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Sample records for basolateral amygdaloid complex

  1. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual......Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation...

  2. Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats

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    Venkata Ramana Vollala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 2¹/2-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose. After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growth-stimulating properties.

  3. Serotonergic innervation and serotonin receptor expression of NPY-producing neurons in the rat lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei.

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    Bonn, M; Schmitt, A; Lesch, K-P; Van Bockstaele, E J; Asan, E

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacobehavioral studies in experimental animals, and imaging studies in humans, indicate that serotonergic transmission in the amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing, especially for anxiety-related stimuli. The lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei receive a dense serotonergic innervation in all species studied to date. We investigated interrelations between serotonergic afferents and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-producing neurons, which are a subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons in the rat lateral and basolateral nuclei with particularly strong anxiolytic properties. Dual light microscopic immunolabeling showed numerous appositions of serotonergic afferents on NPY-immunoreactive somata. Using electron microscopy, direct membrane appositions and synaptic contacts between serotonin-containing axon terminals and NPY-immunoreactive cellular profiles were unequivocally established. Double in situ hybridization documented that more than 50 %, and about 30-40 % of NPY mRNA-producing neurons, co-expressed inhibitory 5-HT1A and excitatory 5-HT2C mRNA receptor subtype mRNA, respectively, in both nuclei with no gender differences. Triple in situ hybridization showed that individual NPY mRNA-producing interneurons co-express both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C mRNAs. Co-expression of NPY and 5-HT3 mRNA was not observed. The results demonstrate that serotonergic afferents provide substantial innervation of NPY-producing neurons in the rat lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of serotonin receptor subtype co-expression indicate a differential impact of the serotonergic innervation on this small, but important, population of anxiolytic interneurons, and provide the basis for future studies of the circuitry underlying serotonergic modulation of emotional stimulus processing in the amygdala.

  4. Stereological estimation of the number of neurons in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Cynthia Mills; Amaral, David G

    2005-10-31

    Pathological changes in neuronal density in the amygdaloid complex have been associated with various neurological disorders. However, due to variable shrinkage during tissue processing, the only way to determine changes in neuron number unambiguously is to estimate absolute counts, rather than neuronal density. As the first stage in evaluating potential neuropathology of the amygdala in autism, the total number of neurons was estimated in the control human amygdaloid complex by using stereological sampling. The intact amygdaloid complex from one hemisphere of 10 brains was frozen and sectioned. One 100-microm section was selected every 500 microm and stained by the standard Nissl method. The entire amygdaloid complex was outlined and then further partitioned into five reliably defined subdivisions: 1) the lateral nucleus, 2) the basal nucleus, 3) the accessory basal nucleus, 4) the central nucleus, and 5) the remaining nuclei (including anterior cortical, anterior amygdaloid area, periamygdaloid cortex, medial, posterior cortical, nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, amygdalohippocampal area, and intercalated nuclei). The number of neurons was measured by using an optical fractionator with Stereoinvestigator software. The mean number of neurons (x 10(6)) for each region was as follows: lateral nucleus 4.00, basal nucleus 3.24, accessory basal nucleus 1.28, central nucleus 0.36, remaining nuclei 3.33, and total amygdaloid complex 12.21. The stereological assessment of neuron number in the human amygdala provides an essential baseline for comparison of patient populations, such as autism, in which the amygdala may develop abnormally. To facilitate these types of analyses, this paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the methods used to define subdivisions of the human amygdaloid complex.

  5. [Internal inhibition in rats after destruction of amygdaloid complex nuclei].

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    Bogach, P G; Makarchuk, N E; Chaĭchenko, G M

    1981-01-01

    In experiments on male albino rats bilateral lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) impaired extinction and differentiation of the food-procuring conditioned reflexes where as bilateral corticomedial (CMA) lesions had no effect on them. The BLA damage caused a significant impairment of the aversive stimuli discrimination but had no effect on the extinction of the conditioned avoidance reflex in a shuttle-box. The CMA lesions in both hemispheres led to attenuation of aversive stimuli discrimination and delay of avoidance extinction. The data obtained testify to the BLA dominant role in internal inhibition of the alimentary conditioned reflexes and the CMA dominant role in internal inhibition of avoidance conditioning and furthermore to the importance of BLA in the evaluation of the emotional significance and biological validity of the stimuli (reward or punishment). PMID:7303899

  6. Structural bases for neurophysiological investigations of amygdaloid complex of the brain

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    Kalimullina, Liliya B.; Kalkamanov, Kh. A.; Akhmadeev, Azat V.; Zakharov, Vadim P.; Sharafullin, Ildus F.

    2015-11-01

    Amygdala (Am) as a part of limbic system of the brain defines such important functions as adaptive behavior of animals, formation of emotions and memory, regulation of endocrine and visceral functions. We worked out, with the help of mathematic modelling of the pattern recognition theory, principles for organization of neurophysiological and neuromorphological studies of Am nuclei, which take into account the existing heterogeneity of its formations and optimize, to a great extent, the protocol for carrying out of such investigations. The given scheme of studies of Am’s structural-functional organization at its highly-informative sections can be used as a guide for precise placement of electrodes’, cannulae’s and microsensors into particular Am nucleus in the brain with the registration not only the nucleus itself, but also its extensions. This information is also important for defining the number of slices covering specific Am nuclei which must be investigated to reveal the physiological role of a particular part of amygdaloid complex.

  7. OPIOID RECEPTORS IN THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA BUT NOT DORSAL HIPPOCAMPUS MEDIATE CONTEXT-INDUCED ALCOHOL SEEKING

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Peter W.; Funk, Douglas; Juzytsch, Walter; Lê, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Contexts associated with the availability of alcohol can induce craving in humans and alcohol seeking in rats. The opioid antagonist naltrexone attenuates context-induced reinstatement (renewal) of alcohol seeking and suppresses neuronal activation in the basolateral amygdaloid complex and dorsal hippocampus induced by such reinstatement. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors in the basolateral amygdala or dorsal hippocampus would at...

  8. Neuropeptide Y input to the rat basolateral amygdala complex and modulation by conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitermann, Randy J; Rostkowski, Amanda B; Urban, Janice H

    2016-08-15

    Within the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BLA), neuropeptide Y (NPY) buffers against protracted anxiety and fear. Although the importance of NPY's actions in the BLA is well documented, little is known about the source(s) of NPY fibers to this region. The current studies identified sources of NPY projections to the BLA by using a combination of anatomical and neurochemical approaches. NPY innervation of the BLA was assessed in rats by examining the degree of NPY coexpression within interneurons or catecholaminergic fibers with somatostatin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), respectively. Numerous NPY(+) /somatostatin(+) and NPY(+) /somatostatin(-) fibers were observed, suggesting at least two populations of NPY fibers within the BLA. No colocalization was noted between NPY and TH or DβH immunoreactivities. Additionally, Fluorogold (FG) retrograde tracing with immunohistochemistry was used to identify the precise origin of NPY projections to the BLA. FG(+) /NPY(+) cells were identified within the amygdalostriatal transition area (AStr) and stria terminalis and scattered throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The subpopulation of NPY neurons in the AStr also coexpressed somatostatin. Subjecting animals to a conditioned fear paradigm increased NPY gene expression within the AStr, whereas no changes were observed within the BLA or stria terminalis. Overall, these studies identified limbic regions associated with stress circuits providing NPY input to the BLA and demonstrated that a unique NPY projection from the AStr may participate in the regulation of conditioned fear. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2418-2439, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26779765

  9. DBS in the baso-lateral amygdala improves symptoms of autism and related self-injurious behaviour A case report and hypothesis on the pathogenesis of the disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Sturm; Jürgen K. Mai

    2013-01-01

    We treated a thirteen year old boy for life-threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe Kanner’s autism with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the amygdaloid complex as well as in the supra-amygdaloid projection system. Two DBS-electrodes were placed in both structures of each hemisphere. The stimulation contacts targeted the paralaminar, the basolateral, the central amygdala as well as the supra-amygdaloid projection system. DBS was applied to each of these structures, but only stimul...

  10. DBS in the basolateral amygdala improves symptoms of autism and related self-injurious behavior: a case report and hypothesis on the pathogenesis of the disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Volker; Fricke, Oliver; Bührle, Christian P.; Lenartz, Doris; Maarouf, Mohammad; Treuer, Harald; Jürgen K. Mai; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    We treated a 13-year-old boy for life-threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB) and severe Kanner's autism with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the amygdaloid complex as well as in the supra-amygdaloid projection system. Two DBS-electrodes were placed in both structures of each hemisphere. The stimulation contacts targeted the paralaminar, the basolateral (BL), the central amygdala as well as the supra-amygdaloid projection system. DBS was applied to each of these structures, but only stimula...

  11. El complejo amigdalino humano y su implicación en los trastornos psiquiátricos The amygdaloid complex and its implication in psychiatric disorders

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    M. T. Ledo-Varela

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El complejo amigdalino es un conjunto de núcleos que se localizan en la profundidad del lóbulo temporal, y que guardan estrecha relación con el sistema límbico. Su alteración se ha asociado a un gran número de procesos psiquiátricos. En este artículo se pretende hacer una revisión de lo publicado en referencia a la implicación amigdalina en trastornos psiquiátricos comunes. En ellos se observa un complejo amigdalino alterado, siendo su máxima expresión el síndrome de Klüver-Bucy. En pacientes esquizofrénicos se ha observado una reducción del volumen amigdalino, bilateral en varones y unilateral en mujeres. Esto sugiere que las alteraciones morfométricas del complejo amigdalino están más extendidas en varones esquizofrénicos. El complejo amigdalino está aumentado en niños autistas, no siendo así en adolescentes, donde se iguala al volumen de cualquier adolescente o adulto sano. Sin embargo, estudios neuroanatómicos han demostrado patología microscópica. En los pacientes con trastornos en el estado de ánimo, se observa una cierta tendencia a presentar un complejo amigdalino izquierdo de menor volumen. El volumen amigdalino de los grupos con demencia frontotemporal y enfermedad de Alzheimer era diferente a los del grupo de control, y se ha visto una predisposición al incremento de la atrofia amigdalina. Se puede afirmar que el complejo amigdalino está implicado en numerosos procesos psiquiátricos, tanto por daño estructural de dicho complejo como por daño funcional. Sin embargo, hacen falta más estudios para delimitar la influencia real del complejo amigdalino en dichos trastornos.The amygdaloid complex is a group of nuclei located deep in the temporal lobe and closely involved in the limbic system. Its alteration has been associated with some psychiatric processes. In this article, an overall review was made of the published data concerning the amygdaloid complex in the most common psychiatric diseases. A damaged

  12. DBS in the baso-lateral amygdala improves symptoms of autism and related self-injurious behaviourA case report and hypothesis on the pathogenesis of the disorder

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    Volker eSturm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We treated a thirteen year old boy for life-threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB and severe Kanner’s autism with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS in the amygdaloid complex as well as in the supra-amygdaloid projection system. Two DBS-electrodes were placed in both structures of each hemisphere. The stimulation contacts targeted the paralaminar, the basolateral, the central amygdala as well as the supra-amygdaloid projection system. DBS was applied to each of these structures, but only stimulation of the baso-lateral part proved effective in improving SIB and core symptoms of the autism spectrum in the emotional, social and even cognitive domains over a follow up of now 24 months. These results, which have been gained for the first time in a patient, support hypotheses, according to which the amygdala may be pivotal in the pathogeneses of autism and point to the special relevance of the baso-lateral part.

  13. Involvement of the basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala in the omission effects of different magnitudes of reinforcement.

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    Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Tavares, Tatiane F; Bueno, José Lino O

    2012-07-15

    Evidence from appetitive Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning studies suggest that the amygdala is involved in modulation of responses correlated with motivational states, and therefore, to the modulation of processes probably underlying reinforcement omission effects. The present study aimed to clarify whether or not the mechanisms related to reinforcement omission effects of different magnitudes depend on basolateral complex and central nucleus of amygdala. Rats were trained on a fixed-interval 12s with limited hold 6s signaled schedule in which correct responses were always followed by one of two reinforcement magnitudes. Bilateral lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus were made after acquisition of stable performance. After postoperative recovery, the training was changed from 100% to 50% reinforcement schedules. The results showed that lesions of the basolateral complex and central nucleus did not eliminate or reduce, but interfere with reinforcement omission effects. The response from rats of both the basolateral complex and central nucleus lesioned group was higher relative to that of the rats of their respective sham-lesioned groups after reinforcement omission. Thus, the lesioned rats were more sensitive to the omission effect. Moreover, the basolateral complex lesions prevented the magnitude effect on reinforcement omission effects. Basolateral complex lesioned rats showed no differential performance following omission of larger and smaller reinforcement magnitude. Thus, the basolateral complex is involved in incentive processes relative to omission of different reinforcement magnitudes. Therefore, it is possible that reinforcement omission effects are modulated by brain circuitry which involves amygdala.

  14. Effects of voluntary wheeling exercise on the learning and memory and c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of depression model rats%自愿转轮运动对抑郁模型大鼠学习记忆及基底外侧杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 药宏慧; 李中华; 庞立杰; 贺继平

    2013-01-01

    探讨4周自愿转轮运动对慢性不可预知性应激致抑郁大鼠旷场行为及空间学习记忆能力、血清皮质醇和基底外侧杏仁核c-fos 表达的影响。将40只大鼠随机分为4组,即对照组、运动组、应激模型组及应激运动组,每组10只。应激模型组及应激运动组大鼠每日进行慢性不可预知性应激1次,连续28 d,同时运动组及应激运动组大鼠进行4周自愿转轮运动。自愿转轮运动结束后检测大鼠血清皮质醇水平;运用旷场实验测试大鼠自主活动能力及探索行为;八臂迷宫实验检测大鼠空间学习记忆能力;采用免疫组织化学结合图像半定量方法对基底外侧杏仁核 c-fos神经元的数量、面积及灰度进行测量和分析。结果发现:1)与应激模型组比较,应激运动组大鼠穿越格数、直立次数及修饰次数显著增多(P0.05)。以上结果说明,自愿转轮运动可提高抑郁大鼠的学习记忆能力,机理可能与长期自愿转轮运动降低抑郁大鼠的血清皮质醇水平及增强大脑基底外侧杏仁核c-fos 的表达有关。%In order to probe into the effects of 4-week voluntary wheeling exercise on the open field behavior, space learning and memorizing ability, blood serum cortisol and c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of rats having depression caused by chronic and unpredictable stress, the authors divided 40 rats randomly into 4 groups:a control group, an exercise group, a stress model group and a stress exercise group, each of which included 10 rats, put the rats in the stress model group and stress exercise group under chronic and unpredictable stress once a day for consecutive 28 d, let the rats in the exercise group and stress exercise group do a voluntary wheeling exercise for 4 weeks, measured the level of blood serum cortisol of the rats after the voluntary wheeling exercise was completed, applied the open field experiment to test the

  15. A Different Recruitment of the Lateral and Basolateral Amygdala Promotes Contextual or Elemental Conditioned Association in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

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    Calandreau, Ludovic; Desmedt, Aline; Decorte, Laurence; Jaffard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Convergent data suggest dissociated roles for the lateral (LA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdaloid nuclei in fear conditioning, depending on whether a discrete conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditional stimulus (US) or context-US association is considered. Here, we show that pretraining inactivation of the BLA selectively impaired conditioning to…

  16. Amygdaloid lesions block the effect of neuropeptides (vasopressin, ACTH4–10) on avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Croiset, G.; Bakker, E.; Bouman, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lesions in the amygdaloid complex result in an increased activity of rats in open field behavior in that generally more exploration and rearing is observed as compared with sham-operated animals. No effect of the lesion was observed on acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance response, but

  17. Injections of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala induce anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in brainstem serotonergic neurons.

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    Spiga, F; Lightman, S L; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2006-01-01

    The amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Previous studies have shown that injections of the anxiety-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor or the related neuropeptide urocortin 1 into the region of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus induce anxiety-like behavior in several behavioral paradigms. Brainstem serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus may be part of a distributed neural system that, together with the basolateral amygdala, regulates acute and chronic anxiety states. We therefore investigated the effect of an acute bilateral injection of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala on behavior in the social interaction test and on c-Fos expression within serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae directed at the region of the basolateral amygdala; 72 h after surgery, rats were injected with urocortin 1 (50 fmol/100 nl) or vehicle (100 nl of 1% bovine serum albumin in distilled water). Thirty minutes after injection, a subgroup of rats from each experimental group was exposed to the social interaction test; remaining animals were left in the home cage. Two hours after injection rats were perfused with paraformaldehyde and brains were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Acute injection of urocortin 1 had anxiogenic effects in the social interaction test, reducing total interaction time without affecting locomotor activity or exploratory behavior. These behavioral effects were associated with increases in c-Fos expression within brainstem serotonergic neurons. In home cage rats and rats exposed to the social interaction test, urocortin 1 treatment increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive serotonergic neurons within subdivisions of both the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the

  18. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    . Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons......Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  19. The distribution of motilin receptor in the amygdala of rats and its role in migrating myoelectric complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of the motilin receptor in the amygdala of rats and its role in regulating the duodenal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC). Methods:The distribution of motilin receptor in the amygdala in adult SD rats was detected by immunohistochemistry methods, and the duodenal interdigestive MMC was recorded via the electrodes implanted in the duodenum and analyzed using a multichannel recorder. Results:Motilin receptor was observed in the amygdala of rats. The great amount of motilin receptor was found in the medial amygdaloid nucleus, which was also abundant in the basolateral nucleus but less abundant in the basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, the central amygdaloid nucleus and the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. The shortening of the duodenal MMC cycle duration and the in crease of the amplitude and the frequency of phase Ⅲ were recorded after motilin receptors being bound with exogenous motilin in the amygdala. The effects could be completely blocked by the subdiaphragmatic vagotomy but not by the intravenous injections of atropine, phentolamine or propranolol. Anti-motilin serum could partially block these effects, and the destruction of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala had no significant effects on the duodenal MMC. Conclusion: Motilin receptor is present in all the subnuclei of the amygdala, with the greatest amount of motilin receptor present in the medial amygdaloid nucleus. Microinjections of motilin in the amygdala can shorten the duodenal MMC cycle duration and increase the amplitude and the frequency of phase Ⅲ. These effects might be accomplished via the amygdala-hypothalamus-brainstem-vagus pathway, indicating the important role of the amygdala motilin receptor in the duodenal MMC regulation.

  20. Morphometric characteristics of Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus

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    Mališ Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cortical amygdaloid nucleus belongs to the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid complex. In this nucleus there are neurons that produce neuropetide Y. This peptide has important roles in sleeping, learning, memory, gastrointestinal regulation, anxiety, epilepsy, alcoholism and depression. Material and methods We investigated morphometric characteristics (numbers of primary dendrites, longer and shorter diameters of cell bodies and maximal radius of dendritic arborization of NPY immunoreactive neurons of human cortical amygdaloid nucleus on 6 male adult human brains, aged 46 to 77 years, by immunohistochemical avidin-biotin technique. Results Our investigation has shown that in this nucleus there is a moderate number of NPY immunoreactive neurons. 67% of found neurons were nonpyramidal, while 33% were pyramidal. Among the nonpyramidal neurons the dominant groups were multipolar neurons (41% - of which 25% were multipolar irregular, and 16% multipolar oval. Among the pyramidal neurons the dominant groups were the neurons with triangular shape of cell body (21%. All found NPY immunoreactive neurons (pyramidal and nonpyramidal altogether had intervals of values of numbers of primary dendrites 2 to 6, longer diameters of cell bodies 13 to 38 µm, shorter diameters of cell bodies 9 to 20 µm and maximal radius of dendritic arborization 50 to 340 µm. More than a half of investigated neurons (57% had 3 primary dendrites. Discussion and conclusion The other researchers did not find such percentage of pyramidal immunoreactive neurons in this amygdaloid nucleus. If we compare our results with the results of the ather researchers we can conclude that all pyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons found in this human amygdaloid nucleus belong to the class I of neurons, and that all nonpyramidal NPY immunoreactive neurons belong to the class II of neurons described by other researchers. We suppose that all found pyramidal neurons were projectional.

  1. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Peng; LI Xin; LIN Hao-jie; PENG Wei-feng; LIU Jian-ying; MA Yu; FAN Wei; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats.Methods With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, differentdoses of curcumin (10 mg·kg-1·d-1 and 30 mg·kg-1·d-1as low dose groups, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·d-1 as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of Ads to reach the stages of class Ⅰ to Ⅴ seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses.Results Curcumin (both 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·d-1) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80±9.25) and (21.70±9.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3±85.9) μA to (960.0±116.5) μA during the progression to class Ⅴ seizures. Rats treated with 300 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0±65.2) μA to (86±7.093.4) μA during the progression to class Ⅴ seizures. Rats treated with 300 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin required much more evoked Ads to reach the stage of class both Ⅳ (as (199.83±12.47) seconds) and Ⅴ seizures (as (210.66±10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin required much more evoked Ads to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56±18.24) seconds). Conclusion Our study suggests that curcumin has a potential

  2. Basolateral amygdala lesion inhibits the development of pain chronicity in neuropathic pain rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronicity of pain is one of the most interesting questions in chronic pain study. Clinical and experimental data suggest that supraspinal areas responsible for negative emotions such as depression and anxiety contribute to the chronicity of pain. The amygdala is suspected to be a potential structure for the pain chronicity due to its critical role in processing negative emotions and pain information. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether amygdala or its subregions, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the central medial amygdala (CeA, contributes to the pain chronicity in the spared nerve injury (SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 Before the establishment of the SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats, lesion of the amygdaloid complex with stereotaxic injection of ibotenic acid (IBO alleviated mechanical allodynia significantly at days 7 and 14, even no mechanical allodynia at day 28 after SNI; Lesion of the BLA, but not the CeA had similar effects; (2 however, 7 days after SNI when the neuropathic pain model was established, lesion of the amygdala complex or the BLA or the CeA, mechanical allodynia was not affected. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that BLA activities in the early stage after nerve injury might be crucial to the development of pain chronicity, and amygdala-related negative emotions and pain-related memories could promote pain chronicity.

  3. [The amygdaloid body of the brain: some topics for discussion and little-studied problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmaev, I G; Kalimullina, L B

    1995-01-01

    Features of functional morphology of the amygdaloid brain complex (ABC) are analyzed in a new light presenting the notion of the ABC as a nucleo-paleocortical structure. The analysis of the structural organization of ABC could imply the presence of phylogenetically differentiated parts: the ancient, the old and the new amygdala. The presentation carries original data on the morphometric and histophysiological studies under various experimental alterations of the endocrine system. A concept is developed of the existence of a rostrocaudal gradient in the expression of sex-dependent structural and functional features of the amygdaloid complex as a neuroendocrine brain centre. Provided is technical recommendation for use in biological studies of amygdaloid brain complex mathematical models based on the theory of image identification. An original technique has also been recommended for selective dissection of the ABC with its eventual removal from nonfixed brain, which allows studies to be made of the ABC neurophysiological and neurochemical properties on surviving slices. Evidence is adduced indicating involvement of the ABC in the process of the brain sex differentiation.

  4. SK2 potassium channel over-expression in basolateral amygdala reduces anxiety, stress-induced corticosterone and dendritic arborization

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mitra; Ferguson, D.; Sapolsky, RM

    2009-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala is critical for generation of anxiety. Additionally, exposure to both stress and glucocorticoids induce anxiety. Demonstrated ability of the amygdala to change in response to stress and glucocorticoids could thus be important therapeutic target for anxiety management. Several studies have reported a relationship between anxiety and dendritic arborization of the amygdaloid neurons. In this study we employed a gene therapeutic approach to reduce anxiety and dendritic ar...

  5. Stress-induced resistance to the fear memory labilization/reconsolidation process. Involvement of the basolateral amygdala complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Pablo Javier; Ortiz, Vanesa; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Victor Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated memories can enter into a labile state after reactivation followed by a restabilization process defined as reconsolidation. This process can be interfered with Midazolam (MDZ), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor. The present study has evaluated the influence of prior stress on MDZ's interfering effect. We also assessed the influence of both systemic and intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the NMDA receptors, on the MDZ effect in previously stressed rats. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of stress on the expression of Zif-268 and the GluN2B sites, two molecular markers of the labilization/reconsolidation process, following reactivation. The results revealed that prior stress resulted into a memory trace that was insensitive to the MDZ impairing effect. Both systemic and intra-BLA DCS administration previous to reactivation restored MDZ's disruptive effect on memory reconsolidation in stressed animals. Further, reactivation enhanced Zif-268 expression in the BLA in control unstressed rats, whereas no elevation was observed in stressed animals. In agreement with the behavioral findings, DCS restored the increased level of Zif-268 expression in the BLA in stressed animals. Moreover, memory reactivation in unstressed animals elevated GluN2B expression in the BLA, thus suggesting that this effect is involved in memory destabilization, whereas stressed animals did not reveal any changes. These findings are consistent with resistance to the MDZ effect in these rats, indicating that stress exposure prevents the onset of destabilization following reactivation. In summary, prior stress limited both the occurrence of the reactivation-induced destabilization and restabilization. PMID:27378335

  6. An appetitive experience after fear memory destabilization attenuates fear retention: involvement GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M; Bueno, Adrián M; Cuadra, Gabriel; Molina, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear memory in rats during the reactivation-induced destabilization phase. Our findings show that exposure to an appetitive experience following reactivation can diminish fear retention. This effect persisted after 1 wk. Importantly, it was achieved only under conditions that induced fear memory destabilization. This result could not be explained as a potentiated extinction, because sucrose was unable to promote extinction. Since GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) have been implicated in triggering fear memory destabilization, we decided to block pharmacologically these receptors to explore the neurobiological bases of the observed effect. Intra-BLA infusion with ifenprodil, a GluN2B-NMDA antagonist, prevented the fear reduction caused by the appetitive experience. In sum, these results suggest that the expression of a fear memory can be dampened by an unrelated appetitive experience, as long as memory destabilization is achieved during reactivation. Possible mechanisms behind this effect and its clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  8. Characteristics of galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the rat amygdala complex

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    Puškaš Laslo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Morphological features and morphometric parameters of galanin (GAL and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive neurons and neuronal fibres were studied in all nuclei of adult male rat amygdala. Material and methods After perfusion and fixation, rat brains were immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against GAL and VIP and then visualized by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Results and Discussion The greatest number of galanin-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the medial part of the central nucleus and in the dorsal part of the medial nucleus. In the first case, most neurons were bipolar (37%, and in the second, they were ovoid (45%. GAL-immunoreactive fibers were identified in the medial nucleus, "bed nucleus" of the accessory olfactory tract, frontal cortical nucleus, amygdalo-hippocampal area and basolateral nucleus. VIP-immunoreactive neurons were diffusely distributed in more nuclei than the previous, mostly in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nucleus. They were mostly ovoid (40%. VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lateral part of the central nucleus, while long and radially oriented fibers were present in the frontal and dorsal cortical nucleus. Conclusion By distribution analysis of GAL and VIP immunoreactive neurons and fibers, and according to literature data, it can be assumed that the medial part of the central nucleus receives VIP fibers from other parts of the amygdaloid body, and then sends GAL fibers to the medial nucleus.

  9. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, th

  10. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, A.; McGaugh, J.L.; Roozendaal, B.

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidat

  11. The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, sug...

  12. Endocannabinoids in the rat basolateral amygdala enhance memory consolidation and enable glucocorticoid modulation of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memories for emotionally arousing experiences, an effect that involves the activation of the glucocorticoid system. Because the BLA expresses high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the present experiments investigated whether the endocannabinoid system in the BLA influences memory consolidation and whether glucocorticoids interact with this system. The CB1 receptor agonist WIN5...

  13. Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory requires arousal-induced noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Okuda, Shoki; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; McGaugh, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of long-term memories for emotionally arousing experiences but not that for less arousing or neutral information. However, previous studies have not determined the basis of such arousal-induced selectivity. Here we report the finding that endogenous noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) induced by emotional arousal is essential in enabling glucocorticoid memory enhancemen...

  14. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Castello, Nicholas A.; Vedana, Gustavo; Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of memory for many kinds of highly emotionally arousing training tasks. The present experiments investigated whether posttraining noradrenergic activation of the BLA is sufficient to enable memory consolidation of a low-arousing training experience. Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-BLA infusions of norepinephrine, the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol or saline immediately after either ...

  15. [Neurochemical analysis of the amygdala basolateral nucleus of rats during anxiety tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaenko, A N; Babiĭ, Iu V; Perch, N N; Vozdvigin, S A; Panfilov, V Iu

    1997-03-01

    Chlordiazepoxid, phenibut, indoter, campiron, campironin, when administered into the amygdala, improve the anxiety condition of rats in avoidance tests and resemble by their effects dophamine, GABA, or serotonin. Observed differences in the anxiolytic effects between anxiosedative and anxioselective agents seem to be due to an unequal contribution of the monoamin- and aminoacidotergic transmitters into the mechanisms of heteromodal aversive anxiety genesis in the basolateral area of the amygdalar complex. PMID:12436687

  16. Characterization of the basolateral membrane conductance of Necturus urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, J R; Finn, A L

    1987-04-01

    Necturus urinary bladders stripped of serosal muscle and connective tissue were impaled through their basolateral membranes with microelectrodes in experiments that permitted rapid changes in the ion composition of the serosal solution. The transepithelial electrical properties exhibited a marked seasonal variation that could be attributed to variations in the conductance of the shunt pathway, apical membrane selectivity, and basolateral Na+ transport. In contrast, the passive electrical properties of the basolateral membrane remained constant throughout the year. The apparent transference numbers (Ti) of the basolateral membrane for K+ and Cl- were determined from the effect on the basolateral membrane equivalent electromotive force of a sudden increase in the serosal K+ concentration from 2.5 to 50 mM/liter or a decrease in the Cl- concentration from 101 to 10 mM/liter. TK and TCl were 0.71 +/- 0.05 and 0.04 +/- 0.01, respectively. The basolateral K+ conductance could be blocked by Ba2+ (0.5 mM), Cs+ (10 mM), or Rb+ (10 mM), but was unaffected by 3,4-diaminopyridine (100 microM), decamethonium (100 microM), or tetraethylammonium (10 mM). We conclude that a highly selective K+ conductance dominates the electrical properties of the basolateral membrane and that this conductance is different from those found in nerve and muscle membranes. PMID:2438371

  17. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala enhances object recognition memory and induces chromatin remodeling in the insular cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldjoud, H.; Barsegyan, A.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BL

  18. Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn during Growth Spurt Period in Rats

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    K. G. Mohandas Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CeA is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and intersections (a measure dendritic length quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks. We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.

  19. Tyrosine motifs are required for prestin basolateral membrane targeting

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    Yifan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is targeted to the lateral wall of outer hair cells (OHCs where its electromotility is critical for cochlear amplification. Using MDCK cells as a model system for polarized epithelial sorting, we demonstrate that prestin uses tyrosine residues, in a YXXΦ motif, to target the basolateral surface. Both Y520 and Y667 are important for basolateral targeting of prestin. Mutation of these residues to glutamine or alanine resulted in retention within the Golgi and delayed egress from the Golgi in Y667Q. Basolateral targeting is restored upon mutation to phenylalanine suggesting the importance of a phenol ring in the tyrosine side chain. We also demonstrate that prestin targeting to the basolateral surface is dependent on AP1B (μ1B, and that prestin uses transferrin containing early endosomes in its passage from the Golgi to the basolateral plasma membrane. The presence of AP1B (μ1B in OHCs, and parallels between prestin targeting to the basolateral surface of OHCs and polarized epithelial cells suggest that outer hair cells resemble polarized epithelia rather than neurons in this important phenotypic measure.

