborne Cd were measured in haemocytes and gill cells using differential haemocyte cell count, the micronucleus test and the comet assay. During subchronic exposure to Cd the relative counts of eosinophils and hyalinocytes increased significantly in Cd-exposed mussels while the proportion of basophils decreased. All of these effects were time- and concentration-dependent. Conversely, the relative numbers of basophils and eosinophils increased significantly during acute Cd exposure. Nuclear aberrations such as the formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds, fragmented-apoptotic cells and binuclei were observed in gill cells of Cd-exposed mussels. All of these parameters increased significantly at 2000 μg Cd L−1 during subchronic exposure to Cd, and all showed a strong and significant correlation to gill Cd accumulation. Comet assay results demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage in the haemocytes of mussels exposed to subchronic Cd concentrations. The results indicate that Cd has the capacity to induce immune system and genotoxic damage in green

  13. First cytochemical study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    V. Matozzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a morphological study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii was carried out by means of light microscopy and differing cytochemical assays. Analysis of haemocyte size frequency distribution (performed by means of a Coulter Counter revealed the presence of two distinct haemocyte fractions in C. aestuarii haemolymph, depending on cell size. The first fraction was of about 3-5 µm in diameter and 30-50 fL in volume, the second was of about 6-12 µm in diameter and over 200 fL in volume. Mean cell diameter and volume were 8.20±1.7 µm and 272.30±143.5 fL, respectively. Haemocytes observed under light microscope were distinguished in three cell types: granulocytes (28%; 11.94±1.43 µm in diameter with evident cytoplasmic granules, semigranulocytes (27%; 12.38±1.76 µm in diameter with less granules than granulocytes, and hyalinocytes (44%; 7.88±1.6 µm in diameter without granules. In addition, a peculiar cell type was occasionally found (about 1%: it was 25-30 µm in diameter and had a great vacuole and a peripheral cytoplasm with granules. Granulocyte and semigranulocyte granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. Giemsa’s dye confirmed that granulocytes and semigranulocytes were larger than hyalinocytes. Pappenheim’s panoptical staining and Ehrlich’s triacid mixture allowed to distinguish granule-containing cells (including semigranulocytes in acidophils (64%, basophils (35% and neutrophils (1%. Hyalinocytes showed always a basophilic cytoplasm. Haemocytes were positive to the PAS reaction for carbohydrates, even if cytoplasm carbohydrate distribution varied among cell types. Lastly, lipids were found on cell membrane and in cytoplasm of all haemocyte types in the form of black spots produced after Sudan Black B staining. The morphological characterisation of C. aestuarii haemocytes by light microscopy was necessary before performing both ultrastructural and functional

  14. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  15. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad; Javanbakht; Abbas; Tavassoli; Atefeh; Sabbagh; Mehdy; Aghamohammmad; Hassan; Shohreh; Alian; Samakkhah; Radmehr; Shafiee; Ali; Lakzian; Vahideh; Rahmani; Ghalee; Sonia; Shoja; Gharebagh

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia.A complete blood cell count,serum biochemistry panel,and urinalysis(cystocentesis sample)were evaluated.Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration(7.28 mmol/L;reference interval,2.70-5.94 mmol/L),increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity(184 U/L;reference interval,9-90 U/L),alanine transaminase(122 U/L;reference interval,5-60 U/L)activity and aspartate aminotransferase(80 U/L;reference interval,5-55 U/L)activity,severe increased total calcium concentration(16.3 mg/dL;reference interval,8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL),and decreased total calcium concentration(3.4 mg/dL,reference interval,2.5-5.6mg/dL).Furthermore,testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration(38.6 pmol/L;reference interval,3-17 pmol/L).On cytologic and histopathologic examinations,various types of cells were observed.Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm.The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm.Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures.Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus.Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed.Histologically,the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells.Based on location and histologic features,the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac,which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.

  16. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  17. Chemokines: structure, receptors and functions. A new target for inflammation and asthma therapy?

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    F. A. A. van Acker

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Five to 10% of the human population have a disorder of the respiratory tract called ‘asthma’. It has been known as a potentially dangerous disease for over 2000 years, as it was already described by Hippocrates and recognized as a disease entity by Egyptian and Hebrew physicians. At the beginning of this decade, there has been a fundamental change in asthma management. The emphasis has shifted from symptom relief with bronchodilator therapies (e.g. β2-agonists to a much earlier introduction of anti-inflammatory treatment (e.g. corticosteroids. Asthma is now recognized to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, involving various inflammatory cells and their mediators. Although asthma has been the subject of many investigations, the exact role of the different inflammatory cells has not been elucidated completely. Many suggestions have been made and several cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, such as the eosinophils, the mast cells, the basophils and the lymphocytes. To date, however, the relative importance of these cells is not completely understood. The cell type predominantly found in the asthmatic lung is the eosinophil and the recruitment of these eosinophils can be seen as a characteristic of asthma. In recent years much attention is given to the role of the newly identified chemokines in asthma pathology. Chemokines are structurally and functionally related 8–10 kDa peptides that are the products of distinct genes clustered on human chromosomes 4 and 17 and can be found at sites of inflammation. They form a superfamily of proinflammatory mediators that promote the recruitment of various kinds of leukocytes and lymphocytes. The chemokine superfamily can be divided into three subgroups based on overall sequence homology. Although the chemokines have highly conserved amino acid sequences, each of the chemokines binds to and induces the chemotaxis of particular classes of white blood cells. Certain

  18. Analysis of hematologic and serum chemistry values of Spheniscus magellanicus with molecular detection of avian malarial parasites (Plasmodium spp.

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    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus routinely migrate from their breeding colonies to Southern Brazil often contracting diseases during this migration, notably avian malaria, which has been already reported in Brazil and throughout the world. Detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood smears is the routine diagnostic method of avian malaria, however it has a low sensitivity rate when compared to molecular methods. Considering the negative impact of avian malaria on penguins, the aim of this study was to detect the presence of Plasmodium spp. in Magellanic penguins using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by verifying clinical, hematological, and biochemical alterations in blood samples as well as to verify the likely prognosis in response to infection. Blood samples were obtained from 75 penguins to determine packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels. Whole blood samples were used for PCR assays. Plasmodium spp. was detected in 32.0% of the specimens using PCR and in 29.3% using microscopic analyses. Anorexia, diarrhea and neurological disorders were more frequent in penguins with malaria and a significant weight difference between infected and non-infected penguins was detected. PCV and MCV rates showed no significant difference. RBC and WBC counts were lower in animals with avian malaria and leukopenia was present in some penguins. Basophil and lymphocyte counts were lower in infected penguins along with high monocyte counts. There was no significant difference in AST activities between infected and non-infected animals. There was a significant increase in uric acid values, however a decrease in albumin values was observed in infected penguins. Based on this study, we concluded that Plasmodium spp. occurs in Magellanic penguins of rehabilitation centers in Southeastern Brazil

  19. Características das células parasitadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi na parede da veia central das supra-renais de Chagásicos crônicos

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    Hipolito de Oliveira Almeida

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os aspectos das células musculares parasitadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, na veia da supra-renal de chagásicos crônicos, através de exame ao microscópio óptico de lâminas coradas pela hematoxilina-eosina (HE, PAS, Feulgen e peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP para antigenos do T. cruzi. Além das modificações nucleares descritas anteriormente, os leiomiócitos parasitados exibem alterações citoplasmáticas que podem ser vistas mesmo em células que albergam poucos parasitas. As formas amastigotas geralmente estão envoltas por halo claro e o citoplasma restante adquire aspecto granuloso ou reticular, basófilopelo HE, sendo sempre PAS e Feulgen negativos. Estes dados sugerem que o material basófilo no citoplasma deve ser RNA ribossômico. A periferia dos ninhos que mostram uma "membrana" com reação do PAP para antigenos do T. cruzi fortemente positiva, poderia ser devida a reação cruzada de material celular rechaçado para a periferia ou a difusão de antigenos do T. cruzi e sua adsorção à periferia celular. O material citoplasmático PAP positivo poderia resultar de artefato, de reação imunocitoquimica cruzada, de antigenos tripanossomóticos difundidos ou de antigenos tripanossoma-simile resultantes de interações entre o leiomiócito e o parasita.Some morphologic aspects of the smooth muscle cells, parasitised by T. cruzi in the adrenal vein of chronic chagasic patients were studied. The staining techniques used were the following: Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE, PAS, Feulgen and the peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP immunocyto chemical method for identification of T. cruzi antigen. The intracellular amastigotes were often surrounded by a clear halo and the cytoplasm of the parasitised smooth muscle cells were granular or reticular in appearance being basophil and, PAS and Feulgen negative. These data suggest that the cytoplasmatic basophil material could be ribosomic RNA. The intracellular nests of amastigotes were

  20. Morfologia de células neurológicas e imunológicas da medula espinhal de cães (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1215 Morphology of neurological and immunologic cells of canine spinal cord - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i3.1215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Pacheco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a morfologia de neurônios, de neuróglia e de células de defesa da pia-máter das regiões cervical, torácica e lombar da medula espinhal de cães. Utilizaram-se as técnicas da hematoxilina-eosina (HE, do tricrômico de Masson (TM, da impregnação pela prata e da peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP. Pela coloração com TM, evidenciaram-se neurônios com núcleo acidófilo e citoplasma basófilo e com HE, o núcleo mostrou-se basófilo e o citoplasma acidófilo. Observou-se irregularidade nos prolongamentos citoplasmáticos (núcleo grande, esférico ou oval, pouco corado, com cromatina frouxa e um ou mais nucléolos evidentes. Pela PAP, visualizou-se astrócitos com citoplasma marrom e núcleo roxo-azulado, possuindo os fibrosos prolongamentos longos e menos ramificados e os protoplasmáticos, prolongamentos curtos e abundantes. Pela prata, evidenciou-se oligodendróglia com corpo celular arredondado e micróglia com corpo celular alongado e pequeno, tanto nas substâncias brancas quanto nas cinzentas. As células ependimárias apresentaram epitélio cilíndrico simples ciliado e as células de defesa apresentaram neutrófilos segmentados e eosinófilosThis study analyzed neurons and neuroglia morphology, and pia mater defensive cells from canine spinal cord cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE, Masson’s trichrome (MT, silver and anti-peroxydase peroxydase (APP stains were used. By MT, neurons with acidophilic nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm were observed. HE showed neurons with basophilic nucleus and acidophilic cytoplasm. Irregularity of cytoplasmatic processes, large, round or oval nucleus, pale-stained, and one or more nucleolus was also noted. By APP, astrocytes were visualized with brown cytoplasm and blue-purple nucleus, showing fibrous astrocytes with long and less ramified processes, and protoplasmic astrocytes with short and ramified processes. Silver stain showed oligodendrocytes with round

  1. Signal transduction around thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in atopic asthma

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    Kuepper Michael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, a novel interleukin-7-like cytokine, triggers dendritic cell-mediated inflammatory responses ultimately executed by T helper cells of the Th2 subtype. TSLP emerged as a central player in the development of allergic symptoms, especially in the airways, and is a prime regulatory cytokine at the interface of virus- or antigen-exposed epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs activated by epithelium-derived TSLP can promote naïve CD4+ T cells to adopt a Th2 phenotype, which in turn recruite eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes as well as mast cells into the airway mucosa. These different cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines operative in inducing an allergic inflammation and atopic asthma. TSLP is, thus, involved in the control of both an innate and an adaptive immune response. Since TSLP links contact of allergen with the airway epithelium to the onset and maintainance of the asthmatic syndrome, defining the signal transduction underlying TSLP expression and function is of profound interest for a better understandimg of the disease and for the development of new therapeutics.

  2. T Cell Epitope Immunotherapy Induces a CD4+ T Cell Population with Regulatory Activity

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    Verhoef Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Synthetic peptides, representing CD4+ T cell epitopes, derived from the primary sequence of allergen molecules have been used to down-regulate allergic inflammation in sensitised individuals. Treatment of allergic diseases with peptides may offer substantial advantages over treatment with native allergen molecules because of the reduced potential for cross-linking IgE bound to the surface of mast cells and basophils. Methods and Findings In this study we address the mechanism of action of peptide immunotherapy (PIT in cat-allergic, asthmatic patients. Cell-division-tracking dyes, cell-mixing experiments, surface phenotyping, and cytokine measurements were used to investigate immunomodulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs after therapy. Proliferative responses of PBMCs to allergen extract were significantly reduced after PIT. This was associated with modified cytokine profiles generally characterised by an increase in interleukin-10 and a decrease in interleukin-5 production. CD4+ cells isolated after PIT were able to actively suppress allergen-specific proliferative responses of pretreatment CD4neg PBMCs in co-culture experiments. PIT was associated with a significant increase in surface expression of CD5 on both CD4+ and CD8+ PBMCs. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the induction of a population of CD4+ T cells with suppressor/regulatory activity following PIT. Furthermore, up-regulation of cell surface levels of CD5 may contribute to reduced reactivity to allergen.

  3. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

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    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  4. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  5. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (Chiroptera: Myzopodidae) endemic to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of the endotheliomonochorial type. There was a single layer of trophoblast cells. The cells of the maternal endothelium were large and basophilic, contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and rested on an irregular basement membrane. Blunt projections of endometrium extended into the placental disk and clusters of large cells occurred between the endometrial stroma and labyrinth. At the margins of the disk folds of trophoblast occurred and at the cranial end they formed an haemophagous region. The folds lateral to the disk included some peculiar tubular-appearing structures. There was a persistent yolk sac containing large endodermal cells around a largely collapsed lumen. Several features of placentation, such as the interhaemal barrier and the haemophagous region, are consistent with an association of Myzopodidae with Emballonuridae. No support was found for alternative hypotheses that include Myzopodidae in the noctilionoid or vespertilionoid lineages. PMID:18374977

  6. Re-evaluation of the kidney tumors and renal histopathology occurring in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Gordon C; Seely, John Curtis; Betz, Laura J; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2007-04-01

    Renal histopathology in the most recent 2-year carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin, in Fischer 344 rats, was re-evaluated in an attempt to determine a mode of action underlying a small increase in renal tubule tumors reported in the males (). The re-evaluation confirmed the reported increase in renal tumors in mid- and high-dose males, including a single carcinoma in a high-dose male, as well as an exacerbation of spontaneous, chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) in male rats only. The re-evaluation also showed that there were no cellular alterations in the kidney indicative of chemical toxicity at 6 months, 15 months, or 2 years. The evidence linked the occurrence of the predominant basophilic adenomas and foci of atypical tubule hyperplasia (ATH) with the exacerbation of CPN to advanced grades of severity, supporting a mode of action involving quercetin interaction with CPN. This mode of action represents a secondary mechanism for renal tumor development, with no relevance for extrapolation to humans. In addition, the single carcinoma present in the high-dose males, along with 4 other lesions ranging from ATH to adenoma in male and female groups, were considered to have a unique phenotype associated previously with neoplasms of spontaneous and familial origin. PMID:17156907

  7. The thermal aggregation of ovalbumin as large particles decreases its allergenicity for egg allergic patients and in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, M; Lupi, R; Bouchaud, G; Bodinier, M; Brossard, C; Denery-Papini, S

    2016-07-15

    Most egg-allergic children can tolerate extensively cooked eggs. Ovalbumin, a major allergen in egg whites, is prone to aggregate upon heating. This study compares ovalbumin's allergenicity when it is aggregated as large particles to ovalbumin in its native form. Immunoglobulins (Ig)-binding and the degranulation capacities of native and aggregated ovalbumin were measured with sera from egg-allergic children and from mice sensitized to native or aggregated ovalbumin. The influence of ovalbumin structure on Ig production upon sensitization and elicitation potency by challenge was also studied. We showed that heat aggregation of ovalbumin as large particles enhances IgG production and promotes IgG2a production (a shift toward the T helper 1 profile). Aggregated ovalbumin displayed lower Ig-binding and basophil-activation capacities for sera from both allergic patients and mice. This work illustrates the links between ovalbumin structure after heating and allergenicity potential using parameters from both the sensitization and elicitation phases of the allergic reaction. PMID:26948598

  8. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

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    A. J. Theron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1 antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5′-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies.

