Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming
Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. PMID:25468303
Gonzalo-Skok, O; Tous-Fajardo, J; Suarez-Arrones, L; Arjol-Serrano, J L; Casajús, J A; Mendez-Villanueva, A
The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability, usefulness, validity, age-related differences and responsiveness of a 25- m side-step cutting maneuver test (V-cut test). Fifty young male basketball players performed the V-cut test on 2 occasions separated by 5-7 days to assess test-retest reliability and determine a priori usefulness. Twenty subjects also completed both the L-Run and 505 test to analyze the possible relationships among these 3 tests. Furthermore, 33 players performed the V-cut test 4 times throughout the season to analyze responsiveness. Finally, 53 players (U-14 to U-20) were assessed in the V-cut test to examine the age-related differences. Reliability scores showed high intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC=0.90) and low coefficient of variation (CV=1.4%). The responsiveness of the V-cut test was good, as the typical short- (1.5-1.7%), mid- (1.6-3.1%) and long-term (3.3%) changes in V-cut performance were higher than the CV. Low (r=0.64; CL90%: 0.34; 0.82) to moderate (r=0.76; CL90%: 0.53; 0.88) relationships were found between the V-cut test with the 505 and L-Run test, respectively. Age-related differences analysis showed better V-cut test performance as age increased in adolescent basketball players. The V-cut test is reliable to assess change of direction ability (CODA) and it could be used to monitor CODA in adolescent basketball players.
Fedie, Rebecca; Carlstedt, Kristen; Willson, John D; Kernozek, Thomas W
Many sports associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury require athletes attend to a ball during participation. We investigated effects of attending to a ball on lower extremity mechanics during a side-cut maneuver and if these effects are consistent for males and females. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and joint moments were measured during side-cut maneuvers in 19 male and 19 female National Collegiate Athletic Association division III basketball players. Participants also experienced two side-cut conditions that required attention to a ball. Our results did not indicate that the effect of attention varies with gender. However, during side-cut conditions while attending to a ball, internal knee adductor moment was 20% greater (p = 0.03) and peak knee flexion angle was 4 degrees larger (p knee flexion (p knee abduction (p = 0.026) at initial contact during all side-cut conditions than males. Attention to a ball may affect lower extremity mechanics relevant to ACL injury. The validity of laboratory studies of lower extremity mechanics for sports that include attention to a ball may be increased if participants are required to attend to a ball during the task. PMID:21162362
Havens, Kathryn L; Sigward, Susan M
Cutting is necessary for participation in multidirectional sports but is also associated with non-contact ACL injury. Whole body demands of deceleration and redirection increase with greater cut angles. However, it is not known how these demands relate to differences in joint and segmental mechanics. Understanding the relationship between whole body and joint mechanics necessary for cutting and those related to risk for injury is important for the development of injury prevention training programs. The purpose of this study is to determine how joint and segmental mechanics change to meet increasing deceleration and redirection demands during cutting. Lower limb and trunk kinematics and kinetics were evaluated during the execution of two sidestep cutting maneuvers (to 45 and 90 degrees) in twenty-five healthy soccer players. A two-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) determined that differences existed between task directions but not sexes when considering all dependent variables and covarying for approach velocity (α≤0.05). Post hoc analyses revealed that the larger deceleration and redirection demands of the 90-degree cut did not translate into larger angles, moments and power across all lower extremity joints. In the sagittal plane, the knee appeared to primarily accommodate the greater deceleration demands of the sharper cut. These data further suggest that the hip may play a different role during cutting to smaller and larger angles and also illustrate a pattern of engagement in the sagittal and frontal planes that has not been described previously. PMID:25194689
Kipp, Kristof; Brown, Tyler N; McLean, Scott G; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined impact of experience and decision making on frontal plane knee joint biomechanics during a cutting maneuver. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 12 recreationally active and 18 NCAA Division I female athletes during execution of anticipated and unanticipated single-leg land-and-cut maneuvers. Knee joint abduction angles and external knee joint abduction torques were calculated and discrete peak stance-phase variables were extracted. Angle and torque time-series data were also submitted to separate functional data analyses. Variables derived from the functional data analyses indicated that decision making influenced knee abduction angle and torque time series in the recreational group only. Specifically, these variables pointed to greater knee abduction at the end of stance as well as a greater, albeit delayed peak in knee abduction torque at the beginning of landing in the recreational athletes during the unanticipated condition. In addition, the recreational athletes displayed greater discrete peak knee abduction angles than the Division I athletes regardless of condition. Discrete peak knee abduction torque did not differ between groups or conditions.
Imwalle, Lauren E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E
The purposes of this study were to compare lower-extremity kinematics during a 45 degrees and 90 degrees cutting maneuver and to examine the relationships between lower-extremity rotations during these maneuvers. The hypotheses tested were that greater internal hip and knee rotation angles would be observed during the cutting maneuver at a 90 degrees angle (90 degrees cut) compared with the maneuver performed at a 45 degrees angle (45 degrees cut) and that the increased internal hip and knee rotation would be related to increased knee abduction measures. Nineteen athletes from women's soccer teams (17.6 +/- 2.1 yr, 165.6 +/- 8.2 cm, 60.2 +/- 5.6 kg) were instructed to jump across a line and cut at the appropriate angle (either 45 degrees or 90 degrees side-step cut) and in the appropriate direction. Lower-extremity kinematic measures were taken at peak force during the stance phase. Hip internal rotation and knee internal rotation (p = 0.008) were increased during the 90 degrees cut compared with the 45 degrees cut. Mean hip flexion (p knee abduction during both tasks was hip adduction (R = 0.49). The findings indicate that the mechanisms underlying increased knee abduction measures in athletic women during cutting tasks were primarily coronal plane motions at the hip. Trunk and hip focused strength neuromuscular training may improve the ability of athletic women to increase control of lower-extremity alignment. Therefore, these women may decrease dangerous knee loads that result from increased hip adduction during dynamic tasks, thus decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. PMID:19826304
Frane Erčulj; Erik Štrumbelj
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague,...
James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James
Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…
Mirabile, Chris; Cooper, Michael; Petrie, Heather
Basketball bowling was developed after students in the authors' physical education class participated in a bowling unit sponsored through Bowl America. Basketball bowling is a lead-up activity for elementary-age students that incorporates basic skills from basketball and bowling. The general object of this activity is to be the first team to roll…
Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in, some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …, and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA, Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions. Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition. Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.
Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.
Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions. PMID:26038836
Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu
Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the
Carter, Benjamin R.
Recent developments in post-stall maneuverability and thrust vectoring have opened up new possibilities in the field of air combat maneuvering. High angle of attack maneuvers like the Cobra, Herbst Reversal, and Chakra demonstrate that today's cutting edge fighters are capable of exploiting the post-stall flight regime for very dynamic and unconventional maneuvers. With the development and testing of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles, even greater maneuvering ability is expected. However, littl...
... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Safety Tips: Basketball KidsHealth > For Parents > Safety Tips: Basketball Print A ... possible, make sure they follow these tips. Why Basketball Safety Is Important Fortunately, very few basketball injuries ...
Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette
The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.
Brancazio, Peter J.
Does a knowledge of physics help to improve one's basketball skills? Several applications of physical principles to the game of basketball are examined. The kinematics of a basketball shot is studied, and criteria are established for determining the best shooting angle at any given distance from the basket. It is found that there is an optimum shooting angle which requires the smallest launching force and provides the greatest margin for error. Some simple classroom illustrations of Newtonian mechanics based on basketball are also suggested.
Li Qing, the Beijing Mentally Challcngcd Basketball Tcam guard, plays under the same number as NBA star Kobe - eight. Li and his team enjoy their lives to the full, particularly playing basketball. Their favorite topics of conversation are computer games and NBA stars. Studying and playing basketball are the epicenter of Li Qing’s life. At the training ground, a two hour drive from his home, demands on Li and the rest of the team are as strict as for any sports team. The
The objective of this project is to help basketball players to become better players by improving their athletic appearance, and to provide players and coaches with the teaching video that will include the technique points and lifts that are useful for basketball players. The video consists of three main chapters: written part, introduction, and exercises. Each chapter is divided in subcategories. Written part includes information about safety procedures, learning and teaching the lifts, a...
According to the theory of body language, it is one of the important basketball game communication way, but also points out that basketball referee, using body language regulation game, is to the game, the lan- guage, the whistle gestures necessary complement, is make the race to smooth, smooth effective means.%根据身体语言的理论，它是篮球比赛申的一种重要交流方式，同时指出篮球裁判员运用身体语言调控比赛，是对比赛中哨声、语言、手势的必要补充，是使比赛得以流畅、顺利进行的有效手段。
Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the importance assigned to different areas of knowledge for coaching and the perception of professional competence of Portuguese basketball coaches. Data gathering was conducted through a questionnaire developed by Mesquita et al. (in press, consisting of 37 items covering the categories of knowledge and competences related to: (a Practice; (b Competition; (c Management; (d Coach Education; (e Personal and Social. The sample of this study is composed of 178 Portuguese basketball coaches. The results show that high experienced coaches award greater importance and perceived themselves more competent in the items related to knowledge and professional competences than low experienced coaches.
This book chapter reviews some of the major principles associated with optimal strategy in basketball. In particular, we consider the principles of allocative efficiency (optimal allocation of shots between offensive options), dynamic efficiency (optimal shot selection in the face of pressure from the shot clock), and the risk/reward tradeoff (strategic manipulation of outcome variance). For each principle, we provide a simple example of a strategic problem and show how it can be described analytically. We then review general analytical results and provide an overview of existing statistical studies. A number of open challenges in basketball analysis are highlighted.
Coutts, K D
A sport model wheelchair instrumented with a portable computer and a switch activated with each half revolution of a rear wheel was used to record serial time and distance data on two subjects (1 male, 1 female) during a portion of a basketball game. These and two additional subjects (1 male, 1 female) also completed a series of coast down and maximal sprint trials on the basketball court. The drag force while coasting was positively related to the mass of the subject, and the male subjects had a higher maximal speed, acceleration, force, and power output in the sprint trials. During the wheelchair basketball game, it was estimated that 64% of the time was spent in propulsive action and 36% in braking activity. Projections for a complete 40 minute game indicated that both subjects would travel about 5 km at an average speed of 2 m.s-1 and attain a peak speed of 4 m.s-1. Plots of speed and power vs time showed the intermittent nature of playing wheelchair basketball. The greater amount of propulsive work (52.6 vs 37.5 kJ) and braking ("negative") work (43.9 vs 30.8 kJ) in a game for the male subject can be related to the male's higher body mass and wheelchair drag force. PMID:1532225
Flygare, Thomas J.
Considers two lost court suits: in one, a basketball referee was sued for a "bad" call that led to a loss by the team promoted on the litigant's merchandise; in the other, a university was sued for permitting graduating students to throw their mortarboards, one of which injured the litigant. (PGD)
In basketball there is the problem of hitting a basket at a determined distance and a determined height. The quantities that can be changed during the inclined throw are the initial velocity and the angle of throw. At first we neglect the air resistance. Then we treat the same problem in a medium (liquid, gas) with constant density. We obtain two differential equations. Then we view special cases of the retarding force. There is an english and a german edition.
Chanpichai, N.; Wattanakasiwich, P.
Recently, technologies and computer takes important roles in learning and teaching, including physics. Advance in technologies can help us better relating physics taught in the classroom to the real world. In this study, we developed a module on teaching a projectile motion through shooting a basketball. Students learned about physics of projectile motion, and then they took videos of their classmates shooting a basketball by using the high speed camera. Then they analyzed videos by using Tracker, a video analysis and modeling tool. While working with Tracker, students learned about the relationships between three kinematics graphs. Moreover, they learned about a real projectile motion (with an air resistance) through modeling tools. Students' abilities to interpret kinematics graphs were investigated before and after the instruction by using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). The maximum normalized gain or is 0.77, which indicated students' improvement in determining displacement from the velocity-time graph. The minimum is 0.20, which indicated that most students still have difficulties interpreting the change in velocity from the acceleration-time graph. Results from evaluation questionnaires revealed that students also satisfied with the instructions that related physics contents to shooting basketball.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has convened a working group to address problems in recruiting, gambling, academic standards, and other corrupt practices in college basketball programs. Such problems are neither new nor unique to basketball, and changing college sports has proven to be difficult. Recommendations are anticipated…
Pugliese, Dan; Rose, Jim
This book is intended for beginning basketball coaches at either the school or agency level. The chapters contain information on simple team administration to the detailed planning and development of team strategy. In addition, the book contains chapters concerning the principles relating to basketball mechanics, conditioning the team, setting up…
Duke, Eugene L.; Jones, Frank P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.