  20. Chemosensory cues affect amygdaloid neurogenesis and alter behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lieberwirth, C; Jia, X; Curtis, J T; Meredith, M; Wang, Z X

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of pheromonal exposure on adult neurogenesis and revealed the role of the olfactory pathways on adult neurogenesis and behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Subjects were injected with a cell proliferation marker [5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] and then exposed to their own soiled bedding or bedding soiled by a same- or opposite-sex conspecific. Exposure to opposite-sex bedding increased BrdU labeling in the amygdala (AMY), but not the dentate gyrus (DG), of female, but not male, voles, indicating a sex-, stimulus-, and brain region-specific effect. The removal of the main olfactory bulbs or lesioning of the vomeronasal organ (VNOX) in females reduced BrdU labeling in the AMY and DG, and inhibited the male bedding-induced BrdU labeling in the AMY, revealing the importance of an intact olfactory pathway for amygdaloid neurogenesis. VNOX increased anxiety-like behavior and altered social preference, but it did not affect social recognition memory in female voles. VNOX also reduced the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that co-expressed the neuronal marker TuJ1 in the AMY, but not the DG. Together, our data indicate the importance of the olfactory pathway in mediating brain plasticity in the limbic system as well as its role in behavior. PMID:24641515

  1. Synaptic vesicle protein2A decreases in amygdaloid-kindling pharmcoresistant epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Li-kun; Wu, Guo-feng

    2015-10-01

    Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) involvement has been reported in the animal models of epilepsy and in human intractable epilepsy. The difference between pharmacosensitive epilepsy and pharmacoresistant epilepsy remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to observe the hippocampus SV2A protein expression in amygdale-kindling pharmacoresistant epileptic rats. The pharmacosensitive epileptic rats served as control. Amygdaloid-kindling model of epilepsy was established in 100 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The kindled rat model of epilepsy was used to select pharmacoresistance by testing their seizure response to phenytoin and phenobarbital. The selected pharmacoresistant rats were assigned to a pharmacoresistant epileptic group (PRE group). Another 12 pharmacosensitive epileptic rats (PSE group) served as control. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to determine SV2A expression in the hippocampus tissue samples from both the PRE and the PSE rats. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that SV2A was mainly accumulated in the cytoplasm of the neurons, as well as along their dendrites throughout all subfields of the hippocampus. Immunoreactive staining level of SV2A-positive cells was 0.483 ± 0.304 in the PRE group and 0.866 ± 0.090 in the PSE group (P kindling rats.

  2. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dit-Bressel, Philip Jean-Richard; McNally, Gavan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects…

  3. Consecutive 15 min is necessary for focal low frequency stimulation to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Xu, Zhenghao; Xu, Cenglin; Ying, Xiaoying; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Shihong; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is emerging as a new option for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. The stimulation duration may influence the anti-epileptic effect of LFS but is poorly studied. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-epileptic effect of focal LFS with different stimulation duration on amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats. We found 15 and 30 min but not 1 or 5 min LFS delivered immediately after the kindling stimulation slowed the progression of behavioral seizure stages and reduced mean afterdischarge duration (ADD) during kindling acquisition. In fully kindled animals, 15 and 30min rather than 1 and 5 min LFS decreased the incidence of generalized seizures and the average seizure stage as well as shortened the cumulative generalized seizure duration (GSD). Meanwhile, EEG analysis showed 15 and 30 min LFS specifically lowered the power in delta band. However, if 15min LFS delivered intermittently by 5 min interval, it had no suppressing effect on kindling rat. Thus, it is likely that consecutive 15 min is necessary for LFS to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats, indicating the stimulation duration may be a key fact affecting the clinical effect of LFS on epilepsy.

  4. Postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    David E Ehrlich; Ryan, Steven J.; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and autism spectrum disorders, have early ages of onset and high incidence in juveniles. To better treat and prevent these disorders, it is important to first understand normal development of brain circuits that process emotion. Healthy and maladaptive emotional processing involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dysfunction of which has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. Normal function of the adult BLA relies on a fine balance of ...

  5. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

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    Jesus E. Martinez-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the basolateral domain and demonstrated that the development of the basolateral domain highly depends on Shh.

  6. Distribution of Prestin on Outer Hair Cell Basolateral Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ning; ZHAI Suo-qiang; YANG Shi-ming; HAN Dong-yi; ZHAO Hong-bo

    2008-01-01

    Prestin has been identified as a motor protein responsible for outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and is expressed on the OHC surface. Previous studies revealed that OHC eleetromotility and its associated nonlinear capacitance were mainly located at the OHC lateral wall and absent at the apical cutieular plate and the basal nucleus region. Immunofluorescent staining for prestin also failed to demonstrate prestin expression at the OHC basal ends in whole-mount preparation of the organ of Corti. However, there lacks a definitive demonstration of the pattern of prestin distribution. The OHC lateral wall has a trilaminate organization and is composed of the plasma membrane, cortical lattice, and subsurface cisternae. In this study, the location of prestin proteins in dissociated OHCs was examined using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. We found that prestin was uniformly expressed on the basolateral surface, including the basal pole. No staining was seen on the cuticular plate and stereocilia. When co-stained with a membrane marker di-8-ANEPPS, prestin-labeling was found to be in the outer layer of the OHC lateral wall. After separating the plasma membrane from the underlying subsurface eisternae using a hypotonic extracellular solution, prestin-labeling was found to be in the plasma membrane, not the subsurface cisternae. The data show that prestin is expressed in the plasma membrane on the entire OHC basolateral surface.

  7. C-fos protein expression in the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens in the hypoxic rat brain

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    Babović Siniša S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. By examining the production of c-Fos protein, we analyzed the response to the ischemic attack in different brain tissue, two of which are regions of the limbic system: the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens. Material and Methods. We used the model of rat brain ischemia - four-vessel occlusion, and Pulsinelli’s method. The rats were treated in two ways, according to which they were divided into two groups: a total ischemia (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery with bilateral ligation of the carotid artery - the so-called R-group rats, and transient ischemic attack (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery, with mutual re-ligation of the carotid arteries in the form of transient ischemia - the so-called T-group rats, which can also be called “pre-conditioned group”. Both groups had their own control group. Conclusion. We have concluded that parts of the brain with an important role for the survival have a strong expression of c-fos gene.

  8. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Memory Consolidation via an Interaction with the β-Adrenoceptor-cAMP Pathway: Dependence on Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that stress hormone effects on the consolidation of emotionally influenced memory involve noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). The present experiments examined whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates memory consolidation via an interaction with the β-adrenoceptor-adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) system in the BLA. In a first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral infusions of the CRF-...

  9. Paradoxical facilitation of working memory after basolateral amygdala damage.

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    Barak Morgan

    Full Text Available Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot "see". To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a 'cooperation through competition' networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical

  10. Age-related dendritic hypertrophy and sexual dimorphism in rat basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Drogos, Lauren L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined the influence of aging or sex on anatomical measures in the basolateral amygdala. We quantified spine density and dendritic material in Golgi-Cox stained tissue of the basolateral nucleus in young adult (3–5 months) and aged (20–24 months) male and female Long-Evans rats. Dendritic branching and spine density were measured in principal neurons. Age, but not sex, influenced the dendritic tree, with aged animals displaying significantly more dendritic material. Prev...

  11. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action.

  12. The basolateral amygdala in reward learning and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Sophisticated behavioral paradigms partnered with the emergence of increasingly selective techniques to target the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the role of this nucleus in learning and using reward information. Due to the wide variety of behavioral approaches many questions remain on the circumscribed role of BLA in appetitive behavior. In this review, we integrate conclusions of BLA function in reward-related behavior using traditional interference techniques (lesion, pharmacological inactivation) with those using newer methodological approaches in experimental animals that allow in vivo manipulation of cell type-specific populations and neural recordings. Secondly, from a review of appetitive behavioral tasks in rodents and monkeys and recent computational models of reward procurement, we derive evidence for BLA as a neural integrator of reward value, history, and cost parameters. Taken together, BLA codes specific and temporally dynamic outcome representations in a distributed network to orchestrate adaptive responses. We provide evidence that experiences with opiates and psychostimulants alter these outcome representations in BLA, resulting in long-term modified action. PMID:26341938

  13. Endocannabinoid Signaling within the Basolateral Amygdala Integrates Multiple Stress Hormone Effects on Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Hauer, Daniela; Campolongo, Patrizia; Schelling, Gustav; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences. However, as the onset of these glucocorticoid actions appear often too rapid to be explained by genomic regulation, the neurobiological mechanism of how glucocorticoids could modify the memory-enhancing properties of norepinephrine and CRF remained elusive. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly activated retrograde messenger system, is a primary route mediating the actions of glucocorticoids, via a glucocorticoid receptor on the cell surface, on BLA neural plasticity and memory consolidation. Furthermore, glucocorticoids recruit downstream endocannabinoid activity within the BLA to interact with both the norepinephrine and CRF systems in enhancing memory consolidation. These findings have important implications for understanding the fine-tuned crosstalk between multiple stress hormone systems in the coordination of (mal)adaptive stress and emotional arousal effects on neural plasticity and memory consolidation. PMID:25547713

  14. Basolateral localisation of KCNQ1 potassium channels in MDCK cells: molecular identification of an N-terminal targeting motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Grunnet, Morten;

    2004-01-01

    KCNQ1 potassium channels are expressed in many epithelial tissues as well as in the heart. In epithelia KCNQ1 channels play an important role in salt and water transport and the channel has been reported to be located apically in some cell types and basolaterally in others. Here we show that KCNQ1...... channels are located basolaterally when expressed in polarised MDCK cells. The basolateral localisation of KCNQ1 is not affected by co-expression of any of the five KCNE beta-subunits. We characterise two independent basolateral sorting signals present in the N-terminal tail of KCNQ1. Mutation...

  15. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Cagri T; Pare, Denis; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2015-01-14

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ∼ 6-8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity.

  16. Influence of CO2 on electrophysiology and ionic permeability of the basolateral membrane of frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When short-circuited epithelia of frog skin bathed in an alkaline Ringer solution equilibrated with room air, are exposed to a Ringer solution equilibrated with 5% CO2, inhibition of transepithelial Na+ transport is observed accompanied by a marked depolarization of the basolateral membrane voltage as measured with intracellular microelectrodes. To study further the mechanisms involved, basolateral membrane influxes and effluxes of 24Na, 42K, and 36Cl were measured in control and CO2-treated isolated epithelia. In control epithelia, studies of the bidirectional 24Na fluxes confirmed the existence of an important basolateral membrane permeability to Na+. In control epithelia, the apical membranes of the cells were found to be virtually impermeable to Cl-, while basolateral membranes were highly permeable to Cl-. Although CO2 caused a partial inhibition of pump activity as assessed from decreases of pump-mediated Na+ efflux and K+ influx, CO2 caused little or no change of the leak influx of Na+ or K+. K+ efflux was increased markedly with CO2 resulting in a net loss of K+ from the cells. Cl- influx was increased and Cl- efflux was decreased by CO2 leading to a net influx of Cl-. Analysis of the data according to criteria involving changes of flux, ionic equilibrium potentials, mass and charge balance restrictions indicated that the principle changes involve a transient decrease in electrical conductance to K+ with a concurrent increase in electrical conductance to HCO3-(OH- or H+) of the basolateral membranes of the cells

  17. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Columbia, NY (United States); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Attieh, Zouhair K. [Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, American University of Science and Technology, Ashrafieh (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Son, Hee Sook [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Huijun [Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province (China); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences (I), Lebanese University, Hadath (Lebanon); Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vulpe, Chris D., E-mail: vulpe@berkeley.edu [Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a

  18. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areg eBarsegyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 or 10 min, immediately followed by exposure to two other identical objects in a distinctly different context. Immediately after the training they received bilateral intra-BLA infusions of norepinephrine (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 μg or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μg. On the 24-h retention test, rats were placed back into one of the training contexts with one copy of each of the two training objects. Thus, although both objects were familiar, one of the objects had not previously been encountered in this particular test context. Hence, if the animal generated a long-term memory for the association between an object and its context, it would spend significantly more time exploring the object that was not previously experienced in this context. Saline-infused control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention when given 3 min of training and good retention when given 10 min of training. Norepinephrine administered after 3 min of object-in-context training induced a dose-dependent memory enhancement, whereas propranolol administered after 10 min of training produced memory impairment. These findings provide evidence that posttraining noradrenergic activation of the BLA also enhances the consolidation of memory of object-in-context recognition training, enabling accuracy of episodic-like memories.

  19. NMDA receptor blockade in the basolateral amygdala disrupts consolidation of stimulus-reward memory and extinction learning during reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in an animal model of relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.; See, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has implicated the basolateral amygdala (BLA) complex in the acquisition and consolidation of cue-cocaine associations, as well as extinction learning, which may regulate the long-lasting control of conditioned stimuli (CS) over drug-seeking behavior. Given the well established role of NMDA glutamate receptor activation in other forms of amygdalar-based learning, we predicted that BLA-mediated drug-cue associative learning would be NMDA receptor dependent...

  20. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  1. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha,25(OH)2D3]. The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane

  2. Dependence of intracellular Na+ concentration on apical and basolateral membrane Na+ influx in frog skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic method was developed to measure the intracellular Na+ content of the transepithelial Na+ transport pool of frog skin. Isolated epithelia (no corium) were labeled with 24Na either asymmetrically, from apical (Aa) or basolateral (Ab) solutions, or symmetrically (Aab). Transport pool Na+ could be identified from the kinetics of washout of 24Na carried out in the presence of 1 mM ouabain, 100 microM amiloride, and 1 mM furosemide that served to trap cold Na+ and 24Na within the transport pool. In control epithelia, Aab averaged 64.1 neq/cm2 (13.9 mM), and maximal inhibition of apical membrane Na+ entry with 100 microM amiloride caused Aab to decrease to 24.3 neq/cm2 (5.3 mM). Ouabain caused Aab to increase markedly to 303 neq/cm2 in 30 min, whereas amiloride inhibition of apical membrane Na+ entry reduced markedly the rate of increase of Aab caused by ouabain. These data, in part, confirmed the existence of an important basolateral membrane permeability to Na+ that was measured in separate studies of the bidirectional 24Na fluxes at the basolateral membranes of the cells. Both sets of data were supportive of the idea that a significant Na+ recycling exists at the basolateral membranes of the cells that contributes to the Na+ load on the pump and Na+ recycling participates in the regulation of the Na+ concentration of the Na+ transport pool of these epithelial cells

  3. Odor-mediated taste learning requires dorsal hippocampus, but not basolateral amygdala activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Daniel S.; Chang, Stephen E.; Holland, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Mediated learning is a unique cognitive phenomenon in which mental representations of physically absent stimuli enter into associations with directly-activated representations of physically present stimuli. Three experiments investigated the functional physiology of mediated learning involving the use of odor-taste associations. In Experiments 1a and 1b, basolateral amygdala lesions failed to attenuate mediated taste aversion learning. In Experiment 2, dorsal hippocampus inactivation impaired...

  4. Basolateral amygdala noradrenergic influence enables enhancement of memory consolidation induced by hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Nguyen, Bichngoc T.; Power, Ann E.; McGaugh, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we reported that bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) block the enhancing effects of posttraining systemic or intrahippocampal glucocorticoid administration on memory for inhibitory avoidance training. The present study further examined the basis of this permissive influence of the BLA on hippocampal memory functioning. Immediate posttraining unilateral infusions of the specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (11β,17β-dihydroxy-6...

  5. The role of basolateral amygdala adrenergic receptors in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Vafaei A.L.; Rashidy-Pour A

    2008-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study: There are extensive evidences indicating that the noradrenergic system of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is involved in memory processes. The present study investigated the role of the BLA adrenergic receptors (ARs) in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in place avoidance task in male rat. Material and Methods: Long Evans rats (n=150) were trained to avoid footshock in a 60° segment while foraging for scattered food on a circul...

  6. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the basolateral amygdala regulate anxiety responses in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdyk, T J; Shekhar, A

    1997-08-01

    Blocking GABA(A) receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) elicits increases in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and anxiety responses by enhancing a glutamate mediated excitation. The present study was conducted to determine the role of the ionotropic glutamate receptors within the BLA in regulating HR, BP and experimental anxiety. Blocking basal glutamate excitation had no significant effect on HR or BP, but did elicit a significant anxiolytic-like effect.

  7. Active and passive Na+ fluxes across the basolateral membrane of rabbit urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D C; Frace, A M; Silverthorn, S U

    1982-01-01

    The apical membrane of rabbit urinary bladder can be functionally removed by application of nystatin at high concentration if the mucosal surface of the tissue is bathed in a saline which mimics intracellular ion concentrations. Under these conditions, the tissue is as far as the movement of univalent ions no more than a sheet of basolateral membrane with some tight junctional membrane in parallel. In this manner the Na+ concentration at the inner surface of the basolateral membrane can be varied by altering the concentration in the mucosal bulk solution. When this was done both mucosal-to-serosal 22Na flux and net change in basolateral current were measured. The flux and the current could be further divided into the components of each that were either blocked by ouabain or insensitive to ouabain. Ouabain-insensitive mucosal-to-serosal Na+ flux was a linear function of mucosal Na+ concentration. Ouabain-sensitive Na+ flux and ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current both display a saturating relationship which cannot be accounted for by the presence of unstirred layers. If the interaction of Na+ with the basolateral transport process is assumed to involve the interaction of some number of Na+ ions, n, with a maximal flux, MMAX, then the data can be fit by assuming 3.2 equivalent sites for interaction and a value for MMAX of 287.8 pM cm-2 sec-1 with an intracellular Na concentration of 2.0 mM Na+ at half-maximal saturation. By comparing these values with the ouabain-sensitive, Na+-induced current, we calculate a Na+ to K+ coupling ratio of 1.40 +/- 0.07 for the transport process.

  8. Basolateral and canalicular transport of xenobiotics in the hepatocyte: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular and functional characterization of severalproteins involved in the uptake and excretion of xenobioticsand endogenous compounds in the hepatocyte has been achievedthrough intensive research conducted in the past few years.These studies have lead to the identification of specificmembrane transporters located in the basolateral andcanalicular membrane domains of the hepatocyte. The organicanion-transporting polypeptide (OATP), present in thebasolateral membrane of the hepatocyte, i...

  9. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, Jesus G.; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Kaur, Amandeep; Hart, Evan E.; Bugarin, Amador; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in new stimulus-reward and reversal le...

  10. Copper directs ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatic cells via basolateral endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasae, Lydia K; Schell, Michael J; Hubbard, Ann L

    2014-12-01

    Physiologic Cu levels regulate the intracellular location of the Cu ATPase ATP7B. Here, we determined the routes of Cu-directed trafficking of endogenous ATP7B in the polarized hepatic cell line WIF-B and in the liver in vivo. Copper (10 µm) caused ATP7B to exit the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in vesicles, which trafficked via large basolateral endosomes to the apical domain within 1 h. Although perturbants of luminal acidification had little effect on the TGN localization of ATP7B in low Cu, they blocked delivery to the apical membrane in elevated Cu. If the vesicular proton-pump inhibitor bafilomycin-A1 (Baf) was present with Cu, ATP7B still exited the TGN, but accumulated in large endosomes located near the coverslip, in the basolateral region. Baf washout restored ATP7B trafficking to the apical domain. If ATP7B was staged apically in high Cu, Baf addition promoted the accumulation of ATP7B in subapical endosomes, indicating a blockade of apical recycling, with concomitant loss of ATP7B at the apical membrane. The retrograde pathway to the TGN, induced by Cu removal, was far less affected by Baf than the anterograde (Cu-stimulated) case. Overall, loss of acidification-impaired Cu-regulated trafficking of ATP7B at two main sites: (i) sorting and exit from large basolateral endosomes and (ii) recycling via endosomes near the apical membrane. PMID:25243755

  11. Short environmental enrichment in adulthood reverses anxiety and basolateral amygdala hypertrophy induced by maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, A S; Ashokan, A; Mitra, R

    2016-02-02

    Maternal separation during early childhood results in greater sensitivity to stressors later in adult life. This is reflected as greater propensity to develop stress-related disorders in humans and animal models, including anxiety and depression. Environmental enrichment (EE) reverses some of the damaging effects of maternal separation in rodent models when provided during peripubescent life, temporally proximal to the separation. It is presently unknown if EE provided outside this critical window can still rescue separation-induced anxiety and neural plasticity. In this report we use a rat model to demonstrate that a single short episode of EE in adulthood reduced anxiety-like behaviour in maternally separated rats. We further show that maternal separation resulted in hypertrophy of dendrites and increase in spine density of basolateral amygdala neurons in adulthood, long after initial stress treatment. This is congruent with prior observations showing centrality of basolateral amygdala hypertrophy in anxiety induced by stress during adulthood. In line with the ability of the adult enrichment to rescue stress-induced anxiety, we show that enrichment renormalized stress-induced structural expansion of the amygdala neurons. These observations argue that behavioural plasticity induced by early adversity can be rescued by environmental interventions much later in life, likely mediated by ameliorating effects of enrichment on basolateral amygdala plasticity.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  13. Basolateral K channel activated by carbachol in the epithelial cell line T84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabcharani, J A; Harris, R A; Boucher, A; Eng, J W; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-11-01

    Cholinergic stimulation of chloride secretion involves the activation of a basolateral membrane potassium conductance, which maintains the electrical gradient favoring apical Cl efflux and allows K to recycle at the basolateral membrane. We have used transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc), fluorescence imaging, and patch clamp studies to identify and characterize the K channel that mediates this response in T84 cells. Carbachol had little effect on Isc when added alone but produced large, transient currents if added to monolayers prestimulated with cAMP. cAMP also enhanced the subsequent Isc response to calcium ionophores. Carbachol (100 microM) transiently elevated intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) by approximately 3-fold in confluent cells cultured on glass coverslips with a time course resembling the Isc response of confluent monolayers that had been grown on porous supports. In parallel patch clamp experiments, carbachol activated an inwardly rectifying potassium channel on the basolateral aspect of polarized monolayers which had been dissected from porous culture supports. The same channel was transiently activated on the surface of subconfluent monolayers during stimulation by carbachol. Activation was more prolonged when cells were exposed to calcium ionophores. The conductance of the inward rectifier in cell-attached patches was 55 pS near the resting membrane potential (-54 mV) with pipette solution containing 150 mM KCl (37 degrees C). This rectification persisted when patches were bathed in symmetrical 150 mM KCl solutions. The selectivity sequence was 1 K > 0.88 Rb > 0.18 Na > Cs based on permeability ratios under bi-ionic conditions. The channel exhibited fast block by external sodium ions, was weakly inhibited by external TEA, was relatively insensitive to charybdotoxin, kaliotoxin, 4-aminopyridine and quinidine, and was unaffected by external 10 mM barium. It is referred to as the KBIC channel based on its most distinctive properties (Ba

  14. β-Adrenergic activation enhances NMDA-induced current in pyramidal cells of the basolateral nucleus of amygdala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinqiu; CAO Xiaohua; LI Bao-ming

    2005-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) in the amygdala complex is critical for both long-term potentiation (LTP) and formation of conditioned fear memory. It is reported that activation of β-adrenoceptors (β-AR) in the amygdala facilitates LTP and enhances memory consolidation. The present study examined the regulatory effect of β-AR activation on NMDA-R mediated current in pyramidal cells of the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), using whole-cell recording technique. Bath application of the β-AR agonist isoproterenol enhanced NMDA-induced current, and this facilitatory effect was blocked by co-administered propranolol, a β-AR antagonist. The facilitatory effect of isoproterenol on NMDA-induced current could not be induced when the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPs was added in electrode internal solution.The present results suggest that β-AR activation in the BLA could modulate NMDA-R activity directly and positively, probably via PKA.

  15. Acquisition of contextual Pavlovian fear conditioning is blocked by application of an NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid to the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanselow, M S; Kim, J J

    1994-02-01

    Rats, with chronic cannula placed bilaterally in the amygdala, received infusions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) before contextual Pavlovian fear conditioning. Administration of APV to the basolateral nucleus prevented acquisition of fear. Central nucleus infusions had no effect. It is concluded that an NMDA-mediated process near the basolateral region of the amygdala (e.g., lateral or basolateral nucleus) is essential for the learning of fear.

  16. Fructose-1,6-diphosphate protects against epileptogenesis by modifying cation-chloride co-transporters in a model of amygdaloid-kindling temporal epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Manman; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-ping

    2013-11-20

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) shifts the metabolism of glucose from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway and has anticonvulsant activity in several acute seizure animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-epileptogenic effects of FDP in an amygdaloid-kindling seizure model, which is an animal model of the most common form of human temporal lobe epilepsy. We found that 1.0 g/kg FDP slowed seizure progression and shortened the corresponding after-discharge duration (ADD). FDP increased the number of stimulations needed to reach seizure stages 2-5 and prolonged the cumulative ADD prior to reaching stages 3-5. It also shortened staying days and cumulative ADD in stages 4-5. However, it demonstrated no significant protective effect when administered after the animals were fully kindled. In hippocampal neurons, cation-chloride co-transporters (CCCs) are suggested to play interesting roles in epilepsy by modulating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic activity through controlling GABAA receptor-mediated reversal potential. We examined the potential link between FDP and the hippocampal expression of two main members of the CCCs: the neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-)co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). FDP inhibited the kindling-induced downregulation of KCC2 expression and decreased NKCC1 expression during the kindling session. Taken together, our data reveal that FDP may have protective activity against epileptogenesis, from partial to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the FDP-induced imbalance between KCC2 and NKCC1 expression may be involved in the neuroprotective effect.

  17. Basolateral Mg2+ extrusion via CNNM4 mediates transcellular Mg2+ transport across epithelia: a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Transcellular Mg(2+ transport across epithelia, involving both apical entry and basolateral extrusion, is essential for magnesium homeostasis, but molecules involved in basolateral extrusion have not yet been identified. Here, we show that CNNM4 is the basolaterally located Mg(2+ extrusion molecule. CNNM4 is strongly expressed in intestinal epithelia and localizes to their basolateral membrane. CNNM4-knockout mice showed hypomagnesemia due to the intestinal malabsorption of magnesium, suggesting its role in Mg(2+ extrusion to the inner parts of body. Imaging analyses revealed that CNNM4 can extrude Mg(2+ by exchanging intracellular Mg(2+ with extracellular Na(+. Furthermore, CNNM4 mutations cause Jalili syndrome, characterized by recessive amelogenesis imperfecta with cone-rod dystrophy. CNNM4-knockout mice showed defective amelogenesis, and CNNM4 again localizes to the basolateral membrane of ameloblasts, the enamel-forming epithelial cells. Missense point mutations associated with the disease abolish the Mg(2+ extrusion activity. These results demonstrate the crucial importance of Mg(2+ extrusion by CNNM4 in organismal and topical regulation of magnesium.

  18. Intracellular calcium modulates basolateral K(+)-permeability in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1994-01-01

    Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) has been suggested as a key modulator in the regulation of active sodium transport across electrically "tight" (high resistance) epithelia. In this study we investigated the effects of calcium on cellular electrophysiological parameters in a classical model tissue, the......, the frog skin. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope setup. An inhibition of basolateral potassium permeability was observed when cytosolic calcium was increased. This inhibition was reversible upon removal of calcium from the serosal solution....

  19. Fear and safety engage competing patterns of theta-gamma coupling in the basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Stujenske, Joseph M.; Likhtik, Ekaterina; A.Topiwala, Mihir; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Theta oscillations synchronize the basolateral amygdala (BLA) with the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during fear expression. The role of gamma-frequency oscillations in the BLA is less well characterized. We examined gamma- and theta-frequency activity in recordings of neural activity from the BLA-HPC-mPFC circuit during fear conditioning, extinction, and exposure to an open field. In the BLA, slow (40-70 Hz) and fast (70-120 Hz) gamma oscillations were coupled to dist...

  20. 5-HT1A and benzodiazepine receptors in the basolateral amygdala modulate anxiety in the social interaction test, but not in the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L E; Andrews, N; File, S E

    1996-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of the 5-HT1A receptors of the amygdala in modulating anxiety, rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae aimed at the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala complex and infused with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) or the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (50-200 ng) and tested in two animal models of anxiety. In the elevated plus-maze test, no significant effects were detected in this dose range. In contrast, 8-OH-DPAT caused an overall reduction in levels of social investigation, thus indicating anxiogenic actions in the social interaction test. At 50 ng, 8-OH-DPAT had a selective action on anxiety, while at 200 ng there was a concomitant reduction in locomotor activity and, in some animals, signs of the 5-HT1A syndrome. Evidence that the anxiogenic effect of 8-OH-DPAT (50 ng) was due to activation of 5-HT1A receptors came from the finding that (-)-tertatolol, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, reversed this effect at a dose (1.5 micrograms) which was silent when given alone. The benzodiazepine receptor agonist, midazolam (1 and 2 micrograms) was bilaterally administered into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and evoked clear-cut anxiolytic effects in the social interaction test. These data indicate that the agonist activation of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala may produce anxiogenic effects, while agonist activation of BDZ receptors in the same areas evokes anxiolytic effects. Our results from the social interaction test are similar to those previously reported from tests of anxiety using punished paradigms, but contrast with those found in the elevated plus-maze. Thus, it is concluded that either the two tests have different sensitivities to midazolam and 8-OH-DPAT or more intriguingly, the tests are evoking fundamentally different states of anxiety, with that evoked by the plus-maze being mediated via brain areas or receptors different from those studied here.

  1. Clinical observation of physiological and psychological reactions to electric stimulation of the amygdaloid nucleus and the nucleus accumbens in heroin addicts after detoxification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun; GU Jian-wen; YANG Wen-tao; QIN Xue-ying; HU Yong-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Stereotactic surgery has been used to treat heroin abstinence in China since 2000 by ablating the amygdaloid nucleus (AMY) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc),which also provides opportunity to identify the relationship between these nuclei and addiction.Our study aimed to explore the physiological and psychological effects of electrically stimulating the AMY and the NAc in herein addicts after detoxification by observing changes of heart rate,arterial pressure and occurrence of euphoria similar to heroin induced euphoria.Methods A total of 70 heroin addicts after detoxification were recruited,and 61 of them were eligible to be given stereotactic surgery for heroin abstinence.The operation was carried out after determining the coordinates of all target nucleuses,and stimulation was performed at the AMY and the NAc solely or jointly.Heart rate,arterial pressure and occurrence of euphoria similar to heroin induced euphoria were recorded and analyzed.Results The average heat rate was (66±10) beats/min before electric stimulation,and significantly increased to (84±14) beats/min during stimulation,and changed to (73±12) beats/min 10 minutes after stimulation.There was a significant elevation of the average arterial pressure from 83 mmHg before stimulation to 98 mmHg during the stimulation,and it then decreased to 90 mmHg after stimulation.Forty-three of the 61 patients showed intense euphoria similar to heroin induced euphoria.The largest number (118/186) of euphoric responses occurred when the AMY and the NAc were stimulated at the same time.Odds ratio was 5.4 (95% CI: 2.4-11.9,P <0.0001) to quantify the association.Results from a Logistic regression model showed a positive correlation between unilateral stimulation of either the AMY or NAC and induction of euphoria (OR >1 ),especially when the left AMY or left NAc was stimulated (P <0.05).Conclusions Our data are consistent with existing results that the AMY and the NAc are related to addiction

  2. Trafficking of the IKs -Complex in MDCK Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Jens-Peter; Andersen, Martin N; Olesen, Søren-Peter;

    2013-01-01

    has not been unequivocally resolved yet. We employed trafficking-deficient K 7.1 and KCNE1 mutants to investigate I trafficking using the polarized Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell line. We find that the assembly happens early in the secretory pathway but provide three lines of evidence that it takes...... place in a post-endoplasmic reticulum compartment. We demonstrate that K 7.1 targets the I -complex to the basolateral membrane, but that KCNE1 can redirect the complex to the apical membrane upon mutation of critical K 7.1 basolateral targeting signals. Our data provide a possible explanation...