  9. Target interaction profiling of midostaurin and its metabolites in neoplastic mast cells predicts distinct effects on activation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, B; Winter, G E; Blatt, K; Bennett, K L; Stefanzl, G; Rix, U; Eisenwort, G; Hadzijusufovic, E; Gridling, M; Dutreix, C; Hoermann, G; Schwaab, J; Radia, D; Roesel, J; Manley, P W; Reiter, A; Superti-Furga, G; Valent, P

    2016-02-01

    Proteomic-based drug testing is an emerging approach to establish the clinical value and anti-neoplastic potential of multikinase inhibitors. The multikinase inhibitor midostaurin (PKC412) is a promising new agent used to treat patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM). We examined the target interaction profiles and the mast cell (MC)-targeting effects of two pharmacologically relevant midostaurin metabolites, CGP52421 and CGP62221. All three compounds, midostaurin and the two metabolites, suppressed IgE-dependent histamine secretion in basophils and MC with reasonable IC50 values. Midostaurin and CGP62221 also produced growth inhibition and dephosphorylation of KIT in the MC leukemia cell line HMC-1.2, whereas the second metabolite, CGP52421, which accumulates in vivo, showed no substantial effects. Chemical proteomic profiling and drug competition experiments revealed that midostaurin interacts with KIT and several additional kinase targets. The key downstream regulator FES was recognized by midostaurin and CGP62221, but not by CGP52421 in MC lysates, whereas the IgE receptor downstream target SYK was recognized by both metabolites. Together, our data show that the clinically relevant midostaurin metabolite CGP52421 inhibits IgE-dependent histamine release, but is a weak inhibitor of MC proliferation, which may have clinical implications and may explain why mediator-related symptoms improve in SM patients even when disease progression occurs. PMID:26349526

  10. The effects of ionizing radiation on the B lymphocyte immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the experimental work concerning the effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system was performed prior to the current developments in immunology. Most of the experiments must be repeated in order to study the radiation effects on defined populations of cells or cooperative immune mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is possible at the present time to conclude that: I) The humoral responses are generally more radiosensitive than the cellular immune responses; II) correspondingly, B lymphocytes are quite radiosensitive and probably are subject to interphase as well as mitotic death following irradiation; III) Conversely, activated B cells such as B lymphoblasts or plasmablasts are radioresistant while non-dividing antibody-synthesizing cells are highly radioresistant. The consequences of the ionizing radiation exposure to the humoral immune system are clearly important. The nature of the alterations or damages caused to the infection related immunity can be measured at two levels: 1) a decrease of specific antibody synthesis and as a consequence, 2) a diminution of all antibody dependent cytotoxicity which can include, directly or indirectly, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, etc. Further studies on all presently evoked aspects are clearly required. (orig./MG)

  11. Feline cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (Merkel cell tumour): clinical and pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Giorgio; Properzi, Roberto; Porto, Roberto; Nardini, Vincenzo; Poli, Alessandro; Abramo, Francesca

    2003-04-01

    A case of a feline Merkel cell tumour is described. An 8-year-old, female cat developed a round, alopecic, reddish mass on the nose. Wide excisional surgery was performed with cartilage resection. Histologically the mass was composed of solid islands of mostly basophilic densely packed cells with a scant cytoplasm, which was suggestive of a neuroendocrine origin. Results of immunohistochemical studies using antibodies against neurone-specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin and pan-cytokeratin allowed classification of the lesion as a Merkel cell tumour. Ultrastructurally, dense core granules were identified in the cytoplasm. In a 2-year follow-up no relapses or metastases were observed. The clinical course recorded is in contrast with the malignant nature of a Merkel cell tumour recently described in a cat and of the human Merkel cell tumour, but is similar to the course of the canine Merkel cell tumour which is often benign. Early diagnosis along with the use of wide surgical excision might be considered an important factor in preventing relapse of this tumour. PMID:12662269

  12. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

  13. Inflammatory myopathy with abundant macrophages (IMAM): a condition sharing similarities with cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis and distinct from macrophagic myofasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, Guillaume; Authier, Francois-Jérôme; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Delfau-Larue, Marie Hélène; Plonquet, Anne; Coquet, Michelle; Illa, Isabel; Gherardi, Romain K

    2003-05-01

    We describe the unreported pattern of inflammatory myopathy with abundant macrophages (IMAM) as a main differential diagnosis of postimmunization aluminum hydroxide-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF). IMAM was mainly detected among patients with a dermatomyositis (DM)-like disease. Among 113 muscle biopsies from DM patients collected from 1974 to 2000, intensity of macrophage infiltration was highly variable: 41.5% (-/+); 34.5% (+); 17% (++): and 7% (+++). The 27 patients from groups (++) and (+++) had a similar pattern of macrophagic infiltration and were considered to have IMAM. They were compared to 40 MMF patients. In IMAM, macrophage infiltrates were diffuse and correlated positively with both T cell infiltrates and acute muscle fiber damage, and showed pictures of hemophagocytosis (21/27). Connective tissue structures were infiltrated by noncohesive, ribbon-forming collections of large basophilic macrophages containing no crystalline inclusions. In MMF, macrophage infiltrates were focal and formed compact well-delineated aggregates of granular PAS+ cells, loaded with crystalline aluminum hydroxide particles, in the absence of either hemophagocytosis or conspicuous muscle damage. Review of the literature indicates similarities between IMAM and "cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis" (CHP), a condition characterized by T cell-triggered macrophage hyperactivation. Both IMAM and CHP, but not MMF, may be associated with a life-threatening hemophagocytic syndrome. PMID:12769186

  14. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  15. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis. PMID:18758634

  16. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyachenko Viktor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that Anaplasma (A. platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, few reports are available from the Balkans. This case report describes a dog, which was imported from Croatia to Germany in May 2010. One month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in Germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. Diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Borrelia burgdorferi and/or Dirofilaria immitis. Findings Haematological examination of a blood smear revealed basophilic inclusions in thrombocytes, which were confirmed as A. platys with a species-specific real-time PCR. Additionally, an infection with Babesia (B. vogeli was also detected (PCR and serology. No specific antibodies against Anaplasma antigen were detectable. Although the dog showed no specific clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP were observed. Sequencing of a 1,348-bp partial ribosomal RNA gene revealed highest homology to A. platys sequences from Thailand, Japan and France. Conclusions A. platys was detected for first time in a dog imported from Croatia. As the dog was also co-infected by B. vogeli, unique serological and haematological findings were recorded. Thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated values of C-reactive protein were the laboratory test abnormalities observed in this case. A. platys infections should be considered in dogs coming from Croatia and adjacent regions.

  17. Hematological Indices of Sickle Cell Anaemia Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagir G. Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the fourth highest prevalence of TB and the highest prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia (SCA in the world. SCA patients have impaired immunity and are vulnerable to TB. Hence, we studied the haematological indices of SCA patients with TB in Nigeria. A total of 23 SCA patients with TB were studied in parallel with equal number of age and sex matched SCA patients without TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly lower haematocrit, higher level of circulating sickle cells (CSCs and similar level of reticulocyte count in comparison to patients without TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly higher mean WBC count associated with higher frequency of neutrophilia in comparison to those without TB. Monocytosis and eosinopenia were exclusively found in SCA patients with TB at frequencies of 52% and 65% respectively. Lymphocyte and basophil counts were normal in all patients with and without TB. Mean platelet counts were high in both patient groups but the frequency of thrombocytosis was significantly higher in patients with TB. SCA patients with TB had significantly higher mean ESR than their counterparts without the infection. The findings of this study  revealed that TB in SCA patients was associated with rising level of CSCs, falling level of haematocrit, sub-optimal reticulocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, thrombocytosis, eosinopenia and rising level of ESR. Hence, SCA patients presenting with these haematological indices should be investigated for TB.

  18. The Quintiles Prize Lecture 2004: The identification of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine is a powerful bronchoconstrictor of asthmatic, but not normal, airways. In vitro studies on isolated human mast cells and basophils revealed that adenosine and selective analogues augmented inflammatory mediator release from mast cells by stimulating A2 receptors. Pharmacological blockade of mast cell mediator release in vivo also attenuated adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, as did theophylline, by adenosine A2 receptor antagonism. Further in vitro studies revealed that the asthmatic response to adenosine is likely to be mediated via the A2B subtype which is selectively antagonised by enprofylline. Studies in animal models, especially mice, have shown a close synergistic interaction between adenosine, Th2 and airway remodelling responses. The recent description of A2B receptors on human airway smooth muscle cells that mediate cytokine and chemokine release and induce differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts strengthens the view that adenosine maybe more than an inflammatory mediator in asthma but also participates in airway wall remodelling in this disease. These data have provided a firm basis for developing adenosine A2B receptor antagonists as a new therapeutic approach to this disease. PMID:15980878

  19. The Quintiles Prize Lecture 2004. The identification of the adenosine A2B receptor as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2005-08-01

    Adenosine is a powerful bronchoconstrictor of asthmatic, but not normal, airways. In vitro studies on isolated human mast cells and basophils revealed that adenosine and selective analogues augmented inflammatory mediator release from mast cells by stimulating A(2) receptors. Pharmacological blockade of mast cell mediator release in vivo also attenuated adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction, as did theophylline, by adenosine A(2) receptor antagonism. Further in vitro studies revealed that the asthmatic response to adenosine is likely to be mediated via the A(2B) subtype which is selectively antagonised by enprofylline. Studies in animal models, especially mice, have shown a close synergistic interaction between adenosine, Th2 and airway remodelling responses. The recent description of A(2B) receptors on human airway smooth muscle cells that mediate cytokine and chemokine release and induce differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts strengthens the view that adenosine maybe more than an inflammatory mediator in asthma but also participates in airway wall remodelling in this disease. These data have provided a firm basis for developing adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonists as a new therapeutic approach to this disease. PMID:15980878

  20. Mielograma de ratas com disfunção tireoidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Castro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cells of the myelo id, lymphoid , and erythroid lineage s of the bone marrow were quantified in rats with hypo and hyperthyroidism. Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups: hypothyroid (n=5, hyperthyroid (n=5 , and control (n=5. Three months after the onset of the treatment s, euthanasia was performed . Bone marrow was aspirated from femurs of each animal to perform smear s that were stained with Quick Panoptic. T he percentage s of rubroblast, prorubrocyte, metarubrocyte, myeloblast, promyelocytes, metamyelocytes, myel ocytes, segmented, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and monocytes in were determined a total of 500 cells. The bone marrow of animals with hypothyroidism had hypoplasia. The myeloid:erythroid ratio was higher in animals with thyroid dysfun ction. In hypo and hyperthyroidism, there was a significant reduction of the percentage of rubrocyte, metarubrocyte , and lymphocytes and increase of myelocytes and segmented cells. In hypothyroidism, there was a significant increase in the percentage of me tamyelocytes. It is c oncluded that both hypo and hyperfunction of thyroid increase the myeloid:erythroid ratio by increasing the number of cells of the myeloid lineage and reducing the cells of the erythroid lineage.

  1. Acute myeloid leukemia of donor origin after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a sibling who harbors germline XPD and XRCC3 homozygous polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Dayse A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed with infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma. Two years after treatment, the patient developed an acute myeloid leukemia (AML which harbored del(11q23 in 8% of the blast cells. The patient was submitted for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT from her HLA-compatible sister. Ten months after transplantation, she relapsed with an AML with basophilic maturation characterized by CD45low CD33high, CD117+, CD13-/+, HLA Drhigh, CD123high, and CD203c+ blast cells lacking expression of CD7, CD10, CD34, CD15, CD14, CD56, CD36, CD64, and cytoplasmic tryptase. Karyotype analysis showed the emergence of a new clone with t(2;14 and FISH analysis indicated the presence of MLL gene rearrangement consistent with del(11q23. Interestingly, AML blast cell DNA tested with microsatellite markers showed the same pattern as the donor's, suggesting that this AML emerged from donor cells. Additionally, polymorphisms of the XPA, XPD, XRCC1, XRCC3 and RAD51 DNA repair genes revealed three unfavorable alleles with low DNA repair capacity. In summary, we report the first case of AML involving XPD and XRCC3 polymorphisms from donor origin following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and highlight the potential need for careful analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms in selecting candidate donors prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  2. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports. PMID:24009635

  3. Immunological Changes on Allergic Response after Beevenom Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ha Han

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Beevenom immunotherapy(BVIT in allergic patients is a well-established treatment modality for the prevention of systemic anaphylactic reactions caused by insect stings. BVIT is accompanied by increases in allergen-specific IgG, particularly the IgG4 isotype, which blocks not only IgE-dependent histamine release from basophils but also IgE-mediated antigen presentation to T cells. Inhibition of T cells after BVIT also involves decreased induction of the costimulatory molecule ICOS, which, in turn, seems to be dependent on the presence of IL-10, also associated with the inhibited status of T cells after BVIT. Suppression of T cells by IL-10 is an active process, which depends on the expression and participation of CD28. Immune tolerance in specific allergen immunotherapy might be a consequence of decreased Th2 or increased Th1 response of allergen specific T lymphocytes. BVIT shifted cytokine responses to allergen from a TH-2 to a TH-1 dominant pattern, suggesting direct effects on T cells. Many studies showed that severe side effects due to venom immunotherapy are rare. These results suggest that immunological changes after BVIT may be applied to be therapeutic alternative of general allergic diseases including beevenom allergy.

  4. Lipid body accumulation alters calcium signaling dynamics in immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greineisen, William E.; Speck, Mark; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Phan, Nolwenn; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Stokes, Alexander J.; Turner, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is well-established variability in the numbers of lipid bodies (LB) in macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Similarly to the steatosis observed in adipocytes and hepatocytes during hyperinsulinemia and nutrient overload, immune cell LB hyper-accumulate in response to bacterial and parasitic infection and inflammatory presentations. Recently we described that hyperinsulinemia, both in vitro and in vivo, drives steatosis and phenotypic changes in primary and transformed mast cells and basophils. LB reach high numbers in these steatotic cytosols, and here we propose that they could dramatically impact the transcytoplasmic signaling pathways. We compared calcium release and influx responses at the population and single cell level in normal and steatotic model mast cells. At the population level, all aspects of FcεRI-dependent calcium mobilization, as well as activation of calcium-dependent downstream signalling targets such as NFATC1 phosphorylation are suppressed. At the single cell level, we demonstrate that LB are both sources and sinks of calcium following FcεRI cross-linking. Unbiased analysis of the impact of the presence of LB on the rate of trans-cytoplasmic calcium signals suggest that LB enrichment accelerates calcium propagation, which may reflect a Bernoulli effect. LB abundance thus impacts this fundamental signalling pathway and its downstream targets. PMID:25016314

  5. Endogenous leukotriene formation during anaphylactic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukotriene (LT)C4 is a biologically active substance, presumed to play major roles as a mediator of allergic and anaphylactic reactions. It is formed e.g. by basophilic and eosinophilic leukocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and mast cells. In cells having IgE receptors, bridging of these by divalent anti-IgE-receptor antibodies or by interaction between receptor-bound IgE and anti-IgE will induce LTC4 formation. Leukotriene formation has also been demonstrated in other in vitro models of immediate hypersensivity. The biological actions of LTC4, comprise induction of airway obstruction, constriction of coronary arteries, hypotension, and plasma extravasation. Leukotriene formation in vivo may mediate anaphylactic shock symptoms and cause the death of an animal. In order to prove the presumed mediator role of this substance in anaphylactic reactions, it is necessary to demonstrate its endogenous formation during shock. Studies on the metabolism of LTC4 have revealed rapid catabolism by various transformations of the peptide substituent. Recently, three metabolites were demonstrated to be excreted as end-products in man (LTE4,) and the rat (N-acetyl LTE4 and N-acetyl 11-trans LTE4). By monitoring biliary N-acetyl LTE4 levels, endogenous leukotriene formation in the rat was demonstrated in vivo after tissue trauma and endotoxin shock. We now wish to report evidence for endogenous leukotriene C4 production during anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs. 37 refs. (author)

  6. Polystyrene tube radioimmunoabsorbent assay for IgE anti-penicillin antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed based on the binding capacity of polystyrene for proteins. The method was tested on sera from thirteen patients with suspected penicillin allergy, five healthy controls, and three patients with seasonal pollen reactions. The results were compared with those obtained by the radio-allergoabsorbent method (RAST) and with basophil degranulation by penicillin. A penicillin/ovalbumin conjugate (pen-OA) was prepared and polystyrene tubes were incubated with pen-OA, 3% human serum albumin to block free sites, 1/10 dilution of test serum, anti-IgE antiserum specific for epsilon chains, and 125I-IgE. The tubes were washed after the incubation period and the empty tubes counted in a γ scintillation counter. The specificity of the method was tested by an inhibition assay. The technique seemed more sensitive than the RAST method, the results were reproducible and in general showed good correlation with those of the RAST method. This polystyrene tube radioimmunoabsorbent method therefore provides a simple, specific and sensitive diagnostic technique for penicillin allergy. (U.K)

  7. Case report. First description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Malatesta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of the ubiquitous fungus Emmonsia spp., a common soil inhabitant. Information about the replication and dissemination of the fungus from the primary site is lacking. Members of the Family Mustelidae seem to be highly susceptible to this infection, which has been previously reported in otters (Lutra lutra in Czech Republic/Slovakia, Finland and in the UK. In many cases, Emmonsia-associated lesions have also been reported as incidental findings during necropsies of otherwise healthy animals. A road-killed male Eurasian otter was submitted for the post-mortem examination on 21st December 2009 at the Veterinary Pathology Unit of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Teramo, as part of the RECAL [RECovery and post‑mortem Analysis of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra in the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni (Salerno, Italy, and surrounding areas] project. Histologically, multifocal round structures with a PAS-positive thick tri-laminar wall and a central basophilic granular mass were observed within the alveoli. The adiaspores were surrounded by a severe granulomatous reaction with high number of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. Numerous multifocal cholesterol granulomas were observed close to those fungal-induced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of adiaspiromycosis in an Eurasian otter in Italy.