Autopilot replaces pilot during automatic maneuvers. Pilot, based on ground, flies aircraft to required altitude, then turns control over to autopilot. Increases quality of maneuvers significantly beyond that attainable through remote manual control by pilot on ground. Also increases quality of maneuvers because it performs maneuvers faster than pilot could and because it does not have to repeat poorly executed maneuvers.
Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)
Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)
Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maneuvering speed. 25.1507 Section 25.1507....1507 Maneuvering speed. The maneuvering speed must be established so that it does not exceed the design maneuvering speed V A determined under § 25.335(c)....
Davenport, Joanna, Ed.; Adrian, Marlene, Ed.
The monographs in this volume profile current information on basketball, covering a wide variety of topics regarding teaching, coaching, and playing girl's and women's basketball. Ten articles cover aspects of basketball ranging from history to nutrition and conditioning to techniques for high level competition. The titles and authors are as…
Worobets, Jay; Wannop, John William
Prior research has shown that footwear can enhance athletic performance. However, public information is not available on what basketball shoe properties should be selected to maximise movement performance. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of basketball shoe mass, outsole traction, and forefoot bending stiffness on sprinting, jumping, and cutting performance. Each of these three basketball shoe properties was systematically varied by ± 20% to produce three shoe conditions of varying mass, three conditions of varying traction, and three conditions of varying bending stiffness. Each shoe was tested by 20 recreational basketball players completing maximal effort sprints, vertical jumps, and a cutting drill. Outsole traction had the largest influence on performance, as the participants performed significantly worse in all tests when traction was decreased by 20% (p < 0.001), and performed significantly better in the cutting drill when traction was increased by 20% (p = 0.005). Forefoot bending stiffness had a moderate effect on sprint and cutting performance (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016 respectively) and shoe mass was found to have no effect on performance. Therefore, choosing a shoe with relatively high outsole traction and forefoot bending stiffness should be prioritised, and less concern should be focused on selecting the lightest shoe.
Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.
NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU
Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.
Leanderson, J; Nemeth, G; Eriksson, E
We carried out a retrospective study of the frequency of ankle sprains in basketball players. A questionnaire about previous ankle injuries, time off after such injuries, current ankle problems, personal data, number of practice hours and the use of prophylactic measures was sent out to 102 basketball players in a second division league in Sweden. Ninety-six players answered. 92% of them had suffered an ankle sprain while playing basketball, and of these 83% reported repeated sprains of one ankle. In the last two seasons, 78% of the players had injured at least one ankle. The injury frequency in the investigation was 5.5 ankle injuries per 1000 activity hours. 22% of the players used some kind of prophylactic support of their ankle joints. Because of the great number of ankle sprains and the disability in terms of time away from sports that they cause, prevention of these injuries is essential. PMID:8536029
Russell, Daniel A.
The sound field resulting from striking a basketball is found to be rich in frequency content, with over 50 partials in the frequency range of 0-12 kHz. The frequencies are found to closely match theoretical expectations for standing wave patterns inside a spherical cavity. Because of the degenerate nature of the mode shapes, explicit identification of the modes is not possible without internal investigation with a microphone probe. A basketball proves to be an interesting application of a boundary value problem involving spherical coordinates.
The report presents the emergency document formation, emergency organization establishment, emergency facilities preparation and emergency accident maneuver onsite of High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). The result of emergency preparations and maneuver is summarized. (authors)
Hess, Dean R
The injurious effects of alveolar overdistention are well accepted, and there is little debate regarding the importance of pressure and volume limitation during mechanical ventilation. The role of recruitment maneuvers is more controversial. Alveolar recruitment is desirable if it can be achieved, but the potential for recruitment is variable among patients with ARDS. A stepwise recruitment maneuver, similar to an incremental PEEP titration, is favored over sustained inflation recruitment maneuvers. Many approaches to PEEP titration have been proposed, and the best method to choose the most appropriate level for an individual patient is unclear. A PEEP level should be selected that balances alveolar recruitment against overdistention. The easiest approach to select PEEP might be according to the severity of the disease: 5-10 cm H2O PEEP in mild ARDS, 10-15 cm H2O PEEP in moderate ARDS, and 15-20 cm H2O PEEP in severe ARDS. Recruitment maneuvers and PEEP should be used within the context of lung protection and not just as a means of improving oxygenation. PMID:26493593
Full Text Available Women’s basketball is a global game with professional leagues in Europe, Africa, Australia, Asia, and the Americas. The Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA in the US is the premier league for the sport. During the off-season, over 100 players from WNBA clubs compete professionally abroad to supplement their incomes. Traveling teams and their visiting friends, relatives, and fans place demands on tourism businesses. This study examines the global migration in women’s professional basketball, including players living and traveling abroad and their tourism impacts. In-depth interviews with the foreign players participating in the Turkish Women’s Basketball League 2011 All-Star Game in Eskişehir were conducted. The foreign all-stars spent on average $US 1200 per month in Turkey for living expenses during the season; most had been visited by family and/or friends since becoming a player in the Turkish league. The implications of professional sport team travel on league sponsorship and marketing strategies, tourism businesses, and host cities are discussed.
In 1931, a Chinese women’s basketball team played amatch abroad for the first time. In that tournament against theJapanese, they achieved a stellar record of nine wins and onetie. The following story is based on the recollections of WangLan, who played guard for the team 67 years ago.
A basketball player attempting a free throw has two parameters under his or her control: the angle of elevation and the force with which the ball is thrown. We compute upper and lower bounds for the initial velocity for suitable values of the angle of elevation, generating a subset of the configuration space of all successful free throws. A…
An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…
Abbott, W. Bruce; Davis, Karl C.
A portable basketball rim rebound testing device 10 is illustrated in two preferred embodiments for testing the rebound or energy absorption characteristics of a basketball rim 12 and its accompanying support to determine likely rebound or energy absorption charcteristics of the system. The apparatus 10 includes a depending frame 28 having a C-clamp 36 for releasably rigidly connecting the frame to the basketball rim 12. A glide weight 60 is mounted on a guide rod 52 permitting the weight 60 to be dropped against a calibrated spring 56 held on an abutment surface on the rod to generate for deflecting the basketball rim and then rebounding the weight upwardly. A photosensor 66 is mounted on the depending frame 28 to sense passage of reflective surfaces 75 on the weight to thereby obtain sufficient data to enable a processing means 26 to calculate the rebound velocity and relate it to an energy absorption percentage rate of the rim system 12. A readout is provided to display the energy absorption percentage.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maneuvering light. 84.23 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.23 Maneuvering light. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 84.03(f), the maneuvering light described in Rule 34(b) shall be...
Podmenik, Nadja; Leskošek, Bojan; Erčulj, Frane
Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players’ shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior wome...
Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.; Wong, Mau C.
The Solstice Mission is the final extension of the Cassini spacecraft s tour of Saturn and its moons. To accommodate an end-of-mission in 2017, the maneuver decision process has been refined. For example, the Cassini Project now prioritizes saving propellant over minimizing maneuver cycles. This paper highlights 30 maneuvers planned from June 2012 through July 2013, targeted to nine Titan flybys and the final Rhea encounter in the mission. Of these maneuvers, 90% were performed to maintain the prescribed trajectory and preserve downstream delta V. Recent operational changes to maneuver executions based on execution-error modeling and analysis are also discussed.
The aim of this paper is to characterise the role, activity and participation of the referees in games with a focus to basketball games. The author generally discusses these issues analysing changes in referees teamwork during the last three years, He presents referees´ individual positions on the basketball court (lead, centre, trail), places of their competences, duties and responsibilities. The method of study was direct observation of 45 basketball games during seasons 2012-2014 in mens b...
YILDIZ, Alper; KOÇAK, Settar; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Devrilmez, Erhan
Understanding the motives of spectators to participate in a basketball match is important for increasing the number of spectators. Main purpose of this study was to analyze the selected variables that affect on spectators’ participation in basketball matches. Supporters of two Turkish professional basketball teams formed the sample of the study (n = 259). Spectators’ Participation Decision Scale was used to assess the factors that make participants decide to attend a match. Descriptive and Fa...
Low speed avian maneuvering flight is an ecologically crucial behavior that has contributed to the explosive diversification of several avian taxa by allowing access to complex spatial environments. Negotiating a sharp aerial turn requires finely tuned interactions between an animal's sensory-motor system and its environment. My thesis work focuses on how aerodynamic forces, wing and body dynamics, and sensory feedback interact during aerial turning in the pigeon (Columba livea).
Min, Byeong June
We report an emergence of bifurcation in basketball, a single-particle system governed by Newtonian mechanics. When shooting the basketball, the obvious control parameters are the launch speed and the launch angle. We propose to use the three-dimensional velocity phase-space volume associated with the given launch parameters to quantify the difficulty of the shooting. The optimal launch angle that maximizes the associated phase-space volume undergoes a bifurcation as the launch speed is increased, if the shooter is farther than a critical distance away from the hoop. Thus, the bifurcation makes it very important to control the launch speed accurately. If the air resistance is removed, the bifurcation disappears and the phase-space volume distribution becomes dispersionless and shrinks in magnitude.
Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.
Stöckel, Tino; Vater, Christian
In the present study we examined the interrelation of everyday life handedness and hand preference in basketball, as an area of expertise that requires individuals being proficient with both their non-dominant and dominant hand. A secondary aim was to elucidate the link between basketball-specific practice, hand preference in basketball and everyday life handedness. Therefore, 176 expert basketball players self-reported their hand preference for activities of daily living and for basketball-specific behavior as well as details about their basketball-specific history via questionnaire. We found that compared to the general population the one-hand bias was significantly reduced for both everyday life and basketball-specific hand preference (i.e., a higher prevalence of mixed-handed individuals), and that both concepts were significantly related. Moreover, only preference scores for lay-up and dribbling skills were significantly related to measures of basketball-specific practice. Consequently, training-induced modulations of lateral preference seem to be very specific to only a few basketball-specific skills, and do not generalize to other skills within the domain of basketball nor do they extend into everyday life handedness. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance regarding theories of handedness and their practical implications for the sport of basketball.
Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…
Basketball is one of the favorite sports of the masses, in order to allow a more efficient conduct of basketball for the college student sports activities, it can play a positive role in promoting to enable students to love, enjoy basketball. This paper is to study the current situation and prevent the basketball damage.
Jeremy S. M. Greeter
Full Text Available We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep, allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta.
Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L
We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573
Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh
Full Text Available A new mathematical model describing the motion of manned maneuvering targets is presented. This model is simple to be implemented and closely represents the motion of maneuvering targets. The target maneuver or acceleration is correlated in time. Optimal Kalman filter is used as a tracking filter which results in effective tracker that prevents the loss of track or filter divergency that often occurs with conventional tracking filter when the target performs a moderate or heavy maneuver. Computer simulation studies show that the proposed tracker provides sufficient accuracy.
Butikov, Eugene I.
Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.
Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu
Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maneuvering characteristics. 109.564 Section 109.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.564 Maneuvering characteristics. (a) The master or person in charge of...
The paper reports on mechanical rock cutting in surface mining. Mining technology has moved a long way in recent years and the mining equipments achieved considerable success in direct rock cutting. 3 figs.
Full Text Available Considered the leading position of the preparation of basketball teams in high schools. The system includes the following: reliance on top-quality players in the structure of preparedness, widespread use of visual aids, teaching movies and cartoons with a record of technology implementation of various methods by professional basketball players, the application of the methods of autogenic and ideomotor training according to our methodology. The study involved 63 students 1.5 courses from various universities of Kharkov 1.2 digits: 32 experimental group and 31 - control. The developed system of training students, basketball players used within 1 year. The efficiency of the developed system in the training process of students, basketball players.
Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.
The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its four-year Prime Mission to study Saturn's system in July 2004. Two tour extensions followed: a two-year Equinox Mission beginning in July 2008 and a seven-year Solstice Mission starting in September 2010. This paper highlights Cassini maneuver activities from June 2010 through June 2011, covering the transition from the Equinox to Solstice Mission. This interval included 38 scheduled maneuvers, nine targeted Titan flybys, three targeted Enceladus flybys, and one close Rhea flyby. In addition, beyond the demanding nominal navigation schedule, numerous unforeseen challenges further complicated maneuver operations. These challenges will be discussed in detail.
Jennifer H Fewell
Full Text Available We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1 whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2 whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 27.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences (AFS), in collaboration with the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL), proposed the Synthetic Imaging Maneuver Optimization (SIMO) program...
Love basketball? Want to become more involved with the game? Virginia Tech Recreational Sports is hosting High School Basketball Officiating Certification classes held in the McComas Hall conference room this fall semester.
Appel, Leonid; Guelman, Moshe; Mishne, David
Constellation satellites are required to perform orbital transfer maneuvers. Orbital transfer maneuvers, as opposed to orbital correction maneuvers, are seldom performed but require a substantial amount of propellant for each maneuver. The maneuvers are performed in order to obtain the desired constellation configuration that satisfies the coverage requirements. In most cases, the single-satellite position is immaterial; rather the relative position between constellation multiple-satellites is to be controlled. This work deals with the solution to the coupled optimization problem of multiple-satellite orbital transfer. The studied problem involves a coupled formulation of the terminal conditions of the satellites. The solution was achieved using functional optimization techniques by a combined algorithm. The combined algorithm is based on the First Order Gradient and Neighboring-Extremals Algorithms. An orbital transfer optimization tool was developed. This software has the ability to consider multiple satellites with coupled terminal conditions. A solution to the multiple-satellite orbital transfer optimization problem is presented. A comparison of this solution to the uncoupled case is presented in order to review the benefits of using this approach. It is concluded that the coupled transfer maneuver solution approach is more computationally efficient and more accurate. Numerical solutions for a number of representative cases are presented.
Sindik, Josko; Adzija, Maja
The main aims of the study were: to explore the latent structure of the construct of hardiness at Croatian top basketball players and to gain an understanding of the relationship between obtained hardiness dimensions and situation-related efficacy in basketball. Situation efficacy of individual basketball players in top teams is linked to the constellation of a number of relevant anthropological and specific psychological features that influence the behavior of basketball players in stressful...
Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Zhu, Weimo
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player's offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a…
Keck, Mason; You, Tung-Han; Antreasian, Peter
Maneuver reconstructions for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) A and B lunar orbiters were improved through updates to the orbit determination filter and dynamic models. Consistent reconstructions of the 27 GRAIL A and B maneuvers from the Trans-Lunar Cruise phase in the fall of 2011 through the Transition to Science Formation phase in February 2012 were performed. Standard methods of orbit determination were applied incorporating the latest dynamic models and filter strategies developed by the GRAIL Navigation and Science Teams, including a high resolution, 420 x 420 degree and order lunar spherical harmonic gravity field model. For Trans-Lunar Cruise for GRAIL-A (TLC-A), all maneuvers executed with delta V errors below 5.50 +/- 0.50 mm/s and pointing errors below 0.25 degrees. GRAIL-A lunar orbit maneuvers had delta V errors below 30.0 mm/s and pointing errors below 0.51 degrees. For TLC-B, all maneuvers executed with delta V errors below 8.60 +/- 1.41 mm/s and pointing errors below 0.300 degrees. GRAIL-B maneuvers in lunar orbit executed with maximum delta V errors of 25.0 mm/s and pointing error of 0.43 degrees. These maneuver reconstructions will enable the GRAIL Navigation Team to better characterize the main engine performance of each spacecraft. This will help the Navigation Team to navigate low (greater than 8 km) altitude orbits during the extended mission phase in the fall of 2012.
Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.
To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.
Merticaru, E.; Budescu, E.; Iacob, R. M.
The paper deals with the inverse dynamics of a kinematic chain of the human upper limb when throwing the ball at the basketball, aiming to calculate the torques required to put in action the technical system. The kinematic chain respects the anthropometric features regarding the length and mass of body segments. The kinematic parameters of the motion were determined by measuring the angles of body segments during a succession of filmed pictures of a throw, and the interpolation of these values and determination of the interpolating polynomials for each independent geometric coordinate. Using the Lagrange equations, there were determined the variations with time of the required torques to put in motion the kinematic chain of the type of triple physical pendulum. The obtained values show, naturally, the fact that the biggest torque is that for mimetic articulation of the shoulder, being comparable with those obtained by the brachial biceps muscle of the analyzed human subject. Using the obtained data, there can be conceived the mimetic technical system, of robotic type, with application in sports, so that to perform the motion of ball throwing, from steady position, at the basket.
Medola, Fausto O; Dao, Phuc V; Caspall, Jayme J; Sprigle, Stephen
This paper describes a systematic method to partition the kinetic energy (KE) of a free-wheeling wheelchair. An ultralightweight rigid frame wheelchair was instrumented with two axle-mounted encoders and data acquisition equipment to accurately measure the velocity of the drive wheels. A mathematical model was created combining physical specifications and geometry of the wheelchair and its components. Two able-bodied subjects propelled the wheelchair over four courses that involved straight and turning maneuvers at differing speeds. The KE of the wheelchair was divided into three components: translational, rotational, and turning energy. This technique was sensitive to the changing contributions of the three energy components across maneuvers. Translational energy represented the major component of total KE in all maneuvers except a zero radius turn in which turning energy was dominant. Both translational and rotational energies are directly related to wheelchair speed. Partitioning KE offers a useful means of investigating the dynamics of a moving wheelchair. The described technique permits analysis of KE imparted to the wheelchair during maneuvers involving changes in speed and direction, which are most representative of mobility in everyday life. This technique can be used to study the effort required to maneuver different types and configurations of wheelchairs.
We present evidence, based on play-by-play data from all 6087 games from the 2006/07--2009/10 seasons of the National Basketball Association (NBA), that basketball scoring is well described by a weakly-biased continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between different scoring intervals. Using this random-walk picture that is augmented by features idiosyncratic to basketball, we account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead. By further including the heterogeneity of team strengths, we build a computational model that accounts for essentially all statistical features of game scoring data and season win/loss records of each team.
Optimizing the performance of a basketball offense may be viewed as a network problem, wherein each play represents a ``pathway'' through which the ball and players may move from origin (the in-bounds pass) to goal (the basket). Effective field goal percentages from the resulting shot attempts can be used to characterize the efficiency of each pathway. Inspired by recent discussions of the ``price of anarchy'' in traffic networks, this paper makes a formal analogy between a basketball offense and a simplified traffic network. The analysis suggests that there may be a significant difference between taking the highest-percentage shot each time down the court and playing the most efficient possible game. There may also be an analogue of Braess's Paradox in basketball, such that removing a key player from a team can result in the improvement of the team's offensive efficiency.
Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N
The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and
Stone, W J; Steingard, P M
Year-round conditioning specifically designed for basketball has reached a high level of sophistication over the past several decades. There is growing evidence that it can contribute to improved performance and reduced injury. The major components of conditioning for basketball have been identified as anaerobic power (stages I and II), aerobic power, muscular strength/power/endurance, and flexibility. The concept of year-round conditioning uses the principles of periodization in work and rest to achieve peak performance and avoid injury. There are unique problems associated with the various levels of competition that require diligent monitoring on the part of the coach to maximize physical condition and avoid overtraining. PMID:8481961
Salvador Romero; Helena Vila; Carmen Ferragut; Alcaraz, Pedro E
The purpose of this study was to examine the power-strength curve in a half squat exercise in trained basketball players of the EBA league. For that, a cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out to 8 high-level male basketball players. After controlling the participants 1RM, a progressive test, consisted on moving loads of 30, 45, 60, 70 and 80% of 1RM as fast as possible in the concentric phase, was performed. The participants showed the highest peak power output with loads of 45%...
Ray, E. J.; Mckinney, L. W.; Carmichael, J. G.
Recent research efforts in the improvement of the maneuverability of fighter aircraft in the high-subsonic and transonic speed range are reviewed with emphasis on the factors affecting aerodynamic boundaries, such as maximum obtainable lift, buffet onset, pitchup, wing rock, and nose slice. The investigations were made using a general research configuration which encompassed a systematic matrix of wing-design parameters. These results illustrated the sensitivity of section and planform geometry to a selected design point. The incorporation of variable-geometry wing devices in the form of flaps or leading-edge slats was shown to provide controlled flow over a wide range of flight conditions and substantial improvements in maneuver capabilities. Additional studies indicated that the blending of a highly swept maneuver strake with an efficient, moderately swept wing offers a promising approach for improving maneuver characteristics at high angles of attack without excessive penalties in structural weight.
Sunada S.; Wang H.; Zeng Lijiang; Kawachi K.
Wing motion of a dragonfly in the maneuvering flight, which was measured by Wang et al.  was investigated. Equations of motion for a maneuvering flight of an insect were derived. These equations were applied for analyzing the maneuvering flight. Inertial forces and moments acting on a body and wings were estimated by using these equations and the measured motions of the body and the wings. The results indicated the following characteristics of this flight: (1) The phase difference in flapping motion between the two fore wings and two hind wings, and the phase difference between the flapping motion and the feathering motion of the four wings are equal to those in a steady forward flight with the maximum efficiency. (2)The camber change and the feathering motion were mainly controlled by muscles at the wing bases.
Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun
The Cassini Spacecraft was launched in October 1997 on a mission to observe Saturn and its moons; it entered orbit around Saturn in July 2004 for a nominal four-year Prime Mission, later augmented by two extensions: the Equinox Mission, from July 2008 through September 2010, and the Solstice Mission, from October 2010 through September 2017. This paper provides an overview of the maneuver activities from August 2011 through June 2012 which include the design of 38 Orbit Trim Maneuvers--OTM-288 through OTM-326-- for attaining 14 natural satellite encounters: seven with Titan, six with Enceladus, and one with Dione.
Alice Mado Proverbio; Nicola Crotti; Mirella Manfredi; Roberta Adorni; Alberto Zani
While the existence of a mirror neuron system (MNS) representing and mirroring simple purposeful actions (such as reaching) is known, neural mechanisms underlying the representation of complex actions (such as ballet, fencing, etc.) that are learned by imitation and exercise are not well understood. In this study, correct and incorrect basketball actions were visually presented to professional basketball players and naïve viewers while their EEG was recorded. The participants had to respond t...
Preparing one's team for success on the basketball court involves a combination of strategies. One of the most effective but often overlooked strategies is a scouting report. A complete and thorough scouting report will have information about an opponent that helps prepare oneself and the team players for competition. Several areas need to be…
Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Cuzzolin, Francesco; Vando, Stefano; Ardigò, Luca Paolo
The free throw (FT) is a fundamental basketball skill used frequently during a match. Most of actual play occurs at about 85% of maximum heart rate (HR). Metabolic intensity, through fatigue, may influence a technically skilled move as the FT is. Twenty-eight under 17 basketball players were studied while shooting FTs on a regular indoor basketball court. We investigated FT accuracy in young male basketball players shooting at three different HRs: at rest, at 50% and at 80% of maximum experimentally obtained HR value. We found no significant FT percentage difference between rest and 50% of the maximum HR (FT percentage about 80%; P > 0.05). Differently, at 80% of the maximum HR the FT percentage decreased significantly by more than 20% (P < 0.001) down to about 60%. No preliminary warm-up is needed before entering game for the FT accuracy. Furthermore, we speculate that time-consuming, cooling-off routines usually performed by shooters before each FT may be functional to improve its accuracy. PMID:25529051
Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.