  3. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  4. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  5. Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

  6. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  7. Basolateral Amygdala Projections to Ventral Hippocampus Modulate the Consolidation of Footshock, but Not Contextual, Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mary L.; Emmons, Eric B.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory consolidation for a variety of types of learning, whereas other brain regions play more selective roles in specific kinds of learning suggesting a role for differential consolidation via distinct BLA pathways. The ventral hippocampus (VH), an efferent target of the BLA, has been suggested to…

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosemary supercritical extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arranz, E.; Mes, J.J.; Wichers, H.J.; Jaime, L.; Reglero, G.; Santoyo, S.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the basolateral fraction of Caco-2 cells exposed to a rosemary supercritical extract was examined. Uptake of rosemary extract fractions was tested on Caco-2 cell monolayers (2–12 h incubation times) and the quantification of carnosic acid and carnosol was performed

  9. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway. PMID:17640976

  10. Low-frequency stimulation of the kindling focus delays basolateral amygdala kindling in immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velísek, Libor; Velísková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K

    2002-06-21

    Stimulation of deep brain sites is a new approach for treatment of intractable seizures. In adult rats, low-frequency stimulation (LFS; 1-3 Hz) of the kindling site interferes with the course of kindling epileptogenesis. In this study we determined whether the LFS will be effective against the fast kindling in the basolateral amygdala in immature, 15 day old rats. LFS (15 min of 1 Hz stimulation) was applied after each of the 1 s, 60 Hz kindling stimulus. LFS suppressed afterdischarge duration and seizure stage throughout the course of kindling, which indicates a strong antiepileptogenic potential. As the kindling and LFS stimulation patterns are similar to those used for induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD), respectively, LTD or depotentiation may play a role in the mechanism of action.

  11. Protein synthesis inhibition in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala facilitates extinction of auditory fear memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN XinChun; QI XueLian; YANG XiaoFei; LI BaoMing

    2007-01-01

    It is known that consolidation of fear conditioning requires de novo protein synthesis in the amygdala. However, there is controversy about the role of protein synthesis in post-retrieval extinction of fear memory. The present study investigated the effect of protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) on post-retrieval extinction of auditory fear memory. Intra-BLA infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin '0' h post-retrieval facilitated the extinction, but was ineffective if the memory was not retrieved. Anisomycin had no effect on the extinction when it was infused 6 h post-retrieval. The present results suggest that there exists a protein-synthesis-dependent mechanism in the BLA that retards extinction of auditory fear memory.

  12. Changes of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in basolateral amygdale-kindled rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Guan-shui; CHENG Xu-qin; HUA Yin; WANG Zhe-dong; LIU Zhen-guo

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is believed to be a major factor in brain maturation and in modulation of a series of brain activity.Hippocampal neurons are abundant in glucocorticoid receptor,and there is significant change in GR expression under certain pathological state.Epilepsy is a special pathological state of the central nervous system.This study aimed to explore the role of GR in epilepsy by observing the change and functions of GR in hippocampus with a basolateral amygdale-electrical kindled rat epilepsy model.Methods Firstly,we established the basolateral amygdale-electrical kindled rat epilepsy model.Then GR mRNA expression in the hippocampus was assayed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in this experiment.In addition,the processes of epileptic seizures were observed and electroencephalograms were recorded.One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed for comparing means of multiple groups,followed Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) for paired comparison.Results The rats were successfully kindled after an average of (13.50±3.99) times electrical stimulation,in which it was showed that GR mRNA expression reduced obviously as compared with the control group and the sham groups (P<0.001).The down-regulation of GR mRNA expression was abated or reversed by some anti-epilepsy drugs (P <0.001 compared with the epilepsy group),accompanied by attenuation of seizures and improvement of electroencephalograms.Conclusions Down-regulation of hippocampal GR mRNA expression may be related to the kindling.Anti-epilepsy drugs exposure can retard this change.

  13. Uteroglobin, an apically secreted protein of the uterine epithelium, is secreted non-polarized form MDCK cells and mainly basolaterally from Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Suske, G; Beato, M;

    1993-01-01

    A complete cDNA encoding rabbit uteroglobin was constructed and expressed in MDCK and Caco-2 cells. The MDCK cells secrete uteroglobin in approximately equal amounts to the apical and the basolateral side, whereas the Caco-2 cells secrete uteroglobin mainly to the basolateral side. Both MDCK and ...... the endometrial epithelium has an apical default pathway or recognises a sorting signal not recognised by MDCK cells and Caco-2 cells. Our data thus show that a soluble molecule can be secreted at the apical, the basolateral or both membranes depending on the cell type....

  14. Increased basolateral sorting of carcinoembryonic antigen in a polarized colon carcinoma cell line after cholesterol depletion-Implications for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Ehehalt; Markus Krautter; Martin Zorn; Richard Sparla; Joachim Fūllekrug; Hasan Kulaksiz; Wolfgang Stremmel

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate a possible increase of basolateral expression of carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)by interfering with the apical transport machinery,we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on CEA sorting and secretion.METHODS:Cholesterol depletion was performed in polarized Caco-2 cells using Iovastatin and methyl-βcyclodextrin.RESULTS:We show that CEA is predominantly expressed and secreted at the apical surface.Reduction of the cholesterol level of the cell by 40%-50% with Iovastatin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin led to a significant change of the apical-to-basolateral transport ratio towards the basolateral membrane.CONCLUSION:As basolateral expression of CEA has been suggested to have anti-inflamatory properties,Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes might be a potential approach to influence the course of inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Involvement of the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Consolidation of Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Interaction with the Basolateral Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Emily L.; Ibrahim, Deena Y.; Tu, Jessica W.; McGaugh, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is involved in memory for emotionally arousing training. There is also extensive evidence that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of emotional arousing training experiences via interactions with other brain regions. The present experiments examined the effects of posttraining intra-rACC infusions of the cholinergic agonist oxotremorine (OXO) on inhibitory avoidance (IA) retention and investigat...

  16. Quinidine-sensitive K+ channels in the basolateral membrane of embryonic coprodeum epithelium: regulation by aldosterone and thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illek, B; Fischer, H; Clauss, W

    1993-01-01

    Basolateral K+ channels and their regulation during aldosterone- and thyroxine-stimulated Na+ transport were studied in the lower intestinal epithelium (coprodeum) of embryonic chicken in vitro. Isolated tissues of the coprodeum were mounted in Ussing chambers and investigated under voltage-clamped conditions. Simultaneous stimulation with aldosterone (1 mumol.l-1) and thyroxine (1 mumol.l-1) raised short-circuit current after a 1- to 2-h latent period. Maximal values were reached after 6-7 h of hormonal treatment, at which time transepithelial Na+ absorption was more than tripled (77 +/- 11 microA.cm-2) compared to control (24 +/- 8 microA.cm-2). K+ currents across the basolateral membrane were investigated after permeabilizing the apical membrane with the pore-forming antibiotic amphotericin B and application of a mucosal-to-serosal K+ gradient. This K+ current could be dose dependently depressed by the K+ channel blocker quinidine. Fluctuation analysis of the short-circuit current revealed a spontaneous and a blocker-induced Lorentzian noise component in the power density spectra. The Lorentzian corner frequencies increased linearly with the applied blocker concentration. This enabled the calculation of single K+ channel current and K+ channel density. Single K+ channel current was not affected by stimulation, whereas the number of quinidine-sensitive K+ channels in the basolateral membrane increased from 11 to 26.10(6).cm-2 in parallel to the hormonal stimulation transepithelial Na+ transport. This suggests that the basolateral membrane is a physiological target during synergistic aldosterone and thyroxine regulation of transepithelial Na+ transport for maintaining intracellular K+ homeostasis. PMID:8151014

  17. Structural lipid changes and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity of gill cells' basolateral membranes during saltwater acclimation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acclimation is a critical period for anadromous species and a process yet to be understood in lampreys. Considering that changes in lipid composition of the gill cells' basolateral membranes may disrupt the major transporter Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, the goal of this study was to detect changes at this level during juvenile sea lamprey seawater acclimation. The results showed that saltwater acclimation has a direct effect on the fatty acid composition of gill cells basolateral membrane's phospholipids. When held in full-strength seawater, the fatty acid profile of basolateral membrane's phospholipids suffered a restructure by increasing either saturation or the ratio between oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Simultaneously, the activity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase revealed a significant and positive correlation with basolateral membrane's cholesterol content in the presence of highest salinity. Our results pointed out for lipid adjustments involving the functional transporter present on the gill cell basolateral membranes to ensure the role played by branchial Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in ion transport during saltwater acclimation process. The responses observed contributed to the strategy adopted by gill cell's basolateral membranes to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors, to ensure the success of the process of seawater acclimation associated with the downstream trophic migration of juvenile sea lamprey.

  18. Histamine in the basolateral amygdala promotes inhibitory avoidance learning independently of hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Fernando; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Provensi, Gustavo; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado; Munari, Leonardo; Izquierdo, Ivan; Blandina, Patrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries demonstrated that recruitment of alternative brain circuits permits compensation of memory impairments following damage to brain regions specialized in integrating and/or storing specific memories, including both dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Here, we first report that the integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for long-term, but not for short-term memory of step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA). Second, we found that phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive-element-binding protein, a crucial mediator in long-term memory formation, correlated anatomically and temporally with histamine-induced memory retrieval, showing the active involvement of histamine function in CA1 and BLA in different phases of memory consolidation. Third, we found that exogenous application of histamine in either hippocampal CA1 or BLA of brain histamine-depleted rats, hence amnesic, restored long-term memory; however, the time frame of memory rescue was different for the two brain structures, short lived (immediately posttraining) for BLA, long lasting (up to 6 h) for the CA1. Moreover, long-term memory was formed immediately after training restoring of histamine transmission only in the BLA. These findings reveal the essential role of histaminergic neurotransmission to provide the brain with the plasticity necessary to ensure memorization of emotionally salient events, through recruitment of alternative circuits. Hence, our findings indicate that the histaminergic system comprises parallel, coordinated pathways that provide compensatory plasticity when one brain structure is compromised. PMID:25918368

  19. Leptin receptor expression in the basolateral nucleus of amygdala of conditioned taste aversion rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Han; Jian-Qun Yan; Guo-Gang Luo; Yong Liu; Yi-Li Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether serum leptin level and the leptin receptor (OB-R) expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)change following conditioned taste aversion (CTA) formation.METHODS: The serum leptin concentration was measured by rat leptin RIA kit, long and short forms of leptin receptor (OB-Rb and OB-Ra) mRNA in the brain sections were examined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and the expression of OB-R was assessed by immunohistochemistry ABC method with a highly specific goat anti-OB-R antibody.RESULTS: The level of serum leptin didn't show significant difference between CTA and control group. Comparing with the control group, the CTA group had an increase on count of OB-R immunohistochemistry positive-stained cells in the BLA (127±12 vs 48±9 per 1 mm2). The OB-Rb mRNA expression level enhanced by 11.9 % in the BLA, while OBRa mRNA level increased by 7.4 % on the choroid plexus in CTA group. So BLA was supposed to be a region where interactions between gustatory and vagal signals take place.CONCLUSION: BLA is one of the sites, which are responsible for CTA formation in the brain. Leptin and OB-R maybe involved in neuronal communication for CTA. So leptin and its receptors probably take part in CTA and integration of autonomic and extroceptive information.

  20. Reorganization of Basolateral Amygdala-Subiculum Circuitry in Mouse Epilepsy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eMa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reorganized basolateral amygdala (BLA-subiculum pathway in a status epilepticus (SE mouse model with epileptic episodes induced by pilocarpine. We have previously observed a dramatic loss of neurons in the CA1-3 fields of the hippocampus in epileptic mice. Herein, we observed a 43-57 % reduction in the number of neurons in the BLA of epileptic mice. However, injection of an anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L into the BLA indicated 25.63 % increase in the number of PHA-L-immunopositive terminal-like structures in the ventral subiculum (v-Sub of epileptic mice as compared to control mice. These data suggest that the projections from the basal nucleus at BLA to the vSub in epileptic mice are resistant to epilepsy-induced damage. Consequently, these epileptic mice exhibit partially impairment but not total loss of context-dependent fear memory. Epileptic mice also show increased c-Fos expression in the BLA and vSub when subjected to contextual memory test, suggesting the participation of these 2 brain areas in foot shock-dependent fear conditioning. These results indicate the presence of functional neural connections between the BLA-vSub regions that participate in learning and memory in epileptic mice.

  1. Involvement of basolateral amygdala GABAA receptors in the effect of dexamethasone on memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lotfollah KHAJEHPOUR; Acieh ALIZADEH-MAKVANDI; Mahnaz KESMATI; Hooman ESHAGH-HAROONI

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether GABAA receptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interact with the effect of dexamethasone on the retrieval stage of memory.Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the BLA by stereotaxic surgery.The animals were trained in step-through apparatus by induction of electric shock (1.5 mA,3 s) and were tested for memory retrieval after 1 d.The time of latency for entering the dark compartment of the instrument and the time spent by rats in this chamber were recorded for evaluation of the animals' retrieval in passive avoidance memory.Administration of dexamethasone (0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg,subcutaneously (s.c.)),immediately after training,enhanced memory retrieval.This effect was reduced by intra-BLA microinjection of muscimol (0.125,0.250 and 0.500 μg/rat),when administered before 0.9 mg/kg of dexamethasone.Microinjection of bicuculline (0.75 μg/rat,intra-BLA) with an ineffective dose of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg,s.c.) increased memory retrieval.However,the same doses of muscimol and bicuculline without dexamethasone did not affect memory processes.Our data support reports that dexamethasone enhances memory retrieval.It seems that GABAA receptors of the BLA mediate the effect of dexamethasone on memory retrieval in rats.

  2. Histamine in the basolateral amygdala promotes inhibitory avoidance learning independently of hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Fernando; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Provensi, Gustavo; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado; Munari, Leonardo; Izquierdo, Ivan; Blandina, Patrizio

    2015-05-12

    Recent discoveries demonstrated that recruitment of alternative brain circuits permits compensation of memory impairments following damage to brain regions specialized in integrating and/or storing specific memories, including both dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Here, we first report that the integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for long-term, but not for short-term memory of step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA). Second, we found that phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive-element-binding protein, a crucial mediator in long-term memory formation, correlated anatomically and temporally with histamine-induced memory retrieval, showing the active involvement of histamine function in CA1 and BLA in different phases of memory consolidation. Third, we found that exogenous application of histamine in either hippocampal CA1 or BLA of brain histamine-depleted rats, hence amnesic, restored long-term memory; however, the time frame of memory rescue was different for the two brain structures, short lived (immediately posttraining) for BLA, long lasting (up to 6 h) for the CA1. Moreover, long-term memory was formed immediately after training restoring of histamine transmission only in the BLA. These findings reveal the essential role of histaminergic neurotransmission to provide the brain with the plasticity necessary to ensure memorization of emotionally salient events, through recruitment of alternative circuits. Hence, our findings indicate that the histaminergic system comprises parallel, coordinated pathways that provide compensatory plasticity when one brain structure is compromised. PMID:25918368

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Basolateral Amygdala: Targeting Technique and Electrodiagnostic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jean-Philippe; Chen, James W Y; Koek, Ralph J; Sultzer, David L; Mandelkern, Mark A; Schwartz, Holly N; Krahl, Scott E

    2016-01-01

    The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion regulation. It could prove to be an effective neuromodulation target in the treatment of psychiatric conditions characterized by failure of extinction. We aim to describe our targeting technique, and intra-operative and post-operative electrodiagnostic findings associated with the placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the amygdala. We used a transfrontal approach to implant DBS electrodes in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLn) of a patient suffering from severe post-traumatic stress disorder. We used microelectrode recording (MER) and awake intra-operative neurostimulation to assist with the placement. Post-operatively, the patient underwent monthly surveillance electroencephalograms (EEG). MER predicted the trajectory of the electrode through the amygdala. The right BLn showed a higher spike frequency than the left BLn. Intra-operative neurostimulation of the BLn elicited pleasant memories. The monthly EEG showed the presence of more sleep patterns over time with DBS. BLn DBS electrodes can be placed using a transfrontal approach. MER can predict the trajectory of the electrode in the amygdala and it may reflect the BLn neuronal activity underlying post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. The EEG findings may underscore the reduction in anxiety. PMID:27517963

  4. Development and physiology of GABAergic feedback excitation in parvalbumin expressing interneurons of the mouse basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampanato, Jay; Sullivan, Robert K P; Perumal, Madhusoothanan B; Sah, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), action potentials in one type of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneuron can evoke a disynaptic feedback excitatory postsynaptic potential (fbEPSP) onto the same presynaptic interneuron. Here, using whole-cell recordings from PV-expressing interneurons in acute brain slices we expand on this finding to show that this response is first detectable at 2-week postnatal, and is most prevalent in animals beyond 3 weeks of age (>P21). This circuit has a very high fidelity, and single action potential evoked fbEPSPs display few failures. Reconstruction of filled neurons, and electron microscopy show that interneurons that receive feedback excitation make symmetrical synapses on both the axon initial segments (AIS), as well as the soma and proximal dendrites of local pyramidal neurons, suggesting fbEPSP interneurons are morphologically distinct from the highly specialized chandelier neurons that selectively target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons. Single PV interneurons could trigger very large (~ 1 nA) feedback excitatory postsynaptic currents (fbEPSCs) suggesting that these neurons are heavily reciprocally connected to local glutamatergic principal cells. We conclude that in the BLA, a subpopulation of PV interneurons forms a distinct neural circuit in which a single action potential can recruit multiple pyramidal neurons to discharge near simultaneously and feed back onto the presynaptic interneuron.

  5. CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid system in the mouse basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behavior.

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    Michael R Bruchas

    Full Text Available Stress is a complex human experience and having both rewarding and aversive motivational properties. The adverse effects of stress are well documented, yet many of underlying mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Here we report that the anxiogenic properties of stress are encoded by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin acting in the basolateral amygdala. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that the anxiogenic-like effects of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF were triggered by CRF(1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system. Central CRF administration significantly reduced the percent open-arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM. The reduction in open-arm time was blocked by pretreatment with the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, and was not evident in mice lacking the endogenous KOR ligand dynorphin. The CRF(1-R agonist stressin 1 also significantly reduced open-arm time in the EPM, and this decrease was blocked by norBNI. In contrast, the selective CRF(2-R agonist urocortin III did not affect open arm time, and mice lacking CRF(2-R still showed an increase in anxiety-like behavior in response to CRF injection. However, CRF(2-R knockout animals did not develop CRF conditioned place aversion, suggesting that CRF(1-R activation may mediate anxiety and CRF(2-R may encode aversion. Using a phosphoselective antibody (KORp to identify sites of dynorphin action, we found that CRF increased KORp-immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA of wildtype, but not in mice pretreated with the selective CRF(1-R antagonist, antalarmin. Consistent with the concept that acute stress or CRF injection-induced anxiety was mediated by dynorphin release in the BLA, local injection of norBNI blocked the stress or CRF-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior; whereas norBNI injection in a nearby thalamic nucleus did not. The intersection of stress-induced CRF and the dynorphin/KOR system in the BLA was

  6. Src family protein tyrosine kinase regulates the basolateral K channel in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) by phosphorylation of KCNJ10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengbiao; Wang, Lijun; Thomas, Sherin; Wang, Kemeng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Rinehart, Jesse; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2013-09-01

    The loss of function of the basolateral K channels in the distal nephron causes electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study is to examine the role of Src family protein tyrosine kinase (SFK) in regulating K channels in the basolateral membrane of the mouse initial distal convoluted tubule (DCT1). Single-channel recordings confirmed that the 40-picosiemen (pS) K channel was the only type of K channel in the basolateral membrane of DCT1. The suppression of SFK reversibly inhibited the basolateral 40-pS K channel activity in cell-attached patches and decreased the Ba(2+)-sensitive whole-cell K currents in DCT1. Inhibition of SFK also shifted the K reversal potential from -65 to -43 mV, suggesting a role of SFK in determining the membrane potential in DCT1. Western blot analysis showed that KCNJ10 (Kir4.1), a key component of the basolateral 40-pS K channel in DCT1, was a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein. LC/MS analysis further confirmed that SFK phosphorylated KCNJ10 at Tyr(8) and Tyr(9). The single-channel recording detected the activity of a 19-pS K channel in KCNJ10-transfected HEK293T cells and a 40-pS K channel in the cells transfected with KCNJ10+KCNJ16 (Kir.5.1) that form a heterotetramer in the basolateral membrane of the DCT. Mutation of Tyr(9) did not alter the channel conductance of the homotetramer and heterotetramer. However, it decreased the whole-cell K currents, the probability of finding K channels, and surface expression of KCNJ10 in comparison to WT KCNJ10. We conclude that SFK stimulates the basolateral K channel activity in DCT1, at least partially, by phosphorylating Tyr(9) on KCNJ10. We speculate that the modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of KCNJ10 should play a role in regulating membrane transport function in DCT1.

  7. Basolateral amygdala CB1 cannabinoid receptors mediate nicotine-induced place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemizadeh, Shiva; Sardari, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral microinjections of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and antagonist into the basolateral amygdala (intra-BLA) on nicotine-induced place preference were examined in rats. A conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus was used for the assessment of rewarding effects of the drugs in adult male Wistar rats. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of nicotine (0.2mg/kg) induced a significant CPP, without any effect on the locomotor activity during the testing phase. Intra-BLA microinjection of a non-selective cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2 (0.1-0.5 μg/rat) with an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) induced a significant place preference. On the other hand, intra-BLA administration of AM251 (20-60 ng/rat), a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist inhibited the acquisition of nicotine-induced place preference. It should be considered that the microinjection of the same doses of WIN 55,212-2 or AM251 into the BLA, by itself had no effect on the CPP score. The administration of a higher dose of AM251 (60 ng/rat) during the acquisition decreased the locomotor activity of animals on the testing phase. Interestingly, the microinjection of AM251 (20 and 40 ng/rat), but not WIN55,212-2 (0.1-0.5 μg/rat), into the BLA inhibited the expression of nicotine-induced place preference without any effect on the locomotor activity. Taken together, these findings support the possible role of endogenous cannabinoid system of the BLA in the acquisition and the expression of nicotine-induced place preference. Furthermore, it seems that there is a functional interaction between the BLA cannabinoid receptors and nicotine in producing the rewarding effects.

  8. Synaptic organization of perisomatic GABAergic inputs onto the principal cells of the mouse basolateral amygdala

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    Viktoria eVereczki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spike generation is most effectively controlled by inhibitory inputs that target the perisomatic region of neurons. Despite the critical importance of this functional domain, very little is known about the organization of the GABAergic inputs contacting the perisomatic region of principal cells (PCs in the basolateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemistry combined with in vitro single-cell labeling we determined in mice the number and sources of GABAergic inputs of PCs at light and electron microscopic levels. We found that the soma and proximal dendrites of PCs were innervated primarily by two neurochemically distinct basket cell types expressing parvalbumin (PVBC or cholecystokinin and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CCK/CB1BC. The innervation of the initial segment of PC axons was found to be parceled out by PVBCs and axo-axonic cells (AAC, as the majority of GABAergic inputs onto the region nearest to the soma (between 0-10 µm originated from PVBCs, while the largest portion of the axon initial segment was innervated by AACs. Detailed morphological investigations revealed that the three perisomatic region-targeting interneuron types significantly differed in dendritic and axonal arborization properties. We found that, although individual PVBCs targeted PCs via more terminals than CCK/CB1BCs, similar numbers (15-17 of the two BC types converge onto single PCs, whereas fewer (6-7 AACs innervate the axon initial segment of single PCs. Furthermore, we estimated that a PVBC and a CCK/CB1BC may target 800-900 and 700-800 PCs, respectively, while an AAC can innervate 600-650 PCs. Thus, BCs and AACs innervate approximately 10 % and 20 % of PC population, respectively, within their axonal cloud. Our results collectively suggest that these interneuron types may be differently affiliated within the local amygdalar microcircuits in order to fulfill specific functions in network operation during various brain states.

  9. Synaptic Organization of Perisomatic GABAergic Inputs onto the Principal Cells of the Mouse Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczki, Viktória K; Veres, Judit M; Müller, Kinga; Nagy, Gergö A; Rácz, Bence; Barsy, Boglárka; Hájos, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Spike generation is most effectively controlled by inhibitory inputs that target the perisomatic region of neurons. Despite the critical importance of this functional domain, very little is known about the organization of the GABAergic inputs contacting the perisomatic region of principal cells (PCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemistry combined with in vitro single-cell labeling we determined the number and sources of GABAergic inputs of PCs at light and electron microscopic levels in mice. We found that the soma and proximal dendrites of PCs were innervated primarily by two neurochemically distinct basket cell types expressing parvalbumin (PVBC) or cholecystokinin and CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CCK/CB1BC). The innervation of the initial segment of PC axons was found to be parceled out by PVBCs and axo-axonic cells (AAC), as the majority of GABAergic inputs onto the region nearest to the soma (between 0 and 10 μm) originated from PVBCs, while the largest portion of the axon initial segment was innervated by AACs. Detailed morphological investigations revealed that the three perisomatic region-targeting interneuron types significantly differed in dendritic and axonal arborization properties. We found that, although individual PVBCs targeted PCs via more terminals than CCK/CB1BCs, similar numbers (15-17) of the two BC types converge onto single PCs, whereas fewer (6-7) AACs innervate the axon initial segment of single PCs. Furthermore, we estimated that a PVBC and a CCK/CB1BC may target 800-900 and 700-800 PCs, respectively, while an AAC can innervate 600-650 PCs. Thus, BCs and AACs innervate ~10 and 20% of PC population, respectively, within their axonal cloud. Our results collectively suggest, that these interneuron types may be differently affiliated within the local amygdalar microcircuits in order to fulfill specific functions in network operation during various brain states. PMID:27013983

  10. Activation of endocannabinoid system in the rat basolateral amygdala improved scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaei, Seyed Ershad; Rezayof, Ameneh; Pourmotabbed, Ali; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-15

    The current study was designed to examine the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in scopolamine-induced memory impairment in adult male Wistar rats. The animals were bilaterally implanted with the cannulas in the BLA and submitted to a step-through type passive avoidance task to measure the memory formation. The results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of different doses of scopolamine (0.5-1.5mg/kg) immediately after the training phase (post-training) impaired memory consolidation. Bilateral microinjection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 1-4ng/rat), into the BLA significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment. On the other hand, co-administration of AM251, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (0.25-1ng/rat, intra-BLA), with an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), significantly impaired memory consolidation and mimicked the response of a higher dose of scopolamine. It is important to note that post-training intra-BLA microinjections of the same doses of ACPA or AM251 alone had no effect on memory consolidation. Moreover, the blockade of the BLA CB1 receptors by 0.3ng/rat of AM251 prevented ACPA-induced improvement of the scopolamine response. In view of the known actions of the drugs used, the present data pointed to the involvement of the BLA CB1 receptors in scopolamine-induced memory consolidation impairment. Furthermore, it seems that a functional interaction between the BLA endocannabinoid and cholinergic muscarinic systems may be critical for memory formation. PMID:27230394

  11. Enhancing second-order conditioning with lesions of the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    Because the occurrence of primary reinforcers in natural environments is relatively rare, conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in many accounts of behavior, including pathological behaviors such as the abuse of alcohol or drugs. As a result of pairing with natural or drug reinforcers, initially neutral cues acquire the ability to serve as reinforcers for subsequent learning. Accepting a major role for conditioned reinforcement in everyday learning is complicated by the often-evanescent nature of this phenomenon in the laboratory, especially when primary reinforcers are entirely absent from the test situation. Here, I found that under certain conditions, the impact of conditioned reinforcement could be extended by lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Rats received first-order Pavlovian conditioning pairings of 1 visual conditioned stimulus (CS) with food prior to receiving excitotoxic or sham lesions of the BLA, and first-order pairings of another visual CS with food after that surgery. Finally, each rat received second-order pairings of a different auditory cue with each visual first-order CS. As in prior studies, relative to sham-lesioned control rats, lesioned rats were impaired in their acquisition of second-order conditioning to the auditory cue paired with the first-order CS that was trained after surgery. However, lesioned rats showed enhanced and prolonged second-order conditioning to the auditory cue paired with the first-order CS that was trained before amygdala damage was made. Implications for an enhanced role for conditioned reinforcement by drug-related cues after drug-induced alterations in neural plasticity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26795578

  12. Cannabinoids and Glucocorticoids in the Basolateral Amygdala Modulate Hippocampal-Accumbens Plasticity After Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

    2016-03-01

    Acute stress results in release of glucocorticoids, which are potent modulators of learning and plasticity. This process is presumably mediated by the basolateral amygdala (BLA) where cannabinoids CB1 receptors have a key role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Growing attention has been focused on nucleus accumbens (NAc) plasticity, which regulates mood and motivation. The NAc integrates affective and context-dependent input from the BLA and ventral subiculum (vSub), respectively. As our previous data suggest that the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU-38486 (RU) can prevent the effects of stress on emotional memory, we examined whether intra-BLA WIN and RU can reverse the effects of acute stress on NAc plasticity. Bilateral, ipsilateral, and contralateral BLA administration of RU or WIN reversed the stress-induced impairment in vSub-NAc long-term potentiation (LTP) and the decrease in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activity in the NAc. BLA CB1 receptors were found to mediate the preventing effects of WIN on plasticity, but not the preventing effects of RU, after stress. Inactivating the ipsilateral BLA, but not the contralateral BLA, impaired LTP. The possible mechanisms underlying the effects of BLA on NAc plasticity are discussed; the data suggest that BLA-induced changes in the NAc may be mediated through neural pathways in the brain's stress circuit rather than peripheral pathways. The results suggest that glucocorticoid and cannabinoid systems in the BLA can restore normal function of the NAc and hence may have a central role in the treatment of a variety of stress-related disorders. PMID:26289146

  13. Identification and characterization of insulin receptors in basolateral membranes of dog intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about hormonal regulation of substrate transport and metabolism in the mucosal lining of the small intestine. Because insulin regulates these functions in other tissues by binding to its receptor, we have investigated the presence of insulin receptors in canine small intestinal mucosa with basolateral membranes (BLM) and brush border membranes (BBM) prepared by sorbitol density centrifugation. A14-[125I]iodoinsulin was used to study binding and structural characteristics of specific insulin receptors in BLM. Analysis of receptors in BLM identified binding sites with high affinity (Kd 88 pM) and low capacity (0.4 pmol/mg protein) as well as with low affinity (Kd 36 nM) and high capacity (4.7 pmol/mg protein). Binding was time, temperature, and pH dependent, and 125I-labeled insulin dissociation was enhanced in the presence of unlabeled insulin. Cross-reactivity of these receptors to proinsulin, IGF-II, and IGF-I was 4, 1.8, and less than 1%, respectively. Covalent cross-linking of labeled insulin to BLM insulin receptors with disuccinimidyl suberate revealed a single 135,000-Mr band that was completely inhibited by unlabeled insulin. There was a 16-fold greater specific binding of insulin to BLM (39.0 +/- 2.4%) than to BBM (2.5 +/- 0.6%). These results demonstrate the presence of a highly specific receptor for insulin on the vascular, but not the luminal, surface of the small intestinal mucosa in dogs, and suggest that insulin may play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology

  14. Identification and characterization of insulin receptors in basolateral membranes of dog intestinal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, R.L.; Gilbert, W.R.; Comens, P.G.; Gavin, J.R. III

    1987-10-01

    Little is known about hormonal regulation of substrate transport and metabolism in the mucosal lining of the small intestine. Because insulin regulates these functions in other tissues by binding to its receptor, we have investigated the presence of insulin receptors in canine small intestinal mucosa with basolateral membranes (BLM) and brush border membranes (BBM) prepared by sorbitol density centrifugation. A14-(/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin was used to study binding and structural characteristics of specific insulin receptors in BLM. Analysis of receptors in BLM identified binding sites with high affinity (Kd 88 pM) and low capacity (0.4 pmol/mg protein) as well as with low affinity (Kd 36 nM) and high capacity (4.7 pmol/mg protein). Binding was time, temperature, and pH dependent, and /sup 125/I-labeled insulin dissociation was enhanced in the presence of unlabeled insulin. Cross-reactivity of these receptors to proinsulin, IGF-II, and IGF-I was 4, 1.8, and less than 1%, respectively. Covalent cross-linking of labeled insulin to BLM insulin receptors with disuccinimidyl suberate revealed a single 135,000-Mr band that was completely inhibited by unlabeled insulin. There was a 16-fold greater specific binding of insulin to BLM (39.0 +/- 2.4%) than to BBM (2.5 +/- 0.6%). These results demonstrate the presence of a highly specific receptor for insulin on the vascular, but not the luminal, surface of the small intestinal mucosa in dogs, and suggest that insulin may play an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology.