  8. Characterization of rabbit ileal receptors for Clostridium difficile toxin A. Evidence for a receptor-coupled G protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the surface receptor for toxin A, the enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, on rabbit intestinal brush borders (BB) and on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. Purified toxin A was radiolabeled using a modified Bolton-Hunter method to sp act 2 microCi/micrograms, with retention of full biologic activity. 3H-Toxin A bound specifically to a single class of receptors on rabbit BB and on RBL cells with dissociation constants of 5.4 x 10(-8) and 3.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively. RBL cells were highly sensitive to toxin A (cell rounding) and had 180,000 specific binding sites per cell, whereas IMR-90 fibroblasts were far less sensitive to toxin A and lacked detectable specific binding sites. Exposure of BB to trypsin or chymotrypsin significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Preincubation of BB with Bandeirea simplicifolia (BS-1) lectin also reduced specific binding, and CHAPS-solubilized receptors could be immobilized with WGA-agarose. The addition of 100 nM toxin A accelerated the association of 35S-GTP gamma S with rabbit ileal BB, and preincubation of BB with the GTP analogues GTP gamma S or Gpp(NH)p, significantly reduced 3H-toxin A specific binding. Our data indicate that the membrane receptor for toxin A is a galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine-containing glycoprotein which appears to be coupled to a G protein

  9. Poly-A binding protein-1 localization to a subset of TDP-43 inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs more frequently in patients harboring an expansion in C9orf72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Leeanne; Lee, Virginia M; Trojanowksi, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Lee, Edward B; Bonini, Nancy M

    2014-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron disease in which the loss of spinal cord motor neurons leads to paralysis and death within a few years of clinical disease onset. In almost all cases of ALS, transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms cytoplasmic neuronal inclusions. A second causative gene for a subset of ALS is fused in sarcoma, an RNA binding protein that also forms cytoplasmic inclusions in spinal cord motor neurons. Poly-A binding protein-1 (PABP-1) is a marker of stress granules (i.e. accumulations of proteins and RNA indicative of translational arrest in cells under stress). We report on the colocalization of PABP-1 to both TDP-43 and fused-in-sarcoma inclusions in 4 patient cohorts: ALS without a mutation, ALS with an intermediate polyglutamine repeat expansion in ATXN2, ALS with a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72, and ALS with basophilic inclusion body disease. Notably, PABP-1 colocalization to TDP-43 was twice as frequent in ALS with C9orf72 expansions compared to ALS with no mutation. This study highlights PABP-1 as a protein that is important to the pathology of ALS and indicates that the proteomic profile of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS may differ depending on the causative genetic mutation. PMID:25111021

  10. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  11. Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Gluten Induces Formation of New Epitopes but Does Not Enhance Sensitizing Capacity by the Oral Route: A Study in “Gluten Free” Brown Norway Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Andersen, Nanna Birch; Rasmussen, Tina Frid;

    2014-01-01

    sensitizing capacity of gluten proteins per se when altered by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis relative to unmodified gluten in rats naïve to gluten. Methods High IgE-responder Brown Norway (BN) rats bred on a gluten-free diet were sensitized without the use of adjuvant to three different gluten products...... (unmodified, acid hydrolyzed and enzymatic hydrolyzed). Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization three times with 200 µg gluten protein/rat or by oral dosing for 35 days with 0.2, 2 or 20 mg gluten protein/rat/day. Sera were analyzed for specific IgG and IgE and IgG-binding capacity by...... ELISA. IgE functionality was measured by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) assay. Results Regardless of the route of dosing, all products had sensitizing capacity. When sensitized i.p., all three gluten products induced a strong IgG1 response in all animals. Acid hydrolyzed gluten induced the highest level...

  12. The Major Soybean Allergen Gly m Bd 28K Induces Hypersensitivity Reactions in Mice Sensitized to Cow's Milk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candreva, Ángela María; Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Curciarello, Renata; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Docena, Guillermo Horacio; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2016-02-24

    Reactions to soy have been reported in a proportion of patients with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA). In this work, we analyzed if Gly m Bd 28K/P28, one of the major soybean allergens, is a cross-reactive allergen with cow milk proteins (CMP). We showed that P28 was recognized by IgE sera from CMA patients and activated human peripheral basophils degranulation. Moreover, IgE sera of mice exclusively sensitized to CMP recognized P28. Splenocytes from sensitized animals secreted IL-5 and IL-13 when incubated with CMP or soy proteins, but only IL-13 when treated with P28. In addition, a skin test was strongly positive for CMP and weakly positive for P28. Remarkably, milk-sensitized mice showed hypersensitivity symptoms following sublingual challenge with P28 or CMP. With the use of bioinformatics' tools seven putative cross-reactive epitopes were identified. In conclusion, using in vitro and in vivo tests we demonstrated that P28 is a novel cross-reactive allergen with CMP. PMID:26859063

  13. IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotua, M; Lomidze, N; Dolidze, N; Gotua, T

    2008-04-01

    Food allergy has become a serious health concern especially in developed countries in the past two decades. In general population approximately 4-6% of children and 1-3% of adults experience food allergy. The article reviews IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity disorders. Epidemiology, Mechanism, Clinical manifestations, Genetically modified crops (GMOs), Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are discussed. The investigations show that over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish and shellfish. Also the causes of food allergy are food additives, genetically modified crops. Risk factors for food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis include asthma and previous allergic reactions to the causative food. Food allergy is one of the most common causes of systematic anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, with an annual incidence of four cases per million populations and estimated 500 deaths annually. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, individuals may experience urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hypotension, shock and cardiac arrhythmias, caused by the massive release of mediators from mast cells and basophiles. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE in blood serum and challenge tests. Treatment and prevention includes: avoidance diet, application of auto-injectable epinephrine, H1 and H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, cromolyn sodium, etc. PMID:18487689

  14. Particulates from Hydrophilic-Coated Guiding Sheaths Embolize to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, James R.L.; Tzafriri, Abraham R.; Regan, Kathryn; LaRochelle, Alan; Wong, Gee; Zani, Brett G.; Markham, Peter M.; Bailey, Lynn; Spognardi, Anna; Kopia, Gregory A.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We sought to evaluate the incidence of embolic material in porcine brain following vascular interventions using hydrophilic-coated sheaths. Methods and results A new self-expanding stent and delivery system (SDS) were deployed through a hydrophilic-coated (Cook® Flexor Ansel) Guiding Sheath into iliac and/or carotid arteries of 23 anesthetized Yucatan miniswine. Animals were euthanized at 3, 30, 90 and 180 days and brains were removed for histological analysis. In an additional single control animal, the guiding sheath was advanced but no SDS was deployed. Advancement of the coated guiding sheath with or without the SDS was associated with frequent foreign material in the arterioles of the brain. The embolic material was amorphous, non-refractile, non-crystalline, and non-birefringent and typically lightly basophilic with a slight stippled appearance on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Material was observed at all time points involving 54% of all study animals (ie, test and control) and in vitro after incubation in 0.9% saline. Conclusions The hydrophilic coating on a clinically used guiding sheath readily avulses and embolizes to the brain during deployment in a porcine model. Further documentation of this effect and monitoring in clinical scenarios is warranted. PMID:25735934

  15. Identification and evaluation of anti-inflammatory compounds from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigome, Satoru; Yoshida, Izumi; Tsuda, Aiko; Harada, Teppei; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Inohana, Shuichi; Isagawa, Satoshi; Kibune, Nobuyuki; Satoyama, Toshiya; Katsuda, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Shinobu; Watai, Masatoshi; Hirose, Naoto; Mitsue, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Komai, Michio

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora has been used in traditional Thai medicine. In this study, we identified and compared specific compounds from the hexane extract of K. parviflora with those from other Zingiberaceous plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), estimated 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated with an IgE antigen or a calcium ionophore. We found that DMF and TMF more potently inhibited antigen-induced degranulation than did nobiletin, a well-known anti-inflammatory agent. In addition, compared to RBL-2H3 cells stimulated with a calcium ionophore, those treated with DMF and TMF showed more marked inhibition of the degranulation and the production and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that DMF and TMF inhibit an early step in the high-affinity IgE receptor signaling cascade rather than intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation. PMID:25035989

  16. Antiallergic activity of ginseng and its ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    In this study, we measured the antiallergic activities of ginsenosides isolated from the root of Panax ginseng ( Araliaceae), and of their metabolites, as produced by human intestinal bacteria. Compound K, which was identified as a main metabolite, had the most potent inhibitory activity on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells and on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory activity of compound K was more potent than that of disodium cromoglycate, one of the commercial anti-allergic drugs. This compound demonstrated a membrane stabilizing action on differential scanning calorimetry. However, compound K did not inhibit the activation of hyaluronidase and did not scavenge active oxygen. These results suggest that the antiallergic action of compound K originates from its cell membrane stabilizing activity and that the ginsenosides of ginseng are prodrugs with extensive antiallergic properties. Abbreviations. compound K:20- O-beta- D-glucopyranosyl-20( S)-protopanaxadiol DNP:dinitrophenol DSCG:disodium cromoglycate DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl HSA:human serum albumin IC 50 :50% inhibitory concentration EC 50 :50% effective concentration XOD:xanthine oxidase ICR:Institute of Cancer Research PBS:phosphate buffered saline PCA:passive cutaneous anaphylaxis RAW264.7:mouse monocyte leukemiaRBL-2H3: rat basophil leukemia SD:Sprague-Dawley PMID:12865969

  17. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeota, Judith A; Napier, Julia E; Armstrong, Douglas L; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Rogers, Douglas G

    2009-07-01

    Seven juveniles and 3 adults from a closed group of 19 rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) housed in a zoo's indoor rock exhibit died or were euthanized after developing blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers over a 2-week period. Histopathologic examination of dermal ulcers and ulcerated tongues revealed amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells bordering ulcers. Epithelial cells with inclusion bodies were often characterized by cytomegaly and karyomegaly, and many cells had formed syncytia. Examination of inclusion bodies in tongue epithelium by transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral nucleocapsids, approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with morphologic features consistent with herpesvirus. Cytopathic effect (CPE) typical of alphaherpesvirus infection was seen in bovine turbinate, equine dermal, and Vero cell monolayers after inoculation with homogenates of the skin lesions, but CPE was not seen after inoculation onto Madin-Darby canine kidney or swine testicle cell monolayers. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using degenerate primers that targeted a portion of the herpesvirus polymerase gene generated a product of approximately 227 base pairs. The product was cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed using BLAST. At the nucleotide level, there was 86%, 77%, and 76% shared identity with Eidolon herpesvirus 1, Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2, respectively. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes have not been characterized. The data presented in the current study suggest that a novel alphaherpesvirus caused the lesions seen in these rock hyraxes. The molecular characteristics of this virus would tentatively support its inclusion in the genus Simplexvirus. PMID:19564505

  18. Multicentric epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Ul-Soo

    2014-12-01

    A 2-year-old female African hedgehog was presented with a 5-month history of pruritus, and diffuse spine and hair loss. A dermatologic examination revealed erythema, excoriation, scales, and crusting affecting the face, flanks, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and dorsal and ventral abdomen. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and skin biopsies were taken from several lesions for cytologic and histologic evaluation. The aspirates yielded smears characterized by a monomorphic population of medium-sized to large lymphocytes with scant to moderate amounts of clear to moderately basophilic cytoplasm and distinct nucleoli along with a low number of cytoplasmic fragments. On histopathologic examination, there were dense dermal lymphoid infiltrates invading the dermis and a monomorphic population of round cells that had infiltrated the overlying epidermis. Epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed based on morphologic features. Additional immunochemical analysis using anti-CD3 and anti-CD79a antibodies revealed strong CD3 expression by the tumor cells, which confirmed epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This is the first description of a multicentric pattern of epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:25204556

  19. COLEUS (PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS – A MULTIPURPOSE MEDICINAL HERB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SharmaYashaswini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus barbatus Andr. (Syn. Coleus forskohlii Briq. is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its tuberous roots are found to be a rich source of forskohlin (coleonol used as a potential drug for hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, colic, respiratory disorders, painful urination, insomnia, and convulsions. Clinical studies of the plant further support these traditional uses, indicating therapeutic benefit in asthma, angina, psoriasis and prevention of cancer metastases. Forskolin directly activates almost all hormone sensitive adenylate cyclases in intact cells, tissues and even solubilised preparation of adenylate cyclase. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase is thought to be the mechanism by which forskolin relaxes a variety of smooth muscles. Forskolin, by increasing cAMP level in turn, inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure and it inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion. Coleus acts as a natural source of drug for many major diseases implying that there is a great demand for production and processing of the crop. The paper deals with botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, mechanism of action and case studies on coleus.

  20. Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, J; Cuenca, R; Pastor, J; Vinas, L; Lavin, S

    1998-03-01

    In an effort to define the effect(s) of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on various hematologic parameters in Testudo hermanni, we collected blood samples from 29 clinically healthy adult individuals of both sexes. Portions of each blood sample were transferred to tubes containing either lithium heparin or tripotassium EDTA. The following determinations were made on samples of blood from each anticoagulant: red and white cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red cell indices, and differential white cell counts. Due to hemolysis, hematocrits could not be determined from blood samples in EDTA. Further, red blood cell counts were lower in the EDTA samples than in the heparin samples, again due to hemolysis associated with EDTA. However, EDTA did not appear to interfere with hemoglobin determinations. Heparin blood samples provided more optimal blood smears than did EDTA samples, thus differential leucocyte counts were determined only from smears taken from heparin blood samples. Further, thrombocyte and leucocyte aggregation was not observed with heparin use. Thus, heparin is considered the anticoagulant of choice in chelonians for determining red blood cell counts, erythrocyte indices, and hematocrits. When May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain was compared with Diff-Quick, thrombocytes could be more easily differentiated from lymphocytes using the May-Brunwald-Giemsa stain. Heterophil granules seemed to coalese more when Diff-Quick was used. Eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes were similar in appearance with both staining methods. PMID:9638624

  1. Burkitt Lymphoma Presenting as Unilateral Deafness in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old HIV-negative white male presented with right ear deafness, right axillary lymphadenopathy, and weight loss. Laboratory findings included anemia, marked leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the peripheral smear demonstrated the presence of increased circulating blast-like cells of intermediate size, with basophilic cytoplasm and nuclei with open chromatin. MRI of the brain was compatible with hemorrhagic labyrinthitis. Excisional biopsy of the axillary mass revealed an enlarged lymph node with effaced architecture and “starry sky” appearance. The cells expressed CD20, CD10, BCL6, and surface kappa immunoglobulin light chain, with a high proliferative index by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Subsequent bone marrow biopsy was hypercellular (approximately 95%, with blast-like cells virtually replacing all hematopoietic elements. Routine karyotype as well as FISH analysis of bone marrow cells demonstrated rearrangement of the MYC gene at chromosome 8q24 region, IGH/MYC fusion, and additional signal for IGH gene. We present herein a case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma occurring in a previously healthy HIV-negative male. The unusual clinical findings in this case include the relatively older age at presentation (55 years, an immunocompetent patient who had nodal involvement and leukemic phase of Burkitt, coupled with partial deafness. A brief educational review of this neoplasm is made.

  2. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-01-01

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals. PMID:27050968

  3. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haahtela Tari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria. Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli. Structural alterations (that is, remodeling of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened. Conclusion Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites.