One of a series of coaching guides for Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this booklet focuses on basketball instruction for mentally retarded persons. An initial section introduces the sport and discusses general coaching ideas. Goals, objectives, and benefits are listed along with information on clothing and court…
Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to identify the competencies of Basketball coaches in Greece. The current study is based on previous work done by Rodrigues et al, (11, and Tripolitsioti et al, (14,17, who measured competencies both in Portuguese basketball coaches and directors of indoor sport facilities in Greece. Two hundred and forty five basketball coaches of three Greek Divisions (first, second and third participated in the study and completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 5 factors consisting of 21 competency statements: Sport science/practice (6 items, communication/leadership (5 items, first aid/risk management (2 items, computer skills (4 items, and programming 4 items. Moreover, the results demonstrated that first aid and training skills were the top rated competencies, following by management and computer skills, while facility & event management were the low rated competencies. These results validate that the successful basketball coaches didn’t only have training competencies, but management, computer skills, first aid, communication, facility management and event management.
Tan, A.; Miller, G.
The kinematics of the two basic styles of free throw in basketball are discussed. It is shown that from a purely kinematic and trajectory point of view, the overhand push shot is preferable to the underhand loop shot. The advantages of the underhand shot lie in the actual execution of the shot.
Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Cuzzolin, Francesco; Vando, Stefano; Ardigò, Luca Paolo
The free throw (FT) is a fundamental basketball skill used frequently during a match. Most of actual play occurs at about 85% of maximum heart rate (HR). Metabolic intensity, through fatigue, may influence a technically skilled move as the FT is. Twenty-eight under 17 basketball players were studied while shooting FTs on a regular indoor basketball court. We investigated FT accuracy in young male basketball players shooting at three different HRs: at rest, at 50% and at 80% of maximum experimentally obtained HR value. We found no significant FT percentage difference between rest and 50% of the maximum HR (FT percentage about 80%; P > 0.05). Differently, at 80% of the maximum HR the FT percentage decreased significantly by more than 20% (P < 0.001) down to about 60%. No preliminary warm-up is needed before entering game for the FT accuracy. Furthermore, we speculate that time-consuming, cooling-off routines usually performed by shooters before each FT may be functional to improve its accuracy.
In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…
This paper is about the use of avatars and maneuvering in virtual environments for simulation-based design ergonomics. An avatar is a digital human model driven by an instrumented human who is immersed in a virtual environment. A presentation on locomotion devices is followed by descriptions of vari
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating maneuvering speed. 23.1507... Limitations and Information § 23.1507 Operating maneuvering speed. The maximum operating maneuvering speed, VO, must be established as an operating limitation. VO is a selected speed that is not greater than...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maneuver area roads. 660.517 Section 660.517 Highways... PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.517 Maneuver area roads. (a) Claims by a highway agency for costs incurred to restore, to their former condition, roads damaged by maneuvers involving...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maneuvering flight load factors. 25.1531... Operating Limitations § 25.1531 Maneuvering flight load factors. Load factor limitations, not exceeding the positive limit load factors determined from the maneuvering diagram in § 25.333(b), must be established....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 25.337... Conditions § 25.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) Except where limited by maximum (static) lift... maneuvering load factors prescribed in this section. Pitching velocities appropriate to the corresponding...
Min, Byeong June
The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of the Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court positions and height. The phase space volume that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations are then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but human factors as well.
Rienhoff, Rebecca; Hopwood, Melissa J; Fischer, Lennart; Strauss, Bernd; Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Jörg
The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills.
Plotkin, Kenneth J.
A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study is that focus factors and footprint areas for high-g fighter maneuvers are substantially smaller than those for gentle maneuvers associated with larger aircraft.
韩红; 刘允才; 韩崇昭; 朱洪艳; 文戎
In target tracking study, the fast target maneuver detecting and highly accurate tracking are very important.And it is difficult to be solved. For the radar/infrared image fused tracking system, a extend Kalman filter combines with a neural fuzzy inference network to be used in maneuvering target tracking. The features related to the target maneuver are extracted from radar, infrared measurements and outputs of tracking filter, and are sent into the neural fuzzy inference network as inputs firstly, and then the target's maneuver inputs are estimated, so that, the accurate tracking is achieved. The simulation results indicate that the new method is valuable for maneuvering target tracking.
Jaret Treber; Rachel Levy; Victor Matheson
This paper adds to the literature on competitive balance in college sports by comparing men's and women's NCAA basketball. Using data from the Division I National Championships, we find evidence consistent with the idea that women’s college basketball is less competitively balanced than men’s college basketball. We argue that this difference may be explained by a theory of player ability borrowed from evolutionary biology first promulgated by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould and subsequently ...
Gururaj Puranik; Basavaraj Dammalli
The purpose of the study was to investigate the variation in competitive state anxiety among adolescent male basketball players during a tournament. In all 113 male basketball adolescent players, who represented ten schools of Dharwad district participated in basketball tournament constituted sample for the study. Tool ‘Sports Competitive State Anxiety Inventory – II’ was administered to the participants for 20 minutes prior to their match. The inventory provided scores on state cognitive anx...
Danyarov, Elvin; Smart, Oscar
The research examines and explores the differences and similarities between how the social media platform of Facebook is used in the context of the basketball industry. The research centers on the respective Finnish and Swedish basketball leagues. More precisely, the study scrutinizes nine basketball teams social media representatives – four Finnish and five Swedish – perceptions on how their respective sport clubs act on the medium of Facebook, through the use of relevant marketing theories....
Takahata, O; Kubota, M; Mamiya, K; Akama, Y; Nozaka, T; Matsumoto, H; Ogawa, H
The displacement of the larynx in the three specific directions (a) posteriorly against the cervical vertebrae, (b) superiorly as possible, and (c) slightly laterally to the right have been reported and named the "BURP" maneuver. We evaluated the efficacy of the BURP maneuver in improving visualization of the larynx. Six hundred thirty patients without obvious malformation of the head and neck participated in this study. We divided the degree of visualization of the larynx using laryngoscopy into five grades and compared the visualization of the larynx using the BURP maneuver with that of laryngoscopy with and without simple laryngeal pressure ("Back"). The maneuver of Back and BURP significantly improved the laryngoscopic visualization from initial inspection. The BURP maneuver also significantly improved the visualization compared with the Back maneuver. We concluded that the BURP maneuver improved the visualization of the larynx more easily than simple back pressure on the larynx. PMID:9024040
Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)
An orbital launch system and its method of operation use a maneuver to improve the launch condition of a booster rocket and payload. A towed launch aircraft, to which the booster rocket is mounted, is towed to a predetermined elevation and airspeed. The towed launch aircraft begins the maneuver by increasing its lift, thereby increasing the flight path angle, which increases the tension on the towline connecting the towed launch aircraft to a towing aircraft. The increased tension accelerates the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket, while decreasing the speed (and thus the kinetic energy) of the towing aircraft, while increasing kinetic energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket by transferring energy from the towing aircraft. The potential energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket is also increased, due to the increased lift. The booster rocket is released and ignited, completing the launch.
Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís
In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.
Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.
Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.
Kempka, S. N.; Strickland, J. H.
The objective of the 'Hydrodynamics of Maneuvering Bodies' LDRD project was to develop a Lagrangian, vorticity-based numerical simulation of the fluid dynamics associated with a maneuvering submarine. Three major tasks were completed. First, a vortex model to simulate the wake behind a maneuvering submarine was completed, assuming the flow to be inviscid and of constant density. Several simulations were performed for a dive maneuver, each requiring less than 20 cpu seconds on a workstation. The technical details of the model and the simulations are described in a separate document, but are reviewed herein. Second, a gridless method to simulate diffusion processes was developed that has significant advantages over previous Lagrangian diffusion models. In this model, viscous diffusion of vorticity is represented by moving vortices at a diffusion velocity, and expanding the vortices as specified by the kinematics for a compressible velocity field. This work was also documented previously and is only reviewed herein. The third major task completed was the development of a vortex model to describe inviscid internal wave phenomena and is the focus of this document. Internal wave phenomena in the stratified ocean can affect an evolving wake and thus, must be considered for naval applications. The vortex model for internal wave phenomena includes a new formulation for the generation of vorticity due to fluid density variations and a vortex adoption algorithm that allows solutions to be carried to much longer times than previous investigations. Since many practical problems require long-time solutions, this new adoption algorithm is a significant step toward making vortex methods applicable to practical problems. Several simulations are described and compared with previous results to validate and show the advantages of the new model. An overview of this project is also included.
Kempka, S.N.; Strickland, J.H.
The objective of the ``Hydrodynamics of Maneuvering Bodies`` LDRD project was to develop a Lagrangian, vorticity-based numerical simulation of the fluid dynamics associated with a maneuvering submarine. Three major tasks were completed. First, a vortex model to simulate the wake behind a maneuvering submarine was completed, assuming the flow to be inviscid and of constant density. Several simulations were performed for a dive maneuver, each requiring less than 20 cpu seconds on a workstation. The technical details of the model and the simulations are described in a separate document, but are reviewed herein. Second, a gridless method to simulate diffusion processes was developed that has significant advantages over previous Lagrangian diffusion models. In this model, viscous diffusion of vorticity is represented by moving vortices at a diffusion velocity, and expanding the vortices as specified by the kinematics for a compressible velocity field. This work has also been documented previously, and is only reviewed herein. The third major task completed was the development of a vortex model to describe inviscid internal wave phenomena, and is the focus of this document. Internal wave phenomena in the stratified ocean can affect an evolving wake, and thus must be considered for naval applications. The vortex model for internal wave phenomena includes a new formulation for the generation of vorticity due to fluid density variations, and a vortex adoption algorithm that allows solutions to be carried to much longer times than previous investigations. Since many practical problems require long-time solutions, this new adoption algorithm is a significant step toward making vortex methods applicable to practical problems. Several simulations are described and compared with previous results to validate and show the advantages of the new model. An overview of this project is also included.
Kristyn Peacock; Faith Pearson
A basketball was released from varying drop heights to simulate the impact speeds of a typical soft, medium, and hard dribble. This was repeated across four different surfaces that students typically play on–exposed aggregate concrete, maple wood flooring, EPI Outdoor Sport flooring, and playground rubber mesh. From the measured drop and bounce heights, the coefficient of restitution(COR)was calculated. It was concluded that only playground rubber mesh had COR’s below the regula...
Miller, James E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between role ambiguity, role conflict, win-loss record at current position, career win-loss record, school enrollment, total years as a head coach, total years as an assistant coach, and number of sports coached and burnout in men's varsity and junior varsity head high school basketball coaches. The subjects were all male coaches (n=64) from twenty-four counties in southwestern Virginia. The multiple regressio...
Gabel, Alan; Redner, Sidney
We analyze NBA basketball play-by-play data and found that scoring is well described by a weakly-biased, anti-persistent, continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between events. We account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead.
Fujiwara, K; Kiyota, N; Maekawa, M; Kunita, K; Kiyota, T; Maeda, K
We investigated saccade performance and prefrontal hemodynamics in basketball players with different skill levels. Subjects were 27 undergraduate basketball players and 13 non-athlete undergraduates (control group: CON). The players were divided into two groups: those who had played in the National Athletic Meet during high school or played regularly (n=13, elite group: ELI) and those who were bench warmers (n=14, skilled group: SKI). Horizontal eye movement and oxy-, deoxy-, and total-hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex during pro- and anti-saccade were measured using electro-oculography and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Only error rate in anti-saccade was less in ELI (4.8+/-4.0%) than SKI (13.7+/-12.6%) and CON (13.9+/-8.3%) (p<0.05). In ELI alone, oxy- (-0.15+/-0.18 mmol*mm) and total-Hb (-0.12+/-0.15 mmol*mm) during anti-saccade decreased significantly compared with that during rest (p<0.05), while those in CON significantly increased (oxy-Hb: 0.17+/-0.15 mmol*mm, total-Hb: 0.14+/-0.14 mmol*mm) (p<0.05). These results suggest that inhibition of eye movement to a visual target changes from voluntary to automatic through the motor learning of basketball. PMID:19569008
Wang Yongjun; Dong Jiang; Liu Xiaodong; Zhang Lixin
To find a way of loads analysis from operational flight data for advanced aircraft, maneuver identification and standardization jobs are conducted in this paper. For thousands of sor-ties from one aircraft, after studying the flight attitude when performing actions, the start and end time of the maneuvers can be determined. According to those time points, various types of maneu-vers during the flight are extracted in the form of multi-parameters time histories. By analyzing the numerical range and curve shape of those parameters, a characteristic data library is established to model all types of maneuvers. Based on this library, a computer procedure using pattern-recogni-tion theory is programmed to conduct automatic maneuver identification with high accuracy. In that way, operational loads are classified according to maneuver type. For a group of identified maneuvers of the same type, after the processes of time normalization, trace shifting, as well as aver-aging and smoothing, the idealization standard time history of each maneuver type is established. Finally, the typical load statuses are determined successfully based on standard maneuvers. The proposed method of maneuver identification and standardization is able to derive operational loads effectively, and might be applied to monitoring loads in Individual Aircraft Tracking Program (IATP).