  15. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jesus eOchoa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT versus infusions of saline (Sham on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the 1 retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair 2 discrimination of a novel pair and 3 reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning.

  16. Progressively Disrupted Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Basolateral Amygdala in Very Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Marion; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Barat, Martina; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian; Peters, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Very early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) – i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia – is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n = 33) and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n = 38) and mild dementia (AD-D, n = 36). Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM) values and region-of-interest-based iFC maps of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D). Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D), particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions, including that of amygdala.

  17. The role of basolateral amygdala adrenergic receptors in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei A.L.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: There are extensive evidences indicating that the noradrenergic system of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is involved in memory processes. The present study investigated the role of the BLA adrenergic receptors (ARs in hippocampus dependent spatial memory in place avoidance task in male rat. Material and Methods: Long Evans rats (n=150 were trained to avoid footshock in a 60° segment while foraging for scattered food on a circular (80-cm diameter arena. The rats were injected bilaterally in the BLA specific ARS (Adrenergic receptors agonist norepinephrine (NE, 0.5 and 1 µg/µl and specific β-ARs antagonist propranolol (PRO, 0.5 and 1 µg/µl before acquisition, after training or before retrieval of the place avoidance task. Control rats received vehicle at the same volume. The learning in a single 30-min session was assessed 24h later by a 30-min extinction trial in which the time to first entrance and the number of entrances to the shocked area measured the avoidance memory. Results: Acquisition and consolidation were enhanced and impaired significantly by NE and PRO when the drugs were injected 10 min before or immediately after training, respectively. In contrast, neither NE nor PRO influenced animal performances when injected before retention testing. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicates that adrenergic system of the BLA plays an important role in regulation of memory storage and show further evidences for the opinion that the BLA plays an important role in integrating hormonal and neurotransmitter influences on memory storage.

  18. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Jesus G; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Kaur, Amandeep; Hart, Evan E; Bugarin, Amador; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas, dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) vs. infusions of saline (Sham) on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the (1) retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair, (2) discrimination of a novel pair, and (3) reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning. PMID

  19. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Cheryl A; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E; Glass, Leslie L; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+). In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca(2+) response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber-mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  20. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein–Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.; Glass, Leslie L.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein–coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1–secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca2+ response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber–mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  1. Impact of Inhibiting Ileal Apical Versus Basolateral Bile acid Transport on Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bile acid sequestrants have been used for many years to treat hypercholesterolemia by increasing hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, thereby inducing hepatic LDL receptor expression and clearance of apoB-containing particles. In order to further understand the underlying molecular mechanisms linking gut-liver signaling and cholesterol homeostasis, mouse models defective in ileal apical membrane bile acid transport (Asbt null) and ileal basolateral membrane bile acid transport (Ostα null) were studied under basal and hypercholesterolemic conditions. Key Messages Hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is the major pathway for cholesterol catabolism and a major mechanism for cholesterol elimination. Blocking ileal apical membrane bile acid transport (Asbt null mice) increases fecal bile acid excretion, hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and the relative proportion of taurocholate in the bile acid pool, but decreases ileal FGF15 expression, bile acid pool size, and hepatic cholesterol content. In contrast, blocking ileal basolateral membrane bile acid transport (Ostα null mice) increases ileal FGF15 expression, reduces hepatic Cyp7a1 expression, and increases the proportion of tauro-β-muricholic acid in the bile acid pool. In the hypercholesterolemic apoE null background, plasma cholesterol levels and measurements of atherosclerosis were reduced in Asbt/apoE null mice but not in Ostα/apoE null mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal absorption of bile acids at the apical versus basolateral membrane differentially affects bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, including the development of hypercholesterolemia-associated atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanism likely involves altered regulation of ileal FGF15 expression. PMID:26045273

  2. LXR/RXR ligand activation enhances basolateral efflux of beta-sitosterol in CaCo-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, F Jeffrey; Born, Ella; Mathur, Satya N

    2004-05-01

    To examine whether intestinal ABCA1 was responsible for the differences observed between cholesterol and beta-sitosterol absorption, ABCA1-facilitated beta-sitosterol efflux was investigated in CaCo-2 cells following liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation. Both the LXR agonist T0901317 and the natural RXR/LXR agonists 22-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis retinoic acid enhanced the basolateral efflux of beta-sitosterol without altering apical efflux. LXR-mediated enhanced beta-sitosterol efflux occurred between 6 h and 12 h after activation, suggesting that transcription, protein synthesis, and trafficking was likely necessary prior to facilitating efflux. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D prevented the increase in beta-sitosterol efflux by T0901317. Glybenclamide, an inhibitor of ABCA1 activity, and arachidonic acid, a fatty acid that interferes with LXR activation, also prevented beta-sitosterol efflux in response to the LXR ligand activation. Influx of beta-sitosterol mass did not alter the basolateral or apical efflux of the plant sterol, nor did it alter ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5, or ABCG8 gene expression or ABCA1 mass. Similar to results observed with intestinal ABCA1-facilitated cholesterol efflux, LXR/RXR ligand activation enhanced the basolateral efflux of beta-sitosterol without affecting apical efflux. The results suggest that ABCA1 does not differentiate between cholesterol and beta-sitosterol and thus is not responsible for the selectivity of sterol absorption by the intestine. ABCA1, however, may play a role in beta-sitosterol absorption.

  3. Amygdaloid and hydrothermal mineralization in the Cenozoic volcanic series of eastern part of Jilin Prvince%吉林省东部新生代火山岩系中的杏仁体与热水成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹏; 惠艳梅

    2014-01-01

    吉林省东部山区大面积出露新生代火山岩,但多年以来地质科技人员很少在新生代火山岩中找矿。作者收集了近几年的有关资料,分析了杏仁体的主要特征、杏仁体形态特点、杏仁体的内部构造、杏仁体的矿物组成及其与热水成矿作用关系。供同仁们在火山岩找矿方面参考。%There are large Cenozoic volcano rock outcropping in the eastern mountain area of Jilin Province, but for many years, geological workers rarely prospect in Cenozoic volcano rock. The authors collect the relevant data in recent years, and analyze the main features of the amygdaloid, morphological characteristics, the internal structure, mineral composition and the relation with hot water mineralization. These are reference for colleagues in the volcano rock prospecting.

  4. Na+ and K+ transport at basolateral membranes of epithelial cells. I. Stoichiometry of the Na,K-ATPase

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The stoichiometry of pump-mediated Na/K exchange was studied in isolated epithelial sheets of frog skin. 42K influx across basolateral membranes was measured with tissues in a steady state and incubated in either beakers or in chambers. The short-circuit current provided estimates of Na+ influx at the apical membranes of the cells. 42K influx of tissues bathed in Cl- or SO4-Ringer solution averaged approximately 8 microA/cm2. Ouabain inhibited 94% of the 42K influx. Furosemide was without eff...

  5. Localization of the M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor in dendrites, cholinergic terminals, and noncholinergic terminals in the rat basolateral amygdala: An ultrastructural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jay F; Mascagni, Franco; Zaric, Violeta; Mott, David D; McDonald, Alexander J

    2016-08-15

    Activation of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the rat anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) is critical for the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing events. The present investigation used immunocytochemistry at the electron microscopic level to determine which structures in the BLa express M2Rs. In addition, dual localization of M2R and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein (VAChT), a marker for cholinergic axons, was performed to determine whether M2R is an autoreceptor in cholinergic axons innervating the BLa. M2R immunoreactivity (M2R-ir) was absent from the perikarya of pyramidal neurons, with the exception of the Golgi complex, but was dense in the proximal dendrites and axon initial segments emanating from these neurons. Most perikarya of nonpyramidal neurons were also M2R-negative. About 95% of dendritic shafts and 60% of dendritic spines were M2 immunoreactive (M2R(+) ). Some M2R(+) dendrites had spines, suggesting that they belonged to pyramidal cells, whereas others had morphological features typical of nonpyramidal neurons. M2R-ir was also seen in axon terminals, most of which formed asymmetrical synapses. The main targets of M2R(+) terminals forming asymmetrical (putative excitatory) synapses were dendritic spines, most of which were M2R(+) . The main targets of M2R(+) terminals forming symmetrical (putative inhibitory or neuromodulatory) synapses were unlabeled perikarya and M2R(+) dendritic shafts. M2R-ir was also seen in VAChT(+) cholinergic terminals, indicating a possible autoreceptor role. These findings suggest that M2R-mediated mechanisms in the BLa are very complex, involving postsynaptic effects in dendrites as well as regulating release of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and acetylcholine from presynaptic axon terminals. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2400-2417, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26779591

  6. Distribution of gamma-aminobutyric and nitrogen monoxide-coexisting neurons in cortical amygdaloid nucleus in rats and its modulation effect on pain transmission%大鼠杏仁皮质核内γ-氨基丁酸与一氧化氮共存神经元分布及对痛觉信息传递的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晶晶; 凌树才; 朱晞

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quite a few deoxidized reduced form of nicotinamide-adenime dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-d) -positive neurons distribute in amygdala complex (AMC) and gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter that also widely distributes in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Whether there is coexistence of GABA and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) in AMC is unknown at present.OBJECTIVE: To observe whether there is GABA and NADPH-d-eoexist neuron in cortical nucleus of amygdala (Co) with the combination of NADPH-d hischemical and immunohistochemical double staining.DESIGN: A verifying controlled study based on the experimental animals.SETTING: Department of anatomy of two universities MATERIALS: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy,Medical College of Zhejiang University between May 2004 and June 2004. Six SD rats in either gender with a body mass between 250 g and 300 g were selected.INTERVENTIONS: Coronary serial frozen slices of brain tissue were prepared. 4 sets of slices were selected for Nissl staining, NADPH-d histochemical staining, NADPH-d histochemical and GABA immunohistochemical double staining, and control experiment for the test of antibody specificity. GABA-labeled neurons, NADPH-d-positive neurons, and NADPH-d/GABA double-labeled neurons were counted in Co nucleus for the calculation of the percentage of double-labeled positive neurons to single-labeled positive neurons.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of NADPH-d/GABA double labeled neuron; distribution of NADPH-d or GABA single labeled neuron.RESULTS: Most of GABA-positive neurons distributed in posteromed cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PMCo), posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PLCo), which were mainly small types but few middle types. Most of NADPH-d-positive neurons distributed in PMCo, PLCo and anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (Aco), which were mainly middle sized and small sized neurons. The ratio of NADPH-d/GABA double-labeled neurons

  7. Carbachol increases basolateral K+ conductance in T84 cells. Simultaneous measurements of cell [Ca] and gK explore calcium's role

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    To explore the role of calcium in mediating the action of carbachol in chloride-secreting epithelia, we simultaneously measured intracellular free [Ca] ([Ca]i) and the potassium conductance (gK) of the basolateral membrane in T84 cells grown on collagen-coated filters. [Ca]i was measured with fura-2 and fluorescence microscopy and expressed as a relative value ([Ca]'i) normalized to control. To assess changes in basolateral gK, we measured the short circuit current (Isc) in the presence of lu...

  8. Long-term aldosterone treatment induces decreased apical but increased basolateral expression of AQP2 in CCD of rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Seigneux, Sophie; Nielsen, Jakob; Olesen, Emma T B;

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effects of high-dose aldosterone and dDAVP treatment on renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) regulation and urinary concentration. Rats were treated for 6 days with either vehicle (CON; n = 8), dDAVP (0.5 ng/h, dDAVP, n = 10), aldosterone (Aldo, 150...... microg/day, n = 10) or combined dDAVP and aldosterone treatment (dDAVP+Aldo, n = 10) and had free access to water with a fixed food intake. Aldosterone treatment induced hypokalemia, decreased urine osmolality, and increased the urine volume and water intake in ALDO compared with CON and d...... of hypokalemia in aldosterone-treated rats, we studied dietary-induced hypokalemia in rats, which also reduced apical AQP2 expression in the CCD but did not induce any increase in basolateral AQP2 expression in the CCD as observed with aldosterone treatment. The aldosterone-induced basolateral AQP2 expression...

  9. Activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP in the rat basolateral amygdala impairs reconsolidation of a memory associated with self-administered cocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wan

    Full Text Available The intracellular mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation critically involve cAMP signaling. These events were originally attributed to PKA activation by cAMP, but the identification of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac, as a distinct mediator of cAMP signaling, suggests that cAMP-regulated processes that subserve memory reconsolidation are more complex. Here we investigated how activation of Epac with 8-pCPT-cAMP (8-CPT impacts reconsolidation of a memory that had been associated with cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine on an FR-1 schedule, in which each cocaine delivery was paired with a tone+light cue. Lever pressing was then extinguished in the absence of cue presentations and cocaine delivery. Following the last day of extinction, rats were put in a novel context, in which the conditioned cue was presented to reactivate the cocaine-associated memory. Immediate bilateral infusions of 8-CPT into the basolateral amygdala (BLA following reactivation disrupted subsequent cue-induced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner, and modestly reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement. When 8-CPT infusions were delayed for 3 hours after the cue reactivation session or were given after a cue extinction session, no effect on cue-induced reinstatement was observed. Co-administration of 8-CPT and the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP (10 nmol/side rescued memory reconsolidation while 6-Bnz alone had no effect, suggesting an antagonizing interaction between the two cAMP signaling substrates. Taken together, these studies suggest that activation of Epac represents a parallel cAMP-dependent pathway that can inhibit reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories and reduce the ability of the cue to produce reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  10. Intracellular mechanisms of cocaine-memory reconsolidation in the basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Audrey Marie

    The ability of cocaine-associated environmental contexts to promote relapse in abstinent humans and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in laboratory animals depends on the formation and maintenance of maladaptive context-response-cocaine associative memories, the latter of which can be disrupted by manipulations that interfere with memory reconsolidation. Memory reconsolidation refers to a protein synthesis-dependent phenomenon whereby memory traces are reincorporated back into long-term memory storage following their retrieval and subsequent destabilization. To elucidate the distinctive roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the reconsolidation of context-response-cocaine memories, Experiments 1-3 evaluated novel molecular mechanisms within each structure that control this phenomenon. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the BLA and nucleus accumbens core (NACc - a substrate for Pavlovian cocaine-memory reconsolidation) would critically control instrumental cocaine-memory reconsolidation. To determine this, rats were re-exposed to a context that had previously been used for cocaine self-administration (i.e., cocaine memory-reactivation) and immediately thereafter received bilateral intra-BLA or intra-NACc microinfusions of the ERK inhibitor U0126 or vehicle (VEH) and were subsequently tested for drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior (non-reinforced lever responding) ~72 h later. Re-exposure to the cocaine-paired context at test fully reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to responding in an alternate, extinction context, and post-reactivation U0126 treatment in the BLA, but not the NACc, impaired cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to VEH. This effect was associated with a temporary increase in ERK2, but not ERK1, phosphorylation in the BLA and required explicit reactivation of the target memory trace (i.e., did not similarly manifest when U

  11. Basolateral Na+/HCO3– cotransport activity is regulated by the dissociable Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Angelito A.; Kear, Felicidad T.; Santos, Anna V.P.; Ma, Jianfei; Steplock, Debra; Robey, R. Brooks; Weinman, Edward J.

    1999-01-01

    In the renal proximal tubule, the activities of the basolateral Na+/HCO3– cotransporter (NBC) and the apical Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3) uniformly vary in parallel, suggesting that they are coordinately regulated. PKA-mediated inhibition of NHE3 is mediated by a PDZ motif–containing protein, the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHE-RF). Given the common inhibition of these transporters after protein kinase A (PKA) activation, we sought to determine whether NHE-RF also plays a role in PKA-regulated NBC activity. Renal cortex immunoblot analysis using anti-peptide antibodies directed against rabbit NHE-RF demonstrated the presence of this regulatory factor in both brush-border membranes (BBMs) and basolateral membranes (BLMs). Using a reconstitution assay, we found that limited trypsin digestion of detergent solubilized rabbit renal BLM preparations resulted in NBC activity that was unaffected by PKA activation. Co-reconstitution of these trypsinized preparations with a recombinant protein corresponding to wild-type rabbit NHE-RF restored the inhibitory effect of PKA on NBC activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NBC activity was inhibited 60% by 10–8M NHE-RF; this effect was not observed in the absence of PKA. Reconstitution with heat-denatured NHE-RF also failed to attenuate NBC activity. To establish further a physiologic role for NHE-RF in NBC regulation, the renal epithelial cell line B-SC-1, which lacks detectable endogenous NHE-RF expression, was engineered to express stably an NHE-RF transgene. NHE-RF–expressing B-SC-1 cells (B-SC-RF) exhibited markedly lower basal levels of NBC activity than did wild-type controls. Inhibition of NBC activity in B-SC-RF cells was enhanced after 10 μM of forskolin treatment, consistent with a postulated role for NHE-RF in mediating the inhibition of NBC activity by PKA. These findings not only suggest NHE-RF involvement in PKA-regulated NBC activity, but also provide a unique molecular mechanism whereby

  12. Oxytocin Signaling in Basolateral and Central Amygdala Nuclei Differentially Regulates the Acquisition, Expression, and Extinction of Context-Conditioned Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the…

  13. Short-term environmental enrichment is sufficient to counter stress-induced anxiety and associated structural and molecular plasticity in basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Archana; Hegde, Akshaya; Mitra, Rupshi

    2016-07-01

    Moderate levels of anxiety enable individual animals to cope with stressors through avoidance, and could be an adaptive trait. However, repeated stress exacerbates anxiety to pathologically high levels. Dendritic remodeling in the basolateral amygdala is proposed to mediate potentiation of anxiety after stress. Similarly, modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is thought to be important for the behavioral effects of stress. In the present study, we investigate if relatively short periods of environmental enrichment in adulthood can confer resilience against stress-induced anxiety and concomitant changes in neuronal arborisation and brain derived neurotrophic factor within basolateral amygdala. Two weeks of environmental enrichment countermanded the propensity of increased anxiety following chronic immobilization stress. Environmental enrichment concurrently reduced dendritic branching and spine density of projection neurons of the basolateral amygdala. Moreover, stress increased abundance of BDNF mRNA in the basolateral amygdala in agreement with the dendritic hypertrophy post-stress and role of BDNF in promoting dendritic arborisation. In contrast, environmental enrichment prevented stress-induced rise in the BDNF mRNA abundance. Gain in body weights and adrenal weights remained unaffected by exposure to environmental enrichment. These observations suggest that a short period of environmental enrichment can provide resilience against maladaptive effects of stress on hormonal, neuronal and molecular mediators of anxiogenesis. PMID:27128967

  14. Proteolytic Cleavage of ProBDNF into Mature BDNF in the Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for Defeat-Induced Social Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N.; Ford, Ellen C.; Lee, Melissa A.; Donnell, Nathaniel J.; Goode, Travis D.; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in…

  15. Long-term memory for pavlovian fear conditioning requires dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and basolateral amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Fadok

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA is essential for learning in a pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm known as fear-potentiated startle (FPS. Mice lacking the ability to synthesize DA fail to learn the association between the conditioned stimulus and the fear-inducing footshock. Previously, we demonstrated that restoration of DA synthesis to neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA was sufficient to restore FPS. Here, we used a target-selective viral restoration approach to determine which mesocorticolimbic brain regions receiving DA signaling from the VTA require DA for FPS. We demonstrate that restoration of DA synthesis to both the basolateral amygdala (BLA and nucleus accumbens (NAc is required for long-term memory of FPS. These data provide crucial insight into the dopamine-dependent circuitry involved in the formation of fear-related memory.

  16. Hair cell-type dependent expression of basolateral ion channels shapes response dynamics in the frog utricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eVenturino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of vestibular afferent responses are thought to be strongly influenced by presynaptic properties. In this paper, by performing whole-cell perforated-patch experiments in the frog utricle, we characterized voltage-dependent currents and voltage responses to current steps and 0.3-100 Hz sinusoids. Current expression and voltage responses are strongly related to hair cell type. In particular, voltage responses of extrastriolar type eB (low pass, -3 dB corner at 52.512.8 Hz and striolar type F cells (resonant, tuned at 6046 Hz agree with the dynamics (tonic and phasic, respectively of the afferent fibers they contact. On the other hand, hair cell release (measured with single-sine membrane Cm measurements was linearly related to Ca in both cell types, and therefore did not appear to contribute to dynamics differences. As a tool for quantifying the relative contribution of basolateral currents and other presynaptic factors to afferent dynamics, the recorded current, voltage and release data were used to build a NEURON model of the average extrastriolar type eB and striolar type F hair cell. The model contained all recorded conductances, a basic mechanosensitive hair bundle and a ribbon synapse sustained by stochastic voltage-dependent Ca channels, and could reproduce the recorded hair cell voltage responses. Simulated release obtained from eB-type and F-type models display significant differences in dynamics, supporting the idea that basolateral currents are able to contribute to afferent dynamics; however, release in type eB and F cell models does not reproduce tonic and phasic dynamics, mainly because of an excessive phase lag present in both cell types. This suggests the presence in vestibular hair cells of an additional, phase-advancing mechanism, in cascade with voltage modulation.

  17. Dorsal Periaqueductal gray simultaneously modulates ventral Subiculum induced-plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala and the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer eHorovitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ventral subiculum of the hippocampus projects both to the basolateral amygdala, which is typically, associated with a response to aversive stimuli, as well as to the nucleus accumbens, which is typically associated with a response to appetitive stimuli. Traditionally, studies of the responses to emotional events focus on either negative or positive affect-related processes, however, emotional experiences often affect both. The ability of high-level processing brain regions (e.g. medial prefrontal cortex to modulate the balance between negative and positive affect-related regions was examined extensively. In contrast, the ability of low-level processing areas (e.g. periaqueductal grey - PAG to do so, has not been sufficiently studied. To address whether midbrain structures have the ability to modulate limbic regions, we first examined the ventral subiculum stimulation’s (vSub ability to induce plasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA and nucleus accumbens (NAcc simultaneously in rats. Further, dorsal PAG (dPAG priming ability to differentially modulate vSub stimulation induced plasticity in the BLA and the NAcc was subsequently examined. vSub stimulation resulted in plasticity in both the BLA and the NAcc simultaneously. Moreover, depending on stimulus intensity, differential dPAG priming effects on LTP in these two regions were observed. The results demonstrate that negative and positive affect-related processes may be simultaneously modulated. Furthermore, under some conditions lower-level processing areas, such as the dPAG, may differentially modulate plasticity in these regions and thus affect the long-term emotional outcome of the experience.

  18. Memory-enhancing intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of clenbuterol increase Arc and CaMKII-alpha protein expression in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal M Holloway-Erickson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of β-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA modulates memory through interactions with multiple memory systems. The cellular mechanisms for this interaction remain unresolved. Memory-modulating BLA manipulations influence expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc in the dorsal hippocampus, and hippocampal expression of Arc protein is critically involved in memory consolidation and long-term potentiation. The present studies examined whether this influence of the BLA is specific to the hippocampus and to Arc protein. Like the hippocampus, the rostral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is involved in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA memory, and IA training increases Arc protein in the rACC. Because the BLA interacts with the rACC in the consolidation of IA memory, the rACC is a potential candidate for further studies of BLA modulation of synaptic plasticity. The alpha isoform of the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα and the immediate early gene c-Fos are involved in long-term potentiation and memory. Both Arc and CaMKIIα proteins can be translated in isolated synapses, where the mRNA is localized, but c-Fos protein remains in the soma. To examine the influence of memory-modulating manipulations of the BLA on expression of these memory and plasticity-associated proteins in the rACC, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an IA task and given intra-BLA infusions of either clenbuterol or lidocaine immediately after training. Findings suggest that noradrenergic stimulation of the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through effects on both synaptic proteins Arc and CaMKIIα, but not the somatic protein c-Fos. Furthermore, protein changes observed in the rACC following BLA manipulations suggest that the influence of the BLA on synaptic proteins is not limited to those in the dorsal

  19. NKCC1 and NHE1 are abundantly expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of secretory coil cells in rat, mouse, and human sweat glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Lene Niemann; Prætorius, Jeppe; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    1 (NHE1) protein has been localized to both the duct and secretory coil of human sweat duct; however, the NHE1 abundance in the duct was not compared with that in the secretory coil. The aim of this study was to test whether mRNA encoding NKCC1, NKCC2, and Na(+)-coupled acid-base transporters...... palmar skin by immunoblotting, whereas NKCC2, NHE2, and NHE3 proteins were not detected. Immunohistochemistry was performed using sections from rat, mouse, and human palmar tissue. Immunoperoxidase labeling revealed abundant expression of NKCC1 and NHE1 in the basolateral domain of secretory coils of rat......, mouse, and human sweat glands and low expression was found in the coiled part of the ducts. In contrast, NKCC1 and NHE1 labeling was absent from rat, mouse, and human epidermis. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated abundant NKCC1 and NHE1 labeling of the basolateral plasma membrane of mouse sweat...

  20. Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis induced by 192 IgG-saporin block memory enhancement with posttraining norepinephrine in the basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Ann E.; Thal, Leon J.; McGaugh, James L.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that drugs and stress hormones act in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to modulate memory consolidation. The BLA projects to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), which sends broad cholinergic projections to the neocortex. NBM-cortex projections have been implicated in learning, memory storage, and plasticity. The current study investigated whether the cholinergic NBM-cortex projections are involved in BLA-mediated modulation of memory consolidation. Bilateral ...

  1. Modulation of memory consolidation by the basolateral amygdala or nucleus accumbens shell requires concurrent dopamine receptor activation in both brain regions

    OpenAIRE

    LaLumiere, Ryan T; Nawar, Erene M.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) interact in influencing memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether this interaction requires concurrent dopamine (DA) receptor activation in both brain regions. Unilateral, right-side cannulae were implanted into the BLA and the ipsilateral NAc shell or core in male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g). One week later, the rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task and, 48 h la...

  2. Chemogenetic and Optogenetic Activation of Gαs Signaling in the Basolateral Amygdala Induces Acute and Social Anxiety-Like States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda, Edward R; Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Bhatti, Dionnet L; Bruchas, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are debilitating psychiatric illnesses with detrimental effects on human health. These heightened states of arousal are often in the absence of obvious threatening cues and are difficult to treat owing to a lack of understanding of the neural circuitry and cellular machinery mediating these conditions. Activation of noradrenergic circuitry in the basolateral amygdala is thought to have a role in stress, fear, and anxiety, and the specific cell and receptor types responsible is an active area of investigation. Here we take advantage of two novel cellular approaches to dissect the contributions of G-protein signaling in acute and social anxiety-like states. We used a chemogenetic approach utilizing the Gαs DREADD (rM3Ds) receptor and show that selective activation of generic Gαs signaling is sufficient to induce acute and social anxiety-like behavioral states in mice. Second, we use a recently characterized chimeric receptor composed of rhodopsin and the β2-adrenergic receptor (Opto-β2AR) with in vivo optogenetic techniques to selectively activate Gαs β-adrenergic signaling exclusively within excitatory neurons of the basolateral amygdala. We found that optogenetic induction of β-adrenergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala is sufficient to induce acute and social anxiety-like behavior. These findings support the conclusion that activation of Gαs signaling in the basolateral amygdala has a role in anxiety. These data also suggest that acute and social anxiety-like states may be mediated through signaling pathways identical to β-adrenergic receptors, thus providing support that inhibition of this system may be an effective anxiolytic therapy. PMID:26725834

  3. Interaction between the basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus is critical for cocaine memory reconsolidation and subsequent drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Audrey M.; Lasseter, Heather C.; Xie, Xiaohu; Cowhey, Kate E.; Reittinger, Andrew M.; Fuchs, Rita A.

    2011-01-01

    Contextual stimulus control over instrumental drug-seeking behavior relies on the reconsolidation of context-response-drug associative memories into long-term memory storage following retrieval-induced destabilization. According to previous studies, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) regulate cocaine-related memory reconsolidation; however, it is not known whether these brain regions interact or independently control this phenomenon. To investigate this question, rats ...

  4. Risk Factors for Development of Cholestatic Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Inhibition of Hepatic Basolateral Bile Acid Transporters Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins 3 and 4

    OpenAIRE

    Köck, Kathleen; Ferslew, Brian C.; Netterberg, Ida; Yang, Kyunghee; Urban, Thomas J.; Swaan, Peter W.; Stewart, Paul W.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired hepatic bile acid export may contribute to development of cholestatic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 3 and 4 are postulated to be compensatory hepatic basolateral bile acid efflux transporters when biliary excretion by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) is impaired. BSEP inhibition is a risk factor for cholestatic DILI. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between MRP3, MRP4, and BSEP inhibition and cholestatic potentia...

  5. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koss, W.A.; Sadowski, R.N.; Sherrill, L.K.; Gulley, J.M.; Juraska, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, neuron and glia number are changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of...

  6. Basolateral P2X receptors mediate inhibition of NaCl transport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; de Bruijn, Pauline I.A.; Sørensen, Mads Vaarby;

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate epithelial transport via luminal and basolateral P2 receptors. Renal epithelia express multiple P2 receptors, which mediate significant inhibition of solute absorption. Recently, we identified several P2 receptors in the medullary thick ascending limb (m......-stimulated mTALs transported at a rate of 1197 ± 104 µA/cm(2) (n=10), which was completely blockable with luminal furosemide (100 µM). Basolateral ATP (100 µM) acutely (1 minute) and reversibly reduced the absorptive I'(sc). After 2 minutes the reduction amounted to 24.4 ± 4.0% (n=10). The non-selective P2...... the ATP-induced inhibition of transport was reduced. A comprehensive molecular search identified P2X(4), P2X(5) and P2X(1) receptor subunit mRNA in isolated mouse mTALs. These data define that basolateral ATP exerts a significant inhibition of Na(+) absorption in mouse mTAL. Pharmacological, molecular...

  7. CRF1 receptor activation increases the response of neurons in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala to afferent stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The basolateral nucleus (BLA of the amygdala contributes to the consolidation of memories for emotional or stressful events. The nucleus contains a high density of CRF1 receptors that are activated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF. Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF may regulate the immediate response to stressful events and the formation of associated memories. In the present study, CRF was found to increase the amplitude of field potentials recorded in the BLA following excitatory afferent stimulation, in vitro. The increase was mediated by CRF1 receptors, since it could be blocked by the selective, non-peptide antagonists, NBI30775 and NBI35583, but not by the CRF2-selective antagonist, astressin 2B. Furthermore, the CRF2-selective agonist, urocortin II had no effect on field potential amplitude. The increase induced by CRF was long-lasting, could not be reversed by subsequent administration of NBI35583, and required the activation of protein kinase C. This effect of CRF in the BLA may be important for increasing the salience of aversive stimuli under stressful conditions, and for enhancing the consolidation of associated memories. The results provide further justification for studying the efficacy of selective antagonists of the CRF1 receptor to reduce memory formation linked to emotional or traumatic events, and suggest that these compounds might be useful as prophylactic treatment for stress-related illness such as post-traumatic stress disorder.

  8. Chronic cerebrolysin administration attenuates neuronal abnormalities in the basolateral amygdala induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ubhi, Kiren; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) has emerged as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior in the rat. Our previous report demonstrated that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair, promoted recovery of dendritic and neuronal damage of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens and behavioral improvements in postpubertal nVHL rats. We recently demonstrated that nVHL animals exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). This study aimed to determine whether Cbl treatment was capable of reducing BLA neuronal alterations observed in nVHL rats. The morphological evaluation included examination of dendrites using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in BLA. Golgi-Cox staining revealed that nVHL induced dendritic retraction and spine loss in BLA pyramidal neurons. Stereological analysis demonstrated nVHL also produced a reduction in cells in BLA. Interestingly, repeated Cbl treatment ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the BLA of the nVHL rats. Our data show that Cbl may foster recovery of BLA damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that the use of neurotrophic agents for the management of some schizophrenia-related symptoms may present an alternative therapeutic pathway in these disorders. PMID:24123373

  9. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  10. Chronic cerebrolysin administration attenuates neuronal abnormalities in the basolateral amygdala induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ubhi, Kiren; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) has emerged as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior in the rat. Our previous report demonstrated that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair, promoted recovery of dendritic and neuronal damage of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens and behavioral improvements in postpubertal nVHL rats. We recently demonstrated that nVHL animals exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). This study aimed to determine whether Cbl treatment was capable of reducing BLA neuronal alterations observed in nVHL rats. The morphological evaluation included examination of dendrites using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in BLA. Golgi-Cox staining revealed that nVHL induced dendritic retraction and spine loss in BLA pyramidal neurons. Stereological analysis demonstrated nVHL also produced a reduction in cells in BLA. Interestingly, repeated Cbl treatment ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the BLA of the nVHL rats. Our data show that Cbl may foster recovery of BLA damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that the use of neurotrophic agents for the management of some schizophrenia-related symptoms may present an alternative therapeutic pathway in these disorders.