  4. A novel Cre recombinase reporter mouse strain facilitates selective and efficient infection of primary immune cells with adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Klaus; Kober, Maike; Rieß, David; Drees, Christoph; de Vries, Ingrid; Bertossi, Arianna; Roers, Axel; Sixt, Michael; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses are potent vectors for the efficient transient expression of exogenous genes in resting immune cells. However, most leukocytes are refractory to efficient adenoviral transduction as they lack expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR). To circumvent this obstacle, we generated the R26/CAG-CARΔ1(StopF) (where R26 is ROSA26 and CAG is CMV early enhancer/chicken β actin promoter) knock-in mouse line. This strain allows monitoring of in situ Cre recombinase activity through expression of CARΔ1. Simultaneously, CARΔ1 expression permits selective and highly efficient adenoviral transduction of immune cell populations, such as mast cells or T cells, directly ex vivo in bulk cultures without prior cell purification or activation. Furthermore, we show that CARΔ1 expression dramatically improves adenoviral infection of in vitro differentiated conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs), basophils, mast cells, as well as Hoxb8-immortalized hematopoietic progenitor cells. This novel dual function mouse strain will hence be a valuable tool to rapidly dissect the function of specific genes in leukocyte physiology. PMID:25787118

  5. Animal models of complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, János; Alving, Carl R; Rosivall, László; Bünger, Rolf; Baranyi, Lajos; Bedöcs, Péter; Tóth, Miklós; Barenholz, Yezheckel

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous injection of some liposomal drugs, diagnostic agents, micelles and other lipid-based nanoparticles can cause acute hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in a high percentage (up to 45%) of patients, with hemodynamic, respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. The phenomenon can be explained with activation of the complement (C) system on the surface of lipid particles, leading to anaphylatoxin (C5a and C3a) liberation and subsequent release reactions of mast cells, basophils and possibly other inflammatory cells in blood. These reactions can be reproduced and studied in pigs, dogs and rats, animal models which differ from each other in sensitivity and spectrum of symptoms. In the most sensitive pig model, a few miligrams of liposome (phospholipid) can cause anaphylactoid shock, characterized by pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, decreased cardiac output and major cardiac arrhythmias. Pigs also display cutaneous symptoms, such as flushing and rash. The sensitivity of dogs to hemodynamic changes is close to that of pigs, but unlike pigs, dogs also react to micellar lipids (such as Cremophor EL) and their response includes pronounced blood cell and vegetative neural changes (e.g., leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, fluid excretions). Rats are relatively insensitive inasmuch as hypotension, their most prominent response to liposomes, is induced only by one or two orders of magnitude higher phospholipid doses (based on body weight) compared to the reactogenic dose in pigs and dogs. It is suggested that the porcine and dog models are applicable for measuring and predicting the (pseudo)allergic activity of particulate "nanodrugs". PMID:17613700

  6. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

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    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  7. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gambo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments groups, although the haemoglobin (Hb and white blood cells (WBC were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by the treatments. The number of basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were not affected by the levels of inclusion, however, only the monocytes differed significantly (P<0.05 among the treatments. All values for blood parameters were within the normal range for growing rabbit. Thus, the study indicated that up to 40% CBRCM could be incorporated into the diets of growing rabbits without compromising the health status of the rabbits.

  8. Using carbon nanotube probes for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, J E; Stevens, R M; Zink, T; Deng, Z; Chen, H; Weng, I C; Liu, F T; Liu, G Y

    2011-07-01

    While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a promising tool for visualizing membrane morphology of cells, many studies have reported the presence of artifacts such as cliffs on the edges of cells. These artifacts shield important structural features such as lamellopodia, filopodia, microvilli and membrane ridges, which represent characteristic status in signaling processes such as spreading and activation. These cliff-like edges arise from a premature contact of the probe side contact with the cell prior to the probe top apex-cell contact. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified AFM probes were utilized to address this drawback. Using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, this work revealed that CNT probes diminish cliff-like artifacts and enabled visualization of entire membrane morphology and structural features in three dimensions. The high aspect ratio of CNT probes provides a very effective remedy to the cliff-like artifacts as well as tip convolution of conventional probes, which shall enhance the validity and application of AFM in cellular biology research. PMID:21741916

  9. Using carbon nanotube probes for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a promising tool for visualizing membrane morphology of cells, many studies have reported the presence of artifacts such as cliffs on the edges of cells. These artifacts shield important structural features such as lamellopodia, filopodia, microvilli and membrane ridges, which represent characteristic status in signaling processes such as spreading and activation. These cliff-like edges arise from a premature contact of the probe side contact with the cell prior to the probe top apex-cell contact. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified AFM probes were utilized to address this drawback. Using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, this work revealed that CNT probes diminish cliff-like artifacts and enabled visualization of entire membrane morphology and structural features in three dimensions. The high aspect ratio of CNT probes provides a very effective remedy to the cliff-like artifacts as well as tip convolution of conventional probes, which shall enhance the validity and application of AFM in cellular biology research. -- Highlights: → When imaging cells, atomic force microscopy frequently encounters an artifact known as 'side cliffs.' → Using carbon nanotube (CNT) modified probes, this artifact can be completely eliminated. → The origin and mechanism of elimination of this artifact are also discussed.

  10. Using carbon nanotube probes for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehne, J.E. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Stevens, R.M. [Carbon Design Innovations, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Zink, T. [Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deng, Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Chen, H.; Weng, I.C.; Liu, F.T. [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Liu, G.Y., E-mail: liu@chem.ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    While atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a promising tool for visualizing membrane morphology of cells, many studies have reported the presence of artifacts such as cliffs on the edges of cells. These artifacts shield important structural features such as lamellopodia, filopodia, microvilli and membrane ridges, which represent characteristic status in signaling processes such as spreading and activation. These cliff-like edges arise from a premature contact of the probe side contact with the cell prior to the probe top apex-cell contact. Carbon nanotube (CNT) modified AFM probes were utilized to address this drawback. Using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, this work revealed that CNT probes diminish cliff-like artifacts and enabled visualization of entire membrane morphology and structural features in three dimensions. The high aspect ratio of CNT probes provides a very effective remedy to the cliff-like artifacts as well as tip convolution of conventional probes, which shall enhance the validity and application of AFM in cellular biology research. -- Highlights: {yields} When imaging cells, atomic force microscopy frequently encounters an artifact known as 'side cliffs.' {yields} Using carbon nanotube (CNT) modified probes, this artifact can be completely eliminated. {yields} The origin and mechanism of elimination of this artifact are also discussed.

  11. The role of histamine H1 and H4 receptors in atopic dermatitis: from basic research to clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Yusuke; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2014-12-01

    Histamine plays important roles in inflammation and nervous irritability in allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis (AD). It has been shown to regulate the expression of pruritic factors, such as nerve growth factor and semaphorin 3A, in skin keratinocytes via histamine H1 receptor (H1R). Furthermore, H1R antagonist reduced the level of IL-31, a cytokine involving the skin barrier and pruritus, in chronic dermatitis lesions in NC/Nga mice and patients with AD. Histamine plays roles in the induction of allergic inflammation by activating eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and Th2 cells via histamine H4 receptor (H4R). H4R, in addition to H1R, is expressed on sensory neurons, and a decrease in scratching behaviors was observed in H4R-deficient mice and mice treated with a H4R antagonist. We found that the combined administration of H1R and H4R antagonists inhibited the itch response and chronic allergic inflammation, and had a pharmacological effect similar to that of prednisolone. Although the oral administration of H1R antagonists is widely used to treat AD, it is not very effective. In contrast, JNJ39758979, a novel H4R antagonist, had marked effects against pruritus in Japanese patients with AD in a phase II clinical trial. Next generation antihistaminic agents possessing H1R and H4R antagonistic actions may be a potent therapeutic drug for AD. PMID:25249063

  12. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Korwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials.

  13. Autologous serum skin test in chronic idiopathic urticaria: prevalence, correlation and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Jiamton, Sukhum; Gorvanich, Taniya; Pinkaew, Sumruay

    2006-12-01

    Some cases of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) have histamine-releasing IgG autoantibodies in their blood. This disease subgroup is called "autoimmune urticaria". To date, the autologous serum skin test (ASST) is the best in vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine-releasing activity in vitro. This study aimed to find the prevalence of ASST positive cases in Thai patients with CIU, to identify factors related to the positivity of ASST and to find the clinical implications of ASST in CIU. A retrospective study was performed among 85 CIU patients who attended the Urticaria Clinic at the Department of Dermatology, Siriraj Hospital and were willing to perform ASST, from January 2002 to December 2003. Twenty-one (24.7%) patients had a positive ASST. There was no significant difference between patients with positive ASST and negative ASST as to the severity of the disease (wheal numbers, wheal size, itching scores and the extent of body involvement) as well as the duration of the disease. PMID:17348242

  14. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, R M; Imbesi, S; Saitta, S; Campennì, A; Cannavò, S; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions lasting for more than 6 weeks. In about 75% of cases, the underlying causes remain unknown, and the term chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is used to emphasize that wheals develop independently of identified external stimuli. Although CIU affects about 1.0% of the general population, its etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood. It is now widely accepted that in many cases CIU should be regarded as an autoimmune disorder caused by circulating and functionally active IgG autoantibodies specific for the IgE receptor (FceRI) present on mast cells and basophils or for IgE itself. The well-known association of CIU with other autoimmune processes/diseases represents further indirect evidence of its autoimmune origin. Autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially autoimmune thyroiditis, represent the most frequently investigated diseases in association with CIU. Here we review this topic with particular regard to the association between Graves' disease and CIU. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms and the clinical implications of such an association are discussed. PMID:23609949

  15. Chronic idiopathic urticaria: Comparison of clinical features with positive autologous serum skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mamatha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU, in its extremely severe form, can pose a therapeutic challenge to the treating physician. It has been noted that in one third of such patients, autoantibodies against the IgE receptor are seen and such patients have more severe and unremitting urticaria. Aim: To compare clinical features of autoimmune urticaria with those of other CIU patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in an attempt to correlate the clinical features with autoantibodies, indirectly detected via the autologous serum skin test (ASST, which is the simplest and the best in vivo clinical test for detection of basophil histamine-releasing activity. Discussion: Out of 100 patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria, 34 showed a positive reaction to the autologous serum skin test and it was found that the frequency and severity of attacks was higher in these patients. Conclusion: ASST may be used as a simple and cost-effective test for the classification of chronic urticaria, which has proven to be a therapeutic challenge to the treating physician.

  16. Chronic idiopathic urticaria with functional autoantibodies: 12 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabroe, R A; Greaves, M W

    2006-05-01

    It is now recognized that approximately one-third of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) have histamine-releasing autoantibodies directed against either the high-affinity IgE receptor or, less frequently, against IgE. However, there are several unsolved problems relating to the role of such autoantibodies in the disease. Additionally, it is not clear whether CIU with autoantibodies can be classified as an autoimmune disease. The detection of patients with autoantibodies also poses challenges. Firstly, the only in vivo method, the autologous serum skin test, is at best 80% sensitive and specific using in vitro basophil histamine release assays as the verum. Secondly, in vitro tests are only done in a small number of research laboratories, and are not widely commercially available, and thirdly, there is some divergence between results obtained by different methods (functional and immunoassays) used to detect patients with autoantibodies. The presence of autoantibodies may be important clinically in a small group of severely affected, treatment-resistant patients, where immunomodulatory treatments may be helpful. PMID:16634880

  17. Up-regulation of chemokine C-C ligand 2 (CCL2) and C-X-C chemokine 8 (CXCL8) expression by monocytes in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; de Brito, C A; Futata, E A; Azor, M H; Orii, N M; Maruta, C W; Rivitti, E A; Duarte, A J S; Sato, M N

    2012-01-01

    The disturbed cytokine-chemokine network could play an important role in the onset of diseases with inflammatory processes such as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Our main objectives were to evaluate the relation between proinflammatory chemokine serum levels from CIU patients and their response to autologous skin test (ASST) and basophil histamine release (BHR). We also aimed to assess the chemokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon polyclonal stimulus and to evaluate chemokine C-C ligand 2/C-X-C chemokine 8 (CCL2/CXCL8) and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression in monocytes. We observed significantly higher serum levels of the CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CCL2 in CIU patients compared to the healthy group, regardless of the BHR or ASST response. The basal secretion of CCL2 by PBMC or induced by Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A (SEA) was higher in CIU patients than in the control group, as well as for CXCL8 and CCL5 secretions upon phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. Also, up-regulation of CCL2 and CXCL8 mRNA expression was found in monocytes of patients upon SEA stimulation. The findings showed a high responsiveness of monocytes through CCL2/CXCL8 expression, contributing to the creation of a proinflammatory environment in CIU. PMID:22132892

  18. Anti-allergic effect of a hot-water extract of quince (Cydonia oblonga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Fumie; Hamauzu, Yasunori; Kawahara, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    We examined the effect of a crude hot-water extract (HW) of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit on type I allergy in vivo and in vitro. The oral administration of the quince HW-added diet to NC/Nga mice for 63 d showed a significant decrease in the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions under conventional conditions. The concentration of IgE in the serum collected from mice fed with quince HW was also lowered in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that quince HW inhibited the release of beta-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 after a 24-h treatment. The quince HW fraction of less than 3 kDa reduced the mRNA expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) gamma subunit. These results suggest that quince HW had an inhibitory effect on type I allergy by suppressing IgE production and IgE-mediated degranulation. PMID:19661701

  19. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (HV) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. HV channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H+ concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The HV channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. In higher species, HV channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. HV channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, HV functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hHV1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hHV1. PMID:23589829

  20. Voltage-gated proton channels: molecular biology, physiology, and pathophysiology of the H(V) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2013-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (H(V)) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. H(V) channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H(+) concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The H(V) channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels. In higher species, H(V) channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. H(V) channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, H(V) functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hH(V)1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hH(V)1. PMID:23589829

  1. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  2. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.J.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1987-04-01

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance.

  3. Immunity to schistosomiasis mansoni in guinea-pigs vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae. Humoral responses against skin-stage schistosomula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.R.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The anti-schistosomular humoral responses of guinea-pigs vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated in vitro. The sera of vaccinated animals contain schistosomulicidal complement-fixing antibodies which peak in titre at week 5 after vaccination and predominantly consist of IgG/sub 2/ and IgM antibodies. The ability of the serum to arm macrophages from normal animals to bind to schistosomula, also peaks in titre at week 5 and is associated with IgG/sub 2/ antibodies. Basophils from normal animals can be sensitized in vitro by vaccine serum to degranulate in the presence of schistosomular antigens. This anaphylactic antibody activity is associated with IgG/sub 1/ but not IgE antibodies, and peaks in titre at week 10. Three antigens (14 kD, 20 kD and 43 kD) are specifically and transiently detected by vaccine serum on Western blots of schistosomular proteins; these antigens are first discernible at week 4, but were virtually undetectable at week 12.