Full Text Available To find a way of loads analysis from operational flight data for advanced aircraft, maneuver identification and standardization jobs are conducted in this paper. For thousands of sorties from one aircraft, after studying the flight attitude when performing actions, the start and end time of the maneuvers can be determined. According to those time points, various types of maneuvers during the flight are extracted in the form of multi-parameters time histories. By analyzing the numerical range and curve shape of those parameters, a characteristic data library is established to model all types of maneuvers. Based on this library, a computer procedure using pattern-recognition theory is programmed to conduct automatic maneuver identification with high accuracy. In that way, operational loads are classified according to maneuver type. For a group of identified maneuvers of the same type, after the processes of time normalization, trace shifting, as well as averaging and smoothing, the idealization standard time history of each maneuver type is established. Finally, the typical load statuses are determined successfully based on standard maneuvers. The proposed method of maneuver identification and standardization is able to derive operational loads effectively, and might be applied to monitoring loads in Individual Aircraft Tracking Program (IATP.
Wen, Pei-Chih; Cheng, Wei-Chih; Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chu, Hung-Kuo; Tang, Nick C; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark
We introduce a technique of calibrating camera motions in basketball videos. Our method particularly transforms player positions to standard basketball court coordinates and enables applications such as tactical analysis and semantic basketball video retrieval. To achieve a robust calibration, we reconstruct the panoramic basketball court from a video, followed by warping the panoramic court to a standard one. As opposed to previous approaches, which individually detect the court lines and corners of each video frame, our technique considers all video frames simultaneously to achieve calibration; hence, it is robust to illumination changes and player occlusions. To demonstrate the feasibility of our technique, we present a stroke-based system that allows users to retrieve basketball videos. Our system tracks player trajectories from broadcast basketball videos. It then rectifies the trajectories to a standard basketball court by using our camera calibration method. Consequently, users can apply stroke queries to indicate how the players move in gameplay during retrieval. The main advantage of this interface is an explicit query of basketball videos so that unwanted outcomes can be prevented. We show the results in Figs. 1, 7, 9, 10 and our accompanying video to exhibit the feasibility of our technique. PMID:27504515
Ryan M. Rodenberg; Jun Woo Kim
We show that precocity, as measured by the age of entry into the elite-level professional basketball labor pool, often leads to better career outcomes. Our findings cast doubt on the on-court efficacy of the National Basketball Association's contentious age eligibility rule.
The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)
Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe
Roane, Henry S; Kelley, Michael E; Trosclair, Nicole M; Hauer, Lindsay S
Previous research has applied the behavioral momentum metaphor to men's college basketball. In the current investigation, the relative rate of reinforcement prior to and following adversities (e.g., turnovers, fouls) and periods of time-out were examined in a subset of women's college basketball games.
The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…
What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…
Wen, Pei-Chih; Cheng, Wei-Chih; Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chu, Hung-Kuo; Tang, Nick C; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark
We introduce a technique of calibrating camera motions in basketball videos. Our method particularly transforms player positions to standard basketball court coordinates and enables applications such as tactical analysis and semantic basketball video retrieval. To achieve a robust calibration, we reconstruct the panoramic basketball court from a video, followed by warping the panoramic court to a standard one. As opposed to previous approaches, which individually detect the court lines and corners of each video frame, our technique considers all video frames simultaneously to achieve calibration; hence, it is robust to illumination changes and player occlusions. To demonstrate the feasibility of our technique, we present a stroke-based system that allows users to retrieve basketball videos. Our system tracks player trajectories from broadcast basketball videos. It then rectifies the trajectories to a standard basketball court by using our camera calibration method. Consequently, users can apply stroke queries to indicate how the players move in gameplay during retrieval. The main advantage of this interface is an explicit query of basketball videos so that unwanted outcomes can be prevented. We show the results in Figs. 1, 7, 9, 10 and our accompanying video to exhibit the feasibility of our technique.
Roane, Henry S.; Kelley, Michael E.; Trosclair, Nicole M.; Hauer, Lindsay S.
Previous research has applied the behavioral momentum metaphor to men's college basketball. In the current investigation, the relative rate of reinforcement prior to and following adversities (e.g., turnovers, fouls) and periods of time-out were examined in a subset of women's college basketball games.
Malinauskas R.; Brusokas A.
This article deals with questions of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level. The research was carried out in two Lithuanian basketball leagues: Lithuanian Basketball League (elite division) and the Lithuanian student's basketball league. It was established statistically significant (p
Millslagle, Duane G
This study examined 30 experienced basketball players' recognition accuracy by sex, playing position (guard, forward, and center), and situations in the game of basketball. The study used a perceptual cognitive paradigm in which subjects viewed slides of structured and unstructured game situations and accurately recognized the presence or absence of the basketball. A significant difference in recognition accuracy by sex, players' position, and structure of the game situation was found. Male players' recognition accuracy was better than the female players'. The recognition accuracy of subjects who played guard was better than that of subjects who played forward or center. The players' recognition accuracy was more accurate when observing structured plays versus unstructured plays. The conclusion of this study suggested that experienced basketball players differ in their cognitive and visual searching processes by sex and player position within the sport of basketball.
A mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator of an operating ship reactor was presented. The model describes the coolant pressure increasing when filling the heat pipes system of cut-off leaking direct-flow steam generator, and allows estimating the time lag before putting restrictions on power maneuvering of the ship reactor
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
This study focused on the link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers. Various emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers were considered in response to different critical events that made the crash imminent. Partial proportional odds models that allowed for changes in effects...... crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, with differences emerging for different critical events. Moreover, results showed two trends:(a) most drivers failed to act when facing critical events and (b) drivers rarely performed crash avoidance maneuvers that were correlated with a higher probability...
SUN Bao-cai; QI Zai-kang
An optimum PN guidance law for maneuvering target is developed using optimal control theory. By estimating the target position and setting the cost function, the guidance law can be deduced even without knowing the missile lateral acceleration. Since the quadratic cost function can make a compromise between the miss distance andthe control constraint, the optimum guidance law obtained is more general. Also, introduced line of sight rate as the input, a practical form of this guidance law is derived. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the guidance laws.
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.
This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.
Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo
The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653
Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.
Full Text Available A basketball was released from varying drop heights to simulate the impact speeds of a typical soft, medium, and hard dribble. This was repeated across four different surfaces that students typically play on–exposed aggregate concrete, maple wood flooring, EPI Outdoor Sport flooring, and playground rubber mesh. From the measured drop and bounce heights, the coefficient of restitution(CORwas calculated. It was concluded that only playground rubber mesh had COR’s below the regulation range, with the other three surfaces having COR’s within regulation.
Full Text Available People make anticipatory changes in gait patterns prior to initiating a rapid change of direction. How they prepare will change based on their knowledge of the maneuver. To investigate specific and general strategies used to facilitate locomotor maneuvers, we manipulated subjects' ability to anticipate the direction of an upcoming lateral "lane-change" maneuver. To examine specific anticipatory adjustments, we observed the four steps immediately preceding a maneuver that subjects were instructed to perform at a known time in a known direction. We hypothesized that to facilitate a specific change of direction, subjects would proactively decrease margin of stability in the future direction of travel. Our results support this hypothesis: subjects significantly decreased lateral margin of stability by 69% on the side ipsilateral to the maneuver during only the step immediately preceding the maneuver. This gait adaptation may have improved energetic efficiency and simplified the control of the maneuver. To examine general anticipatory adjustments, we observed the two steps immediately preceding the instant when subjects received information about the direction of the maneuver. When the maneuver direction was unknown, we hypothesized that subjects would make general anticipatory adjustments that would improve their ability to actively initiate a maneuver in multiple directions. This second hypothesis was partially supported as subjects increased step width and stance phase hip flexion during these anticipatory steps. These modifications may have improved subjects' ability to generate forces in multiple directions and maintain equilibrium during the onset and execution of the rapid maneuver. However, adapting these general anticipatory strategies likely incurred an additional energetic cost.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control...
Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter; Wisniewski, Rafal
For traffic maneuvers of multiple vehicles on highways we build an abstract spatial and a concrete dynamic model. In the spatial model we show the safety (collision freedom) of lane-change maneuvers. By linking the spatial and dynamic model via suitable refinements of the spatial atoms to distance...... measures, the safety carries over to the concrete model....
Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui
The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system's performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369
Full Text Available The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS/global position system (GPS has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system’s performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions.
... determining elevator angles and chordwise load distribution in the maneuvering conditions of paragraphs (b.... (c) Pitch maneuver conditions. The conditions specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section must be investigated. The movement of the pitch control surfaces may be adjusted to take into...
Jiménez Sánchez, Ana Concepción; Ortega, Gema; Giménez, Francisco Javier; Castejón, Francisco Javier
Decision-making in players of sports such as basketball is essential to the sport activity itself. For this reason, decision-making is being researched in sports from a range of approaches and angles. The focus of this study is on understanding the decision-making profiles of basketball playing boys and girls (n=63), aged between 10 and 12. They belong to a basketball school with a distinct educational philosophy and an internal competition style that favour educational values required in spo...
Full Text Available The study of personal psychological features of young basketball players that influence the formation of sports skills and gain value for selection in basketball at the stage of initial training. At this stage of preparation identified personal characteristics (type of thinking, level of intellectual development, trait anxiety, volitional qualities, properties, attention, aggression, which show significant correlation between the parameters of readiness at certain time intervals during the initial training and, accordingly, at the age of young basketball players from 10 to 12 years.
Ardigo', L P; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L; Minetti, A E
The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic demand and mechanical work of different basketball wheelchairs that represented significant stages of its evolution from 1960 to date. Four subjects pushed each model on a basketball court at different speeds (from 0.90 to 2.35 m.s(-1)). During the trials, oxygen consumption was measured. Also, the different forms of mechanical work involved in the exercise were investigated. The oxygen consumption decreased from the oldest model to the next ones, remaining then quite constant. This was also the same with breathing and pushing frequencies. Both the work against air drag and rolling resistance decreased, air drag always played a minor role due to the low speeds investigated. The total mechanical work was highest in the oldest wheelchair and lowest in the newest one. The efficiencies were found similar for all the chairs but the most recent one (less efficient). Already by the 1970's the wheelchair economy had reached an acceptable level, at least partially because of its improved ergonomics. Yet, when focusing on the efficiency, the surprisingly low value with the newest model suggests factors other than the economy (need of better balance, responsiveness, and ground grip) as determinants of the evolution of this device. PMID:15895323
Full Text Available In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires, with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA. The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.
Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.
Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.
Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M
This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of step aerobic exercises on static balance, flexibility and selected basketball skills in young basketball players. A total of 20 basketball players (average age 16.1 ± 0.7 years and average sporting age 4.1 ± 0.7 years) voluntarily joined the study. Participants were randomly…
Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.
In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.
Sobko I. N.