  11. IGF-II receptors in luminal and basolateral membranes isolated from pars convoluta and pars recta of rabbit proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian; Jessen, H; Flyvbjerg, A

    1995-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-II (125I-IGF-II) to luminal and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from pars convoluta and the straight part (pars recta) of rabbit proximal tubule was investigated. Analyses of the binding data by use of the general stoichiometric binding...... equation revealed, that in all preparations IGF-II was bound to one high-affinity binding site and other sites with lower affinities. The specificity of the high-affinity 125I-IGF-II binding to the membrane vesicles assessed by displacement by unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I and insulin showed that IGF-I displaced...... 125I-IGF-II in the range 22.5-47.9 nM (IC50) whereas insulin did not effect 125I-IGF-II binding at all. beta-Galactosidase inhibited the 125I-IGF-II binding with half-maximal inhibition of 20-30 nM beta-galactosidase. D-Mannose 6-phosphate increased the binding of 125I-IGF-II and reversed...

  12. Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Kroemer, Nils B; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Gitelman, Darren R; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2015-05-20

    In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002). Whether this circuit contributes to long-term weight gain is unknown. Using fMRI in 32 healthy individuals, we demonstrate here that the amygdala response to the taste of a milkshake when sated but not hungry positively predicts weight change. This effect is independent of sex, initial BMI, and total circulating ghrelin levels, but it is only present in individuals who do not carry a copy of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism. In contrast, A1 allele carriers, who have decreased D2 receptor density (Blum et al., 1996), show a positive association between caudate response and weight change. Regardless of genotype, however, dynamic causal modeling supports unidirectional gustatory input from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to hypothalamus in sated subjects. This finding suggests that, as in rodents, external cues gain access to the homeostatic control circuits of the human hypothalamus via the amygdala. In contrast, during hunger, gustatory inputs enter the hypothalamus and drive bidirectional connectivity with the amygdala. These findings implicate the BLA-hypothalamic circuit in long-term weight change related to nonhomeostatic eating and provide compelling evidence that distinct brain mechanisms confer susceptibility to weight gain depending upon individual differences in dopamine signaling.

  13. Role of basolateral amygdala dopamine D2 receptors in impulsive choice in acute cocaine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijing; Zuo, Yanfang; Yu, Peng; Ping, Xingjie; Cui, Cailian

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulant substances have been found to either increase or inhibit impulsive choice (preference to choose small immediate reward over large delayed reward) in laboratory animals. Although central dopamine transmission has been demonstrated to be involved in impulsivity and drug addiction, little is known regarding dopaminergic neurotransmission in addictive drug-induced alteration of impulse control. In this study, we used a delay discounting model to measure impulsive choice in rats and found that acute cocaine dose-dependently decreased impulsive choice in rats. Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.02 mg/kg) could increase the impulsive choice but had no effect on the inhibition of impulsive choice induced by acute cocaine exposure. D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride (0.06 mg/kg) had no effect on the choice behavior itself, but it reversed acute cocaine-induced impulse inhibition. Moreover, bilateral microinjection of eticlopride (1 μg/side) into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) but not the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core reversed the inhibitory effect of acute cocaine on impulsive choice. These data suggest important but dissociable roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in impulse control. The preference of delayed rewards depends on D1 receptors, whereas acute cocaine inhibited impulsive choice by activating D2 receptors in the BLA. PMID:25823760

  14. Inhibition of projections from the basolateral amygdala to the entorhinal cortex disrupts the acquisition of contextual fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R. Sparta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of excessive fear and/or stress responses to environmental cues such as contexts associated with a traumatic event is a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The basolateral amygdala (BLA has been implicated as a key structure mediating contextual fear conditioning. In addition, the hippocampus has an integral role in the encoding and processing of contexts associated with strong, salient stimuli such as fear. Given that both the BLA and hippocampus play an important role in the regulation of contextual fear conditioning, examining the functional connectivity between these two structures may elucidate a role for this pathway in the development of PTSD. Here, we used optogenetic strategies to demonstrate that the BLA sends a strong glutamatergic projection to the hippocampal formation through the entorhinal cortex (EC. Next, we photoinhibited glutamatergic fibers from the BLA terminating in the EC during the acquisition or expression of contextual fear conditioning. In mice that received optical inhibition of the BLA-to-EC pathway during the acquisition session, we observed a significant decrease in freezing behavior in a context re-exposure session. In contrast, we observed no differences in freezing behavior in mice that were only photoinhibited during the context re-exposure session. These data demonstrate an important role for the BLA-to-EC glutamatergic pathway in the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning.

  15. β1-adrenoceptor activation is required for ethanol enhancement of lateral paracapsular GABAergic synapses in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Ariwodola, Olusegun J; Weiner, Jeff L

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) potentiation of GABAergic neurotransmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) may contribute to the acute anxiolytic effects of this drug. Previous studies have shown that BLA pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic input from two distinct sources: local interneurons and a cluster of GABAergic cells termed lateral paracapsular (LPCS) interneurons. It is noteworthy that whereas EtOH enhances local GABAergic synapses via a presynaptic increase in GABA release, EtOH potentiation of LPCS inhibition is mediated via a distinct mechanism that requires adrenoceptor (AR) activation. Here, we sought to further characterize the interaction between the AR system and EtOH enhancement of LPCS GABAergic synapses by using in vitro electrophysiology techniques in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Exogenous norepinephrine (NE) enhanced LPCS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) via the activation of β-ARs, because this effect was blocked by propranolol. EtOH potentiation of LPCS eIPSCs was also blocked by propranolol and significantly reduced by NE pretreatment, suggesting that NE and EtOH may enhance LPCS inhibition via a common mechanism. EtOH enhancement of LPCS eIPSCs was significantly reduced by a selective β1-, but not β2- or β3-, AR antagonist, and both EtOH and NE potentiation of LPCS IPSCs was blocked by postsynaptic disruption of cAMP signaling. These data suggest that EtOH enhances LPCS synapses via a postsynaptic β1-AR, cAMP-dependent cascade. Because enhancement of LPCS inhibition can reduce anxiety-like behaviors, these findings shed light on a novel mechanism that may play a role in some of the anxiolytic effects of EtOH that are thought to contribute to the development and progression of alcoholism.

  16. Interactions between ethanol and the endocannabinoid system at GABAergic synapses on basolateral amygdala principal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talani, Giuseppe; Lovinger, David M

    2015-12-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays crucial roles in stimulus value coding, as well as drug and alcohol dependence. Ethanol alters synaptic transmission in the BLA, while endocannabinoids (eCBs) produce presynaptic depression at BLA synapses. Recent studies suggest interactions between ethanol and eCBs that have important consequences for alcohol drinking behavior. To determine how ethanol and eCBs interact in the BLA, we examined the physiology and pharmacology of GABAergic synapses onto BLA pyramidal neurons in neurons from young rats. Application of ethanol at concentrations relevant to intoxication increased, in both young and adult animals, the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents, indicating a presynaptic site of ethanol action. Ethanol did not potentiate sIPSCs during inhibition of adenylyl cyclase while still exerting its effect during inhibition of protein kinase A. Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) in the BLA inhibited GABAergic transmission via an apparent presynaptic mechanism, and prevented ethanol potentiation. Surprisingly, ethanol potentiation was also prevented by CB1 antagonists/inverse agonists. Brief depolarization of BLA pyramidal neurons suppressed GABAergic transmission (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition [DSI]), an effect previously shown to be mediated by postsynaptic eCB release and presynaptic CB1 activation. A CB1-mediated suppression of GABAergic transmission was also produced by combined afferent stimulation at 0.1 Hz (LFS), and postsynaptic loading with the eCB arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA). Both DSI and LFS-induced synaptic depression were prevented by ethanol. Our findings indicate antagonistic interactions between ethanol and eCB/CB1 modulation at GABAergic BLA synapses that may contribute to eCB roles in ethanol seeking and drinking.

  17. Dissociable roles for the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in decision-making under risk of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Trotta, Rose T; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2015-01-28

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision-making involving risk of punishment, but the neural basis of this association remains poorly understood. Altered activity in brain systems including the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can accompany these same disorders, and these structures are implicated in some forms of decision-making. The current study investigated the role of the BLA and OFC in decision-making under risk of explicit punishment. Rats were trained in the risky decision-making task (RDT), in which they chose between two levers, one that delivered a small safe reward, and the other that delivered a large reward accompanied by varying risks of footshock punishment. Following training, they received sham or neurotoxic lesions of BLA or OFC, followed by RDT retesting. BLA lesions increased choice of the large risky reward (greater risk-taking) compared to both prelesion performance and sham controls. When reward magnitudes were equated, both BLA lesion and control groups shifted their choice to the safe (no shock) reward lever, indicating that the lesions did not impair punishment sensitivity. In contrast to BLA lesions, OFC lesions significantly decreased risk-taking compared with sham controls, but did not impair discrimination between different reward magnitudes or alter baseline levels of anxiety. Finally, neither lesion significantly affected food-motivated lever pressing under various fixed ratio schedules, indicating that lesion-induced alterations in risk-taking were not secondary to changes in appetitive motivation. Together, these findings indicate distinct roles for the BLA and OFC in decision-making under risk of explicit punishment. PMID:25632115

  18. TRH and TRH receptor system in the basolateral amygdala mediate stress-induced depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Juli; Kim, Ji-eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2015-10-01

    Chronic stress is a potent risk factor for depression, but the mechanism by which stress causes depression is not fully understood. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying stress-induced depression, C57BL/6 inbred mice were treated with repeated restraint to induce lasting depressive behavioral changes. Behavioral states of individual animals were evaluated using the forced swim test, which measures psychomotor withdrawals, and the U-field test, which measures sociability. From these behavioral analyses, individual mice that showed depression-like behaviors in both psychomotor withdrawal and sociability tests, and individuals that showed a resiliency to stress-induced depression in both tests were selected. Among the neuropeptides expressed in the amygdala, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was identified as being persistently up-regulated in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in individuals exhibiting severe depressive behaviors in the two behavior tests, but not in individuals displaying a stress resiliency. Activation of TRH receptors by local injection of TRH in the BLA in normal mice produced depressive behaviors, mimicking chronic stress effects, whereas siRNA-mediated suppression of either TRH or TRHR1 in the BLA completely blocked stress-induced depressive symptoms. The TRHR1 agonist, taltirelin, injection in the BLA increased the level of p-ERK, which mimicked the increased p-ERK level in the BLA that was induced by treatment with repeated stress. Stereotaxic injection of U0126, a potent inhibitor of the ERK pathway, within the BLA blocked stress-induced behavioral depression. These results suggest that repeated stress produces lasting depression-like behaviors via the up-regulation of TRH and TRH receptors in the BLA.

  19. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially regulate CB1 receptor function at glutamatergic synapses in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stacey L; Alexander, Nancy J; Bluett, Rebecca J; Patel, Sachin; McCool, Brian A

    2016-09-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system has been suggested to play a key role in ethanol preference and intake, the acute effects of ethanol, and in the development of withdrawal symptoms following ethanol dependence. Ethanol-dependent alterations in glutamatergic signaling within the lateral/basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) are critical for the development and expression of withdrawal-induced anxiety. Notably, the eCB system significantly regulates both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity within the BLA. Chronic ethanol exposure significantly alters eCB system expression within regions critical to the expression of emotionality and anxiety-related behavior, including the BLA. Here, we investigated specific interactions between the BLA eCB system and its functional regulation of synaptic activity during acute and chronic ethanol exposure. In tissue from ethanol naïve-rats, a prolonged acute ethanol exposure caused a dose dependent inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic activity via a presynaptic mechanism that was occluded by CB1 antagonist/inverse agonists SR141716a and AM251. Importantly, this acute ethanol inhibition was attenuated following 10 day chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE). CIE exposure also significantly down-regulated CB1-mediated presynaptic inhibition at glutamatergic afferent terminals but spared CB1-inhibition of GABAergic synapses arising from local inhibitory-interneurons. CIE also significantly elevated BLA N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA or anandamide) levels and decreased CB1 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data suggest a dynamic regulation of the BLA eCB system by acute and chronic ethanol. PMID:26707595

  20. Dissociable roles for the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in decision-making under risk of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Trotta, Rose T; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2015-01-28

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision-making involving risk of punishment, but the neural basis of this association remains poorly understood. Altered activity in brain systems including the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can accompany these same disorders, and these structures are implicated in some forms of decision-making. The current study investigated the role of the BLA and OFC in decision-making under risk of explicit punishment. Rats were trained in the risky decision-making task (RDT), in which they chose between two levers, one that delivered a small safe reward, and the other that delivered a large reward accompanied by varying risks of footshock punishment. Following training, they received sham or neurotoxic lesions of BLA or OFC, followed by RDT retesting. BLA lesions increased choice of the large risky reward (greater risk-taking) compared to both prelesion performance and sham controls. When reward magnitudes were equated, both BLA lesion and control groups shifted their choice to the safe (no shock) reward lever, indicating that the lesions did not impair punishment sensitivity. In contrast to BLA lesions, OFC lesions significantly decreased risk-taking compared with sham controls, but did not impair discrimination between different reward magnitudes or alter baseline levels of anxiety. Finally, neither lesion significantly affected food-motivated lever pressing under various fixed ratio schedules, indicating that lesion-induced alterations in risk-taking were not secondary to changes in appetitive motivation. Together, these findings indicate distinct roles for the BLA and OFC in decision-making under risk of explicit punishment.

  1. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 +\\/- 8 muM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCalpha and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCdelta. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE ( approximately 65%), an inhibitor of PKCalpha and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 ( approximately 15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCalpha and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCalpha-dependent pathway.

  2. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 ± 8 μM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCα and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCδ. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (∼65%), an inhibitor of PKCα and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (∼15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCα and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCα-dependent pathway.

  3. Cocaine-conditioned place preference is predicted by previous anxiety-like behavior and is related to an increased number of neurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J; Castilla-Ortega, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The identification of behavioral traits that could predict an individual's susceptibility to engage in cocaine addiction is relevant for understanding and preventing this disorder, but investigations of cocaine addicts rarely allow us to determinate whether their behavioral attributes are a cause or a consequence of drug use. To study the behaviors that predict cocaine vulnerability, male C57BL/6J mice were examined in a battery of tests (the elevated plus maze, hole-board, novelty preference in the Y-Maze, episodic-like object recognition and forced swimming) prior to training in a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the reinforcing value of the drug. In a second study, the anatomical basis of high and low CPP in the mouse brain was investigated by studying the number of neurons (neuronal nuclei-positive) in two addiction-related limbic regions (the medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala) and the number of dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) in the ventral tegmental area by immunohistochemistry and stereology. Correlational analyses revealed that CPP behavior was successfully predicted by anxiety-like measures in the elevated plus maze (i.e., the more anxious mice showed more preference for the cocaine-paired compartment) but not by the other behaviors analyzed. In addition, increased numbers of neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala of the high CPP mice, a key brain center for anxiety and fear responses. The results support the theory that anxiety is a relevant factor for cocaine vulnerability, and the basolateral amygdala is a potential neurobiological substrate where both anxiety and cocaine vulnerability could overlap. PMID:26523857

  4. Novel bioassay system for evaluating anti-oxidative activities of food items: use of basolateral media from differentiated Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Ai; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2005-12-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including superoxide and nitric oxide (NO), are known to be mediators of oxidative stress and play pivotal roles in the onset of numerous life style-related diseases. While a number of studies have shown that naturally occurring anti-oxidants may be applicable for prevention and therapy for those diseases, most in vitro anti-oxidation tests reported have not provided significant insight into the absorption efficiency or metabolism of dietary anti-oxidants in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we established a novel assay system by focusing on the bioconversion of food constituents using differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. Various fresh food preparations [ginger, garlic, shimeji (Hypsizigus marmoreus), onion, carrot] were added to the apical side of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers. After incubation, the medium was recovered and tested for its inhibitory effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced generation in differentiated HL-60 cells, and on combined lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-gamma -induced NO generation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The garlic preparation (25% v/v) basolateral medium abolished generation without any cytotoxicity toward HL-60 cells, though it was cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells. In the NO generation tests, all of the food preparations showed notable inhibitory activity, while the garlic preparation (5% v/v) basolateral medium inhibited NO generation with substantial cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells. Interestingly, the carrot preparation (1% v/v) basolateral medium inhibited NO generation in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 or Caco-2 cells, and its activities were higher than those of the carrot preparation alone (1% v/v). Our results indicate that the present assay system is appropriate and reliable for determination of the anti-oxidative efficacy of dietary

  5. NMDA receptor blockade in the basolateral amygdala disrupts consolidation of stimulus-reward memory and extinction learning during reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in an animal model of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; See, Ronald E

    2007-11-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has implicated the basolateral amygdala (BLA) complex in the acquisition and consolidation of cue-cocaine associations, as well as extinction learning, which may regulate the long-lasting control of conditioned stimuli (CS) over drug-seeking behavior. Given the well established role of NMDA glutamate receptor activation in other forms of amygdalar-based learning, we predicted that BLA-mediated drug-cue associative learning would be NMDA receptor dependent. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered i.v. cocaine (0.6 mg/kg/infusion) in the absence of explicit CS pairings (2-h sessions, 5 days), followed by a single 1-h classical conditioning (CC) session, during which they received passive infusions of cocaine discretely paired with a light+tone stimulus complex. Following additional cocaine self-administration sessions in the absence of the CS (2-h sessions, 5 days) and extinction training sessions (no cocaine or CS presentation, 2-h sessions, 7 days), the ability of the CS to reinstate cocaine-seeking on three test days was assessed. Rats received bilateral intra-BLA infusions (0.5 microl/hemisphere) of vehicle or the selective NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5), immediately prior to the CC session (acquisition), immediately following the CC session (consolidation), or immediately following reinstatement testing (consolidation of conditioned-cued extinction learning). AP-5 administered before or after CC attenuated subsequent CS-induced reinstatement, whereas AP-5 administered immediately following the first two reinstatement tests impaired the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior. These results suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated mechanisms within the BLA play a crucial role in the consolidation of drug-CS associations into long-term memories that, in turn, drive cocaine-seeking during relapse. PMID:17613253

  6. Basolateral amygdala CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofogh, Sattar Norouzi; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol and morphine are largely co-abused and affect memory formation. The present study intended to investigate the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol. Adult male Wistar rats received bilateral cannulation of the BLA, and memory retrieval was measured in step-through type passive avoidance apparatus. Our results showed that post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine (6mg/kg) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) significantly improved morphine-induced memory impairment, suggesting that there is cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol. It should be considered that pre-test administration of ethanol (0.1 and 0.5g/kg, i.p.) by itself had no effect on memory retrieval in the passive avoidance task. Interestingly, pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3μg/rat), a non-selective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, plus an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.1g/kg, i.p.) improved morphine-induced memory impairment. Intra-BLA microinjection of AM251 (0.4-0.6ng/rat), a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the improved effect of ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) on morphine response. Pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of WIN55,212-2 or AM251 had no effect on memory retrieval or morphine-induced amnesia. Taken together, it can be concluded that morphine and ethanol can induce state-dependent memory retrieval. In addition, the BLA endocannabinoid system mediates via CB1 receptors the functional interaction of morphine and ethanol state-dependent memory retrieval which may depend on the rewarding effects of the drugs. PMID:27327764

  7. DPOFA, a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger antagonist, stimulates fluid absorption across basolateral surface of the retinal pigment epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iserovich Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which sensory retina separates from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE due to accumulation of fluid in subretinal space. Pharmacological stimulation of fluid reabsorption from subretinal space to choroid across the RPE has been suggested as a treatment strategy for retinal detachment. DPOFA, (R-(+-(5,6-dichloro 2,3,9,9a-tetrahydro 3-oxo-9a-propyl-1H-fluoren-7-yloxy]acetic acid, is an abandoned drug capable of inhibiting Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity. We hypothesized that DPOFA may increase fluid absorption across basolateral surface of the RPE. Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of mRNA for six different transporters that may act as Cl-/HCO3- exchangers was conducted in bovine and human RPE to confirm that RPE from two species expresses the same repertoire of Cl-/HCO3- exchanger isoforms. The degree of amino acid homology between orthologous human and bovine RPE-specific isoforms was calculated after performing protein alignments. Transport of fluid across bovine RPE-choroid explants mounted in the Ussing chamber was used to assess the ability of DPOFA to modulate fluid absorption across the RPE. Results Using RT-PCR we showed that three isoforms (SLC4A2, SLC4A3, and SLC26A6 are strongly expressed in human and bovine RPE preparations. Amino acid comparisons conducted for RPE-specific isoforms support the use of bovine RPE-choroid explants as an adequate experimental system for assessing fluid absorption activity for DPOFA. Our data is consistent with the fact that DPOFA stimulates fluid absorption across the RPE in bovine RPE-choroid explants. Conclusions DPOFA seems to stimulate transport of water across the RPE in bovine RPE-choroid explants. Additional experiments are required to establish dose-dependent effect of DPOFA on fluid absorption in the bovine RPE-choroid experimental system.

  8. Cooperative interaction between the basolateral amygdala and ventral tegmental area modulates the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari-Serenjeh, Farzaneh; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2013-01-10

    The aim of the current study was to examine the existence of a cooperative interaction between the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in inhibitory avoidance task. The BLA and the VTA regions of adult male Wistar rats were simultaneously cannulated and memory consolidation was measured in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance apparatus. Post-training microinjection of muscimol, a potent GABA-A receptor agonist (0.01-0.02 μg/rat), into the VTA impaired memory in a dose-dependent manner. Post-training intra-BLA microinjection of NMDA (0.02-0.04 μg/rat), 5 min before the intra-VTA injection of muscimol (0.02 μg/rat), attenuated muscimol-induced memory impairment. Microinjection of a NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (0.02-0.06 μg/rat) into the BLA inhibited NMDA effect on the memory impairment induced by intra-VTA microinjection of muscimol. On the other hand, post-training intra-BLA microinjection of muscimol (0.02-0.04 μg/rat) dose-dependently decreased step-through latency, indicating an impairing effect on memory. This impairing effect was however significantly attenuated by intra-VTA microinjection of NMDA (0.01-0.03 μg/rat). Intra-VTA microinjection of D-AP5 (0.02-0.08 μg/rat), 5 min prior to NMDA injection, inhibited NMDA response on the impairing effect induced by intra-BLA microinjection of muscimol. It should be considered that post-training microinjection of the same doses of NMDA or D-AP5 into the BLA or the VTA alone had no effect on memory consolidation. The data suggest that the relationship between the BLA and the VTA in mediating memory consolidation in inhibitory avoidance learning may be dependent on a cooperative interaction between the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems via NMDA and GABA-A receptors.

  9. Discerning apical and basolateral properties of HT-29/B6 and IPEC-J2 cell layers by impedance spectroscopy, mathematical modeling and machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmid

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in partial resistances of epithelial barriers in vitro is a challenging and time-consuming task in physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that electrical properties of epithelial barriers can be estimated reliably by combining impedance spectroscopy measurements, mathematical modeling and machine learning algorithms. Conventional impedance spectroscopy is often used to estimate epithelial capacitance as well as epithelial and subepithelial resistance. Based on this, the more refined two-path impedance spectroscopy makes it possible to further distinguish transcellular and paracellular resistances. In a next step, transcellular properties may be further divided into their apical and basolateral components. The accuracy of these derived values, however, strongly depends on the accuracy of the initial estimates. To obtain adequate accuracy in estimating subepithelial and epithelial resistance, artificial neural networks were trained to estimate these parameters from model impedance spectra. Spectra that reflect behavior of either HT-29/B6 or IPEC-J2 cells as well as the data scatter intrinsic to the used experimental setup were created computationally. To prove the proposed approach, reliability of the estimations was assessed with both modeled and measured impedance spectra. Transcellular and paracellular resistances obtained by such neural network-enhanced two-path impedance spectroscopy are shown to be sufficiently reliable to derive the underlying apical and basolateral resistances and capacitances. As an exemplary perturbation of pathophysiological importance, the effect of forskolin on the apical resistance of HT-29/B6 cells was quantified.

  10. Amygdaloid and non-amygdaloid fear both influence avoidance of risky foraging in hungry rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Earnest; Kim, Eun Joo; Yeh, Regina; Shin, Minkyung; Bobman, Jake; Krasne, Franklin B; Kim, Jeansok J

    2014-09-01

    Considerable evidence seems to show that emotional and reflex reactions to feared situations are mediated by the amygdala. It might therefore seem plausible to expect that amygdala-coded fear should also influence decisions when animals make choices about instrumental actions. However, there is not good evidence of this. In particular, it appears, though the literature is conflicted, that once learning is complete, the amygdala may often not be involved in instrumental avoidance behaviours. It is therefore of interest that we have found in rats living for extended periods in a semi-naturalistic 'closed economy', where they were given random shocks in regions that had to be entered to obtain food, choices about feeding behaviour were in fact influenced by amygdala-coded fear, in spite of the null effect of amygdalar lesions on fear of dangerous location per se. We suggest that avoidance of highly motivated voluntary behaviour does depend in part on fear signals originating in the amygdala. Such signalling may be one role of well-known projections from amygdala to cortico-striate circuitry.

  11. 大鼠纹状体边缘区与杏仁核和终纹床核之间相互联系的免疫组织化学研究%THE CONNECTION AMONG THE MARGINAL DIVISION OF STRIATUM,AMYGDALOID NUCLEUS AND BED NUCLEUS OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS IN THE RAT BRAIN AS REVEALED BY IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀宇; 舒斯云; 包新民; 吴文龙

    2000-01-01

    为了解大鼠纹状体内的神经活性物质与边缘系统重要结构杏仁核和终纹床核内相应神经活性物质之间的关系。对大鼠脑的连续冠状切片进行了P物质、降钙素基因相关肽、亮氨酸-脑啡肽、胆囊收缩素和神经元型一氧化氮合酶等的免疫细胞化学反应(ABC法)。结果证明:P物质、降钙素基因相关肽和胆囊收缩素在纹状体中主要分布在边缘区;亮氨酸-脑啡肽主要分布在苍白球,其次分布在边缘区;神经元型一氧化氮合酶则主要分布在尾壳核和边缘区。上述神经活性物质同时也集中分布在杏仁核和终纹床核,而且边缘区内的这些神经活性物质与杏仁核和终纹床核内的相同物质存在着纤维联系。本研究结果说明:边缘区与边缘系统之间存在着神经化学的相互关系,边缘区可能属于边缘系统的一部分。%To understand the relationship of neurotransmitter between the striatum and limbic system such as amygdaloid nucle-us and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Immunohistochemical ABC method was per-formed to detect the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), leucine-enkephalin (L-enk),cholecyctokinin (CCK) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on seetions of the brain. Some transmitters including substanceP, calcitonin gene-related peptide and cholecyctokinin were mainly distributed at the marginal division of the striatum. Theleucine-enkephalin was mainly distributed at the globus pallidus and was secondly distributed at the marginal division of the stria-tun. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase was mainly distributed at caudate putamen and the marginal division. All these transmit-ters were not only distributed at amygdaloid nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, but also had fibers connection amongthe amygdaloid nucleus, marginal division and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

  12. Memory Enhancement Induced by Post-Training Intrabasolateral Amygdala Infusions of [beta]-Adrenergic or Muscarinic Agonists Requires Activation of Dopamine Receptors: Involvement of Right, but Not Left, Basolateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a [beta]-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation…

  13. Angiotensin II's role in sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with repeated urocortin 1 injections into the basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip L; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Fitz, Stephanie D;

    2013-01-01

    Rats treated with three daily urocortin 1 (UCN) injections into the basolateral amygdala (BLA; i.e., UCN/BLA-primed rats) develop prolonged anxiety-associated behavior and vulnerability to panic-like physiological responses (i.e., tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea) following intravenous......-injected with saralasin, but not PD123319 or vehicle, had reduced NaLac-induced anxiety-associated behavior and panic-associated tachycardia and tachypnea responses. We then confirmed the presence of AT1rs in the BLA using immunohistochemistry which, combined with the previous data, suggest that A-II's panicogenic...... effects in the BLA is AT1r dependent. Surprisingly, the SFO had almost no neurons that directly innervate the BLA, which suggests an indirect pathway for relaying the NaLac signal. Overall these results are the first to implicate A-II and AT1rs as putative neurotransmitter-receptors in NaLac induced panic...