  4. Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in congenitally athymic, irradiated and mast cell-depleted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in congenitally athymic (Nu/Nu) rats, irradiated rats and in mast cell-depleted rats. Nu/Nu rats failed to develop significant resistance following vaccination with irradiated cercariae, although Nu/Nu recipients of serum from vaccinated Fischer rats (VRS) manifested resistance comparable to heterozygous controls, suggesting that T-cells were required in the induction of resistance but were not involved in the efferent arm of antibody-dependent elimination. Radiosensitive cells (including eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mast cells) were apparently not essential for the antibody-dependent elimination of lung or post-lung stages since irradiated (700-750 rad.) recipients of VRS manifested comparable degrees of resistance to unirradiated controls in spite of a greater than 85% reduction in total blood leucocyte counts after irradiation. Depletion of 99% of tissue mast cells by treatment of rats with Compound 48/80 had no significant effect on the attrition of a challenge infection in rats rendered immune by vaccination with irradiated cercariae or by transfer of VRS. However, there was a significant increase in worm recovery in unimmunized and mast cell-depleted or irradiated rats, indicating that mast cells and perhaps other radio-isotope sensitive cells may be involved in innate resistance. (author)

  5. Immunity to schistosomiasis mansoni in guinea-pigs vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anti-schistosomular humoral responses of guinea-pigs vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated in vitro. The sera of vaccinated animals contain schistosomulicidal complement-fixing antibodies which peak in titre at week 5 after vaccination and predominantly consist of IgG2 and IgM antibodies. The ability of the serum to arm macrophages from normal animals to bind to schistosomula, also peaks in titre at week 5 and is associated with IgG2 antibodies. Basophils from normal animals can be sensitized in vitro by vaccine serum to degranulate in the presence of schistosomular antigens. This anaphylactic antibody activity is associated with IgG1 but not IgE antibodies, and peaks in titre at week 10. Three antigens (14 kD, 20 kD and 43 kD) are specifically and transiently detected by vaccine serum on Western blots of schistosomular proteins; these antigens are first discernible at week 4, but were virtually undetectable at week 12. (author)

  6. Chronic urticaria: pathophysiology and etiology, or the what and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocket, Alan L

    2006-01-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is a relatively common but vexing disease. The pathophysiology is based on the cutaneous mast cell release of mediators, predominantly histamine. Release can be induced via specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), components of complement activation and nonspecifically by various compounds including endogenous peptides, endorphins, and enkephalins. In >30% of CU patients, autoimmune phenomena have been found, characterized by positive autologous serum skin test, antibodies to the alpha-subunit of the basophil IgE receptor, to IgE itself, and, perhaps, the most clinically relevant, thyroid autoimmunity. Studies suggest that the products of the activated immune system can lower the cutaneous mast cell release threshold, possibly allowing activation by endogenous compounds. The resulting release of mediators produces the clinical picture of recurrent hives. Although the goal of management of CU is the identification of a treatable cause, in most CU patients, especially adults, a cause is not frequently found. Identified causes include drugs, foods, infections, immune complex production leading to urticarial vasculitis, autoantibody production, and underlying autoimmune disease, particularly autoimmune thyroiditis. The treatment of the thyroiditis with suppressive doses of thyroid hormone often results in the remission of the CU. Given the marginally effective and sometimes dangerous medical therapy available for CU, a systematic and thorough approach to identify a treatable cause in difficult CU patients is warranted. PMID:16724623

  7. Autoimmunity in chronic urticaria and urticarial vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, D C; Freeman, T M

    2001-07-01

    In contrast to acute urticaria, etiology cannot be identified in most cases of chronic urticaria. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of patients with chronic urticaria may have an autoimmune basis for their condition. The demonstration of antithyroid autoantibodies in some patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) provides support for an association. However, the discovery of a positive skin test response to intradermal injection of autologous serum in as many as 60% of patients with CIU led to the identification of autoantibodies to IgE and the alpha-chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI alpha. Additional studies have demonstrated that some of these autoantibodies are capable of releasing histamine from donor basophils and mast cells. This article reviews the literature that addresses a possible autoimmune etiology in a subset of patients with CIU. Urticarial vasculitis is differentiated from chronic urticaria based on clinical features and biopsy findings of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Most cases of urticarial vasculitis are secondary to an underlying systemic disease. The presence of autoantibodies has also been demonstrated in a subset of patients with primary urticarial vasculitis. This article briefly reviews some of this data. PMID:11892055

  8. Respiratory and pharyngo-esophageal iridovirus infection in a gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhouse, R A; Jacobson, E R; Harris, R K; Winter, K R; Homer, B L

    1996-10-01

    A free-living adult male gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) was found on Sanibel Island, Florida (USA), on 18 February 1992 with signs of upper respiratory disease. On necropsy after euthanasia on 27 February 1992, severe, extensive necrotizing ulcerative tracheitis, multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, and multifocal necrotizing ulcerative pharyngitis and esophagitis were observed. Large ovoid to round intracytoplasmic basophilic inclusions, which appeared to displace the nucleus to the cell periphery, occurred within degenerate and necrotic epithelial cells of the above tissues. On transmission electron microscopy of formalin-fixed trachea and lung, intracytoplasmic viral particles were observed within necrotic cells in the tracheal lumen and epithelial cells of the lung. Most infected cells also had a roughly spherical granular cytoplasmic inclusion that contained clusters of viral particles. Viral particles had an electron dense spherical to icosahedral core surrounded by a less electron dense icosahedral capsid. Mature extracellular virions were surrounded by an envelope and were 150 to 220 nm in diameter. Virions and cytoplasmic inclusions were morphologically similar to those of the Family Iridoviridae. PMID:9359071

  9. XK469R in Treating Patients With Refractory Hematologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. [Rocuronium anesthesia induced anaphylactic shock: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Min; Zong, Ya-nan; Lu, Jian; Ma, Lu-lin; Zheng, Qing; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-10-18

    Anaphylaxis is an acute and fatal systemic allergic reaction to an allergen, and it could be an unpredictable and life-threatening cause during anesthesia. The main purpose of this paper is to report a case of anaphylactic shock during the anesthesia induction and to review the prophylaxis and treatment of anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions during the anesthesia period. A 63-year-old man, with a mass on his adrenal, was scheduled to a laparoscopic adrenal tumor excision. During the anesthesia induction period, after administrated sulfentanil, propofol and rocuronium, the blood pressure was decreased and the heart rate was increased. Then, the patient had rash on his whole body and developed an anaphylactic shock. After being treated with the anti-allergic agents and norepinephrine, the rash disappeared and the vital sign become stable. The patient felt nothing uncomfortable during the two weeks'follow-up. Anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions are not rare during the anesthesia period. The most common inducements are muscle relaxant, latex and antibiotics. Anaphylactic reactions in the perioperative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, involving multiple organ systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils. Before anesthesia, we should acquire the allergic history. During the anesthesia period, the vital sign and the skin should be observed carefully. PMID:26474637

  11. Rocuronium anesthesia induced anaphylactic shock:a case report%罗库溴铵致过敏性休克1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱敏; 宗亚楠; 卢剑; 马潞林; 郑清; 郭向阳

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Anaphylaxis is an acute and fatal systemic allergic reaction to an allergen , and it could be an unpre-dictable and life-threatening cause during anesthesia .The main purpose of this paper is to report a case of anaphy-lactic shock during the anesthesia induction and to review the prophylaxis and treatment of anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions during the anesthesia period .A 63-year-old man, with a mass on his adrenal , was scheduled to a laparoscopic adrenal tumor excision .During the anesthesia induction period , after administrated sul-fentanil, propofol and rocuronium , the blood pressure was decreased and the heart rate was increased .Then, the patient had rash on his whole body and developed an anaphylactic shock .After being treated with the anti-allergic agents and norepinephrine , the rash disappeared and the vital sign become stable .The patient felt nothing uncom-fortable during the two weeks ’ follow-up.Anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions are not rare during the anesthesia period .The most common inducements are muscle relaxant , latex and antibiotics .Anaphylactic reac-tions in the perioperative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions , involving multiple or-gan systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils .Before anesthesia , we should acquire the allergic history .During the anesthesia period , the vi-tal sign and the skin should be observed carefully .

  12. Allergy-like reactions to iodinated contrast agents. A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idée, Jean-Marc; Pinès, Emmanuelle; Prigent, Philippe; Corot, Claire

    2005-06-01

    Allergy-like reactions may occur following administration of iodinated contrast media (CM), mostly in at-risk patients (patients with history of previous reaction, history of allergy, co-treated with interleukin-2 or beta-blockers, etc.) but remain generally unpredictable. Severe and fatal reactions are very rare events. All categories of CM may induce such reactions, although first generation (high osmolar CM) have been found to induce a higher rate of adverse events than low osmolar CM. However, no differences were found between the two categories of CM with respect to mortality. Delayed reactions can also occur. There are no differences between the various categories of CM except for non-ionic dimers, which are more likely to induce such effect. Numerous clinical studies have evaluated the prophylactic value of drugs (mostly antihistamines and corticosteroids). Results are unclear and highly variable. Any prevention depends upon the mechanism involved. However, the mechanism of CM-induced allergy-like reaction remains disputed. Relatively recent data revived the hypothesis of a type-I hypersensitivity mechanism. Positive skin tests to CM have been reported. However, the affinity of IgE towards CM has been found to be very low in the only study which actually evaluated it. Other pathophysiological mechanisms (involving direct secretory effects on mast cells or basophils, or activation of the complement system associated or not with the plasma contact system) are also much debated. Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions are, in the end, clinically undistinguishable. PMID:15910651

  13. The radiocontrast molecule in anaphylaxis: a surprising antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Elliott C

    2004-01-01

    X-ray contrast media are individually injected into human blood vessels in greater quantities than any other pharmacological substance. Adverse reactions to these substances have heretofore been considered anaphylactoid in nature. Others and we have demonstrated that the mechanisms involved are multifactorial and may involve activation of mast cells and basophils, activation of the complement system, activation of the contact system, and the conversion of L-arginine into nitric oxide. Appropriate pretreatment with corticosteriods will diminish the incidence of reactions. Most recently we have demonstrated that the contrast media function as 'pseudoantigens' (PsA). They can combine with antibodies, but cannot themselves produce antibodies. This property appears to be dependent on aggregation in high concentrations and varies with the individual media. It furthermore appears to be non-specific in relation to antibodies, and suggests that binding occurs to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. We have now demonstrated that the least toxic of current media demonstrate the best antibody binding and in sufficient concentration can inhibit contrast induced mast cell activation and/or non-contrast antigen induced mast cell activation, apparently due to in vivo pseudoantigen excess. In lesser concentrations and/or lesser binding, the media can trigger mast cell activation. PMID:15025400

  14. Ultrastructural study on the granulocytes of Uttara fowl (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Khan Idrees; Mrigesh, Meena; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to know the ultrastructural detail of the blood cells of Uttara fowl (native fowl of Uttarakhand). Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 10 apparently healthy adult birds of either sex reared at the Instructional Poultry Farm, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The blood was collected from wing vein using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as anticoagulant. The blood was further processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies separately. Results: Ultrastructurally, the heterophils were irregularly round in shape. The cytoplasm was laden with pleomorphic membrane-bound granules, viz., large elliptical-, medium oval-, large round-, and medium round-shaped granules. The eosinophils under TEM were irregularly circular in outline showing pseudopodia and finger-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasmic granules were pleomorphic with elliptical-, round-, and rod-shaped granules. The basophils were irregularly circular in outline containing small hook-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasm contained electron dense and electron lucent round-shaped granules. Conclusion: Granulocytes contained pleomorphic cytoplasmic granules. However, the shape and electron density of granules varied among the different granulocytes and helped in the characterization of different granulocytes. PMID:27057119

  15. Control of serotonin transporter phosphorylation by conformational state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Turk, Benjamin E; Rudnick, Gary

    2016-05-17

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for reuptake and recycling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) after its exocytotic release during neurotransmission. Mutations in human SERT are associated with psychiatric disorders and autism. Some of these mutations affect the regulation of SERT activity by cGMP-dependent phosphorylation. Here we provide direct evidence that this phosphorylation occurs at Thr276, predicted to lie near the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane helix 5 (TM5). Using membranes from HeLa cells expressing SERT and intact rat basophilic leukemia cells, we show that agents such as Na(+) and cocaine that stabilize outward-open conformations of SERT decreased phosphorylation and agents that stabilize inward-open conformations (e.g., 5-HT, ibogaine) increased phosphorylation. The opposing effects of the inhibitors cocaine and ibogaine were each reversed by an excess of the other inhibitor. Inhibition of phosphorylation by Na(+) and stimulation by ibogaine occurred at concentrations that induced outward opening and inward opening, respectively, as measured by the accessibility of cysteine residues in the extracellular and cytoplasmic permeation pathways, respectively. The results are consistent with a mechanism of SERT regulation that is activated by the transport of 5-HT, which increases the level of inward-open SERT and may lead to unwinding of the TM5 helix to allow phosphorylation. PMID:27140629

  16. Molecular mechanisms of IgE mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate current knowledge and recent advances in molecular mechanism behind the immediate type hypersensitivity of foods. Food allergy is a growing concern of human health in developed as well as developing countries now days. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity or type I reaction. This review encompasses a wide range of molecular events during IgE mediated reactions like primary exposure of allergens, processing of allergens by antigen presenting cells, role of transcription factors like GATA-3, STAT-6, NF-AT, c-maf, c-kit and NF-κB, Treg cells, toll like receptors, cytokines and chemokines, class switch to IgE, FcεR1 receptor, priming of IgE on mast cells or basophils, signaling events followed by secondary exposure of allergens, degranulation and release of mediators like leukotrienes, histamines, prostaglandins, β-hexosaminidase and ultimately anaphylaxis. This review may be helpful to beginners as well as experts working in the field of allergy and immunology because of the stepwise explanations of molecular mechanisms involved in IgE mediated reactions. PMID:22668720

  17. Mechanisms of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Ozge U; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative approach in the treatment of allergic diseases defined up-to-date. Peripheral T-cell tolerance to allergens, the goal of successful allergen-SIT, is the primary mechanism in healthy immune responses to allergens. By repeated administration of increased doses of the causative allergen, allergen-SIT induces a state of immune tolerance to allergens through the constitution of T regulatory (Treg) cells, including allergen-specific interleukin (IL)-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells; induction of suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor β; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4 and IgA; and suppression of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and inflammatory dendritic cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen-SIT with emphasis on the roles of Treg cells in allergen-SIT. PMID:21530813

  18. Subsets of regulatory T cells and their roles in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyun; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Guo, Lianyi; Sun, Xiaoyun; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it is recognized that acquired immunity is controlled by regulatory T cell (Treg). Since fundamental pathophysiological changes of allergy are mainly caused by hyperresponsiveness of immune system to allergens that acquires after birth, Tregs likely play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy, particularly during the sensitization phase. However, accumulated information indicate that there are several distinctive subtypes of Tregs in man, and each of them seems to play different role in controlling immune system, which complicates the involvement of Tregs in allergy. The aim of the present study is to attempt to classify subtypes of Tregs and summarize their roles in allergy. Tregs should include natural Tregs (nTreg) including inducible costimulator (ICOS)(+) Tregs, inducible/adaptive Tregs (iTreg), interleukin (IL)-10-producing type 1 Tregs (Tr1 cells), CD8(+) Tregs and IL-17-producing Tregs. These cells share some common features including expression of Foxp3 (except for Tr1 cells), and secretion of inhibitory cytokine IL-10 and/or TGF-β. Furthermore, it is noticeable that Tregs likely contribute to allergic disorders such as dermatitis and airway inflammation, and play a crucial role in the treatment of allergy through their actions on suppression of effector T cells and inhibition of activation of mast cells and basophils. Modulation of functions of Tregs may provide a novel strategy to prevent and treat allergic diseases. PMID:24886492

  19. Mucosal immunization application to allergic disease: sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Franco; Moingeon, Philippe; Marcucci, Francesco; Puccinelli, Paola; Sensi, Laura; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2007-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an effective and safe treatment for respiratory allergy, and its mechanism of action currently is investigated with increasing attention. Studies of pharmacokinetics showed that allergen extracts administered via the sublingual route are not directly absorbed by the oral mucosa but are long retained at mucosal level, where the allergen molecules are captured by dendritic cells and, following their migration in the draining lymph nodes, presented to T cells. This seems to be the pivotal factor underlying the mechanisms of action of SLIT, at least for the long-term effects, and for the short-term efficacy, observed with ultrarush or coseasonal treatment, a down-regulation of mast cells resulting in hyporeactivity at the peak of the pollen season may be suggested. Regarding the clinically established long-lasting effects, the core mechanism is likely to consist of T regulatory (Treg) cell activation. In particular, Treg cells differentiate from naive T cells after application of soluble antigens to the mucosae, a crucial factor being the tolerogenic function of dendritic cells, and exert a suppressive effect on both Th1 and Th2 responses. Moreover, at least for the type 1 cells (Treg1), a production of IL-10 with consequent down-modulation of the immune response has been reported. Another characteristic of sublingual immunization is the absence of effectors cells, viz., mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils, in the oral mucosa of allergic subjects, which account for the excellent tolerability of SLIT. PMID:17390755

  20. Mechanisms of immunotherapy to wasp and bee venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, C; Kucuksezer, U C; Akdis, M; Akdis, C A

    2011-09-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are important allergens that can elicit both local and systemic allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) remains the most effective treatment, reducing the risk of systemic reactions in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy. VIT can restore normal immunity against venom allergens and provide patients with a lifetime of tolerance to venoms. During VIT, peripheral tolerance is induced by the generation of allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress proliferative and cytokine responses against the venom allergens. Treg cells are characterized by IL-10 secretion that directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. Treg cells also have influence on B cells, suppressing IgE production and inducing the production of blocking type IgG4 antibodies against venom allergens. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Treg cells may affect allergen sensitization and methods for enhancing this cell population may eventually improve the efficacy of VIT. In this article, immune mechanisms enrolled in bee and wasp VIT are reviewed. PMID:21729181

  1. Functions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in immunity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlu; Zhou, Baohua

    2012-06-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin 7-like cytokine expressed mainly by epithelial cells. Current studies provide compelling evidence that TSLP is capable of activating dendritic cells to promote T helper (Th) 2 immune responses. TSLP has also been shown to directly promote Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cell and activate natural killer T cells, basophils and other innate immune cells at the initial stage of inflammation. In addition, TSLP affects B cell maturation and activation and can also influence regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation and development. TSLP-induced Th2 responses are associated with the pathogenesis of allergic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and rhinitis. Based on recent findings in humans and mouse models, TSLP might also be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and progression of cancer. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of the biology of TSLP and highlight the important issues for future investigations. PMID:22274860