Full Text Available Purpose - the comparison of competitive activity skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved female athletes Ukrainian National Team with hearing (n = 12 and healthy female athletes (n = 12. Technical protocols processed 20 games World Cup, Europe, Ukraine among deaf athletes. Processed records 20 games of the Ukrainian Championship. Found that healthy athletes for the game significantly longer perform and get into the basket fine and three point shots, fewer mistakes, but they are inferior in rebounds. Installed insignificant differences between the number of throws, entering the basket from the middle distance, interceptions in athletes with hearing impairment and healthy athletes. Recommended to increase the coherence of group and team interactions basketball with hearing during the game to use the special visual aids.
Panerai, R B; Saeed, N P; Robinson, T G
Arterial hypotension can be induced by sudden release of inflated thigh cuffs (THC), but its effects on the cerebral circulation have not been fully described. In nine healthy subjects [aged 59 (9) yr], bilateral cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was recorded in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), noninvasive arterial blood pressure (BP) in the finger, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) with nasal capnography. Three THC maneuvers were performed in each subject with cuff inflation 20 mmHg above systolic BP for 3 min before release. Beat-to-beat values were extracted for mean CBFV, BP, ETCO2 , critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance-area product (RAP), and heart rate (HR). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were also obtained using an autoregressive-moving average model. Coherent averages synchronized by the instant of cuff release showed significant drops in mean BP, CBFV, and RAP with rapid return of CBFV to baseline. HR, ETCO2 , and ARI(t) were transiently increased, but CrCP remained relatively constant. Mean values of ARI(t) for the 30 s following cuff release were not significantly different from the classical ARI [right MCA 5.9 (1.1) vs. 5.1 (1.6); left MCA 5.5 (1.4) vs. 4.9 (1.7)]. HR was strongly correlated with the ARI(t) peak after THC release (in 17/22 and 21/24 recordings), and ETCO2 was correlated with the subsequent drop in ARI(t) (19/22 and 20/24 recordings). These results suggest a complex cerebral autoregulatory response to the THC maneuver, dominated by myogenic mechanisms and influenced by concurrent changes in ETCO2 and possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex. PMID:25659488
Fishman, Matthew P.; Lombardo, Stephen J.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel
Background: Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. Hypothesis: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). Results: After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D–sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77
García, Javier; Ibáñez, Sergio J.; De Santos, Raúl Martinez; Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime
The aim of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best discriminate winners and losers in regular season and playoffs. The sample used was composed by 323 games of ACB Spanish Basketball League from the regular season (n=306) and from the playoffs (n=17). A previous cluster analysis allowed splitting the sample in balanced (equal or below 12 points), unbalanced (between 13 and 28 points) and very unbalanced games (above 28 points). A discriminant analys...
Souza Junior, Jesse Rebello; Tannuri, Eduardo Aoun; Oshiro, Anderson Takehiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica
This paper reports on two case studies making use of a digital simulator to investigate the maneuvering motions of ships in canals with shallow and restricted waters. The first case study corresponds to a maneuvering analysis conducted for the Port of Rio Grande (RS - Brazil), whose aim was to assess the potential impact upon maneuvers of the presence of a large offshore platform (the PETROBRAS P-53) which is to remain docked for several months at the Port to complete its construction. The second study made use of the simulator to evaluate the maneuvering conditions along the approach route and maneuvering basin of the Port of Ponta do Felix (PR - Brazil). The simulator includes a complete mathematical model of the ship dynamics in the horizontal plane when subjected to wind and current forces. It also comprises detailed models for the action of thrusters and propellers, both fixed and azimuth, employed to control maneuvers and dynamically position ships, as well as rudders and tugboats. He models used by the simulator allow for the effects of shallow and restricted waters, including the increase in resistance and lateral forces, increase in additional mass and the appearance of lateral and vertical suction (squatting). The simulator is implemented via an interactive interface through which the user is able to apply control actions (rudder angle, main engine, thrusters and tugboats) in real time during maneuvers, thereby reproducing to some extent the action of a pilot. (author)
Full Text Available This study arises from the importance of analyzing the coaching process and knowing how to coach in the first stages of sports initiation. The purpose of this study was to analyze how a basketball coach establishes teaching the game phases in youth categories, through the relationship between the pedagogical variables that define each of the coaching tasks. A total of 452 tasks, organized in 80 training sessions that were planned by a coach of mini-basketball (10-11 yearolds from the 2004-2005 season were analyzed. After a descriptive analysis of the game phase variable, a non-parametric inferential analysis (chi-square and contingency coefficient was carried out to study the relationships between the variables of the study (game phase, game situation, type of content, and content.The results make clear that for the coach that was analyzed, there is a disproportionate amount of work done on phases of offense to the detriment of defensive work. The aspects of the attack that are developed most are those without opposition, 1-on-0 (RAS=9.7 and to a lesser degree 1-on-1 (RAS=-10.7, although the opposite happens in the case of defensive fundamentals, 1-on-0 (RAS=-5.4 and 1-on-1 (RAS=12.3. A higher proportion of tasks without opposition, 1- on-0, were planned to work on individual offense technique (RAS=15.7, such as shooting. The analysis of the coaching process provides much information when generating sport teaching principles. The results have an important practical application, and they facilitate the process of continuing education and reflection on coaches' actions.
The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.
Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov
The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...
Olsen, Flemming Ove
The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...
Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J.
We present the results of experimental/theoretical studies on large momentum eddies generated in late wakes of unsteady moving self-propelled bodies in stratified fluids. The experiments were conducted with scaled submarine model at high Reynolds numbers (50,000), corresponding to the fully turbulent flow regime. Dye visualization and PIV were used for flow diagnostics. When a self-propelled body makes a maneuver, e.g. accelerates, it imparts net momentum on the surrounding fluid. We show that in a stratified fluid this leads to impulsive momentum wakes with large, long-lived coherent vortices in the late flows, which may be used as a signature for identification of submarine wakes in oceanic thermocline. First, we consider dynamics and properties of such wakes in a linearly stratified fluid and present a model that permits to predict the main flow characteristics. Second, we consider wakes in a two layer stratified fluid (analog of the upper ocean) and show that such wakes may penetrate to the water surface; we present a model for this phenomenon and propose criteria for the penetration of wake signatures to the water surface in terms of main governing parameters (signature contrast versus confinement number). Finally, we consider the evolution of such momentum wake eddies in the field of decaying background turbulence, which mimics the oceanic thermocline, and show that for the flow configuration studied the contrast number remains sufficiently large and detectable wake imprints survive for a long period of time. Some pertinent estimates for submarines cruising in the upper ocean are also given. For more details see [1-3]. This study was supported by grant from the Office of Naval Research. 1. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S., Smirnov S.A. & Morrison R.J. 2006. On surface signatures generated by submersed momentum sources. Phys. Fluids, under revision. 2. Voropayev S.I., Fernando H.J.S. & Morrison R.J. 2006. Dipolar eddies in a stratified turbulent flow. J. Fluid
Yun-fei GUO; Kong-shuai FAN; Dong-liang PENG; Ji-an LUO; Han SHENTU
To address the problem of maneuvering target tracking, where the target trajectory has prolonged smooth regions and abrupt maneuvering regions, a modifi ed variable rate particle fi lter (MVRPF) is proposed. First, a Cartesian-coordinate based variable rate model is presented. Compared with conventional variable rate models, the proposed model does not need any prior knowledge of target mass or external forces. Consequently, it is more convenient in practical tracking applications. Second, a maneuvering detection strategy is adopted to adaptively adjust the parameters in MVRPF, which helps allocate more state points at high maneuver regions and fewer at smooth regions. Third, in the presence of small measurement errors, the unscented particle fi lter, which is embedded in MVRPF, can move more particles into regions of high likelihood and hence can improve the tracking performance. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new pulsed electric thruster, named "pulsed electrogasdynamic thruster," for attitude control and orbit maneuver is proposed. In this thruster, propellant gas is...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Pulsed ElectroGasdynamic (PEG) thruster for attitude control and orbital maneuvering. In...
Ramesh K. Khurana, Md
Full Text Available Purpose : To quantitate the level of difficulty and determine consistency of hemodynamic responses with various expiratory strain (ES durations. Methods : Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the Valsalva maneuver (VM with an ES duration of 10, 12, and 15 seconds in random order. Level of difficulty after each trial was rated 1 to 10, with 10 being the most difficult. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously and non-invasively. Parameters studied were Valsalva ratio (VR, early phase II (IIE, late phase II (IIL, tachycardia latency (TL, bradycardia latency (BL, and overshoot latency (OV-L. Consistency of responses was calculated. Results : Difficulty increased significantly with increased ES duration: 5.1±0.1 (mean±SEM at 10 seconds, 5.9±0.1 at 12 seconds, and 6.8±0.1 at 15 seconds (p<0.001. Phase IIE, TL, BL, OV-L, and VR response did not differ statistically with increasing ES durations, and there were no differences in variability. Phase IIL response increased significantly with increasing ES duration. Phase IIL was poorly delineated in 14 of 102 trials with 10 seconds ES duration. Conclusions : ES duration of 10 seconds created a low level of difficulty in healthy individuals. This strain duration produced consistent hemodynamic response for all parameters tested except IIL phase. The absence of IIL phase with 10 seconds ES should not be interpreted as an indicator of sympathetic vasoconstrictor failure.
Karr, Charles L.
The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.
Santosh Bajpai; Avinash Yadav
The aim of the present study is to compare sports competitive anxiety between national, state and district level male basketball players. For present study, 100 national level male basketball players (Ave. age 25.12 yrs.), 100 state level male basketball players (Ave. age 22.34 yrs.) and 100 district level male basketball players (Ave. age 21.92 yrs.) were selected as sample. The sample was collected through convenience sampling method. Sports Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT) constructed and s...
Da Corte, Dennis
The use of mechanical vibrations has become a very common technique in the training of athletes. Some studies highlight that this kind of training is able to increase the force of the muscles, but is seems to decrease the capacity of controlling the movements by the subject. This aspect could increase the risk of ACL injuries. The aim of this project is to develop a computational model to analyze how a warming up with mechanical vibrations can a ect the biomechanical behavior of the low...
Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others
Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.
Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten
This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....
Rand, David; Reilly, Jacqueline; Schiff, Conrad
As the lead satellite in NASA's growing Earth Observing System (EOS) PM constellation, it is increasingly critical that Aqua maintain its various orbit requirements. The two of interest for this paper are maintaining an orbit inclination that provides for a consistent mean local time and a semi-major Axis (SMA) that allows for ground track repeatability. Maneuvers to adjust the orbit inclination involve several flight dynamics constraints and complexities which make planning such maneuvers challenging. In particular, coupling between the orbital and attitude degrees of freedom lead to changes in SMA when changes in inclination are effected. A long term mission mean local time trend analysis was performed in order to determine the size and placement of the required inclination maneuvers. Following this analysis, detailed modeling of each burn and its Various segments was performed to determine its effects on the immediate orbit state. Data gathered from an inclination slew test of the spacecraft and first inclination maneuver uncovered discrepancies in the modeling method that were investigated and resolved. The new modeling techniques were applied and validated during the second spacecraft inclination maneuver. These improvements should position Aqua to successfully complete a series of inclination maneuvers in the fall of 2004. The following paper presents the events and results related
Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.
The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations
Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula
Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…
Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean
The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…
@@ On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speedboats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations and surface ship formations." The exercise was a component in a military campaign coded "Sword-2010."
On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speed-boats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations
Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M
Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. A match is characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery after any basketball activity (i.e., match or training), it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and, if possible, its underlying mechanisms. Despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery, certain recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the main aim of this report is to facilitate useful information that may lead to practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge specifically in basketball.
Ghuntla Tejas P.
Full Text Available Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time measured. During the reaction time testing, auditory stimuli were given for three times and minimum reaction time was taken as the final reaction time for that sensory modality of that subject. The results were statistically analyzed and were recorded as mean + standard deviation and student’s unpaired t-test was applied to check the level of significance. The study shows that basketball players have shorter reaction time than healthy controls. As reaction time gives the information how fast a person gives a response to sensory stimuli, it is a good indicator of performance in reactive sports like basketball. Sportsman should be trained to improve their reaction time to improve their performance.
Scozzafava, G.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Corsi, A.;
There are a large number of different beef cuts, which are produced in a complementary relationship. Research so far has mainly focused on single cuts and is often limited to either T-bone steaks or ground beef separately. Although the cuts are produced complementary, they compete against each ot...