  14. Carbachol increases basolateral K+ conductance in T84 cells. Simultaneous measurements of cell [Ca] and gK explore calcium's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S M; Tesfaye, A; DeBell, M C; Chase, H S

    1990-12-01

    To explore the role of calcium in mediating the action of carbachol in chloride-secreting epithelia, we simultaneously measured intracellular free [Ca] ([Ca]i) and the potassium conductance (gK) of the basolateral membrane in T84 cells grown on collagen-coated filters. [Ca]i was measured with fura-2 and fluorescence microscopy and expressed as a relative value ([Ca]'i) normalized to control. To assess changes in basolateral gK, we measured the short circuit current (Isc) in the presence of luminal amphotericin and a transepithelial mucosa-to-serosa K+ gradient (Germann, W. J., M. E. Lowy, S. A. Ernst, and D. C. Dawson. 1986. J. Gen. Physiol. 88:237-251). Treatment of the monolayers with carbachol resulted in a parallel increase and then decrease in [Ca]'i and gK. The carbachol-induced changes in gK appeared to be dependent on the increase in [Ca]i because stimulation of gK was significantly diminished when the hormone-induced increase in [Ca]'i was blunted, either by loading the cells with BAPTA or by reducing the extracellular [Ca]. The carbachol-stimulated increase in gK appeared to be the direct result of the increase in steady-state [Ca]'i. The changes in gK and [Ca]'i after stimulation with carbachol were correlated and ionomycin also increased gK and [Ca]'i in a parallel manner. The carbachol-induced delta gK per delta[Ca]'i, however, was greater than that after ionomycin. Because ionomycin and carbachol appear to open the same channel, a conclusion based on inhibitor and selectivity experiments, carbachol may have a second action that amplifies the effect of calcium on gK. PMID:2126802

  15. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza Silva, M. A.; Dolga, Amalia; Pieri, I.; Marchetti, L.; Eisel, U. L. M.; Huston, J. P.; Dere, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that glutamatergic and cholinergic systems interact functionally at the level of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. The subunit composition of NMDA-R of cholinergic cells in the n

  16. High-mobility group box 1 inhibits HCO(3)(-) absorption in medullary thick ascending limb through a basolateral receptor for advanced glycation end products pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, David W; George, Thampi; Watts, Bruns A

    2015-10-15

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecule implicated in mediating kidney dysfunction in sepsis and sterile inflammatory disorders. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly in response to infection or injury, where it interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and other receptors to mediate inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that LPS inhibits HCO(3)(-) absorption in the medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) through a basolateral TLR4-ERK pathway (Watts BA III, George T, Sherwood ER, Good DW. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301: C1296-C1306, 2011). Here, we examined whether HMGB1 could inhibit HCO(3)(-) absorption through the same pathway. Adding HMGB1 to the bath decreased HCO(3)(-) absorption by 24% in isolated, perfused rat and mouse MTALs. In contrast to LPS, inhibition by HMGB1 was preserved in MTALs from TLR4(-/-) mice and was unaffected by ERK inhibitors. Inhibition by HMGB1 was eliminated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antagonist FPS-ZM1 and by neutralizing anti-RAGE antibody. Confocal immunofluorescence showed expression of RAGE in the basolateral membrane domain. Inhibition of HCO(3)(-) absorption by HMGB1 through RAGE was additive to inhibition by LPS through TLR4 and to inhibition by Gram-positive bacterial molecules through TLR2. Bath amiloride, which selectively prevents inhibition of MTAL HCO(3)(-) absorption mediated through Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 (NHE1), eliminated inhibition by HMGB1. We conclude that HMGB1 inhibits MTAL HCO(3)(-) absorption through a RAGE-dependent pathway distinct from TLR4-mediated inhibition by LPS. These studies provide new evidence that HMGB1-RAGE signaling acts directly to impair the transport function of renal tubules. They reveal a novel paradigm for sepsis-induced renal tubule dysfunction, whereby exogenous pathogen-associated molecules and endogenous damage-associated molecules act directly and independently to inhibit MTAL HCO(3)(-) absorption through

  17. 大鼠杏仁体基底外侧核中小白蛋白反应阳性神经元受抑制性神经网络支配%PARVALBUMIN-IMMUNOREACTIVE INTERNEURONS ARE CONTROLLED BY AN INHIBITORY NEURONAL NETWORK IN BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF THE RAT AMYGDALA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 彭裕文; 大谷 修; 西条 寿夫; 王劼; 丁忠良; 高璐; 沈馨亚

    2004-01-01

    As the elements of local neuronal circuits, parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons in the basolateral nucleus (BL) of the amygdala play an important role in the amygdaloid functions of emotion, learning and memory. In order to investigate how the PV-containing interneurons in the BL are controlled, the synapses established on PV- containing interneurons in the BL of the rat amygdala were examined under immunoelectron microscopy using the double labeling methods with anti-PV and anti-dopamine (DA) antibodies for a reference of dopaminergic axon terminals. The results show that the PV immunoreactive (IR) neurons formed the synapses mainly on the dendritic structures from shafts of the dendrites to median and small dendritic branches. 68% of the synapses on the PV-IR profiles were formed by unlabeled axon terminals, and 32 % of them were formed by DA- (21 % ) and PV- (11 % )IR axon terminals. Majority of the synapses on the PV-IR neurons formed by unlabeled axon terminals were symmetric type, and only a small a mount of them were asymmetric that were observed between the PV-IR spines and unlabeled axon terminals and in the serial synapses in which an unlabeled axon terminal symmetrically contacted to another unlabeled axon terminal that, in turn, synapsed asymmetrically to the PV-IR dendritic profiles. The synapses formed between the PV-IR profiles and DA- or PV-IR axon terminals were exclusively symmetric. The present results suggest that the PV-containing interneurons in the BL of the rat amygdala were controlled by an inhibitory network formed by the symmetric synapses around them, among which the DA system was included.%小白蛋白(PV)神经元作为杏仁核簇基底外侧核(BL)中局部神经环路成分,对杏仁核的情绪、学习和记忆过程等机能发挥重要作用.为探讨BL中PV中间神经元的突触形成状态,本研究用抗PV抗体标示PV神经元,以抗多巴胺(DA)抗体标示多巴胺能轴突及末梢作为传入纤维的标志,对

  18. Memory enhancement induced by post-training intrabasolateral amygdala infusions of β-adrenergic or muscarinic agonists requires activation of dopamine receptors: Involvement of right, but not left, basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    LaLumiere, Ryan T; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a β-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation of dopamine (DA) receptors in the BLA. Rats with implanted BLA cannulae were trained on an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task and, 48 h later, tested for re...

  19. Infusions of AP5 into the basolateral amygdala impair the formation, but not the expression, of step-down inhibitory avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roesler R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5 into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA on the formation and expression of memory for inhibitory avoidance. Adult male Wistar rats (215-300 g were implanted under thionembutal anesthesia (30 mg/kg, ip with 9.0-mm guide cannulae aimed 1.0 mm above the BLA. Bilateral infusions of AP5 (5.0 µg were given 10 min prior to training, immediately after training, or 10 min prior to testing in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (0.3 mA footshock, 24-h interval between training and the retention test session. Both pre- and post-training infusions of AP5 blocked retention test performance. When given prior to the test, AP5 did not affect retention. AP5 did not affect training performance, and a control experiment showed that the impairing effects were not due to alterations in footshock sensitivity. The results suggest that NMDA receptor activation in the BLA is involved in the formation, but not the expression, of memory for inhibitory avoidance in rats. However, the results do not necessarily imply that the role of NMDA receptors in the BLA is to mediate long-term storage of fear-motivated memory within the amygdala.

  20. Distinctive roles of 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine in Anterior Agranular Insular and Basolateral Amygdala in Reconsolidation of aversive memory associated with Morphine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng eLiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, has been implicated in aversive memory and the function of brain region which processing affect. However, little is known about the role of 5-aza in the reconsolidation of opiate withdrawal memory. In the present study, using the morphine-naloxone induced conditioned place aversion (CPA model in rats, we injected 5-aza into agranular insular (AI, granular insular (GI, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central amygdala (CeA immediately after the memory retrieval and tested the behavioral consequences at 24hours, 7 days and 14days after retrieval test. We found that 5-aza injection into AI disrupted the reconsolidation of morphine-associated withdrawal memory, but 5-aza injection into GI had no impact on the reconsolidation. Meanwhile, 5-aza injection into BLA but not CeA attenuated the withdrawal memory trace 14 days later. However, 5-aza administration to rats, in the absence of memory reactivation, had no effect on morphine-associated withdrawal memory. These findings suggest that 5-aza interfere with the reconsolidation of opiate withdrawal memory, and the roles of insular and amygdala in reconsolidation are distinctive.

  1. CaMKIIα knockdown decreases anxiety in the open field and low serotonin-induced upregulation of GluA1 in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lee; Keele, N Bradley

    2016-04-15

    Hyperactivation of the amygdala is implicated in anxiety and mood disorders, but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. We previously reported that depletion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) using the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) potentiated learned fear and increased glutamate receptor (Glu) expression in BLA. Here we investigated the hypothesis that CaMKII facilitates anxiety-like behavior and increased Glu/AMPA receptor subunit A1 (GluA1) expression following depletion of 5-HT in the BLA. Infusion of 5,7-DHT into the BLA resulted in anxiety-like behavior in the open field test (OFT) and increased the phosphorylation of CaMKIIα (Thr-286) in the BLA. Knockdown of the CaMKIIα subunit using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-delivered shRNAi concomitantly attenuated anxiety-like behavior in the OFT and decreased GluA1 expression in the BLA. Our results suggest that the CaMKII signaling plays a key role in low 5-HT-induced anxiety and mood disturbances, potentially through regulation of GluA1 expression in the BLA.

  2. Vasopressin-induced stimulation of the Na(+)-activated K(+) channels is responsible for maintaining the basolateral K(+) conductance of the thick ascending limb (TAL) in EAST/SeSAME syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dandan; Duan, Xinpeng; Zhao, Chunlei; Zu, Mingxue; Meng, Xinxin; Zhang, Chengbiao; Su, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Ming-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Hui; Gu, Ruimin

    2015-11-01

    The renal phenotype of EAST syndrome, a disease caused by the loss-of-function-mutations of Kcnj10 (Kir4.1), is a reminiscence of Gitelman's syndrome characterized by the defective function in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The aim of the present study is to test whether antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)-induced stimulation of the Na(+)-activated 80-150pS K(+) channel is responsible for compensating the lost function of Kcnj10 in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of subjects with EAST syndrome. Immunostaining and western blot showed that the expression of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) was significantly higher in Kcnj10(-/-) mice than those of WT littermates, suggesting that the disruption of Kcnj10 stimulates vasopressin response in the kidney. The role of vasopressin in stimulating the basolateral K(+) conductance of the TAL was strongly indicated by the finding that the application of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) hyperpolarized the membrane in the TAL of Kcnj10(-/-) mice. Application of AVP significantly stimulated the 80-150pS K(+) channel in the TAL and this effect was blocked by tolvaptan (V2 receptor antagonist) or by inhibiting PKA. Moreover, the water restriction for 24h significantly increased the probability of finding the 80-150pS K(+) channel and the K(+) channel open probability in the TAL. The application of a membrane permeable cAMP analog also mimicked the effect of AVP and activated this K(+) channel, suggesting that cAMP-PKA pathway stimulates the 80-150pS K(+) channels. The role of the basolateral K(+) conductance in maintaining transcellular Cl(-) transport is further suggested by the finding that the inhibition of basolateral K(+) channels significantly diminished the AVP-induced stimulation of the basolateral 10pS Cl(-) channels. We conclude that vasopressin stimulates the 80-150pS K(+) channel in the TAL via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. The vasopressin-induced stimulation of K(+) channels is responsible for compensating lost function of Kcnj10 thereby

  3. The AP-1A and AP-1B clathrin adaptor complexes define biochemically and functionally distinct membrane domains

    OpenAIRE

    Fölsch, Heike; Pypaert, Marc; Maday, Sandra; Pelletier, Laurence; Mellman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Most epithelial cells contain two AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes. AP-1A is ubiquitously expressed and involved in transport between the TGN and endosomes. AP-1B is expressed only in epithelia and mediates the polarized targeting of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface. Both AP-1 complexes are heterotetramers and differ only in their 50-kD μ1A or μ1B subunits. Here, we show that AP-1A and AP-1B, together with their respective cargoes, define physically and functionally distinct membra...

  4. Anxiolytic effects of kindling role of anatomical location of the kindling electrode in response to kindling of the right basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Robert; Blundell, Jacqueline; Burton, Paul

    2004-10-22

    Study of effects of kindling on affect has been complicated by the fact that anxiogenic, anxiolytic or no effects may be observed following kindling of the amygdala. Factors affecting behavioral outcome include strain of rat, hemisphere kindled, amygdala nucleus kindled and location of the kindling electrodes within particular AP planes of a given nucleus. Previous work has suggested that kindling of the right basolateral amygdala (BLA) is predominantly anxiogenic. This conclusion was based on kindling of anterior or posterior parts of the BLA. The present study sought to clarify this conclusion by examining behavioral effects of right BLA kindling in a mid-range of AP planes not yet studied. A variety of measures of rodent anxiety-like behavior were examined, including behavior in the hole board, elevated plus maze, light/dark box, social interaction test and unconditioned acoustic startle. Anhedonic effects of kindling were assessed by a sucrose preference test with controls for fluid consumption and taste sensitivities. All effects were assessed shortly after kindling (1-2 days) and at a longer time interval (7-8 days). Kindling to four stage 5 seizures in the mid-right BLA altered behavior at all time points after kindling in all tests except the hole board and light/dark box tests. The effect of kindling was anxiolytic like in the plus maze, social interaction and startle tests. Kindling in mid-BLA also increased sucrose consumption. Effects on sucrose consumption are consistent with previous studies showing no depressive-like effects of amygdala kindling in rodents. It is hypothesized that the focal nature of the behavioral consequences of amygdala kindling are best understood in the context of the circuitry in which the cells stimulated are imbedded and the impact of kindling on functioning of those circuits.

  5. Alcohol-Seeking Triggered by Discrete Pavlovian Cues is Invigorated by Alcohol Contexts and Mediated by Glutamate Signaling in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Joanna M; Reese, Rebecca M; Janak, Patricia H; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    The environmental context in which a discrete Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is experienced can profoundly impact conditioned responding elicited by the CS. We hypothesized that alcohol-seeking behavior elicited by a discrete CS that predicted alcohol would be influenced by context and require glutamate signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Male, Long-Evans rats were allowed to drink 15% ethanol (v/v) until consumption stabilized. Next, rats received Pavlovian conditioning sessions in which a 10 s CS (15 trials/session) was paired with ethanol (0.2 ml/CS). Entries into a port where ethanol was delivered were measured. Pavlovian conditioning occurred in a specific context (alcohol context) and was alternated with sessions in a different context (non-alcohol context) where neither the CS nor ethanol was presented. At test, the CS was presented without ethanol in the alcohol context or the non-alcohol context, following a bilateral microinfusion (0.3 μl/hemisphere) of saline or the AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist NBQX (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium salt) in the BLA (0, 0.3, or 1.0 μg/0.3 μl). The effect of NBQX (0, 0.3 μg/0.3 μl) in the caudate putamen (CPu) on CS responding in the non-alcohol context was also tested. The discrete alcohol CS triggered more alcohol-seeking behavior in the alcohol context than the non-alcohol context. NBQX in the BLA reduced CS responding in both contexts but had no effect in the CPu. These data indicate that AMPA glutamate receptors in the BLA are critical for alcohol-seeking elicited by a discrete CS and that behavior triggered by the CS is strongly invigorated by an alcohol context.

  6. Lateral/Basolateral Amygdala Serotonin Type-2 Receptors Modulate Operant Self-administration of a Sweetened Ethanol Solution via Inhibition of Principal Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMccool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA forms an integral part of the neural circuitry controlling innate anxiety and learned fear. More recently, BLA dependent modulation of self-administration behaviors suggests a much broader role in the regulation of reward evaluation. To test this, we employed a self-administration paradigm that procedurally segregates ‘seeking’ (exemplified as lever-press behaviors from consumption (drinking directed at a sweetened ethanol solution. Microinjection of the nonselective serotonin type-2 receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (-m5HT into the BLA reduced lever pressing behaviors in a dose-dependent fashion. This was associated with a significant reduction in the number of response-bouts expressed during non-reinforced sessions without altering the size of a bout or the rate of responding. Conversely, intra-BLA -m5HT only modestly effected consumption-related behaviors; the highest dose reduced the total time spent consuming a sweetened ethanol solution but did not inhibit the total number of licks, number of lick bouts, or amount of solution consumed during a session. In vitro neurophysiological characterization of BLA synaptic responses showed that -m5HT significantly reduced extracellular field potentials. This was blocked by the 5-HT2A/C antagonist ketanserin suggesting that 5-HT2-like receptors mediate the behavioral effect of -m5HT. During whole-cell patch current-clamp recordings, we subsequently found that -m5HT increased action potential threshold and hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, our findings show that the activation of BLA 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits behaviors related to reward-seeking by suppressing BLA principal neuron activity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the BLA modulates reward-related behaviors and provides specific insight into BLA contributions during operant self-administration of a

  7. Micro-opioid receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala mediates the learning of increases but not decreases in the incentive value of a food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Cely, Ingrid C; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-02-01

    The decision to perform, or not perform, actions known to lead to a rewarding outcome is strongly influenced by the current incentive value of the reward. Incentive value is largely determined by the affective experience derived during previous consumption of the reward-the process of incentive learning. We trained rats on a two-lever, seeking-taking chain paradigm for sucrose reward, in which responding on the initial seeking lever of the chain was demonstrably controlled by the incentive value of the reward. We found that infusion of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, CTOP (d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2)), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during posttraining, noncontingent consumption of sucrose in a novel elevated-hunger state (a positive incentive learning opportunity) blocked the encoding of incentive value information normally used to increase subsequent sucrose-seeking responses. Similar treatment with δ [N, N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH (ICI 174,864)] or κ [5'-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI)] antagonists was without effect. Interestingly, none of these drugs affected the ability of the rats to encode a decrease in incentive value resulting from experiencing the sucrose in a novel reduced-hunger state. However, the μ agonist, DAMGO ([d-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin), appeared to attenuate this negative incentive learning. These data suggest that upshifts and downshifts in endogenous opioid transmission in the BLA mediate the encoding of positive and negative shifts in incentive value, respectively, through actions at μ-opioid receptors, and provide insight into a mechanism through which opiates may elicit inappropriate desire resulting in their continued intake in the face of diminishing affective experience. PMID:21289167

  8. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that lateral paracapsular GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala contribute to the acquisition and extinction of fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A M; Ariwodola, O J; Weiner, J L

    2016-01-01

    The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) is crucial to the acquisition and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning, and synaptic plasticity in this region is considered to be a neural correlate of learned fear. We recently reported that activation of BLA β3-adrenoreceptors (β3-ARs) selectively enhances lateral paracapsular (LPC) feed-forward GABAergic inhibition onto BLA pyramidal neurons, and that intra-BLA infusion of a β3-AR agonist reduces measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Here, we utilized a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological approaches to characterize the role of BLA LPCs in the acquisition of fear and extinction learning in adult male Long-Evans rats. We report that intra-BLA microinjection of β3-AR agonists (BRL37344 or SR58611A, 1μg/0.5μL/side) prior to training fear conditioning or extinction blocks the expression of these behaviors 24h later. Furthermore,ex vivo low-frequency stimulation of the external capsule (LFS; 1Hz, 15min), which engages LPC synapses, induces LTP of BLA fEPSPs, while application of a β3-AR agonist (SR58611A, 5μM) induces LTD of fEPSPs when combined with LFS. Interestingly, fEPSP LTP is not observed in recordings from fear conditioned animals, suggesting that fear learning may engage the same mechanisms that induce synaptic plasticity at this input. In support of this, we find that LFS produces LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (iLTD) at LPC GABAergic synapses, and that this effect is also absent following fear conditioning. Taken together, these data provide preliminary evidence that modulation of LPC GABAergic synapses can influence the acquisition and extinction of fear learning and related synaptic plasticity in the BLA.

  9. Effects of ethanol during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala of adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, W A; Sadowski, R N; Sherrill, L K; Gulley, J M; Juraska, J M

    2012-07-23

    Human adolescents often consume alcohol in a binge-like manner at a time when changes are occurring within specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLN). In particular, the number of neurons and glia is changing in both of these areas in the rat between adolescence and adulthood (Markham et al., 2007; Rubinow and Juraska, 2009). The current study investigated the effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence on the number of neurons and glia in the adult mPFC and BLN in Long-Evans male and female rats. Saline or 3g/kg ethanol was administered between postnatal days (P) 35-45 in a binge-like pattern, with 2days of injections followed by 1 day without an injection. Stereological analyses of the ventral mPFC (prelimbic and infralimbic areas) and the BLN were performed on brains from rats at 100 days of age. Neuron and glia densities were assessed with the optical disector and then multiplied by the volume to calculate the total number of neurons and glia. In the adult mPFC, ethanol administration during adolescence resulted in a decreased number of glia in males, but not females, and had no effect on the number of neurons. Adolescent ethanol exposure had no effects on glia or neuron number in the BLN. These results suggest that glia cells in the prefrontal cortex are particularly sensitive to binge-like exposure to ethanol during adolescence in male rats only, potentially due to a decrease in proliferation in males or protective mechanisms in females. PMID:22627163

  10. 小鼠杏仁内侧核中白细胞介素1β的表达调控依赖于雌激素受体α%ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α-DEPENDENT MODULATION OF INTERLEUKIN-1β IN THE MEDIAL AMYGDALOID NUCLEUS OF MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆红; 曹军; 吕顺艳; 黄艳红; 胡玉珍; 韦耿泽

    2004-01-01

    IL- 1β expression in the medial amygdaloid nucleus (McA) from ERs (estrogen receptors) knockout mice was carried out to determine the roles of ERα and ER β in mediating IL-1β expression in the brain. There was clear sex difference of 1L-1β expression in MeA and 1L-1β expression was reduced in ERs-knockout mice. Either LPS or ovariectomy could enhance IL-1β expression in both wild type (WT) and ERβ knockout mice (BERKO), but not in ERa knockout mice (ERKO). Similarly, exoge nous estrogen could inhibit I1-1β expression in McA both from WT and BERKO mice, with the later in a lagged manner, but not from ERKO. The results clearly establish that ERa is a critical mechanism for IL-1β expression in McA, implying for a selective targeting of ERs in the treatment and prevention of neural dysfunction.%研究雌激素受体(ER)敲除小鼠脑内,ERa和ERβ在介导内侧杏仁核中白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)表达的作用。IL-1β表达有显著的性别差异,并且在ER敲除小鼠含量减少。细菌脂多糖(LPS)或卵巢切除能够促进野生型和ERβ敲除小鼠(BERKO)IL-1β表达,但对ERa敲除小鼠(ERKO)无作用。相似的是.外源性雌激素能抑制野生型和BERKO小鼠IL-1β表达,后者时间稍有延搁,但对ERKO IL-1β表达没有影响。结果表明,ERα是内侧杏仁核IL1β表达调节的重要机制,提示ERs可作为选择性靶基因治疗和预防神经功能失常。

  11. CENTRAL AMYGDALOID INVOLVEMENT IN NEUROENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF CONDITIONED STRESS RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROOZENDAAL, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; BOHUS, B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in comparison with sham lesions on neuroendocrine responses during conditioned emotional stress in male Wistar rats. Lesions in the CEA, made either before or after the

  12. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM. To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls, where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentate, entorhinal cortex, subiculum as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri- hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators – perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity.

  13. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Gaser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators' brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM). To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls), where meditators have been practicing close to 20 years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentata, entorhinal cortex, subiculum) as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri-) hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators-perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity. PMID:23847572

  14. Amygdala upregulation of NCAM polysialylation induced by auditory fear conditioning is not required for memory formation, but plays a role in fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Kamila; Lopez Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-05-01

    There is much interest to understand the mechanisms leading to the establishment, maintenance, and extinction of fear memories. The amygdala has been critically involved in the processing of fear memories and a number of molecular changes have been implicated in this brain region in relation to fear learning. Although neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) have been hypothesized to play a role, information available about their contribution to fear memories is scarce. We investigate here whether polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM) contributes to auditory fear conditioning in the amygdala. First, PSA-NCAM expression was evaluated in different amygdala nuclei after auditory fear conditioning at two different shock intensities. Results showed that PSA-NCAM expression was increased 24 h post-training only in animals subjected to the highest shock intensity (1mA). Second, PSA-NCAM was cleaved in the basolateral amygdaloid complex through micro-infusions of the enzyme endoneuraminidase N, and the consequences of such treatment were investigated on the acquisition, consolidation, remote memory expression, and extinction of conditioned fear memories. Intra-amygdaloid cleavage of PSA-NCAM did not affect acquisition, consolidation or expression of remote fear memories. However, intra-amygdaloid PSA-NCAM cleavage enhanced fear extinction processes. These results suggest that upregulation of PSA-NCAM is a correlate of fear conditioning that is not necessary for the establishment of fear memory in the amygdala, but participates in mechanisms precluding fear extinction. These findings point out PSA-NCAM as a potential target for the treatment of psychopathologies that involve impairment in fear extinction.

  15. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  16. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  17. Common channels for water and protons at apical and basolateral cell membranes of frog skin and urinary bladder epithelia. Effects of oxytocin, heavy metals, and inhibitors of H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, B.; Lacoste, I.; Ehrenfeld, J. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Villefranche-sur-mer (France))

    1991-04-01

    We have compared the response of proton and water transport to oxytocin treatment in isolated frog skin and urinary bladder epithelia to provide further insights into the nature of water flow and H+ flux across individual apical and basolateral cell membranes. In isolated spontaneous sodium-transporting frog skin epithelia, lowering the pH of the apical solution from 7.4 to 6.4, 5.5, or 4.5 produced a fall in pHi in principal cells which was completely blocked by amiloride, indicating that apical Na+ channels are permeable to protons. When sodium transport was blocked by amiloride, the H+ permeability of the apical membranes of principal cells was negligible but increased dramatically after treatment with antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In the latter condition, lowering the pH of the apical solution caused a voltage-dependent intracellular acidification, accompanied by membrane depolarization, and an increase in membrane conductance and transepithelial current. These effects were inhibited by adding Hg2+ (100 microM) or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD, 10(-5) M) to the apical bath. Net titratable H+ flux across frog skin was increased from 30 +/- 8 to 115 +/- 18 neq.h-1.cm-2 (n = 8) after oxytocin treatment (at apical pH 5.5 and serosal pH 7.4) and was completely inhibited by DCCD (10(-5) M). The basolateral membranes of the principal cells in frog skin epithelium were found to be spontaneously permeable to H+ and passive electrogenic H+ transport across this membrane was not affected by oxytocin. Lowering the pH of the basolateral bathing solution (pHb) produced an intracellular acidification and membrane depolarization (and an increase in conductance when the normal dominant K+ conductance of this membrane was abolished by Ba2+ 1 mM). These effects of low pHb were blocked by micromolar concentrations of heavy metals (Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+).

  18. FERM protein EPB41L5 is a novel member of the mammalian CRB-MPP5 polarity complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosens, Ilse; Sessa, Alessandro; den Hollander, Anneke I; Letteboer, Stef J F; Belloni, Valentina; Arends, Maarten L; Le Bivic, André; Cremers, Frans P M; Broccoli, Vania; Roepman, Ronald

    2007-11-15

    Cell polarity is induced and maintained by separation of the apical and basolateral domains through specialized cell-cell junctions. The Crumbs protein and its binding partners are involved in formation and stabilization of adherens junctions. In this study, we describe a novel component of the mammalian Crumbs complex, the FERM domain protein EPB41L5, which associates with the intracellular domains of all three Crumbs homologs through its FERM domain. Surprisingly, the same FERM domain is involved in binding to the HOOK domain of MPP5/PALS1, a previously identified interactor of Crumbs. Co-expression and co-localization studies suggested that in several epithelial derived tissues Epb4.1l5 interacts with at least one Crumbs homolog, and with Mpp5. Although at early embryonic stages Epb4.1l5 is found at the basolateral membrane compartment, in adult tissues it co-localizes at the apical domain with Crumbs proteins and Mpp5. Overexpression of Epb4.1l5 in polarized MDCK cells affects tightness of cell junctions and results in disorganization of the tight junction markers ZO-1 and PATJ. Our results emphasize the importance of a conserved Crumbs-MPP5-EPB41L5 polarity complex in mammals. PMID:17920587

  19. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  20. Memory for fearful faces across development: specialization of amygdala nuclei and medial temporal lobe structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte ePinabiaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced memory for emotional faces is a significant component of adaptive social interactions, but little is known on its neural developmental correlates. We explored the role of amygdaloid complex (AC and medial temporal lobe (MTL in emotional memory recognition across development, by comparing fMRI activations of successful memory encoding of fearful and neutral faces in children (n=12; 8-12 years and adolescents (n=12; 13-17 years. Memory for fearful faces was enhanced compared with neutral ones in adolescents, as opposed to children. In adolescents, activations associated with successful encoding of fearful faces were centered on baso-lateral AC nuclei, hippocampus, enthorhinal and parahippocampal cortices. In children, successful encoding of fearful faces relied on activations of centro-mesial AC nuclei, which was not accompanied by functional activation of MTL memory structures. Successful encoding of neutral faces depended on activations in anterior MTL region (hippocampal head and body in adolescents, but more posterior ones (hippocampal tail and parahippocampal cortex in children. In conclusion, two distinct functional specializations emerge from childhood to adolescence and result in the enhancement of memory for these particular stimuli: the specialization of baso-lateral AC nuclei, which is associated with the expertise in processing emotional facial expression, and which is intimately related to the specialization of MTL memory network. How the interplay between specialization of AC nuclei and of MTL memory structures is fundamental for the edification of social interactions remains to be elucidated.

  1. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  3. Anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of kindling--role of baseline anxiety and anatomical location of the kindling electrode in response to kindling of the right and left basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Robert; Shallow, Tanya; Burton, Paul

    2005-04-15

    Effects of kindling of right and left basolateral amygdala (BLA) on plus maze anxiety was studied. Using a validated retest paradigm, it was possible to retest rats in the plus maze without increasing anxiety on retest. This permitted determining prekindling baseline levels of plus maze anxiety. Right BLA kindling of high baseline anxiety rats was anxiolytic one week after kindling. Right BLA kindling of low baseline anxiety rats was anxiogenic. In addition, left BLA kindling was either anxiogenic or without effect on plus maze anxiety, depending on baseline anxiety. Effects in left BLA differ from previous work showing anxiolytic effects of left BLA kindling. The discrepancy could be explained in part by prekindling baseline anxiety. These findings require modification of the previous conclusion that left hemisphere (left BLA) kindling is anxiolytic and right BLA kindling is anxiogenic in the plus maze. Rather the hemisphere difference may be due to an interaction between baseline anxiety level and kindling. If true, anxious disposition in rodents may interact with amygdala kindling to change amygdala function differently. Kindling and baseline anxiety effects on other behaviors (such as risk assessment and resistance to capture) are also described. Present data in the light of past studies suggest both premorbid anxiety state and location of the kindling electrode contribute to the effects of kindling on behavior.

  4. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  5. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Carney complex are Cushing’s syndrome and multiple thyroid nodules (tumors). Cushing’s syndrome features a combination of weight gain, ... with Carney complex include adrenocortical carcinoma , pituitary gland tumors , thyroid , colorectal , liver and pancreatic cancers . Ovarian cancer in ...

  6. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia;

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  7. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  8. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  9. Simplifying complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Leemput, van de, J.C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior leads to the emergence of properties that would not be expected from behavior or properties of the individual parts of the system. Although the full behavior of the systems I address will probably...

  10. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  11. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 has a complex subcellular itinerary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Sine; Selzer-Plon, Joanna; Pedersen, Esben D K;

    2008-01-01

    it is a key regulator of carcinogenesis. HAI-1 is expressed in polarized epithelial cells, which have the plasma membrane divided by tight junctions into an apical and a basolateral domain. In the present study we show that HAI-1 at steady-state is mainly located on the basolateral membrane of both Madin......-Darby canine kidney cells and mammary gland epithelial cells. After biosynthesis, HAI-1 is exocytosed mainly to the basolateral plasma membrane from where 15% of the HAI-1 molecules are proteolytically cleaved and released into the basolateral medium. The remaining membrane-associated HAI-1 is endocytosed...... and then recycles between the basolateral plasma membrane and endosomes for hours until it is transcytosed to the apical plasma membrane. Minor amounts of HAI-1 present at the apical plasma membrane are proteolytically cleaved and released into the apical medium. Full-length membrane-bound HAI-1 has a half...

  13. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  14. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  15. PS complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A view of the present PS complex taken at the end of 1972. The earth embankment covering the Ring is clearly visible; in the foreground are the North and South Experimental Halls; to the right is the East Hall, and to the left the Booster surface buildings. The West Hall is too far to the left to seen, and also invisible is the SPS being constructed.