  2. Cellular networks controlling Th2 polarization in allergy and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Mirjam; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the development of Th1 (type 1 T helper cells), Th17 and Treg (regulatory T cells), little is known of the mechanisms governing Th2 development, which is important for immunity to helminths and for us to understand the pathogenesis of allergy. A picture is emerging in which mucosal epithelial cells instruct dendritic cells to promote Th2 responses in the absence of IL-12 (interleukin 12) production and provide instruction through thymic stromal lymphopoieitin (TSLP) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). At the same time, allergens, helminths and chemical adjuvants elicit the response of innate immune cells like basophils, which provide more polarizing cytokines and IL-4 and reinforce Th2 immunity. This unique communication between cells will only be fully appreciated if we study Th2 immunity in vivo and in a tissue-specific context, and can only be fully understood if we compare several models of Th2 immune response induction. PMID:22403589

  3. Asthma: the importance of dysregulated barrier immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2013-12-01

    Chronic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airway wall that leads to bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity and airway obstruction, caused by inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, and airway wall remodeling. In response to allergen presentation by airway DCs, T-helper lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system control many aspects of the disease through secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-22, and these are counterbalanced by cytokines produced by Treg cells. Many cells of the innate immune system such as mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells also play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Barrier epithelial cells are being ever more implicated in disease pathogenesis than previously thought, as these cells have in recent years been shown to sense exposure to allergens via pattern recognition receptors and to activate conventional and inflammatory-type DCs and other innate immune cells through the secretion of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-1, IL-33, and IL-25. Understanding this cytokine crosstalk between barrier epithelial cells, DCs, and immune cells provides important insights into the mechanisms of allergic sensitization and asthma progression as discussed in this review. PMID:24165907

  4. Role of Treg in immune regulation of allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Oscar; Yaman, Görkem; Azkur, Ahmet K; Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-05-01

    Allergy is a Th2-mediated disease that involves the formation of specific IgE antibodies against innocuous environmental substances. The prevalence of allergic diseases has dramatically increased over the past decades, affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. The understanding of mechanisms underlying allergic diseases as well as those operating in non-allergic healthy responses and allergen-specific immunotherapy has experienced exciting advances over the past 15 years. Studies in healthy non-atopic individuals and several clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy have demonstrated that the induction of a tolerant state in peripheral T cells represent a key step in healthy immune responses to allergens. Both naturally occurring thymus-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg and inducible type 1 Treg inhibit the development of allergy via several mechanisms, including suppression of other effector Th1, Th2, Th17 cells; suppression of eosinophils, mast cells and basophils; Ab isotype change from IgE to IgG4; suppression of inflammatory DC; and suppression of inflammatory cell migration to tissues. The identification of the molecules involved in these processes will contribute to the development of more efficient and safer treatment modalities. PMID:20148422

  5. Heterogeneity and plasticity of T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E

    2010-01-01

    CD4 T helper (Th) cells play critical roles in adaptive immune responses. They recruit and activate other immune cells including B cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Based on their functions, their pattern of cytokine secretion and their expression of specific transcription factors, Th cells, differentiated from naïve CD4 T cells, are classified into four major lineages, Th1, Th2, Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells, although other Th lineages may exist. Subsets of the same lineage may express different effector cytokines, reside at different locations or give rise to cells with different fates, whereas cells from different lineages may secrete common cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-9 and IL-10, resulting in massive heterogeneity of the Th cell population. In addition, the pattern of cytokine secretion may switch from that of one lineage toward another under certain circumstances, suggesting that Th cells are plastic. Tregs are also more heterogeneous and plastic than were originally thought. In this review, we summarize recent reports on heterogeneity and plasticity of Th cells, and discuss potential mechanisms and implications of such features that Th cells display. PMID:20010916

  6. Mechanisms and treatment of allergic disease in the big picture of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2009-04-01

    Various populations of regulatory T (Treg) cells have been shown to play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and the establishment of controlled immune responses. Their identification as key regulators of immunologic processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens has opened an important era in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Both naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and inducible populations of allergen-specific, IL-10-secreting Treg type 1 (T(R)1) cells inhibit allergen-specific effector cells in experimental models. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears to be a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in allergen-specific immunotherapy. Forkhead box protein 3-positive CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and T(R)1 cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector T(H)1, T(H)2, and T(H)17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils; interaction with resident tissue cells and remodeling; and suppression of effector T-cell migration to tissues. Current strategies for drug development and allergen-specific immunotherapy exploit these observations, with the potential for preventive therapies and cure for allergic diseases. PMID:19348912

  7. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Soyka, Michael B; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases. PMID:22409879

  8. T regulatory cells in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M; Quecchia, C; Cavallucci, E; Di Giampaolo, L; Schiavone, C; Petrarca, C; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    The progressive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the last decade has changed the concept of immune tolerance, that is no longer considered as a mere lack of immune reactivity but as a finely regulated process that requires specific activity of cells, adhesion and secreted molecules. Tregs play a key role in maintenance of self-tolerance and induction of tolerance against ubiquitous innocuous non-self antigens, so preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review will focus on the Treg response in allergy that is characterized by a down-regulation of allergen specific T cell proliferation and inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines production. Hence, Treg cells suppress allergen-specific Th1 and Th2 cell responses playing an important role in the physiological immune response to allergens. Further, Treg cells are able to suppress IgE production by B lymphocytes and directly or indirectly inhibit the activity of allergic inflammation effector cells, namely eosinophils, basophils and mastcells. Finally, increasing evidence suggests that Treg cells are also implicated in chronicity development of inflammatory diseases. This appears to happen through a fine interaction they entertain with resident tissue cells and has been particularly highlighted in the study of airways remodeling in asthma. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergen tolerance has brought new interest in the development of new allergy treatment, able to target Treg cells, both in allergy prevention and in the therapy of established allergy. PMID:21329567

  9. [The immunological mechanisms contributing to the clinical efficacy of allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Ilan; Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Sthoeger, Zev

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased dramatically in the western world. In the last 2 decades, the frequency of asthma and allergic rhinitis has doubled. Allergen specific immunotherapy [SIT] has been used successfully for more than 100 years for the treatment of allergic disorders. Allergen SIT provides not only symptomatic relief, but it is potentially curative. The immunologic mechanisms of allergen SIT include all parts of the immune system. Regulatory T cells (TR1, Treg), have a major pivotal role in the success of immunotherapy. Along with the regulatory T cells, elevated suppressor cytokines (IL-10), suppression of TH2 cells, increasing titer of specific IgG4 and gradual decline in the number and function of basophils and mast cells also contribute to the success of the treatment (SIT). The above immune mechanisms are connected and related to each other acting at different times with the treatment with SIT. In this review we focused on the current knowledge and understanding of the different immune mechanisms which are involved in the success of SIT. PMID:24364093

  10. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  11. Hematological markers and biochemical profiles in terms of gender and age of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, E M; Silva, C J O; Ritter, R A; Monteiro, M V B; Albuquerque, N I; Kahwage, P R; Monteiro, F O B; Costa, C T C; Rahal, S C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-01-01

    Complete blood counts and blood biochemical analyses are laboratory tests that allow the monitoring of physiological condition, nutrition, and health in free-living or captive wild animals. When interpreting these tests, it is essential to compare the results with reference ranges that are suitable for the species. Few studies have been conducted on the hematological and biochemical characteristics of Tayassu tajacu, particularly for animals raised in the Amazon biome. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the hematological and biochemical profiles of captive T. tajacu, and to establish reference intervals for these parameters. Complete blood counts and biochemical analyses were performed using manual methods and semi-automatic equipment, respectively. There were significant differences in relation to age in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and mean cell volumes, in captive T. tajacu. No basophils were observed, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio was less than 1. Levels of total protein, urea, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly affected by age (P < 0.05). Gender did not affect any of the results. The hematological and biochemical parameters for this species were determined, and may be used as reference ranges for captive T. tajacu. PMID:26634461

  12. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Amanda J; Billett, Henny H; Green, Nancy S; Driscoll, M Catherine; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF) expressing red blood cells (F-cells) and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es) derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fetal hemoglobin production in F-cells negatively correlates with expression of BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1. We then examined the effects of hydroxyurea on these three transcription factors and conclude that a successful induction of γ-globin includes a reduction in BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1 expression. These data suggests that expression changes in this transcription factor network modulate γ-globin expression in F-cells during steady state erythropoiesis and after induction with hydroxyurea. PMID:26053062

  13. Monitoramento histopatológico de mexilhão Perna perna da Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ Histopathological monitoring assessment of mussels Perna perna at the Itaipu Lagoon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lima

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Cortes histológicos de 120 mexilhões Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758, coletados na Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ, por um período de 12 meses, foram examinados quanto a presença de parasitas e lesões. Noventa exemplares apresentaram cinco diferentes processos patológicos: bucefalose, presença de protozoários Nematopsis sp., inclusões basofílicas não específicas, encapsulamentos parasitários e cistos epiteliais branquiais. Cinquenta animais mostravam duas ou mais patologias concomitantes.Histologic sections of 120 mussels Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758, from Itaipu Lagoon, Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for the presence of parasites and lesions during a period of 12 months. Ninety mussels showed five different pathological processes: bucephalosis, protozoan Nematopsis sp., basophilic non-specific inclusions, parasitic encapsulations and ctenidia epithelial cysts. Fifty animals presented two or more pathological processes at the same time.

  14. A prospective comparative clinical study of peripheral blood counts and indices in patients with primary brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeikshanan, V; Dutt, A; Basu, D; Tejus, MN; Maurya, VP; Madhugiri, VS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevation of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis in many malignancies including recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing if the NLR and other leukocyte counts and indices were deranged in treatment-naïve patients with primary brain tumors when compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative clinical observational study by design. A healthy control population was compared with treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors. Leukocyte counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts) as well as leukocyte ratios such as the NLR and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were calculated. We also evaluated if the counts and indices were related to the tumor volume. Results: In all patients with tumors, the platelet and neutrophil counts were elevated when compared to the controls. In contrast, monocyte counts and the MLR were found to be decreased in patients with tumors when compared to the controls. The subset of patients with glioblastoma showed a significant increase in NLR when compared to the controls. Conclusions: Significant changes in the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts as well as NLR and MLR were observed. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:27089106

  15. Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia with Abnormal Eosinophils: A Case Report with Multi- Modality Diagnostic Work-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Cherng Tzeng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities often carries a favorableprognosis. AML with inv(16(p13q22 occurs predominantly in younger patients and usually showsgranulocytic and monocytic differentiation with abnormal eosinophils. It is referred to as acutemyelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils (AMML Eo. We report a case in a 27-year-oldman with leukocytosis (10.6x103/μL with 34% blasts, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Marrowaspiration showed 47% blasts and 33% eosinophils, of which 19% were morphologically abnormalwith both eosinophilic and basophilic cytoplasmic granules. Cytochemically, the blasts were positivefor myeloperoxidase while the granules of abnormal eosinophils were positive for naphthol ASDchloroacetate esterase. With flow cytometric immunophenotyping the blasts expressed CD13, CD33,CD117, myeloperoxidase and CD34. Marrow trephine showed 90% cellularity with 40% blastsexpressing CD34, CD117, and myeloperoxidase on immunohistochemistry. Chromosomal analysisreveled a karyotype of 46, XY, inv(16(p13q22. This case illustrates a typical AMML Eo confirmedby a multi-modality diagnostic approach including morphology, cytochemistry, flow cytometry,immunohistochemistry, and conventional cytogenetic study.

  16. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Does Not Reduce the Biological Reactivity of Soybean Proteins for All Allergic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Tetteh, Afua O; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Many soybean protein products are processed by enzymatic hydrolysis to attain desirable functional food properties or in some cases to reduce allergenicity. However, few studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of soybean products. In this study the allergenicity of soybean protein isolates (SPI) hydrolyzed by Alcalase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, bromelain, or papain was evaluated by IgE immunoblots using eight soybean-allergic patient sera. The biological relevance of IgE binding was evaluated by a functional assay using a humanized rat basophilic leukemia (hRBL) cell line and serum from one subject. Results indicated that hydrolysis of SPI by the enzymes did not reduce the allergenicity, and hydrolysis by chymotrypsin or bromelain has the potential to increase the allergenicity of SPI. Two-dimensional (2D) immunoblot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the chymotrypsin-hydrolyzed samples indicated fragments of β-conglycinin protein are responsible for the apparent higher allergenic potential of digested SPI. PMID:26447491

  17. Influence of glutamine and vitamin E on the performance and the immune responses of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Sakamoto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the influence of Glutamine (Gln and Vitamin E (VE supplementation on the performance and immune response of broilers. A completely randomizes experimental design with a 2 x 3 (VE x Gln factorial arrangement was used. VE was supplemented at 10 and 500 mg/kg feed, with or without Gln (1% addition, and two periods of supplementation in the starter diets (1-7 and 1-14 days of age, with five replicates of 50 birds each. The analyzed parameters were: live performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio; relative weights of the spleen, bursa, and thymus; antibody titers (with sheep red blood cells suspension - SRBC and cutaneous basophilic hypersensivity (CBH. Data were submitted to the analysis of variance, and means were compared using the test of Tukey. Treatments did not influence (P>0.05 live performance parameters or antibody titers. VE reduced (P=0.01 CBH, with the level of 10 mg VE/kg allowing higher cell proliferation as compared to 500 mg VE/kg. As to lymphoid organs, only the spleen was affected (P=0.035 by Gln, which resulted in higher spleen relative weight when fed during the first week of age. Results showed that 10 mg VE/kg with Gln (1-7 days promoted better immune responses.

  18. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients. PMID:27193929

  19. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1 cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases.

  20. Studies on hemopoietic tissue of ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl after the flight on board Russian satellite "Foton- M2" in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E.; Payushina, O.; Butorina, N.; Nikonova, T.; Grigoryan, E.; Mitashov, V.; Almeida, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Khrushchov, N.

    The effect of 16-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M2 satellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P waltl newts was studied in flown intact animals F-int and in animals used in experiments on tail and lens regeneration under spaceflight conditions F-reg In addition to the flown animals studies were performed on synchronous and aquarial controls in the case of non-operated animals and on synchronous and basal controls in the case of operated newts The main hematopoietic organs of urodelian species are the liver spleen and peripheral blood Therefore we determined differential blood counts estimated the weight of the liver and the content of its hematopoietic cells and histologically assessed spleen and liver in the above experimental groups and the corresponding control groups of animals No significant differences between these groups were revealed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic zones of the liver the content of hematopoietic cells in the liver and spleen morphology However liver weight in newts of the F-reg group was significantly greater than in the F-int group In the peripheral blood neutrophils eosinophils basophils lymphocytes and monocytes were found Lymphocytes L and neutrophils N prevailed accounting for about 50 and 38 of white blood cells respectively Among neutrophils cells differing in the degree of maturity were distinguished myelocytes M metamyelocytes Mm band B and segmented forms S For each group of animals we determined the ratio of maturing M Mm B to mature S

  1. Review on immunotherapy in airway allergen sensitised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; de Jong, N W; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2015-07-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a more than 100-year-old treatment in particular for birch pollen, grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander sensitised allergic patients. The mechanism of allergen-specific immunotherapy is complex. Different hypotheses have been postulated to explain the mode of action, such as a decrease of the number of tissue mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, an increase of IgG4 and IgA synthesis, a shift from Th2 to Th1 cells and an increase in the number and function of IL-10 producing T-regulatory cells (T-reg). All these immunological effects may contribute to immune tolerance and long-term changes in the immune system. The efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with pollen and house dust mite have been investigated in many trials, meta-analyses and reviews. Nowadays grass pollen SLIT and SCIT, and birch pollen and house dust mite SCIT are implemented in clinical practice to treat therapy-resistant patients. However, the treatment is not effective for all patients and often not without side effects. Therefore, the development of new, safer and more effective immunotherapies is needed. These are approached along novel routes, including improved administration, combined treatment with immune response modifiers, fusion with immune response modifiers, allergen coupled to adjuvants and reconstruction of natural extracts with multiple recombinant allergens or with modified allergens. These developments are promising, but more research is required to implement them in clinical practice. PMID:26228190

  2. Cytological features of NUT midline carcinoma arising in sino-nasal tract and parotid gland: Report of two new cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijanienko, Jerzy; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Rodriguez, José; Caly, Martial; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear Protein in Testis (NUT) Midline Carcinoma (NMC) represents a recently described, uncommon, high-grade and extremely lethal malignancy mainly occurring in children and young adults. Such tumors are genetically characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the NUT gene. Cytological description of NUT carcinoma is limited and only seven cases were reported up to date. We show here another two cases studied cytologically with molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation. In both cases smears were hypercellular and composed of isolated or clustered small to medium-sized in size with roundish and oval shape cells. Nuclei were either regular or roundish containing dusty chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Mitotic figures were prominent. Cytoplasm was scant, strongly basophilic. Cell debris, necrosis, and apoptosis were also prominent. One of the cases was studied by FISH and the second case was studied by RT-PCR and BRD4-NUT translocation was found in both cases. Moreover, the clinical evolution was aggressive in both cases with rapid fatal clinical outcome. NUT carcinomas are an underdiagnosed entity which should be taken into consideration when poorly differentiated carcinomas was diagnosed in children or young adults. Cytology material may be successfully used for morphological and molecular diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:753-756. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27338676

  3. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus. PMID:21380805

  4. HEMATOLOGY IN AN EASTERN MASSASAUGA (SISTRURUS CATENATUS) POPULATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF OPHIDIOMYCES IN ILLINOIS, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Phillips, Christopher A; Baker, Sarah J; Wylie, Daniel B; Narotsky, Amy; Dreslik, Michael J

    2016-04-28

    Disease events are threatening wildlife populations across North America. Specifically, mortality events due to Ophidiomyces (snake fungal disease; SFD) have been observed recently in snakes in Illinois, US. We investigated the health of a population of eastern massasaugas ( Sistrurus catenatus ) in south-central Illinois using 1) a meta-analysis of hematologic findings from 2004, 2011, 2013, and 2014; 2) a determination of the prevalence of SFD in snakes examined in 2013 and 2014; and 3) the examination of 184 museum specimens collected from 1999-2013 for signs and presence of SFD. For the meta-analysis and prevalence of SFD, hematologic analytes were reduced to three principle components that explained 67.5% of the cumulative variance. There were significant differences among one principle component (total white blood cell counts, monocytes, lymphocytes, and basophils) across years when it was highest in 2004 and 2014. The top general linear model explaining the difference in principle components included the main effects of year and stage, body condition index (BCI), and the interaction between stage and BCI. The prevalence of SFD was 18% (n=7) in 2013 and 24% (n=11) in 2014, and no hematologic analytes were associated with SFD. In museum specimens, Ophidiomyces DNA was first detected from an individual collected in 2000. Studies such as these, integrating multiple modalities of health, can elucidate the epidemiology of diseases that may pose conservation threats. PMID:26967140

  5. Melanocortins contribute to sequential differentiation and enucleation of human erythroblasts via melanocortin receptors 1, 2 and 5.