Fay, K; Breslin, G; Czyż, S H; Pizlo, Z
We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (pline (plines. PMID:23981485
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of a training program for basketball. Effectiveness in this case was determined by the program's ability to decrease the rate of injury and to increase athletic performance on the basketball court. The search for a program to help prevent serious knee ligament injuries has resulted in a plyometric type of training program. The first stage began eight weeks before basketball season, the second three days before the season started. Upon completion of the second testing session, both male and female participants had improved in all tests administered. This shows that a supervised, scientifically developed program consisting of sports-specific material can result in an increase in sports performance. There were no injuries reported during the training period or during the season lending credence to the fact that a program of this type can result in injury reduction. PMID:17288098
Yde, J; Nielsen, A B
In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and leg 10 per cent, and tendinitis/apophysitis 12 per cent. The most serious injuries were four fractures, one anterior cruciate ligament rupture, and two meniscus lesions. The most serious injuries, with the longest rehabilitation period, occurred in soccer. In soccer, many injuries occurred during tackling and contact with an opposing player, while the injuries in handball and basketball were often caused by ball contact and running. PMID:2350669
Fontanella, John J.
The flight of a basketball is considered.1 Video analysis of the path and spin for several shots was carried out. It is shown that four forces are required to reproduce the trajectory: gravity, buoyancy, the drag force and the Magnus force. The relative contribution of each force is determined. The model is used to evaluate what it is that good shooters do. For a foul shot, the approach speed (speed when the basketball is just above the rim), launch speed, and launch angle were calculated. It is found that the minimum in the approach speed occurs at a launch angle closer to the experimental values for good shooters than does the minimum in the launch speed. This suggests the hoopothesis that a good shooter strives for the “softest” shot. 1. J. J. Fontanella, The Physics of Basketball, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006.
Venditti, Flaviane; Rocco, E. M.; Almeida Prado, A. B.
Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): In the solar system there are many small bodies called asteroids. The large majority of these bodies are located in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. The Near- Earth Objects, or NEOs, are objects with perihelion below 1.3AU, which include comets and asteroids. The NEOs are considered to have orbits passing close to the Earth’s orbit and, in the case of asteroids, are called Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Among the NEAs there are bodies considered potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), whose minimum orbit intersection distance with Earth is 0.05AU and that have absolute magnitude (H) of 22, which would mean an asteroid of at least 110-240 meters, depending on its albedo. One of the major characteristic of the asteroids is the irregular shape, causing the dynamics of orbits around these bodies to be different from a spherical shaped one. The fact that an object is not spherical generates a perturbation on the gravitational field. The disturbing force can be determined considering the shape of the specific body. A satellite orbiting this body would suffer the effects of this perturbation, but knowing the disturbing force, it’s possible to correct and control the orbit according to the desired mission. The polyhedron method is a traditional way to model an asteroid by dividing the object into smaller parts. The data used on this work are composed by a combination of triangular faces. The total disturbing force is a sum of the force on each piece of the model. Therefore, after the simulations are obtained, it’s possible to apply the desired corrections of the perturbation using continuous low thrust in closed loop, making it possible to perform maneuvers near these bodies. One of the important applications of the study shown above is in the ASTER mission, that is under study by INPE and several other Brazilian academic institutions, which goal is to send a spacecraft to an asteroid and then
Although "hot hands" in basketball are illusory, the belief in them is so robust that it not only has sparked many debates but may also affect the behavior of players and coaches. On the basis of an entire National Basketball Association season's worth of data, the research reported here shows that even a single successful shot suffices to increase a player's likelihood of taking the next team shot, increase the average distance from which this next shot is taken, decrease the probability that this next shot is successful, and decrease the probability that the coach will replace the player. PMID:23630221
José M. Sánchez Santos; Pablo Castellanos García; Jesus A. Dopico Castro
The main objective of this paper is to provide an empirical assessment of the production process in a basketball team. We estimate a logit model in which the output produced by a team is the game outcome (win or loss) and the inputs are those play characteristics that impact on that outcome. From the results obtained it is clear that, on average, there is a substantial difference between the impact of each play characteristic on a basketball team’s winning probability and that probability var...
Yde, J; Nielsen, A. B.
In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and leg 10 per cent, and tendinitis/apophysitis 12 per cent. The most serious injuries were four fractures, one anterior cruciate ligament ru...
Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki; André Luiz Félix Rodacki
The present study analyzed the effect of increased distance on basketball jump shot outcome and performance. Ten male expert basketball players were filmed and a number of kinematic variables analyzed during jump shot that were performed from three conditions to represent close, intermediate and far distances (2.8, 4.6, and 6.4m, respectively). Shot accuracy decreased from 59% (close) to 37% (far), in function of the task constraints (p < 0.05). Ball release height decreased (p < 0.05) from 2...
A Swing-By maneuver occurs when a satellite approaches a celestial body to gain or lose energy from its gravitational field. The present work studies Swing-By maneuvers that are combined with the use of an impulsive thrust in different directions during the passage of the spacecraft by the periapsis of its trajectory around the Moon. The main objective of this type of maneuver is the fuel economy for orbital transfers. From the results, it is visible that the best direction to apply the impulse is not the direction to the motion of the spacecraft, as might be expected. In fact, by using a different direction, it is possible to maximize the effects of the Swing-By by decreasing the periapsis distance and/or increasing the turning angle of the maneuver, that are the key parameters to specify the variation of energy due to the Swing-By. The changes in the periapsis distance and turning angle cause modifications in the geometry of the original Swing-By, generating a maneuver with new parameters. This new Swing-By compensates for the loss of energy transfer that results of applying the impulse in a in a non-tangential direction
Ricardo C Nogueira
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of handgrip (HG maneuver on time-varying estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA using the autoregressive moving average technique. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were recruited to perform HG maneuver during 3 minutes with 30% of maximum contraction force. Cerebral blood flow velocity, end-tidal CO₂ pressure (PETCO₂, and noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP were continuously recorded during baseline, HG and recovery. Critical closing pressure (CrCP, resistance area-product (RAP, and time-varying autoregulation index (ARI were obtained. RESULTS: PETCO₂ did not show significant changes during HG maneuver. Whilst ABP increased continuously during the maneuver, to 27% above its baseline value, CBFV raised to a plateau approximately 15% above baseline. This was sustained by a parallel increase in RAP, suggestive of myogenic vasoconstriction, and a reduction in CrCP that could be associated with metabolic vasodilation. The time-varying ARI index dropped at the beginning and end of the maneuver (p<0.005, which could be related to corresponding alert reactions or to different time constants of the myogenic, metabolic and/or neurogenic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Changes in dynamic CA during HG suggest a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms during static exercise that should be considered when assessing the determinants of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.
Lapinsky, Stephen E; Mehta, Sangeeta
In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the lung comprises areas of aeration and areas of alveolar collapse, the latter producing intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxemia. The currently suggested strategy of ventilation with low lung volumes can aggravate lung collapse and potentially produce lung injury through shear stress at the interface between aerated and collapsed lung, and as a result of repetitive opening and closing of alveoli. An 'open lung strategy' focused on alveolar patency has therefore been recommended. While positive end-expiratory pressure prevents alveolar collapse, recruitment maneuvers can be used to achieve alveolar recruitment. Various recruitment maneuvers exist, including sustained inflation to high pressures, intermittent sighs, and stepwise increases in positive end-expiratory pressure or peak inspiratory pressure. In animal studies, recruitment maneuvers clearly reverse the derecruitment associated with low tidal volume ventilation, improve gas exchange, and reduce lung injury. Data regarding the use of recruitment maneuvers in patients with ARDS show mixed results, with increased efficacy in those with short duration of ARDS, good compliance of the chest wall, and in extrapulmonary ARDS. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic basis for the use of recruitment maneuvers and recent evidence, as well as the practical application of the technique. PMID:15693985
Chung, Min-Kun J.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Wagner, Sean V.; Williams, Jessica L.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has provided communication relays for a number of Mars spacecraft. In 2016 MRO is expected to support a relay for NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) spacecraft. In addition, support may be needed by another mission, ESA's ExoMars EDL Demonstrator Module's (EDM), only 21 days after the InSight coverage. The close proximity of these two events presents a unique challenge to a conventional orbit synchronization maneuver where one deterministic maneuver is executed prior to each relay. Since the two events are close together and the difference in required phasing between InSight and EDM may be up to half an orbit (yielding a large execution error), the downtrack timing error can increase rapidly at the EDM encounter. Thus, a new maneuver strategy that does not require a deterministic maneuver in-between the two events (with only a small statistical cleanup) is proposed in the paper. This proposed strategy rests heavily on the stability of the mean orbital period. The ability to search and set the specified mean period is fundamental in the proposed maneuver design as well as in understanding the scope of the problem. The proposed strategy is explained and its result is used to understand and solve the problem in the flight operations environment.
A G-RAC attitude-control algorithm is used to minimize maneuver execution error in a spacecraft with a flexible appendage when said spacecraft must induce translational momentum by firing (in open loop) large thrusters along a desired direction for a given period of time. The controller is dynamic with two integrators and requires measurement of only the angular position and velocity of the spacecraft. The global stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed without having access to the states describing the dynamics of the appendage and with severe saturation in the available torque. Spacecraft apply open-loop thruster firings to induce a desired translational momentum with an extended appendage. This control algorithm will assist this maneuver by stabilizing the attitude dynamics around a desired orientation, and consequently minimize the maneuver execution errors.
Melfi, James; Lin, Huai-Ti; Mischiati, Matteo; Leonardo, Anthony; Wang, Z. Jane
What make dragonflies such interesting fliers are the unsteady high-speed aerial maneuvers they perform. Until recently, the study of dragonflies in mid-flight has been limited to steady-state motions such as hovering and forward flight. In this talk, we report our kinematic analyses of the dragonfly flight recorded in a custom dragonfly arena at HHMI, Janelia Farm. Dragonfly's turning motions often involve all three degrees of freedom about its body axes: yaw, roll, and pitch. We examine the wing kinematics changes associated with different turning maneuvers, and seek the key variables in the wing kinematics that are responsible for each specific maneuver. This work is supported by a grant to ZJW and AL through the visitor program at Janelia Farm, HHMI.
Shigemitsu, Y; Akagi, T; Morimoto, A; Ishio, T; Shiraishi, N; Kitano, S
An obturator hernia occurs through the pelvic obturator canal, a rigid ring made up of the underside of the superior pubic ramus and the obturator fascia. Obturator hernias have been associated with a high mortality due to the difficulty in diagnosis and the population in which it occurs. We examined four patients diagnosed with incarcerated obturator hernia, and showed that the strangulated intestine was not necrotic. We flexed the diseased leg calmly and repeatedly with slight rotation toward the outside and slight adduction toward the inside at supine position. The pain vanished suddenly during this maneuver. After this maneuver, the patients were able to undergo elective surgery after a certain interval. We discuss the possible use of this maneuver to release an incarcerated obturator hernia. PMID:21369820
Han Yanhua; Xu Bo
The characteristics of surface maneuver targets are analyzed and a 3-D relative motion model for missiles and targets is established. A variable structure guidance law is designed considering the characteristics of targets. In the guidance law, the distance between missiles and targets as well as the missile-target relative velocity are all substituted by estimation values. The estimation errors, the target's velocity, and the maneuver acceleration are all treated as bounded disturbance. The guidance law proposed can be implemented conveniently in engineering with little target information. The performance of the guidance system is analyzed theoretically and the numerical simulation result shows the effectiveness of the guidance law.
ZUODongguang; BIANShutan; HANChongzhao; ZHENGLin; ZHUHongyan
This paper presents a tracking algorithm for maneuvering target in the presence of glint noise. In radar target tracking system, because of the random wandering of the target position, the measurement noise is clearly non-Gaussian distribution, called as glint noise, which has a considerable influence on conventional linear estimates. In this paper, the glint noise is modeled via the mixture of Gaussian distribution and Laplace distribution, and tackled with two model sets. The tracking algorithm for maneuvering target is derived detailedly when the model sets is interacting in the presence of glint noise. The Monte Carlo simulation results express its better performance in comparison with the IMM algorithm.