  16. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  17. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  18. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  20. Complex silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study presents the results of investigations carried out on silumins with additions of Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo and W. The silumins containing Mg, Cu and Ni are well-known and commonly used in construction of machines and equipment.Design/methodology/approach: Additions of Cr, Mo and W have not been thoroughly investigated yet. They are considered a new family of innovative cast aluminium alloys.Findings: In Al-Si systems they form silicides, like Cr3Si, Mo3Si, W3Si and intermetallic phases of Al13Cr4Si4, Al12Mo, Al12W and AlWSi. The silicides crystallise in cubic lattice of parameters similar to aluminium and silicon.Research limitations/implications: Therefore they can act as crystallisation substrates and occur as separate phases. The examinations under the microscope and X-ray microanalysis of the linear and point distribution of elements confirmed the presence of the above mentioned phases. A combination of two elements, e.g. Cr and Mo, or Cr and W, was observed to cause the formation of complex silicide layers of Mo3Si and (Cr, Mo3Si, or Cr3Si as well as (W, Cr3Si.Originality/value: The presence of the silicides has been indicated as a possible source of the refinement of α(Al and β(Si phases. The precipitations of these phases and of the intermetallic phases favour a high degree of the silumins hardening. A characteristic feature is the fact that nucleation and crystallisation of the successive phases takes place at the phase boundaries formed between the previously precipitated phase and solid solution α. The studies carried out so far have indicated that in complex silumins at high temperatures crystallise the silicides and peritectic phases of Al12W, AlWSi, Al12Mo and Al13Cr4Si4. Phases α or β are the next ones to crystallise, followed by complex eutectic α + β +Al(Si, Cr, Mo, W, Fe. Further crystallise the phases of Mg2Si, Al3Ni and Al2Cu. The silumins presented here are characterised by high mechanical properties: Rp0

  1. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  2. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  3. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A.; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26) as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20). Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder. PMID:27631496

  4. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  5. 大鼠杏仁体基底外侧核中含D2受体的γ-氨基丁酸神经元受多巴胺能末梢支配%γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID NEURONS BEARING D2 RECEPTORS ARE INNERVATED BY DOPAMINERGIC TERMINALS IN THE BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF RAT AMYGDALA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 彭裕文; 沈馨亚; 大谷修; 西条 寿夫; 小野 武年

    2005-01-01

    Although both dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in the amygdala (AM) are involved in schizophrenia which is generally treated by administration of D2 receptor antagonists, it is not clear what is the collocation relationship between GABA and D2 receptors and what are the synaptic relationships between the dopaminergic terminals and GABAergic neurons in AM. Present study examined the coexistence of GABA and D2 receptors and synapses formed between dopaminergic terminals and GABAergic neurons in a key nucleus, the basolateral nucleus (BL), of rat AM by means of double labeling immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). CLSM revealed that the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunolabeled GABAergic neurons were exclusively immunoreactive (IR) to D2 receptors. This indicates that all of the GABAergic interneurons bear D2receptors. IEM revealed that 45% of the DA synapses ( n = 980) were formed between the DA-IR terminals and GAD-IR neurons, and 55% of that formed between DA-IR terminals and unlabeled neuronal elements. In the DA-GABA synapses, the DA-IR terminals targeted either directly (36%) or indirectly (by serial synapse, 9% ) on GAD-IR dendritic structures. Furthermore, the direct DA-GABA synapses could be classified into single ( 16% ) , convergent ( 14% ) and axoaxonic (6%) types according to the number of synapses and the synaptic compositions. In the indirect case, the connection was a synaptic complex, in which a DA-IR terminal formed a synapse on another terminal that form the synapse on the GAD-IR dendrite. In the synapses of DA-unlabeled neuronal elements, the DA-IR terminals targeted on unlabeled perikarya (4%), dendrites (42%), and axons or terminals (9%). Interestingly, all of the DA synapses were exclusively symmetric. The present results suggest that D2 receptor antagonists might act on GABAergic neurons to weaken the DA neurotransmission in AM for clinical effects in

  6. Connections of the amygdaloid structures integrating olfactory and vomeronasal information in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cadiz Moretti, Bernardita Josr

    2015-01-01

    La amígdala es considerada una estructura clave en el aprendizaje emocional asociativo en roedores. La mayor parte de los estudios sobre aprendizaje emocional se han centrado en paradigmas de aprendizaje aversivo, cuando al menos, parte de la amígdala es también relevante en el procesamiento de estímulos reforzantes, particularmente estímulos de naturaleza química (olores y feromonas), dado que los roedores son animales macrosmáticos. La amígala es primer relevo telencefalico en donde converg...

  7. Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Lin Zhao; Guang Wen Zhao; Hou Zhong Li; Xu Dong Yang; Yi Yan Wu; Feng Lin; Li Xin Guan; Feng Guo Zhai; Jia Qi Liu; Chae Ha Yang; Sang Chan Kim; Kee Won Kim; Rong Jie Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men) attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3 g kg−1day−1 of ethanol (20%, w/v) or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethan...

  8. Ketogenic diet protects against epileptogenesis as well as neuronal loss in amygdaloid-kindling seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Man-Man; Wen, Shu-Qun; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Ketogenic diets (KD) have shown beneficial effects in terms of anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic properties in several experimental models. However, few studies have investigated the consequences of KD with regards to the anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects in kindling-induced seizures. Here, postnatal day 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of two experimental diets for 4 weeks: (a) a 'classic' 4:1 KD; and (b) a normal regular rodent chow diet (ND). Fully-kindled seizures were achieved by daily electrical stimulation in the amygdala. Seizure stage and after-discharge duration (ADD) were assessed daily. The after-discharge threshold (ADT) was measured every 5 days. The effects of the two diets on neuronal loss were observed before kindling and 20 days after stimulation by Nissl staining. We found that the progression of seizure stage and ADD was delayed by KD. KD prevented the ADT decrease on day 5. The incidence of generalized seizures was lower in the KD group compared to the ND group. The neuronal density was decreased in the ipsilateral hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 area, as well as the contralateral CA1 area before kindling in the KD group. However, KD prevented neuronal loss in the ipsilateral CA1 area 20 days after stimulation. Our data suggest that KD can protect against epileptogenesis by preventing both after-discharge generation and propagation in kindling seizures. In addition, KD also possesses a neuroprotective function during kindling although it changes hippocampal development in early life.

  9. Attenuated Cardiovascular, Neuroendocrine, and Behavioral Responses After a Single Footshock in Central Amygdaloid Lesioned Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Bohus, B.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of bilateral electrolytical CEA lesioning on behavioral, cardiovascular and neuroendocrine changes has been studied in male Wistar rats before, during and shortly after a brief aversive stimulus of an unavoidable footshock. Blood samples were withdrawn via a permanent heart catheter. Lesi

  10. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  11. Second Quantized Kolmogorov Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Caroline; Vedral, Vlatko; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of its shortest description. We define a second quantised Kolmogorov complexity where the length of a description is defined to be the average length of its superposition. We discuss this complexity's basic properties. We define the corresponding prefix complexity and show that the inequalities obeyed by this prefix complexity are also obeyed by von Neumann entropy.

  12. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  13. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  14. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  15. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Complexity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parwani, R R

    2002-01-01

    This article summarises a Web-book on "Complexity" that was developed to introduce undergraduate students to interesting complex systems in the biological, physical and social sciences, and the common tools, principles and concepts used for their study.

  17. Curve complexes are rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    Any quasi-isometry of the complex of curves is bounded distance from a simplicial automorphism. As a consequence, the quasi-isometry type of the curve complex determines the homeomorphism type of the surface.

  18. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  19. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  20. The role of technical, biological, and pharmacological factors in the laboratory evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs. V. Lack of seasonal influences on amygdala kindling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlaź, P; Löscher, W

    1993-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that seizure models may be affected by seasonal rhythms, even under controlled environmental conditions. In the present experiments in rats with chronically implanted electrodes in the basolateral amygdala, kindling was initiated at different seasons of the year over a period of 3 years. In a total of 109 animals, the following parameters were determined: the threshold for induction of amygdaloid afterdischarges prior to kindling (pre-kindling ADT), the number of daily amygdaloid stimulations to fully kindled (stage 5) seizures, and the post-kindling ADT. No seasonal influences were found with respect to rate of kindling development and post-kindling ADT. In contrast, pre-kindling ADTs appeared to be higher in spring than in other seasons, which, however, could not be reproduced in another spring. Thus, the data do not indicate that seasonal rhythms affect the kindling model of epilepsy.

  1. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    OpenAIRE

    Terrence Deacon; Spyridon Koutroufinis

    2014-01-01

    We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system c...

  2. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  3. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  4. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  5. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  6. Complexity Through Nonextensivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali

    2001-01-01

    The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...

  7. Quantum State Complexity Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The complexity measures role has become much clearer in recent years as they help to better understand complex systems dynamical behavior. Even though the large number of measures proposed to tackle this issue for classical systems, for quantum systems only Kolmogorov's algorithm complexity extensions have been proposed. Hence, the present approach makes use of a new and mathematically well-established complexity measure for classical systems and extends it to assess quantum states complexity as well. Then the proposed extension is applied to a mixed state constructed with a W-state together with controlled white noise, showing a convex behavior of quantum state complexity. Thus, this reinforces the differences from previous known quantum complexities.

  8. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  9. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  10. Two giant stellar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  11. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  12. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  13. How evolution guides complexity

    OpenAIRE

    LARRY S. YAEGER

    2009-01-01

    Long-standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information-theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that evolution always guides complexity change, just n...

  14. Quantum Computational Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Watrous, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  15. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  16. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  17. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  18. MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY/ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BAR-YAM

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the role of scale dependence of entropy/complexity and its relationship to component interdependence. The complexity as a function of scale of observation is expressed in terms of subsystem entropies for a system having a description in terms of variables that have the same a priori scale. The sum of the complexity over all scales is the same for any system with the same number of underlying degrees of freedom (variables), even though the complexity at specific scales differs due t...

  19. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  20. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec

  1. Complexity dimensions and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989] foun

  2. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  3. The complexity of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. (Hennie Lótter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems is presented. As a result of the enormous expansion in scientific disciplines, and the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what is regarded as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can supply an answer to the question why the sciences have been so successful in solving growing numbers of problems and correcting their own mistakes. I utilise components of complexity theory to explain and interpret science as a complex system. I first explain the concept of complexity in ordinary language. The explanation of science as a complex system starts with a definition of the basic rules guiding the behaviour of science as a complex system. Next, I indicate how various sciences have resulted through the implementation of these rules in the study of a specific aspect of reality. The explanation of the growth of science through evolutionary adaptation and learning forms the core o f the article.

  4. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Rudi

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes. PMID:17768523

  5. Complexity and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  6. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  7. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  8. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  9. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  10. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  11. [Complexity: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  12. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Immunology and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn [Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University at Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  13. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. → Adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. → The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. → AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. → AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl-/HCO3- exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H+) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells.

  14. Reset Complexity of Ideal Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Maslennikova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We present a new characteristic of a regular ideal language called reset complexity. We find some bounds on the reset complexity in terms of the state complexity of a given language. We also compare the reset complexity and the state complexity for languages related to slowly synchronizing automata and study uniqueness question for automata yielding the minimum of reset complexity.

  15. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  16. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  17. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  18. Complex tunneling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    Tunneling dynamics and tunneling trajectories are modeled exactly by complex-extended Hamilton-Jacobi formulation in this paper. It is found that the wave-like properties of tunneling particles, such as reflection, refraction, and transmission resonance, can be identified and explained in terms of particle's motion in complex space with the tunneling time defined as the usual sense of classical time. Following the complex trajectories determined by the complex Hamilton equations of motion, we can connect classical trajectories smoothly with tunneling trajectories using position and velocity continuity at the interface of the media, locate the particle's position at any instant, and find the time spent by a particle within the potential. A microscopic tunneling model is also developed to explain the probabilistic nature why a particle with the same incident conditions sometimes transmits the potential and sometimes is reflected from the potential.

  19. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.

  20. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  1. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  2. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  3. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  4. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  5. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  6. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    , and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  7. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  8. Beyond complex Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wosiek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A simple integral relation between a complex weight and the corresponding positive distribution is derived by introducing a second complex variable. Together with the positivity and normalizability conditions, this sum rule allows to construct explicitly equivalent pairs of distributions in simple cases. In particular the well known solution for a complex gaussian distribution is generalized to an arbitrary complex slope. This opens a possibility of positive representation of Feynman path integrals directly in the Minkowski time. Such construction is then explicitly carried through in the second part of this presentation. The continuum limit of the new representation exists only if some of the additional couplings tend to infinity and are tuned in a specific way. The approach is then successfully applied to three quantum mechanical examples including a particle in a constant magnetic field -- a simplest prototype of a Wilson line. Further generalizations are shortly discussed and an amusing interpretation of ...

  9. Algorithmic Problem Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    People solve different problems and know that some of them are simple, some are complex and some insoluble. The main goal of this work is to develop a mathematical theory of algorithmic complexity for problems. This theory is aimed at determination of computer abilities in solving different problems and estimation of resources that computers need to do this. Here we build the part of this theory related to static measures of algorithms. At first, we consider problems for finite words and stud...

  10. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  11. Urban geography and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  12. NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX BIOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole mediators of transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPCs have a life cycle: they assemble, disassemble, turn over and age. The molecular mechanisms governing these different vital steps are beginning to emerge, suggesting key roles for the core structural scaffold of the NPC and auxiliary factors in the assembly of this large macromolecular complex, and connections between NPC maintenance, NPC turnover, and ageing of the cell.

  13. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  14. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  15. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  16. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  17. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  18. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  19. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  20. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals [1]. In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity [2] and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H2N-NH-CS-NH2) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act a bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of 99Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones. (orig.)

  1. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grases, F.; Genestar, C.

    1985-01-01

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals (1). In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity (2) and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H/sub 2/N-NH-CS-NH/sub 2/) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act as bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of /sup 99/Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones.

  2. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during......-creation, but is politically driven. Practical implications – The study proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity moderated by contract duration. These stages may help managers of public agencies to identify the current procurement level and the contractual...... and relational challenges they need to master when facing higher levels of performance and infrastructural complexity. Originality/value – The study adds to the limited empirical and conceptual understanding on the nature of long-term public-private interactions in PCP. It contributes through a rare focus...

  3. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  4. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  5. Nonergodic complexity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  6. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2011-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits whose learning goal is to minimize a distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders can be defined over any field and only real-valued linear autoencoder have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the $L_2$ norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalizatio...

  7. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  8. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  9. Complex Aperture Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Owladeghaffari, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    A complex network approach on a rough fracture is developed. In this manner, some hidden metric spaces (similarity measurements) between apertures profiles are set up and a general evolutionary network in two directions (in parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction) is constructed. Evaluation of the emerged network shows the connectivity degree (distribution) of network, after a transition step; fall in to the stable states which are coincided with the Gaussian distribution. Based on this event and real observations of the complex network changes, an algorithm (COmplex Networks on Apertures: CONA) is proposed in which evolving of a network is accomplished using preferential detachments and attachments of edges (based on a competition and game manner) while the number of nodes is fixed. Also, evolving of clustering coefficients and number of edges display similar patterns as well as are appeared in shear stress, hydraulic conductivity and dilation changes, which can be engaged to estimate shear strengt...

  10. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  11. Synchronization in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alex; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Kurths, Jurgen; Moreno, Yamir; Zhou, Changsong

    2008-12-01

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understanding synchronization phenomena in natural systems now take advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also take an overview of the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying patterns of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  12. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  13. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...

  14. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Corneillie, Todd M.; Xu, Jide

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  15. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  16. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  17. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    the thesis that the aforesaid holds a fortiori for the living cell: Much of the essence of the live state depends more on the manner in which the molecules are organised than on the properties of single molecules. This is due to the phenomenon of 'Complexity'. BioComplexity is defined here as the phenomenon...... that the behaviour of two functionally interacting biological components (molecules, protein domains, pathways, organelles) differs from the behaviour these components would exhibit in isolation from one another, where the difference should be essential for the maintenance and growth of the living state, For a true...

  18. Complexity, time and music

    OpenAIRE

    JEAN PIERRE BOON

    2009-01-01

    The concept of complexity as considered in terms of its algorithmic definition proposed by G.J. Chaitin and A.N. Kolmogorov is revisited for the dynamical complexity of music. When music pieces are cast in the form of time series of pitch variations, concepts of dynamical systems theory can be used to define new quantities such as the {\\em dimensionality} as a measure of the {\\em global temporal dynamics} of a music piece, and the Shanon {\\em entropy} as an evaluation of its {\\em local dynami...

  19. Introduction to complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, H A

    2003-01-01

    Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi

  20. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  1. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  2. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  3. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  4. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  5. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  6. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  7. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective modulari...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  8. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  9. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  10. Debating complexity in modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    Complexity in modeling would seem to be an issue of universal importance throughout the geosciences, perhaps throughout all science, if the debate last year among groundwater modelers is any indication. During the discussion the following questions and observations made up the heart of the debate.

  11. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  12. The Complexity of Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾燕梅

    2007-01-01

    Being as one figurative form of language, metaphor plays the most complicated role to make language colorful and vivid.Demonstrating the types and the features of metaphor, this article will focus on the point that metaphor is a complex language phenomenon heavily loaded with the factor of culture.

  13. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  14. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  15. Aquaporins in complex tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M;

    1998-01-01

    Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar conj......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....

  16. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  17. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  18. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy...

  19. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell proteins...

  20. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer;

    to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  1. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...

  2. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  3. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  4. Power grid complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Shengwei; Cao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory and applies them to power systems. It examines four blackout models based on SOC theory and studies the SOC of power systems at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels.

  5. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any ...

  6. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  7. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  8. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  9. Complex distal humerus trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Brouwer

    2012-01-01

    De ingewikkelde bot-anatomie van de distale humerus (einde van het opperarmbeen) maakt behandeling van fracturen uitdagend. Of de elleboog na genezing weer normaal kan worden gebruikt, hangt af van de mate waarin de anatomische verbanden worden hersteld. Het is belangrijk complexe fractuurtypes van

  10. Dynamic and topological complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turalska, Malgorzata; Geneston, Elvis; Grigolini, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Cooperative phenomena in complex networks are expected to display unusual characteristics, associated with the peculiar topology of these systems. In this context we study networks of interacting stochastic two-state units as a model of cooperative decision making. Each unit in isolation generates a Poisson process with rate g. We show that when the cooperation is introduced, the decision-making process becomes intermittent. The decision-time distribution density characterized by inverse power-law behavior is defined as a dynamic complexity. Further, the onset of intermittency, expressed in terms of the coupling parameter K, is used as a measure of dynamic efficiency of investigated topologies. We find that the dynamic complexity emerges from regular and small-world topologies. In contrast, both random and scale-free networks correspond to fast transition into exponential decision-time distribution. This property is accompanied by high dynamic efficiency of the decision-making process. Our results indicate that complex dynamical processes occurring on networks could be related to relatively simple topologies.

  11. KAMPOR MEMORIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Krušec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kampor Memorial Complex, which was built in 1953 to a design by architect Edvard Ravnikar, is situated on the site of a former cemetery, where between 1942 and 1943 the Italians buried the prisoners who died in the concentration camp on the Island of Rab. Along with the description of the architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, the purpose of the paper is to show the most significant models and motivations influencing this particular architectural creation by Ravnikar. The analysis of spatial sequences of the memorial complex served as a basis to study the architectural concept of the cemetery, as described in the paper. The layout of the cemetery is longitudinal. The transversal terraces formulating the lines of graves are longitudinally cut in the middle by a paved path representing the central communication axis of the memorial complex. The path is additionally defined by a sequence of three stone obelisks of different heights, situated along the path. Along the path, three major programmatic emphases can be identified: the entrance vestibule, the platform with the great obelisk and a water tank, and the area below the vaulted structure in stone, also called the Museum. The paper describes the models and influences underlying the creation of Ravnikar's architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, particularly Le Corbusier's influence on Ravnikar in the 1940's and the 1950's. In many ways, Ravnikar's stay in Paris and work with Le Corbusier in 1938 round off his basic architectural education; nevertheless, he remained rooted in the classical architectural elements that he obtained in his studies, particularly in the seminar by Jože Plečnik.

  12. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  13. Stable generalized complex structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, Gil R

    2015-01-01

    A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.

  14. Sensitivity of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Angulo, Marco Tulio; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity (i.e. dynamic response) of complex networked systems has not been well understood, making difficult to predict whether new macroscopic dynamic behavior will emerge even if we know exactly how individual nodes behave and how they are coupled. Here we build a framework to quantify the sensitivity of complex networked system of coupled dynamic units. We characterize necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of new macroscopic dynamic behavior in the thermodynamic limit. We prove that these conditions are satisfied only for architectures with power-law degree distributions. Surprisingly, we find that highly connected nodes (i.e. hubs) only dominate the sensitivity of the network up to certain critical frequency.

  15. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction......This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and......, finally, by presenting the Cynefin Framework for Sense-Making as a tool of explicatory potential that has already shown its usefulness in several contexts. I further emphasize linking the two concepts into a common and, hopefully, useful concept. Furthermore, I argue that a resilient system is not merely...

  16. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  17. The Complexity of Coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Majumdar, Rupak

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of generating a test sequence that achieves maximal coverage for a reactive system under test. We formulate the problem as a repeated game between the tester and the system, where the system state space is partitioned according to some coverage criterion and the objective of the tester is to maximize the set of partitions (or coverage goals) visited during the game. We show the complexity of the maximal coverage problem for non-deterministic systems is PSPACE-complete, but is NP-complete for deterministic systems. For the special case of non-deterministic systems with a re-initializing ``reset'' action, which represent running a new test input on a re-initialized system, we show that the complexity is again co-NP-complete. Our proof technique for reset games uses randomized testing strategies that circumvent the exponentially large memory requirement in the deterministic case.

  18. Minimum Complexity Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing field of compressed sensing is founded on the fact that if a signal is 'simple' and has some 'structure', then it can be reconstructed accurately with far fewer samples than its ambient dimension. Many different plausible structures have been explored in this field, ranging from sparsity to low-rankness and to finite rate of innovation. However, there are important abstract questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, what are the general abstract meanings of 'structure' and 'simplicity'? Do there exist universal algorithms for recovering such simple structured objects from fewer samples than their ambient dimension? In this paper, we aim to address these two questions. Using algorithmic information theory tools such as Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a unified method of describing 'simplicity' and 'structure'. We then explore the performance of an algorithm motivated by Ocam's Razor (called MCP for minimum complexity pursuit) and show that it requires $O(k\\log n)$ number of samples...

  19. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  20. Gold Thione Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caddeo; Vanesa Fernández-Moreira; Massimiliano Arca; Antonio Laguna; Vito Lippolis; M. Concepción Gimeno

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of the ligand Et4todit (4,5,6,7-Tetrathiocino-[1,2-b:3,4-b']-diimidazolyl-1,3,8,10-tetraethyl-2,9-dithione) with gold complexes leads to the dinuclear gold(I) complexes [{Au(C6F5)}2(Et4todit)] and [Au(Et4todit)]2(OTf)2, which do not contain any gold-gold interactions, or to the gold(III) derivative [{Au(C6F5)3}2(Et4todit)]. The crystal structures have been established by X-ray diffraction studies and show that the gold centers coordinate to the sulfur atoms of the imidazoline-2-t...

  1. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  2. Homogeneous complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Leszek; Burda, Zdzisław; Wacław, Bartłomiej

    2006-07-01

    We discuss various ensembles of homogeneous complex networks and a Monte-Carlo method of generating graphs from these ensembles. The method is quite general and can be applied to simulate micro-canonical, canonical or grand-canonical ensembles for systems with various statistical weights. It can be used to construct homogeneous networks with desired properties, or to construct a non-trivial scoring function for problems of advanced motif searching.

  3. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  4. The Complex Information Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Taborsky

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.

  5. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    OpenAIRE

    Feinstein C. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjec...

  6. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Talha Khan; Rose Amy Franco

    2014-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continu...

  7. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Castro Ferreira; Paulo Tuma Júnior; Viviane Fernandes de Carvalho; Fábio Kamamoto

    2006-01-01

    Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treat...

  8. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, P; M. Paczuski

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpile...

  9. Topics in complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Yee Jiun

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Fundamental laws of physics, although successful in explaining many phenomena observed in nature and society, cannot account for the behaviour of complex, non-Hamiltonian systems. Much effort has been devoted to better understanding the topological properties of these systems. Neither ordered nor disordered, these systems of high variability are found in many areas of science. Studies on sand...

  10. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  11. The Tuberous Sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.; Gomez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is associated with hamartoma formation in multiple organ systems. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. Progress over the past 15 years has demonstrated that the TSC1 or TSC2 encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mTOR signaling cascade and serv...

  12. NDT for Complex Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Non-destructive testing of structures composed of various types of materials is performed using a variety of methods. Most commonly, electromagnetic and acoustic methods are used to perform this task. Advances in computer software and electro-mechanical hardware have resulted in semi-automated systems for performing simple low-cost in-situ concrete testing. These systems are designed to be operated by anyone who can read a manual and push the right buttons. Although useful in many circumstances, we ask: "What happens when concrete structures are not simple and are too complex to be analyzed by these semi-automated systems and, most importantly, by minimally trained operators?" Many infrastructure projects are boldly pushing the limit of traditional engineering design. As structures become more complex, the methods and techniques used to evaluate these structures must also evolve. A first step towards adapting geophysical methods to evaluate complex structures is to develop pre-investigation conceptual models of possible responses that structures will have to available geophysical methods. This approach is important for designing the geometry and data acquisition parameters necessary for achieving the desired results. Examples of case by case assessments of the application of GPR to concrete investigations are examined. These include complex concrete wall structures, soil tunnel structures, and airport runways. HGI's adaption of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods for assessing the substrate of a heavily reinforced concrete structure up to seven feet thick is reviewed. A range of GPR antenna frequencies were used to image the concrete and the underlying material. Time and frequency domain GPR analyses where used in the assessment. A multi-channel seismic survey using a roll-along data collection technique was used to assess the resonant frequency of the concrete structure, the nature of the underlying medium, and behavior of the structural system.

  13. Complex Game Design Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanasamy, Viknashvaran; Wong, Kok Wai; Rai, Shri; Chiou, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper looks at the game design and engineering approach to model the game design. The game modeling framework discussed in this paper could be a systematic alternative for implementing in the game engine architecture. The suggested game modeling framework incorporates structural game component, temporal game component and boundary game component frameworks. It is suitable to model most complex games and game engines.

  14. ECONOMICS AND COMPLEXITY

    OpenAIRE

    ALAN KIRMAN

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a view of the economy as a complex system with heterogeneous interacting agents who collectively organize themselves to generate aggregate phenomena which cannot be regarded as the behavior of some average or representative individual. There is an essential difference between the aggregate and the individual and such phenomena as bubbles and crashes, herd behavior, the transmission of information and the organization of trade are better modeled in the sort of framework sug...

  15. Complex distal humerus trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, G.; Jupiter, J.B.; Kloen, P.; Ring, D.C.; Brouwer, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    De ingewikkelde bot-anatomie van de distale humerus (einde van het opperarmbeen) maakt behandeling van fracturen uitdagend. Of de elleboog na genezing weer normaal kan worden gebruikt, hangt af van de mate waarin de anatomische verbanden worden hersteld. Het is belangrijk complexe fractuurtypes van elkaar te onderscheiden. Virtuele driedimensionale beeldvorming is belangrijk voor de herkenning van de breuk, de planning van de behandeling en het vergelijken van resultaten. Kim Brouwer constate...

  16. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nanofluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunnelling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powd...

  17. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  18. Complexity in `simple' metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bruno; Ashcroft, Neil W.

    2008-03-01

    In electronic and structural terms, the light alkalis have long been regarded as `simple systems', at least under ordinary conditions. However, when compressed they exhibit unforeseen complexity; the melting curve of sodium, for example, has a striking maximum, falling to near room temperature melting where a complex structure (CI16) is found, this being in the cubic class but with 16 atoms per unit cell [1,2]. The light alkalis have been extensively studied using ab initio methods with standard assumptions of transferability made for the key pseudopotential input information, largely atomic based. Lacking still, however, is a somewhat more intuitive and physical understanding of the developments in electronic structure with progressive increase in density. In the present work, the problem is treated with non-linear response theory and non-overlapping pseudopotentials, and the structural complexity traced to effective ion-ion interactions with features that both at short range and long display competing state dependence. [1] Gregoryanz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185502 (2005) [2] McMahon et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 35, 943 (2006)

  19. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  20. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  1. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  2. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  3. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  4. Nonlocality and communication complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Massar, Serge; de Wolf, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Quantum information processing is the emerging field that defines and realizes computing devices that make use of quantum mechanical principles such as the superposition principle, entanglement, and interference. Until recently the common notion of computing was based on classical mechanics and did not take into account all the possibilities that physically realizable computing devices offer in principle. The field gained momentum after Shor developed an efficient algorithm for factoring numbers, demonstrating the potential computing powers that quantum computing devices can unleash. In this review the information counterpart of computing is studied. It was realized early on by Holevo that quantum bits, the quantum mechanical counterpart of classical bits, cannot be used for efficient transformation of information in the sense that arbitrary k -bit messages cannot be compressed into messages of k-1 qubits. The abstract form of the distributed computing setting is called communication complexity. It studies the amount of information, in terms of bits or in our case qubits, that two spatially separated computing devices need to exchange in order to perform some computational task. Surprisingly, quantum mechanics can be used to obtain dramatic advantages for such tasks. The area of quantum communication complexity is reviewed and it is shown how it connects the foundational physics questions regarding nonlocality with those of communication complexity studied in theoretical computer science. The first examples exhibiting the advantage of the use of qubits in distributed information-processing tasks were based on nonlocality tests. However, by now the field has produced strong and interesting quantum protocols and algorithms of its own that demonstrate that entanglement, although it cannot be used to replace communication, can be used to reduce the communication exponentially. In turn, these new advances yield a new outlook on the foundations of physics and could even

  5. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  6. Complex-valued autoencoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-09-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.

  7. Sensemaking: a complexity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our intent was to provide a methodological overview of the primary data collection process in support of the other articles in this special issue. We documented and illustrated the use of a data collection and analysis suite, SenseMaker, that was designed to collect and work with narrative fragments. The approach presented adds a new and inherently mixed tool to the mixed methods toolbox. Despite its novelty and potential utility, little has been written in the academic literature on the application of SenseMaker to complex problems. To the best of our knowledge, the approach has not been used in relation to climate change or climate change adaptation and has not been presented in the mixed methods literature. We sought to contribute to filling this gap through describing the approach used to generate the data that underpin the articles in this special feature. Our purpose was to illustrate some of the potential and most notable challenges of using the SenseMaker data collection and analysis process in a complex domain through examining adaptation to climate change. Our overview was not exhaustive but rather sought to highlight capabilities and challenges through examining experiences of adaptation from a stages of change perspective. SenseMaker provides a remarkably powerful tool for the capture of micronarratives of complex phenomena such as climate change. The capacity to have respondents interpret, i.e., make sense of, their own narratives is an important innovation that provides one plausible solution to the problem of analysts coding narratives. Analytically, however, SenseMaker is relatively weak for those seeking strong statistical support for analyses and provides no capability for analyzing the narratives themselves.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  9. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method, the ....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  10. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  11. STUDYING COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Holland

    2006-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  12. Gold phosphide complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of gold complexes with five group-element donor ligands contain tertiary phosphines, although compounds with amine, arsine or stibine ligands are also known. Although phosphide ligands, which are formed by deprotonation of non-tertiary phosphines, are closely related to the former, they have been employed to a lesser extent, mainly due to their lower stability. Thus, the chemistry of phosphido-bridged derivatives of the main group elements1-3 or transition metals4-6 has been...

  13. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  14. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...

  15. Characterizing biomaterial complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Clifton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials research will always require a range of techniques to examine structure and function on a range of length scales and in a range of settings. Neutron scattering provides a unique way of disentangling the molecular and structural complexity of biomaterials through study of the constituent components. We examine how the technique has been used to study surface immobilized proteins and lipid films, floating lipid bilayers as mimics of in vitro planar membranes, and formation of fibres from solution by insects and spiders.

  16. Ventricular premature complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular premature complexes are fairly common heart rhythm disturbances. They occur in patients of all age groups. Sometimes the registration of electrocardiogram is ample for the diagnosis.The difficulty lies in determining the causes of ventricular arrhythmia. The detailed examination is needed for verification of the diagnosis and risk stratification: a Holter monitoring, laboratory tests, a heart magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study. This results can significantly change further tactics of patient management.It is necessary to make a deliberate decision in favor of one or another treatment after revealing the causes.

  17. Complex and Unpredictable Cardano

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-01-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers. The paper is dedicated to Giuseppe Castagnoli on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Back in the early 1990s, Giuseppe instigated a series of meetings at Villa Gualino, in Torino, which brought together few scattered individuals interested in the physics of computation. By doing so he effectively created and consolidated a vibrant and friendly community of researchers devoted to quantum information science. Many thanks for that!

  18. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological ...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus.......Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...

  19. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU Shing-Tung

    2008-01-01

    @@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  20. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)

    2008-01-01

    Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  1. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  2. The authority of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable.

  3. The Orpheus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T

    2000-04-01

    This paper examines the possible psychological implications of two adaptations of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, both of which were completed in 1997. The first is by a man: 'Deconstructing Harry', a film by Woody Allen. The second is by a woman: 'Eurydice in the Underworld', a short story written by Kathy Acker in the last year of her life. The paper argues that there are only four 'necessary events' in the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. It defines the sequence of these events as a 'mythic pattern' that represents the experience of loss, unconscious yearning, depression, and psychological inflation. The film is examined as an expression of an 'Orpheus complex', the short story as an expression of an 'Eurydice complex'. The paper suggests a possible reason for the persistence of interest in the myth throughout the twentieth century. Although it notes that women appear to find it easier to free themselves from identification with the mythic pattern, it also provides reasons for thinking that men may be about to do the same.