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    Eriko Simamura

    Full Text Available In this study, we showed that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH promoted erythroblast differentiation and increased the enucleation ratio of erythroblasts. Because ACTH was contained in hematopoietic medium as contamination, the ratio decreased by the addition of anti-ACTH antibody (Ab. Addition of neutralizing Abs (nAbs for melanocortin receptors (MCRs caused erythroblast accumulation at specific stages, i.e., the addition of anti-MC2R nAb led to erythroblast accumulation at the basophilic stage (baso-E, the addition of anti-MC1R nAb caused accumulation at the polychromatic stage (poly-E, and the addition of anti-MC5R nAb caused accumulation at the orthochromatic stage (ortho-E. During erythroblast differentiation, ERK, STAT5, and AKT were consecutively phosphorylated by erythropoietin (EPO. ERK, STAT5, and AKT phosphorylation was inhibited by blocking MC2R, MC1R, and MC5R, respectively. Finally, the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2, which is essential for the formation of contractile actomyosin rings, was inhibited by anti-MC5R nAb. Taken together, our study suggests that MC2R and MC1R signals are consecutively required for the regulation of EPO signal transduction in erythroblast differentiation, and that MC5R signal transduction is required to induce enucleation. Thus, melanocortin induces proliferation and differentiation at baso-E, and polarization and formation of an actomyosin contractile ring at ortho-E are required for enucleation.

  6. Ovicides paralithodis (Nemertea, Carcinonemertidae, a new species of symbiotic egg predator of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815 (Decapoda, Anomura

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    Hiroshi Kajihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovicides paralithodis sp. n. is described from the egg mass of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815 from the Sea of Okhotsk, off Hokkaido, Japan, and Alaska, USA. Among four congeners, O. paralithodis can be distinguished from O. julieae Shields, 2001 and O. davidi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 byno eyes; from O. jonesi Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the presence of basophilic, vacuolated glandular lobes in the precerebral region; and from O. jasoni Shields and Segonzac, 2007 by the arrangement of the acidophilic submuscular glands, which are not arranged in a row. Ovicides paralithodis represents the third described species of egg-predatory nemertean from P. camtschaticus, the second described carcinonemertid species from Japan, and the 21st described species in the family. The intensity of infestations may exceed 24,000 worms per a single egg-bearing pleopod of P. camtschaticus. A preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 28S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes among selected monostiliferous hoplonemertean species supported the monophyly of Carcinonemertidae, suggesting that within the lineage of the family, evolution of the unique vas deferens, Takakura’s duct, preceded loss of accessory stylets and accessory-stylet pouches.

  7. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp. PMID:26503780

  8. Histological Study of the Adrenal Gland of African White Rhinoceros

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    Ke-mei Peng§*, Hui Song§, Hua-zhen Liu, Jian-bin Zhang1, Zhi-qiang Lu, Zhi-wei Liu and Yin-xue Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of adrenal gland of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum were observed by light microscopy. The results showed that the surface envelope of adrenal gland was covered with developed connective tissues whose average thickness was up to 210 μm. A large number of sinusoids were distributed between the neighboring cells. The zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex was thin and composed of columnar and cubic cells. The columnar cells were close to the edge and the cubic cells were found in the deep zone. The two kinds of cells were arranged in irregular groups. The thickness of zona fasiculata was about 3 times as much as that of zona glomerulosa, and the boundary was not obvious. Cells were arranged in irregular cords. Some small lipid droplets were in the shape of small vacuolation, and distributed in the cytoplasm. The cells of zona reticularis were adjacent to medulla with which they formed a jagged boundary. Cells were in network or in enclose acini. Medullae were darkly stained and clearly distinct from the cortex. Cells were large with elliptical nuclei whose nucleoli were significant. Cytoplasm was basophilic and stained to give blue violet appearance. A small amount of sympathetic ganglion cells were distributed in the medulla. The above results suggested that the adrenal gland structures of African white rhinoceros compared with other animals have similarities. . The rich sinusoids in capsule suggested that its blood supply was abundant, full of metabolism and endocrine activity.

  9. The role of N-glycosylation in kiwi allergy.

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    Garrido-Arandia, María; Murua-García, Amaya; Palacin, Aranzazu; Tordesillas, Leticia; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Ramos, Tania; Canto, Gabriela; Blanco, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    The physical, biochemical, and immunological characteristics of plant allergens have been widely studied, but no definite conclusion has been reached about what actually makes a protein an allergen. In this sense, N-glycosylation is an exclusive characteristic of plant allergens not present in mammals and it could be implied in allergenic sensitization. With this aim, we evaluated and compared the allergenic activity of the protein fraction and the N-glycan fraction of the thaumatin-like protein and the main kiwi allergen, Act d 2. The natural allergen, Act d 2, was deglycosylated by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid treatment; the N-glycan fraction was obtained by extended treatment with proteinase K. N-glycan- and protein- fractions were recognized by specific IgE of kiwi-allergic patients. By contrast, the sugar moiety showed a reduced capacity to activate basophils and T cells, but not dendritic cells derived from patients' monocytes. Related to this, the production of cytokines such as IL6 and IL10 was increased by the incubation of dendritic cells with sugar moiety. Thus, the sugar moiety plays a significant role in sensitization, inducing the activation of antigen-presenting cells, but it is the protein fraction that is responsible for the allergic reactions. PMID:24936296

  10. Abrupt evolution of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome.

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    Fukunaga, Akiko; Sakoda, Hiroto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Inano, Shojiro; Sueki, Yuki; Yanagida, Soshi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal disorder arising from an alteration in multipotent stem cells, which lose the ability of normal proliferation and differentiation. Disease progression occurs in approximately 30% MDS cases. Specific chromosomal alterations seem responsible for each step in the evolution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Multiple genetic aberrations occur during the clonal evolution of MDS; however, few studies report the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. We report a rare case of Ph-positive AML, which evolved during the course of low-risk MDS. The patient, a 76-year-old man with mild leukocytopenia, was diagnosed with MDS, refractory neutropenia (RN). After 1.5 yr, his peripheral blood and bone marrow were suddenly occupied by immature basophils and myeloblasts, indicating the onset of AML. A bone marrow smear showed multilineage dysplasia, consistent with MDS evolution. Chromosomal analysis showed an additional t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation. Because progression occurred concurrently with emergence of the Ph chromosome, we diagnosed this case as Ph-positive AML with basophilia arising from the clonal evolution of MDS. The patient was initially treated with nilotinib. A hematological response was soon achieved with disappearance of the Ph chromosome in the bone marrow. Emergence of Ph-positive AML in the course of low-risk MDS has rarely been reported. We report this case as a rare clinical course of MDS. PMID:23240925

  11. Multiple cementoblastoma: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaci, G; Luise, R; Iezzi, G; Piattelli, A; Salierno, A

    2013-01-01

    Benign cementoblastoma is a rare ectomesenchymal odontogenic tumor that originates from the root of the tooth and that is characterized by the formation of cementum-like tissue. A 60-year old man was referred to us complaining of pain in his right jaw. The patient underwent TC dental scan of the mandible, which highlighted the presence of three well-circumscribed, round, unilocular neoformations of radiopaque appearance with a radiotransparent edge, one of which was in close contact with the roots of the lower right second molar. Microscopic examination of the greater sample consisted, in its central portion, of dense mineralized acellular trabeculae of basophilic tissue cement-like, devoid of vessels, adhering to the root of the tooth, while peripherally was observed a zone of vascularized osteoid surrounded, occasionally, by a thin rim of cementoblasts mixed with fibrous tissue and inflammatory elements. This lesion was diagnosed as cementoblastoma. The second lesion appeared radiologically and histologically entirely identical to cementoblastoma, but it did not show the intimate association with the root of involved tooth. After a careful review of the literature, the diagnosis of residual cementoblastoma was made. The clinicopathologic features, treatment, and prognosis of this rare tumor are here discussed for the young dental practitioner. PMID:24027644

  12. Multiple Cementoblastoma: A Rare Case Report

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    G. Iannaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cementoblastoma is a rare ectomesenchymal odontogenic tumor that originates from the root of the tooth and that is characterized by the formation of cementum-like tissue. A 60-year old man was referred to us complaining of pain in his right jaw. The patient underwent TC dental scan of the mandible, which highlighted the presence of three well-circumscribed, round, unilocular neoformations of radiopaque appearance with a radiotransparent edge, one of which was in close contact with the roots of the lower right second molar. Microscopic examination of the greater sample consisted, in its central portion, of dense mineralized acellular trabeculae of basophilic tissue cement-like, devoid of vessels, adhering to the root of the tooth, while peripherally was observed a zone of vascularized osteoid surrounded, occasionally, by a thin rim of cementoblasts mixed with fibrous tissue and inflammatory elements. This lesion was diagnosed as cementoblastoma. The second lesion appeared radiologically and histologically entirely identical to cementoblastoma, but it did not show the intimate association with the root of involved tooth. After a careful review of the literature, the diagnosis of residual cementoblastoma was made. The clinicopathologic features, treatment, and prognosis of this rare tumor are here discussed for the young dental practitioner.

  13. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

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    Paul F. Rühle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384, pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553, and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955 and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome.

  14. Insight of EDX analysis and EFTEM: are spherocrystals located in Strombidae digestive gland implied in detoxification of trace metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Jean-Marie; Lechaire, Jean-Pierre; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Ramdine, Gaëlle; Gros, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Digestive tubules of Strombidae are composed by three cell types: digestive cells, vacuolated cells, and crypt cells. The last one is characterized by the presence of intracellular granules identified as spherocrystals. Such structures are known to occur in basophilic cells of gastropod digestive gland, where they are supposed to be involved in the regulation of some minerals and in detoxification. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) were used to determine the elemental content of spherocrystals in two Strombidae, Strombus gigas and Strombus pugilis. In freshly collected individuals of both species, the following elements were detected: Ca, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn. Aluminum and Mn were also detected in S. gigas. Their presence in spherocrystals indicates that, in Strombidae, spherocrystals are involved in the regulation of minerals and essential trace metals. In order to answer the question "are spherocrystals involved in nonessential trace metals scavenging?," artificial cadmium and lead exposure by both waterborne and dietary pathways was applied to S. pugilis. No evidence of cadmium (Cd(NO(3))(2)) or lead (Pb(NO(3))(2)) provided by food was found in spherocrystals. Cadmium provided in water (Cd(NO(3))(2) and CdCl(2)) causes structural modifications of the digestive gland; however, this element was not trapped in spherocrystals. These results suggest that spherocrystals are not involved in detoxification of such nonessential trace metals. PMID:21919125

  15. Anti-Proliferative Activity of Meroditerpenoids Isolated from the Brown Alga Stypopodium flabelliforme against Several Cancer Cell Lines

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    Patricia Valentao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea constitutes one of the most promising sources of novel compounds with potential application in human therapeutics. In particular, algae have proved to be an interesting source of new bioactive compounds. In this work, six meroditerpenoids (epitaondiol, epitaondiol diacetate, epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate, 14-ketostypodiol diacetate and stypodiol isolated from the brown alga Stypopodium flabelliforme were tested for their cell proliferation inhibitory activity in five cell lines. Cell lines tested included human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3, murine macrophages (RAW.267 and Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus. Overall, the compounds showed good activity against all cell lines, with SH-SY5Y and RAW.267 being the most susceptible. Antimicrobial capacity was observed for epitaondiol monoacetate, stypotriol triacetate and stypodiol, with the first being the most active. The results suggest that these molecules deserve further studies in order to evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents.

  16. Ultrastructural study of the mast cells of the human duodenal mucosa.

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    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; de Korwin, J D; Tisserant, J; Grignon, M; Claudot, N

    1984-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the process of degranulation of mast cells of human duodenal mucosa was examined. In normal controls little degranulation was seen, but in persons with false food allergy (pseudo-allergy) considerable degranulation of mast cells was detected. This is consistent with the hypothesis that some persons have an abnormal fragility of duodenal mast cells in the presence of histamine-releasing substances. Incubation of duodenal biopsy material with various histamine-releasing agents (compound 48/80, Concanavalin A, the calcium ionophore A 23187, and anti-IgE) confirmed the susceptibility of duodenal mast cells for antigen non-specific release of histamine, or that mediated by IgE. In a group of patients with immediate-type, anaphylactic, food allergy, mast cells in the absence of antigen are in a normal state, but degranulation occurs on exposure in vitro or in vivo to specific antigen. The susceptibility to degranulation continues in persons cured of their food allergy. This suggests that a clinical cure is not due to a change of susceptibility of duodenal mast cells to release histamine, but is possibly associated with formation of blocking antibodies, and/or a modification in reactivity of basophils and mast cells of other organs. PMID:6207955

  17. Blunted HPA axis responsiveness to stress in atopic patients is associated with the acuity and severeness of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Ebrecht, M; Hellhammer, D H

    2010-11-01

    Previously we could demonstrate attenuated responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress in patients with chronic allergic inflammatory disease (i.e., atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma). The present study was designed to investigate HPA axis function in an acute manifestation of allergy. Patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR; n = 20) and non-atopic controls (n = 20) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor ('Trier Social Stress Test'; TSST). Cortisol responses to the TSST and cortisol awakening responses (CAR) were measured in SAR subjects while suffering from acute symptoms of SAR (pollen season), and during a non-active state of their disease (pollen-free season). To assess the acuity and severity of SAR, eosinophil and basophil numbers and SAR symptomatology were determined. Non-allergic control subjects were examined at identical times during the year. To control for possible sequence effects, a cross-over design was used. SAR patients showed significantly increased symptom severity (t = 9.4; presponses were found in SAR subjects during acute manifestation of the disease (pollen season) when compared to the pollen-free season (F(16,456) = 1.65; presponse to the stressor (r = .53; p.05). These findings support previous data of attenuated HPA axis responsiveness to stress in atopic conditions and further, suggest that HPA axis hyporesponsiveness in atopy may be linked to the severity of the allergic inflammatory process. PMID:20633637

  18. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  19. AMELIORATION EFFECT OF PROBIOTICS (CHEESE AND PREBIOTIC (GARLIC ON AFLATOXIN B1 INDUCED HEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN FRESH WATER FISH Cyprinus carpio L.