  4. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  5. Organometallic Complexes of Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Santanu; Bekyarova, Elena; Haddon, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the organometallic hexahapto complexation of chromium with graphene, graphite and carbon nanotubes. All of these extended periodic pi-electron systems exhibit some degree of reactivity toward the reagents CrCO)6 and (eta6-benzene)Cr(CO)3, and we are able to demonstrate the formation of (eta6-rene)Cr(CO)3 or (eta6-arene)2Cr, where arene = single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), exfoliated graphene (XG), epitaxial graphene (EG) and highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We find that the SWNTs are the least reactive presumably as a result of the effect of curvature on the formation of the hexahapto bond; in the case of HOPG, (eta6-HOPG)Cr(CO)3 was isolated while the exfoliated graphene samples were found to give both (eta6-graphene)2Cr, and (eta6-graphene)Cr(CO)3 structures. We report simple and efficient routes for the mild decomplexation of the graphene-chromium complexes which appears to restore the original pristine graphene state. This study represents the first example of the use of graph...

  6. The authority of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable. PMID:11440059

  7. Complex Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  8. Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinqing

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.

  9. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra

    2012-08-01

    Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.

  10. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  11. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  12. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANHong-Yi; JIANGNian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  13. Uranium nucleophilic carbene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only stable f-metal carbene complexes (excluding NHC) metals f present R2C2- groups having one or two phosphorus atoms in the central carbon in alpha position. The objective of this work was to develop the chemistry of carbenes for uranium (metal 5f) with the di-anion C{Ph2P(=S)}22- (SCS2-) to extend the organometallic chemistry of this element in its various oxidation states (+3-+6), and to reveal the influence of the 5f orbitals on the nature and reactivity of the double bond C=U. We first isolated the reactants M(SCHS) (M = Li and K) and demonstrated the role of the cation M+ on the evolution of the di-anion M2SCS (M = Li, K, Tl) which is transformed into LiSCHS in THF or into product of intramolecular cyclization K2[C(PhPS)2(C6H4)]. We have developed the necessary conditions mono-, bis- and tris-carbene directly from the di-anion SCS2- and UCl4, as the precursor used in uranium chemistry. The protonolysis reactions of amides compounds (U-NEt2) by the neutral ligand SCH2S were also studied. The compounds [Li(THF)]2[U(SCS)Cl3] and [U(SCS)Cl2(THF)2] were then used to prepare a variety of cyclopentadienyl and mono-cyclo-octa-tetra-enyliques uranium(IV) carbene compounds of the DFT analysis of compounds [M(SCS)Cl2(py)2] and [M(Cp)2(SCS)] (M = U, Zr) reveals the strong polarization of the M=C double bond, provides information on the nature of the σ and π interactions in this binding, and shows the important role of f orbitals. The influence of ancillary ligands on the M=C bond is revealed by examining the effects of replacing Cl- ligands and pyridine by C5H5- groups. Mulliken and NBO analyzes show that U=C bond, unlike the Zr=C bond, is not affected by the change in environment of the metal center. While the oxidation tests of carbene complexes of U(IV) were disappointing, the first carbene complex of uranium (VI), [UO2(SCS)(THF)2], was isolated with the uranyl ion UO22+. The reactions of compounds UO2X2 (X = I, OTf) with anions SCS2- and SCHS- provide the

  14. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CPRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - CRPS Email to a friend * ... DESCRIPTION Formerly Known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain condition ...

  15. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  16. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  17. Halonickel(I) complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Rubio, Manuel; Royo Gracia, Pascual; Sáez Sáez, Isabel María; Arcas, Aurelia

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of nickel(II) halides with NaBH4 in the presence of different ligands, L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3, has been studied. With a molar ratio L/Ni=3, new complexes NiX(SbPh3)3, X=Cl, Br, I, were obtained. With a molar ratio L/Ni=2, dimeric species [NiXL2]2, X=Cl, Br, I; L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3, were isolated. They are unstable and decompose easily in the solid and rapidly in solution, so that pure samples were only identified for X=Cl, L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3; X=Br, L=PPh3 and X=I, L=PPh3. With a...

  18. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  19. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  20. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  1. Nasal palatal: segment complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Romera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the nature of a segment which is always problematical —the palatal nasal. Phonetic results found in the acoustic, perceptive and articulate spheres, showing the different features of this nasal with regards to others, are the point of departure for a brief reflection on the phonological nature of this segment, taking into account the feature geometry and the articulatory phonology. It concludes by considering the palatal nasal /?/ as a complex segment formed by /n+j/ and the imputation, to temporary effects, of a degree of major o minor assimilation and gestural overlapping during effective perception of /?/, of /n+j/ or of /n+i/.

  2. Complex Maxwell's equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.I.Arbab

    2013-01-01

    A unified complex model of Maxwell's equations is presented.The wave nature of the electromagnetic field vector is related to the temporal and spatial distributions and the circulation of charge and current densities.A new vacuum solution is obtained,and a new transformation under which Maxwell's equations are invariant is proposed.This transformation extends ordinary gauge transformation to include charge-current as well as scalar-vector potential.An electric dipole moment is found to be related to the magnetic charges,and Dirac's quantization is found to determine an uncertainty relation expressing the indeterminacy of electric and magnetic charges.We generalize Maxwell's equations to include longitudinal waves.A formal analogy between this formulation and Dirac's equation is also discussed.

  3. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  4. Complexity of Strong Implementability

    CERN Document Server

    Thielen, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding...

  5. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  6. Recent Advances in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the field of complex networks have been witnessed in the past few years. This paper reviews some important results in this direction of rapidly evolving research, with emphasis on the relationship between the dynamics and the topology of complex networks. Basic quantities and typical examples of various complex networks are described. Robustness of connectivity and epidemic dynamics in complex networks are evaluated.

  7. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a challenge to show how HE may benefit of thinking in complexity. For me thinking in complexity is a way of humanizing our scientific thinking. It asks for a reform of our thinking. The rethinking of com...

  8. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.

  9. Kolmogorov complexity as a language

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The notion of Kolmogorov complexity (=the minimal length of a program that generates some object) is often useful as a kind of language that allows us to reformulate some notions and therefore provide new intuition. In this survey we provide (with minimal comments) many different examples where notions and statements that involve Kolmogorov complexity are compared with their counterparts not involving complexity.

  10. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  11. FERM protein EPB41L5 is a novel member of the mammalian CRB-MPP5 polarity complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, I.; Sessa, A.; Hollander, A.I. den; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Belloni, V.; Arends, M.L.; Bivic, A. le; Cremers, F.P.M.; Broccoli, V.; Roepman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarity is induced and maintained by separation of the apical and basolateral domains through specialized cell-cell junctions. The Crumbs protein and its binding partners are involved in formation and stabilization of adherens junctions. In this study, we describe a novel component of the mamm

  12. Complexity, Information and Biological Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the widespread confusion about the concept and nature of complexity, information and biological organization, we look for some coordinated conceptual considerations corresponding to quantitative measures suitable to grasp the main characteristics of biological complexity. Quantitative measures of algorithmic complexity of supercomputers like Blue Gene/L are compared with the complexity of the brain. We show that both the computer and the brain have a more fundamental, dynamic complexity measure corresponding to the number of operations per second. Recent insights suggest that the origin of complexity may go back to simplicity at a deeper level, corresponding to algorithmic complexity. We point out that for physical systems Ashby’s Law, Kahre’s Law and causal closure of the physical exclude the generation of information, and since genetic information corresponds to instructions, we are faced with a controversy telling that the algorithmic complexity of physics is much lower than the instructions’ complexity of the human DNA: I_algorithmic(physics ~ 10^3 bit << I_instructions(DNA ~ 10^9 bit. Analyzing the genetic complexity we obtain that actually the genetic information corresponds to a deeper than algorithmic level of complexity, putting an even greater emphasis to the information paradox. We show that the resolution of the fundamental information paradox may lie either in the chemical evolution of inheritance in abiogenesis, or in the existence of an autonomous biological principle allowing the production of information beyond physics.

  13. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  14. Complexity of Formation in Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Shira; Myers, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the `complexity of formation' (arXiv:1509.07876, arXiv:1512.04993), i.e., the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions $d>2$, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case $d=2$, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  15. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  16. Complex emergencies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats.

  17. Sociality influences cultural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution.

  18. Complexity of Strong Implementability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Thielen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding length. Moreover, we show that strong implementability of a social choice function involving only a single selfish individual can be decided in polynomial time via linear programming.

  19. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Talha Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  20. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  1. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

  2. Spatiotemporal Imaging of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ellis Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE, to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical struc-ture in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity.

  3. ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.

  4. A New Complete Class Complexity Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vinay; Bhattacherjee, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Software complexity metrics is essential for minimizing the cost of software maintenance. Package level and System level complexity cannot be measured without class level complexity. This research addresses the class complexity metrics. This paper studies the existing class complexity metrics and proposes a new class complexity metric CCC (Complete class complexity metric). The CCC metric is then analytically evaluated by Weyuker's property.

  5. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  6. Report: Genetics of complex diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOTULSKY Arno G.

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  7. On the interaction meteor complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchl, J.

    An approach to the problem of a meteoric complex called the interaction meteor complex (IMC) is applied and discussed, generalizing the idea of the interaction layer (Rajchl 1969). The role of an extended interaction of meteoroids is emphasized, both with planet surfaces and/or their satellites and with planet atmospheres, elastic or inelastic in form. The dissipation and related formative aspect are joined in one complex and compared with a topological compact. Examples of these types of interaction are presented.

  8. Forecasting in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Graves, W. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Complex nonlinear systems are typically characterized by many degrees of freedom, as well as interactions between the elements. Interesting examples can be found in the areas of earthquakes and finance. In these two systems, fat tails play an important role in the statistical dynamics. For earthquake systems, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency is applicable, whereas for daily returns for the securities in the financial markets are known to be characterized by leptokurtotic statistics in which the tails are power law. Very large fluctuations are present in both systems. In earthquake systems, one has the example of great earthquakes such as the M9.1, March 11, 2011 Tohoku event. In financial systems, one has the example of the market crash of October 19, 1987. Both were largely unexpected events that severely impacted the earth and financial systems systemically. Other examples include the M9.3 Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, and the Great Recession which began with the fall of Lehman Brothers investment bank on September 12, 2013. Forecasting the occurrence of these damaging events has great societal importance. In recent years, national funding agencies in a variety of countries have emphasized the importance of societal relevance in research, and in particular, the goal of improved forecasting technology. Previous work has shown that both earthquakes and financial crashes can be described by a common Landau-Ginzburg-type free energy model. These metastable systems are characterized by fat tail statistics near the classical spinodal. Correlations in these systems can grow and recede, but do not imply causation, a common source of misunderstanding. In both systems, a common set of techniques can be used to compute the probabilities of future earthquakes or crashes. In this talk, we describe the basic phenomenology of these systems and emphasize their similarities and differences. We also consider the problem of forecast validation and verification

  9. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  10. Complexity Intelligence and Cultural Coaching:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Inglis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the term complexity intelligence as a useful moniker to describe the reasoning ability, emotional capacity and social cognition necessary to meet the challenges of our prevailing life conditions. We suggest that, as a society and as individuals, we develop complexity intelligence as we navigate the gap between our current capacities and the capacities needed to respond to the next stage of complex challenges in our lives. We further suggest that it is possible to stimulate and support the emergence of complexity intelligence in a society, but we need a new form of social change agent - a cultural coach, to midwife its emergence.

  11. Cyclomatic Complexity: theme and variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Henderson-Sellers

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the "McCabe family" of measures for the decision/logic structure of a program, leads to an evaluation of extensions to modularization, nesting and, potentially, to object-oriented program structures. A comparison of rated, operating and essential complexities of programs suggests two new metrics: "inessential complexity" as a measure of unstructuredness and "product complexity" as a potential objective measure of structural complexity. Finally, nesting and abstraction levels are considered, especially as to how metrics from the "McCabe family" might be applied in an object-oriented systems development environment.

  12. COMPLEXITY and the QGCW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2014-06-01

    The following sections are included: * Seven definitions of Complexity * Complexity exists at all scales * AFB phenomena from Beethoven to the Superworld * UEEC events, from Galilei up to SM&B * The two asymptotic limits: History and Science * The basic points on the correlation between Complexity and Predictions * The lesson needed for the future * From Planck to Complexity * Consequences for LHC: the QGCW project * Conclusions * The Platonic Grand Unification * The Platonic Supersymmetry * Examples of UEEC events in the construction of the SM&B * Open Problems in Subnuclear Physics * The ten challenges of Subnuclear Physics * References

  13. Complex Constructivism: A Theoretical Model of Complexity and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Education has long been driven by its metaphors for teaching and learning. These metaphors have influenced both educational research and educational practice. Complexity and constructivism are two theories that provide functional and robust metaphors. Complexity provides a metaphor for the structure of myriad phenomena, while constructivism…

  14. Energy-complexity relations by structural complexity methods

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ricca

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we shall review some of the most recent developments and results on work on energy-complexity relations and, if time will allow it, we shall provide an analytical proof of eq. (3) below, a fundamental relation between energy and complexity established by numerical experiments.

  15. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svaasand, Eldrid

    2008-04-15

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nano fluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powder consisting of carbon particles with the shape of disks and cones and a small amount of amorphous carbon particles. The length or diameter of the particles vary between 0.5-5 mum with thickness varying between 10-50 nm. The results confirm the cone angles as predicted by theory. The various microscopy images show that the surfaces of the particles seem corrugated. It should be noted that it is the mixed particle powder which it is referred to when it is written 'carbon cone particles' or 'CC particles'. The dispersion of CC particles in silicon oil was studied under the influence of an electric field. The particles were found to align in an ac electric field and structure formation was observed at very low electric fields. The growth rate was found to vary exponentially with the electric field. The structure formations were permanent (under zero shear rate), not dissolving when the electric field was turned off. This was attributed to the strong Van der Waals forces associated with carbon particles. Electrorheological measurements were carried out for dispersions with varying CC particle concentrations. All samples showed a Bingham fluid behavior with a finite yield stress. The yield stress was found to depend only weakly on the electric field. The results showed that the ER efficiency as measured by the relative increase in viscosity compared to the zero field viscosity, increases with decreasing concentration with a maximum factor of approx10 for the

  16. Complex Data: Mining using Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebes, A.P.J.M.; Struzik, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing need to analyse sets of complex data, i.e., data in which the individual data items are (semi-) structured collections of data themselves, such as sets of time-series. To perform such analysis, one has to redefine familiar notions such as similarity on such complex data types. One

  17. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhil R Chakravarty; Pattubala A N Reddy; Bidyut K Santra; Anitha M Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Redox active mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes have been prepared and structurally characterized. The complexes have planar N-donor heterocyclic bases like 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) and dipyridophenazine (dppz) ligands that are suitable for intercalation to B-DNA. Complexes studied for nuclease activity have the formulations [Cu(dpq)2(H2O)] (ClO4)2.H2O (1), [{CuL(H2O)}2(-ox)](ClO4)2 (L = bpy, 2; phen, 3; dpq, 4; and dppz, 5) and [Cu(L)(salgly)] (L = bpy, 6; phen, 7; dpq, 8; and dppz, 9), where salgly is a tridentate Schiff base obtained from the condensation of glycine and salicylaldehyde. The dpq complexes are efficient DNA binding and cleavage active species. The dppz complexes show good binding ability but poor nuclease activity. The cleavage activity of the bis-dpq complex is significantly higher than the bis-phen complex of copper(II). The nuclease activity is found to be dependent on the intercalating nature of the complex and on the redox potential of the copper(II)/copper(I) couple. The ancillary ligand plays a significant role in binding and cleavage activity.

  18. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  19. Statistical Complexity in Traveling Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Sanudo, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the behavior of statistical complexity in several systems where two identical densities that travel in opposite direction cross each other. The crossing between two Gaussian, rectangular and triangular densities is studied in detail. For these three cases, the shape of the total density presenting an extreme value in complexity is found.

  20. Team dynamics in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Vroome, E.E.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socioorganisational issues is annou

  1. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  2. Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions......-hardness of the plan verification problem, which strengthens previous results on the complexity of DEL model checking....

  3. Aqueous coordination complexes of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thecomplex formation constants, obtained by different methods, for the complexing of neptunium, in different oxidation states, in aqueous solutions, with several organic and inorganic ligands, have been critically reviewed. The values for the thermodynamic parameters associated with the complex formation, wherever available, are also presented. (author)

  4. The Complexity of Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

  5. Complex estimation of ecological security

    OpenAIRE

    Тарасова, Валентина Віталіївна; Ковалевська, Ірина Миколаївна

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the study of methodological aspects of the complex estimation of ecological security in Ukraine,in particular, definitions of the basic estimation terms, models of the methodology of the complex estimation of the indices’system, algorithm of determining risks of ecologic danger

  6. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Shi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder.Methods: We studied one cohort of children followed up since 2005 until 2009, with autistic disorder, to determine the incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. We established an autistic disorder registry in 2005 at China Rehabilitation Research Center. During the 4-year period (2005–2009, we collected a database of 429 children (390 boys and 39 girls; male to female ratio 10:1 with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders. We routinely examined all children with autistic disorder for any features oftuberous sclerosis complex by looking for neurocutaneous markers such as depigmented spots. In those with infantile spasm or epilepsy, the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex were monitored regularly during follow-up.Findings: Of these, five had tuberous sclerosis complex. Thus, the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder is 1.17%. All of these children were mentally retarded with moderate to severe grades. Their IQ or developmental quotient was less than 70.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder was 1.17% in our region;autism spectrum disorder is a condition that might be associated with development of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  7. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a chal

  8. Electrochemical analysis of metal complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the electroanalytical chemistry of complexes of metals with large ligands. The main purpose was to develop quantitative descriptions of the voltammetric current-potential relation of metal complex systems with different diffusion coefficients of the species involv

  9. Complexity regularized hydrological model selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pande, S.; Arkesteijn, L.; Bastidas, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a recently proposed measure of hydrological model complexity in a model selection exercise. It demonstrates that a robust hydrological model is selected by penalizing model complexity while maximizing a model performance measure. This especially holds when limited data is available.

  10. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics is investigated by analytically continuing the wave function in polar form into the complex plane. We derive the complex-extended version of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the continuity equation in Bohmian mechanics. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics recovers the standard real-valued Bohmian mechanics on the real axis. The trajectories on the real axis are in accord with the standard real-valued Bohmian trajectories. The trajectories launched away from the real axis never intersect the real axis, and they display symmetry with respect to the real axis. Trajectories display hyperbolic deflection around nodes of the wave function in the complex plane. PMID:20387916

  11. Game interpretation of Kolmogorov complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Muchnik, Andrej A; Shen, Alexander; Vereshchagin, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity function K can be relativized using any oracle A, and most properties of K remain true for relativized versions. In section 1 we provide an explanation for this observation by giving a game-theoretic interpretation and showing that all "natural" properties are either true for all sufficiently powerful oracles or false for all sufficiently powerful oracles. This result is a simple consequence of Martin's determinacy theorem, but its proof is instructive: it shows how one can prove statements about Kolmogorov complexity by constructing a special game and a winning strategy in this game. This technique is illustrated by several examples (total conditional complexity, bijection complexity, randomness extraction, contrasting plain and prefix complexities).

  12. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity. PMID:26319897

  13. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  14. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  15. Innovation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As our world becomes more global and competitive yet less predictable, the focus seems to be increasingly on looking to innovation activities to remain competitive. Although there is little doubt that a nation’s competitiveness is embedded in its innovativeness, the complex environment should not be ignored. Complexity is not accounted for in balance sheets or reported in reports; it becomes entrenched in every activity in the organisation. Innovation takes many forms and comes in different shapes.Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications.Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations.Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations.Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment. 

  16. Complex coacervation: A field theoretic simulation study of polyelectrolyte complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Popov, Yuri O.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2008-06-01

    Using the complex Langevin sampling strategy, field theoretic simulations are performed to study the equilibrium phase behavior and structure of symmetric polycation-polyanion mixtures without salt in good solvents. Static structure factors for the segment density and charge density are calculated and used to study the role of fluctuations in the electrostatic and chemical potential fields beyond the random phase approximation. We specifically focus on the role of charge density and molecular weight on the structure and complexation behavior of polycation-polyanion solutions. A demixing phase transition to form a ``complex coacervate'' is observed in strongly charged systems, and the corresponding spinodal and binodal boundaries of the phase diagram are investigated.

  17. Modelling of Complex Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdim, Mohamed Reda

    2003-09-01

    Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a reactor. These gases are decomposed by making a plasma. A plasma with a low degree of ionization (typically 10_5) is usually made in a reactor containing two electrodes driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power source in the megahertz range. Under the right circumstances the radicals, neutrals and ions can react further to produce nanometer sized dust particles. The particles can stick to the surface and thereby contribute to a higher deposition rate. Another possibility is that the nanometer sized particles coagulate and form larger micron sized particles. These particles obtain a high negative charge, due to their large radius and are usually trapped in a radiofrequency plasma. The electric field present in the discharge sheaths causes the entrapment. Such plasmas are called dusty or complex plasmas. In this thesis numerical models are presented which describe dusty plasmas in reactive and nonreactive plasmas. We started first with the development of a simple one-dimensional silane fluid model where a dusty radio-frequency silane/hydrogen discharge is simulated. In the model, discharge quantities like the fluxes, densities and electric field are calculated self-consistently. A radius and an initial density profile for the spherical dust particles are given and the charge and the density of the dust are calculated with an iterative method. During the transport of the dust, its charge is kept constant in time. The dust influences the electric field distribution through its charge and the density of the plasma through recombination of positive ions and electrons at its surface. In the model this process gives an extra production of silane radicals, since the growth of dust is

  18. Immediate and long-term effects of opiate antagonists on postictal behaviour following amygdala kindling in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotrell, G.A.; Bohus, B.

    1987-01-01

    Male Wistar rats implanted with bipolar electrodes in the amygdaloid complex were kindled. Subcutaneous injection of naloxone or naltrexone in low doses - 0.12 and 0.24 mg/kg, respectively - dramatically reduced the postictal behavioural depression (BD) at 10 or 60 min. Remarkably, the BD was still

  19. Three Types of Network Complexity Pyramid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong; LIU; Qiang

    2012-01-01

    <正>Exploring the complexity and diversity of complex networks have been very challenging issues in network science and engineering. Among them exploring the network complexity pyramids (NCP) are one of important expressions in network complexity. So far as we have proposed the three types of the network complexity pyramid (NCP). The first type of NCP is the network model complexity pyramid with

  20. 3D complex: a structural classification of protein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D Levy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the proteins in a cell assemble into complexes to carry out their function. It is therefore crucial to understand the physicochemical properties as well as the evolution of interactions between proteins. The Protein Data Bank represents an important source of information for such studies, because more than half of the structures are homo- or heteromeric protein complexes. Here we propose the first hierarchical classification of whole protein complexes of known 3-D structure, based on representing their fundamental structural features as a graph. This classification provides the first overview of all the complexes in the Protein Data Bank and allows nonredundant sets to be derived at different levels of detail. This reveals that between one-half and two-thirds of known structures are multimeric, depending on the level of redundancy accepted. We also analyse the structures in terms of the topological arrangement of their subunits and find that they form a small number of arrangements compared with all theoretically possible ones. This is because most complexes contain four subunits or less, and the large majority are homomeric. In addition, there is a strong tendency for symmetry in complexes, even for heteromeric complexes. Finally, through comparison of Biological Units in the Protein Data Bank with the Protein Quaternary Structure database, we identified many possible errors in quaternary structure assignments. Our classification, available as a database and Web server at http://www.3Dcomplex.org, will be a starting point for future work aimed at understanding the structure and evolution of protein complexes.

  1. Complex problem solving: a case for complex cognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) emerged in the last 30 years in Europe as a new part of the psychology of thinking and problem solving. This paper introduces into the field and provides a personal view. Also, related concepts like macrocognition or operative intelligence will be explained in this context. Two examples for the assessment of CPS, Tailorshop and MicroDYN, are presented to illustrate the concept by means of their measurement devices. Also, the relation of complex cognition and emot...

  2. Tackling the complexity in speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The present volume is meant to give the reader an impression of the range of questions and topics that are currently subject of international research in the discovery of complexity, the organization of complexity, and the modelling of complexity. These are the main sections of our volume. Each...... the questions, phenomena, and communicative functions that are currently addressed in phonetics and phonology. Either way, the future of speech research lies in international, interdisciplinary collaborations, and our volume is meant to reflect and facilitate such collaborations...

  3. Music analysis and Kolmogorov complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    to be explained. The theory of Kolmogorov complexity suggests that the length of such a program can be used as a measure of the complexity of the analysis that it represents. The analyst therefore needs a way to measure the length of a program so that this length reflects the quality of the analysis...... is proposed that overcomes some but not all of these problems. It is suggested that the solutions to the remaining problems may lie either in the field of concrete Kolmogorov complexity or in the design of languages specialized for expressing musical structure....

  4. Complexity in physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, Manuel S

    1992-01-01

    A system is loosely defined as complex if it is composed of a large number of elements, interacting with each other, and the emergent global dynamics is qualitatively different from the dynamics of each one of the parts. The global dynamics may be either ordered or chaotic and among the most interesting emergent global properties are those of learning and adaptation.Complex systems, in the above sense, appear in many fields ranging from physics and technology to life and social sciences. Research in complex systems involves therefore a wide range of topics, studied in seemingly disparate field

  5. Topological complexity of configuration spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Michael; Grant, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The topological complexity TC(X) is a homotopy invariant which reflects the complexity of the problem of constructing a motion planning algorithm in the space X, viewed as configuration space of a mechanical system. In this paper we complete the computation of the topological complexity of the configuration space of n distinct points in Euclidean m-space for all m>1$ and n>1; the answer was previously known in the cases m=2 and m odd. We also give several useful general results concerning sha...

  6. The fifth adaptor protein complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Hirst; Barlow, Lael D.; Gabriel Casey Francisco; Sahlender, Daniela A.; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent manno...

  7. The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Hirst, Jennifer; D. Barlow, Lael; Francisco, Gabriel Casey; Sahlender, Daniela A.; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent manno...

  8. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  9. Epidemic Diffusion on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-Yan; LIU Zong-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Boyh diffusion and epidemic are well studied in the stochastic systems and complex networks,respetively.Here we combine these two fields and study epidemic diffusion in complex networks.Instead of studying the threshold of infection,which was focused on in previous works,we focus on the diffusion.behaviour.We find that the epidemic diffusion in a complex network is an anomalous superdiffusion with varyingg diffusion exponext γand that γ is influenced seriously by the network structure,such as the clustering coefficient and the degree distribution.Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  10. The Complexities of Interpreting Reversible Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels in Drug Development: Does a Correlation with Inhibition of Renal Transporters Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Bleasby, Kelly; Chan, Grace Hoyee; Nunes, Irene; Evers, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    In humans, creatinine is formed by a multistep process in liver and muscle and eliminated via the kidney by a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Based on current evidence, creatinine can be taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by the basolaterally localized organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and the organic anion transporter 2, and effluxed into the urine by the apically localized multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) and MATE2K. Drug-induced elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance is routinely used as a marker for acute kidney injury. Interpretation of elevated SCr can be complex, because such increases can be reversible and explained by inhibition of renal transporters involved in active secretion of creatinine or other secondary factors, such as diet and disease state. Distinction between these possibilities is important from a drug development perspective, as increases in SCr can result in the termination of otherwise efficacious drug candidates. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with using creatinine as a marker for kidney damage. Furthermore, to evaluate whether reversible changes in SCr can be predicted prospectively based on in vitro transporter inhibition data, an in-depth in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) analysis was conducted for 16 drugs with in-house and literature in vitro transporter inhibition data for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K, as well as total and unbound maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and Cmax,u) data measured in the clinic. PMID:26825641

  11. Management recommendations: Benton Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Benton Lake Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  12. Coarse-graining complex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat-tailed distribu......Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) are widely used to coarse-grain the evolution of systems jumping from a metastable sub-set of their configuration space, or trap, to another via rare intermittent events. The multi-scaled behavior typical of complex dynamics is provided by a fat......-law and logarithmic relaxation behaviors ubiquitous in complex dynamics, together with the sub-diffusive time dependence of the Mean Square Displacement characteristic of single particles moving in a complex environment....

  13. Project Dynamics and Emergent Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Schlick, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    The present paper presents theoretical and empirical analyses of project dynamics and emergent complexity in new product development (NPD) projects. A model-driven approach was taken and a vector autoregression (VAR) model of cooperative task processing was formulated. The model is explained and validated based on an empirical study carried out in a industrial company. Furthermore, concepts and measures of complex systems science were reviewed and applied to project management. To evaluate emergent complexity in NPD projects, an information-theory quantity -termed "effective measure complexity" (EMC)- was selected, because it can be derived from first principles and therefore has high construct validity. Furthermore, EMC can be calculated efficiently from generative models of task processing or purely from historical data, without intervening models. EMC measures the mutual information between the infinite past and future histories of a stochastic process. According to this principle, it is particularly inter...

  14. ON COMPLEXITY OF POWER SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jin; CHENG Daizhan; HONG Yiguang; SUN Yuanzhang

    2003-01-01

    The power system is a classical example of complex systems. In this paper it is shown that the power industry in China is facing a tremendous challenge. The complexity in power systems is investigated as follows. First, the cascade failure in power systems is analyzed, and compared with sand-pile model. Next, we show that the agent-based modelling is a proper way for power network. Mathematically, the geometric dynamics and differential inclusion are useful tools for the stability analysis of large scale power systems. As for power market, the game theory and generalized control system model are proposed. For a complex power system, an evolutive model may be more accurate in description and analysis. Finally, certain newly developed numerical methods in the power system computation are introduced. Overall, we are convinced that the theorem of complexity, combined with modern control theory, may be the right way to answer the challenges faced by the power industry in China.

  15. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  16. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The machining of complex sculptured surfaces is a global technological topic in modern manufacturing with relevance in both industrialized and emerging in countries particularly within the moulds and dies sector whose applications include highly technological industries such as the automotive and aircraft industry. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces considers new approaches to the manufacture of moulds and dies within these industries. The traditional technology employed in the manufacture of moulds and dies combined conventional milling and electro-discharge machining (EDM) but this has been replaced with  high-speed milling (HSM) which has been applied in roughing, semi-finishing and finishing of moulds and dies with great success. Machining of Complex Sculptured Surfaces provides recent information on machining of complex sculptured surfaces including modern CAM systems and process planning for three and five axis machining as well as explanations of the advantages of HSM over traditional methods ra...

  17. Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions...

  18. The Complex System in Babel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Setiawan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the plot of Babel reflects the principles of the quantum-physic theory of complex system such as complexity, indeterminacy and non-linearity. In terms of complexity, the movie exposes more than two distinct subplots with their subcomponents. Yet, every subplot is only meaningful when it is mentally put in relation to the others. Due to its complexity, it is highly difficult for the audience and the characters of Babel to determine the meaning or the significance of a component in the story. Finally, Babel also displays the phenomena of non-linearity and chaos. Babel's non-linearity expresses both positive and negative feedback loops, with the first being dominant. This is largely responsible for the chaotic development of the plot.

  19. Europium complexes with trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis conditions and spectra-luminescent properties of different-ligand europium complexes of the composition Eu (TFA)2x2D, where TFA = anion of trifluoroacetic acid, D = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridyl, triphenylphosphinoxide, hexamethyl-phosphotriamide, were studied. The compounds prepared have been characterized by the methods of elementary chemical analysis, IR and luminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that in the complex compounds two methods of coordination of the acid residue functional groups are realized, i.e. monodentate and bridge functions. The compounds were tested for resistance to UV light effect and to heating in the air. Complex with 2,2-dipyridyl proved the most thermally stable complex in the series studied, its decomposition temperature being 240 deg C

  20. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems are characterized by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behavior. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical world. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicist's point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualized in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representatio...