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    J.A.PRADEEPKIRAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine protective effect of probiotics against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on hematological and serum parameters which include the RBC, WBC, albumins, globulins, serum creatinine, and ALT and AST of fresh water fish Cyprinous carpio L. The total hemobiochemical analysis was compared with the AFB1 induced and probiotics (garlic, cheese treated groups. Cyprinous carpio L. (40 ± 10 g, were randomly divided into five experimental groups (15 fish per group. Group T1 represented the negative control fed with normal diet, and T2 was the positive control group fed with AFB1 contaminated diet. Groups T3, T4 were fed with AFB1-contaminated diet 200ppb supplemented with 2 mg/kg cheese, 2 mg/kg garlic, and Group T5 fed with AFB1-contaminated diet and 4 mg/kg bw (garlic + cheese probiotic supplementation in 1:1 ratio respectively. Ingestion of AFB1-contaminated fish feed possess the adverse effects on hematological parameters like, total red blood cells numbers, relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils in blood. Likewise AFB1 altered globulin, albumins, and total protein concentrations in serum fractions (GroupT2. Supplementation of probiotics cheese alone showed significant protective effect than garlic and in combination group (Group T5. Group 5 showed more or less similar to that of the control, in conclusion probiotics cheese and garlic showed significant combat effects in reducing hematological toxic effects of AFB1.

  20. The significance of the amoebocyte-producing organ in Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Samaly dos Santos Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In molluscs, internal defence against microorganisms is performed by a single cell type, i.e., the haemocyte or amoebocyte. The origin of these cells in Biomphalaria glabrata was initially thought to be localised within the vasculo-connective tissue. More recently, origin from a single organ, termed the amoebocyte-producing organ (APO, has been postulated based on the occurrence of hyperplasia and mitoses during Schistosoma mansoni infection. The present investigation represents a histological, immuno-histochemical and ultra-structural study of the B. glabrata APO, whereby histological identification was facilitated by means of collecting epithelial basophilic cells. These cells were comprised of single-cell layers that cover a portion of the stroma, which contains many small, round cells and haemolymph sinuses, as well as a small area of the pericardial surface of the reno-pericardial region. On occasion, this epithelial component vaguely resembled the vertebrate juxtaglomerular apparatus, which reinforces its presumed relationship to the kidney. Both in normal and infected molluscs, mitoses were only occasionally found. The present quantitative studies failed to demonstrate the presence of APO cellular hyperplasia, either in normal or schistosome-infected B. glabrata. Conversely, several structural details from the APO region in B. glabrata were found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the APO is a filtration organ, i.e., it is more closely related to the kidney rather than the bone marrow, as has been suggested in the literature.

  1. Allergic sensitization and the environment: latest update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being common allergens in humans, we still do not fully understand who will develop sensitization and to which allergens. Environmental exposure to these allergens is essential for the development of sensitization, but what has emerged clearly in the literature in the recent years is that the adjuvants to which an individual is exposed at the same time as the allergen are probably an equally important determinant of the immune response to the allergen. These adjuvants act on all steps in the development of sensitization from modifying epithelial barriers, to facilitating antigen presentation, to driving T-cell responses, to altering mast cell and basophil hyperreactivity. The adjuvants come from biogenic sources, including microbes and the plants and animals that produce the allergens, and from man-made sources (anthropogenic), including unintended by-products of combustion and chemicals now ubiquitous in modern life. As we better understand how individuals are exposed to these adjuvants and how the exposure influences the likelihood of an allergic response, we may be able to design individual and community-level interventions that will reverse the increase in allergic disease prevalence, but we are not there yet. PMID:25149167

  2. Identification and characterization of major cat allergen Fel d 1 mimotopes on filamentous phage carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Jernej; Molek, Peter; Šilar, Mira; Korošec, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Štrukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    Cat allergy is one of the most prevalent allergies worldwide and can lead to the development of rhinitis and asthma. Thus far, only allergen extracts from natural sources have been used for allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, extracts and whole allergens in immunotherapy present an anaphylaxis risk. Identification of allergen epitopes or mimotopes has an important role in development of safe and effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. Moreover, with a suitable immunogenic carrier, the absence of sufficient immune response elicited by short peptides could be surmounted. In this study, we identified five structural mimotopes of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 by immunoscreening with random peptide phage libraries. The mimotopes were computationally mapped to the allergen surface, and their IgE reactivity was confirmed using sera from cat-allergic patients. Importantly, the mimotopes showed no basophil activation of the corresponding cat-allergic patients, which makes them good candidates for the development of hypoallergenic vaccine. As bacteriophage particles are becoming increasingly recognized as immunogenic carriers, we constructed bacteriophage particles displaying multiple copies of each selected mimotope on major phage coat protein. These constructed phages elicited T cell-mediated immune response, which was predominated by the type 1 T cell response. Mimotopes alone contributed to the type 1 T cell response by promoting IL-2 production. Fel d 1 mimotopes, as well as their filamentous phage immunogenic carriers, represent promising candidates in the development of hypoallergenic vaccine against cat allergy. PMID:26908079

  3. Immunological mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Marek; Akdis, C A

    2011-06-01

    The studies on the mechanisms of specific immunotherapy (SIT) point out its targets that decide on the efficacy of SIT and hence might be used for its further improvement. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of immunotherapy. The knowledge of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases and curative treatment possibilities has experienced exciting advances over the last three decades. Studies in several clinical trials in allergen-SIT have demonstrated that the induction of a tolerant state against allergens in many ways represents a key step in the development of a healthy immune response against allergens. Several cellular and molecular mechanisms have been demonstrated: allergen-specific suppressive capacities of both inducible subsets of CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box P3(+) T-regulatory and IL-10-secreting type 1 T-regulatory cells increase in peripheral blood; suppression of eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils; Ab isotype change from IgE to IgG4. This review aims at the better understanding of the observed immunological changes associated with allergen SIT. PMID:21466562

  4. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  5. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of [35S] sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the 35S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans

  6. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-07-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of (/sup 35/S) sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the /sup 35/S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans.

  7. Enhanced histamine production through the induction of histidine decarboxylase expression by phorbol ester in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Yusuke; Kako, Koichiro; Kim, Jun-Dal; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    Histamine (HA), a mediator of inflammation, type I allergic responses and neurotransmission, is synthesized from L-histidine, the reaction of which is catalyzed by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). HDC has been reported to be induced by various stimuli, not only in mast cells and basophils, but also in T lymphocytes and macrophages. Although its mRNA has been shown to be increased in Jurkat cells when treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), little is known concerning the induced production of HA by HDC. The present study quantified the trace amounts of intracellular HA using ultra-high liquid chromatography in combination with the 6-aminoquinoline carbamate-derivatization technique. To test whether the cellular level of HA is elevated by the induction of HDC in Jurkat cells treated with TPA, the peak corresponding to authentic HA in the cell lysate was fractioned and its molecular weight determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of this study show that the HA level is increased by the induction of HDC expression by TPA in Jurkat cells. Therefore, this method is useful in elucidating the physiological significance of HA production. PMID:22940786

  8. Second-line treatment of non small cell lung cancer by biweekly gemcitabine and docetaxel +/- granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and low dose aldesleukine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Pierpaolo; Tindara Miano, Salvatora; Remondo, Cinzia; Migali, Cristina; Rotundo, Maria Saveria; Macrì, Paolo; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Caraglia, Michele; Gotti, Giuseppe; Francini, Guido

    2009-03-15

    Background. The antitumor activity of a novel biweekly gemcitabine (G) + docetaxel (D) regimen +/- granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and aldesleukine (IL-2) has been evaluated in a phase II trial in advanced pretreated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results. The treatment was well tolerated. The 42.3% response rate exceeded the predefined target activity, while time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 7 and 11.2 months, respectively. A greater objective response rate (58.3% vs 28.6%) and an increased number of eosinophils, basophils and activated mononuclear blood cells were observed in those patients who also received cytokine administration. Methods. Twenty-six NSCLC patients received second line G (1000 mg/m2) and D (75 mg/m2) every 15 days. 12/26 patients also received s.c. GM-CSF (100µg, days 2-6) and s.c. IL-2 (0.5MIU/ twice daily, days 7-14 and 16-29) by random selection. Conclusion. The biweekly GD regimen is a safe and active second-line treatment in NSCLC. Addition of immune-adjuvant cytokines' may enhance the activity of this therapeutic combination. PMID:19242101

  9. Hematological and immunological effects of stress of air traffic controllers in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that stress and emotional reactions can affect immune responses in animals and humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and immunological effects of stress on air traffic controllers. METHODS: Thirty air traffic controllers and 15 aeronautical information service operators were evaluated. The groups were divided as information service operators with 10 years or more of experience (AIS>10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (AIS10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (ATCo10 group presented a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes at 2:00 p.m. compared to 8:00 a.m. Moreover, the ATCo>10 group presented lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet and leukocyte levels, and increased cortisol concentrations at 8:00 a.m. compared to the other groups. Additionally, this group had lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes, and hemoglobin, platelet, leukocyte, basophils and nitric oxide levels at 2:00 p.m. compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Stress seems to greatly affect immune responses of air traffic controllers with more than ten years of experience.

  10. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Greineisen

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies (LB are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3 and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses.

  11. Molecular confirmation of Trichomonas gallinae and other parabasalids from Brazil using the 5.8S and ITS-1 rRNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred S; Vilela, Daniel A R; Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Beckstead, Robert B; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Stimmelmayer, Raphaela; Gerhold, Richard W

    2012-11-23

    Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the sinuses of the skull. Histopathologically, marked necrotic and inflammatory lesions were associated with numerous round to oval, pale eosinophilic structures (6-10μm) with basophilic nuclei, consistent with trichomonads. Organisms similar to those described above also were found in the liver of the two green-winged saltators. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of trichomonosis in a striped owl and a toco toucan. Sequence analysis of the Trichomonas spp. internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region and partial 5.8S of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) disclosed significant genetic diversity. Two sequences had 100% identity to Trichomonas gallinae, whereas two sequences had a 99% and 92% identity to a Trichomonas vaginalis-like sequence, respectively. One sequence (green-winged saltator 502-08) had a 100% identity to a newly recognized genus Simplicomonas. PMID:22749289

  12. Global analysis of the yeast osmotic stress response by quantitative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soufi, Boumediene; Kelstrup, C.D.; Stoehr, G.;

    2009-01-01

    Information on extracellular signals and conditions is often transduced by biological systems using cascades of protein phosphorylation that affect the activity of enzymes, the localization of proteins and gene expression. A model to study signal transduction is the response of the yeast Saccharo......Information on extracellular signals and conditions is often transduced by biological systems using cascades of protein phosphorylation that affect the activity of enzymes, the localization of proteins and gene expression. A model to study signal transduction is the response of the yeast...... a comprehensive, quantitative, and time-resolved analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry of phospho-proteome and proteome changes in response to osmotic stress in yeast. We identified 5534 unique phosphopeptide variants and 3383 yeast proteins. More than 15% of the detected phosphorylation site status...... changed more than two-fold within 5 minutes of treatment. Many of the corresponding phosphoproteins are involved in the early response to environmental stress. Surprisingly, we find that 158 regulated phosphorylation sites are potential substrates of basophilic kinases as opposed to the classical proline...

  13. Drug Allergic Reactions: Current Views (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.I. Eliseeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 7% of population suffer from drug allergy. Cases of heavy life-threatening allergic reactions are well known. In this review current considerations of mechanisms of drug immune hypersensitivity development are presented, the main clinical forms and methods of diagnosing drug allergy are described. Drug allergy is diagnosed with specific in vivo tests (skin prick test, intradermal test, patch test, provocation tests and in vitro tests (determination of specific IgE to medications, test for basophil activation, reactions of leucocyte blast transformation, quantitative determination of cytokines and other proteins, e.g. granzyme and tryptase in peripheral blood. However, not all of these methods are available in real clinical practice, the list of commercial kits for diagnosis of drug allergy is limited. Therefore, it is especially important in patient management to rely on history-taking and general clinical examination data, to consider the available information on association of drug allergy and infections caused by viruses of herpes-group, especially in children population, on hereditary predisposition to some kinds of drug allergy.

  14. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use. PMID:26178655

  15. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, M. van [Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boheemen, S. van [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jong, A.A.W. de [Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuiken, T., E-mail: t.Kuiken@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  16. Galectin-9 enhances cytokine secretion, but suppresses survival and degranulation, in human mast cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Kojima

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 (Gal-9, a lectin having a β-galactoside-binding domain, can induce apoptosis of Th1 cells by binding to TIM-3. In addition, Gal-9 inhibits IgE/Ag-mediated degranulation of mast cell/basophilic cell lines by binding to IgE, thus blocking IgE/Ag complex formation. However, the role of Gal-9 in mast cell function in the absence of IgE is not fully understood. Here, we found that recombinant Gal-9 directly induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 but not p38 MAPK in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, which does not express FcεRI. Gal-9 induced apoptosis and inhibited PMA/ionomycin-mediated degranulation of HMC-1 cells. On the other hand, Gal-9 induced cytokine and/or chemokine production by HMC-1 cells, dependent on activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK. In addition, the lectin activity of Gal-9 was required for Gal-9-mediated cytokine secretion by HMC-1 cells. These observations suggest that Gal-9 has dual properties as both a regulator and an activator of mast cells.

  17. Ocean acidification weakens the immune response of blood clam through hampering the NF-kappa β and toll-like receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Guo, Cheng; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Peng, Chao; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of pCO2 driven ocean acidification on marine bivalve immunity remains poorly understood. To date, this impact has only been investigated in a few bivalve species and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels (pH at 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the total number of haemocyte cells (THC), phagocytosis status, blood cell types composition, and expression levels of twelve genes from the NF-kappa β signaling and toll-like receptor pathways of a typical bottom burrowing bivalve, blood clam (Tegillarca granosa), were investigated. The results obtained showed that while both THC number and phagocytosis frequency were significantly reduced, the percentage of red and basophil granulocytes were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, upon exposure to elevated pCO2. In addition, exposure to pCO2 acidified seawater generally led to a significant down-regulation in the inducer and key response genes of NF-kappa β signaling and toll-like receptor pathways. The results of the present study revealed that ocean acidification may hamper immune responses of the bivalve T. granosa which subsequently render individuals more susceptible to pathogens attacks such as those from virus and bacteria. PMID:27109580

  18. Rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to sodium polystyrene sulfonate crystals (Kayexalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Brevet, Marie; Manaouil, David; Yzet, Thierry; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Sevestre, Henri

    2007-06-01

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) (Kayexalate) is a cation-exchange resin used to treat hyperkaliema. Administered with sorbitol, it usually has minor adverse effects, but it may cause colonic or intestinal necrosis in uremic patients. We report an unusual case of rectal stenosis due to SPS crystals in a 46-year-old man. The patient had been involved in a car accident with severe thoracic and abdominal trauma. During his hospitalization, he presented traumatic acute pancreatitis with ischemic colitis because of hypotension, and acute renal insufficiency treated by hemofiltration and Kayexalate administered by nasogastric tube without sorbitol. Left colon was resected and Hartmann's procedure was performed. Restoration of the colon continuity was performed 13 months later. The rectal lumen was narrowed with a thickened rectal wall. Microscopic examination revealed fibrosis of the submucosa containing numerous basophilic polygonal crystals surrounded by macrophages. This is the first case report of rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to SPS crystals after ischemic colitis. PMID:17498597

  19. Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on The Amount of Blood Cells and Liver Enzymes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei Zarchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the development of nanotechnology and extensive use of nano-materials are in different fields of industry, it is necessary to investigate their destructive effects on biological systems. Titanium dioxide(TiO2 is used in the production of different dyes, cosmetics, ceramics, photocatalysts, water and sewage treatment and a lot of other products. In the present study, the effect of TiO2 on the number of blood cells and the activity of liver enzymes of rat was assessed. Methods: Concentrations of 50, 100 and 500 mg/Kg TiO2 nanoparticles (25 nm size in distilled water were administered orally to Wistar rats for 14 days and some blood factors were studied on the blood samples collected. Results: Results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles cause different changes in blood cells, and the changes were significant for some of them such as white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Decreased number of red blood cells and increased level of liver enzymes was also observed after the administration of different concentrations of TiO2, which proves the toxic effects of TiO2 on the body. Conclusion: Results of the present study proved the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on the living organisms. So, further studies are recommended to predict TiO2 toxicity.

  20. Histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yan; Meng Fan-yu; Hu Zhen-hua; Liu Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Rat model of PCOS was established in 6 immature female SD rats and another 6 immature rats treated with placebo were as control. The tissues of hypothalamus and pituitary were obtained and observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope.Results: Light microscopy revealed little difference in morphology of neurons in arcuate nucleus or basophilic cells in pituitary between PCOS rats and normal rats. Electron microscopic examination showed that, compared with those in normal rats, GnRH neurons in PCOS rats were larger and fuller, with Golgi complex and mitochondria increased. The mitochondria were small, round and swelling. More high-density secretory granules and bright vesicles were observed in the cytoplasm. The Golgi complex near nucleus in pituitary gonadotropin cell in PCOS rats was fractured and expanded, and there were increased number mitochondria and different sizes of the higher electron density secretory granules in the cytoplasm. Conclusion: The morphological alterations in hypothalamus and pituitary could play a very important role in the development of PCOS.