Ross, Brant A.; Woo, Nelson; Kraft, Thomas G.; Blandino, Joseph R.
Recent NASA mission plans require spacecraft to undergo potentially significant maneuvers (or dynamic loading events) with large solar arrays deployed. Therefore there is an increased need to understand and possibly control the nonlinear dynamics in the spacecraft system during such maneuvers. The development of a nonlinear controller is described. The utility of using a nonlinear controller to reduce forces and motion in a solar array wing during a loading event is demonstrated. The result is dramatic reductions in system forces and motion during a 10 second loading event. A motion curve derived from the simulation with the closed loop controller is used to obtain similar benefits with a simpler motion control approach.
Sam-Sang YOU; Hyeung-Sik CHOI; Hwan-Seong KIM; Han-Il PARK
This paper is concerned with the robust control synthesis of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for general path following maneuvers. First, we present maneuvering kinematics and vehicle dynamics in a unified framework. Based on H loop-shaping procedure, the 2-DOF autopilot controller has been presented to enhance stability and path tracking.By use of model reduction, the high-order control system is reduced to one with reasonable order, and further the scaled low-order controller has been analyzed in both the frequency and the time domains. Finally, it is shown that the autopilot control system provides robust performance and stability against prescribed levels of uncertainty.
Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Schultz, Adrian B.; McGann, Tye S.; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Lockie, Robert G.
This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms) with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition) of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB), and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG). Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01). Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02). There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers. Key points Ankle
Based upon Lakoff and Johnson’s theory of conventional metaphor, this paper takes some basketball jargons as a case for analysis from the cognitive perspective. The analysis verifies the indispensable role that metaphor as an important cogni⁃tive instrument plays in people’s interpreting and understanding the target domain by carrying over concepts from the source domain.
te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i
Chelladurai, P.; Arnott, M.
This study investigated basketball players' preferences for different decision making styles in varying situations. While females were more oriented toward participation than males were, preferences of both groups were more influenced by main effects of coach's information and the interaction of quality requirement with problem complexity.…
In 1996, college athletes in "revenue-producing" sports (basketball and football) graduated at lower rates than other students, while athletes in general graduated at a higher rate than that of other undergraduates. Much of the recent improvement in athlete graduation rates is attributed to women. Data on graduation rates are tabulated by ethnic…
Martin, Jeffrey J.
In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…
The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…
Baker, W. Douglas
A former high school teacher's reflections on the connections between basketball and poetry suggest the significance of extracurricular activities for teachers and students. W. Douglas Baker recounts how he guided students to make connections among "the collision of activities in their lives" by delving into the practices and discourses of three…
Van Cleave, R.A.
A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.
Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald
In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.
Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Zribi, Anis; Bouajina, Elyès; Vico, Laurence; Alexandre, Christian; Zaouali, Monia; Ben Nasr, Hela; Masmoudi, Liwa; Tabka, Zouhair
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball and basketball practice on bone acquisition and to determine which of these 2 high-impact sports is more osteogenic in prepubertal period. We investigated 170 boys (aged 10-12 yr, Tanner stage I): 50 volleyball players (VB), 50 basketball players (BB), and 70 controls. Bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone area (BA, cm(2)) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. We found that, both VB and BB have a higher BMC at whole body and most weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing sites than controls, except the BMC in head which was lower in VB and BB than controls. Moreover, only VB exhibited greater BMC in right and left ultra-distal radius than controls. No significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in lumbar spine, femoral neck, and left third D radius BMC. Athletes also exhibited a higher BA in whole body, limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral region than controls. In addition, they have a similar BA in head and left third D radius with controls. The VB exhibited a greater BA in most radius region than controls and a greater femoral neck BA than BB. A significant positive correlation was reported between total lean mass and both BMC and BA in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and right whole radius among VB and BB. In summary, we suggest that volleyball and basketball have an osteogenic effect BMC and BA in loaded sites in prepubescent boys. The increased bone mass induced by both volleyball and basketball training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull BMC. Moreover, volleyball practice produces a more sensitive mechanical stress in loaded bones than basketball. This effect seems translated by femoral neck expansion. PMID:26235943
Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball
te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria
Veel jonge talentvolle basketballers hebben één doel voor ogen; de top halen in hun sport. Hoe de ontwikkeling van jonge speler tot aan volwassen basketballer verloopt, is onderzocht in het promotieonderzoek van Sanne te Wierike. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Bewegingswetenschappen (UMCG, Rijksuni
Weymouth, G D
The move to high performance applications greatly increases the demand to produce large instantaneous fluid forces for high-speed maneuvering and improved power efficiency for sustained propulsion. Animals achieve remarkable feats of maneuvering and efficiency by changing their body shape to generate unsteady fluid forces. Inspired by this, we have studied a range of immersed bodies which drastically change their shape to produce fluid forces. These include relatively simple shape- changes, such as quickly changing the angle of attack of a foil to induce emergency stops and the use of tandem flapping foils to generate three times the average propulsive force of a single flapping foil. They also include more unconventional shape-changes such as high-speed retracting foil sections to power roll and dive maneuvers and the use of soft robotics to rapidly shrink the frontal area of an ellipsoid to power 68% efficient fast-start maneuvers or even completely cancel the drag force with 91% quasi-propulsive efficiency...
Full Text Available The use of “Standard Maneuvering Orders” for tugboats, vocabulary and phrases mutually pre-agreed between ships and tugboats, is essential for the former to provide clear direction for the latter when berthing or un-berthing safely. Tugboats will need time to change their posture before they take actions in response to orders from persons responsible for ships’ maneuvering. Therefore, when giving directions to change tugboats’ posture, persons who handle their ships are required to send out tug orders, with regard to “delay time,” a gap be-tween the orders from ships and the actions taken by tugboats. “Tug Orders” standardized and used in Japan are composed of the following three factors concerning towage work: tugboat’s motion, direction and engine power, but the author’s research shows that there are “Non-standard” special maneuvering orders other than those “standardized,” which causes such problems as a gap in perception between pilots and tugboat’s opera-tors, etc. The purpose of this paper is to research the delay time between orders for and actions by tugboats and consider the appropriate and safe timing of providing instructions to them, and then to propose globally-authorized “Standard Maneuvering Orders for tugboats”, discussing a problem involved in the use of the special orders used in Japan, and the way in which tug orders are used in other countries.
Greene, Bernard L.; And Others
Experience with 73 cases has shown the value of Transient Structured Distance as a maneuver in marriage therapy. While the TSD is a radical form of intervention with risks of anxiety reactions, homosexual panic, or divorce, it has proved effective with difficult forms of acute or chronic marital disharmony. (Author)
Rooij, L. van; Elrofai, H.B.H.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.
It is important to understand human kinematics and muscle activation patterns in emergency maneuvers for the design of safety systems and for the further development of human models. The objective of this study was to quantify kinematic behavior and muscle activation in simulated steering tests in s
This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.
Farah, H.; Azevedo, C.L.
The increased availability of detailed trajectory data sets from naturalistic, observational and simulation-based studies are a key source for potential improvements in the development of detailed safety models that explicitly account for vehicle conflict interactions and the various driving maneuve
Sørensen, Camilla T. N.
, especially the Danish approach to the BRICs, has developed in recent years, I show how Denmark – a small state – is trying to maneuver in the changing world order through a “creative agency” approach characterized by pragmatic low-profile activism. I develop a neoclassical realist framework and use...
Virendra Kumar Singh
Full Text Available In the present study, field goal shooting skills of female basketball players were assessed in the background to their reasoning ability. The sample consists of 100 female intercollegiate basketball players (age = 21.05±1.67 yrs.. Shooting skills reasoning ability were assessed by Johnson’s “Basketball Field Goal Speed Shooting Test” and Mixed Type Group Test of Intelligence prepared by Mehrotra (1984, respectively. Results reveal that field goal shooting ability of female basketball players exhibiting superior reasoning ability was found to be significantly better as compared to field goal shooting ability of female basketball players with low and average reasoning ability. It was concluded that shooting skills of female basketball players is influenced by their cognitive ability i.e. ability to rationalize problems in proper sequence.
On April 20, the graduation ceremony of China’s seal-cutting art postgraduates and visiting experts from the Institute of Seal Cutting Art under the China Art Academy was held in Beijing. On the same day, the exhibition of the works of the teachers and graduates of the institute was also held.
Elson, Jade; Evans, Adam
Basketball is sport where the prevalence of patriarchal power relations gives men more opportunities to participate and to monopolise positions of power(Hargreaves, 1992: Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Women’s Sports. London: Routledge.). In the UK, women’s participation in basketball in 2008 was only one third of the rate seen among men (Sport England: Active People Survey, 2008). This suggests a gender divide in accessibility to basketball. Moreover, there...
Cristina Conde; Bartolom\\u00E9 J. Almagro; Pedro S\\u00E1enz-L\\u00F3pez; Estefan\\u00EDa Castillo
Coaches are reference models for youth athletes and have a high degree of influence over them, and thus a suitable education is important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess how a basketball coach progresses in the transmission of a task climate during his basketball training sessions, after participating in a reflective educational program focused on the coach's actions. In this study, a basketball coach and the two teams that he coached participated. All the players were bet...
Stanley Ilango Thangaraj
South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...
Singla, Deepika; Veqar, Zubia
Objective: To assess and compare the cervical posture of collegiate students and collegiate basketball players.Procedure: Craniovertebral angle and Sagittal head tilt were measured using photogrammetric method in 15 collegiate students and 15 collegiate basketball players.Results: Significant differences were not found between two groups for any of the two angles at p<0.05.Conclusions: Playing basketball does not place any significant impact on the posture of cervical spine of collegiate s...
Stephens, D L
Knee braces are worn by many athletes following injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether two functional knee braces (noncustom design) significantly affected straight line and successive turning trial running times in noninjured collegiate basketball players. Twenty-five coed basketball players completed 2 days of running trials. Subjects ran three full lengths of a basketball court and 10 lengths between the baseline and the foul line first without wearing a brace, then wearing either a DonJoy GoldPoint brace or an Omni OS-5 brace, and finally wearing the other brace. The results indicated no significant difference (p basketball players. PMID:8580953
Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde
Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects.
Hahn, Yungsun; Valerino, Powtawche; Wong, Mau; Vaquero, Mar; Stumpf, Paul; Wagner, Sean
After sixteen years of successful mission operations and invaluable scientific discoveries, the Cassini orbiter continues to tour Saturn on the most complex gravity-assist trajectory ever flown. To ensure that the end-of-mission target of September 2017 is achieved, propellant preservation is highly prioritized over maneuver cycle minimization. Thus, the maneuver decision process, which includes determining whether a maneuver is performed or canceled, designing a targeting strategy and selecting the engine for execution, is being continuously re-evaluated. This paper summarizes the maneuver experience throughout the fourth year of the Solstice Mission highlighting 27 maneuvers targeted to nine Titan flybys.
We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.
Olsen, Flemming Ove
In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....
José Vicente García Tormo
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the incident of the free throw on the final results of the basketball match, and see how other factors may influence the final average of successful free throws, comparing national leagues with European competition. A total of 59,364 free throws have been analyzed, corresponding to 1722 matches from two seasons of the Spanish professional basketball league (ACB and LFB and European league (Euroleague Euroleague and women. Has been made descriptive analysis, an analysis of synchrony and an analysis of the residuals corrected. The results demonstrate the importance of free throws for the final score, especially in male and when is a close match. Likewise, the home court advantage is related to higher efficiency in free throws and win the match.Key words:
Full Text Available The questions of working out of the criteria for assessment the results of students by subject "Physical education" (basketball section are considered. The article focuses on variants of assessing the results physical training employment of the students under the credit and module system. It is set that at the choice of type of sport (or directions motive activity about 40% students of basic separation are given by a preference the playing types of sport. From this number 12% choose basket-ball. Norms in special physical training are given. It's emphasized that there is no common system of assessment the results of students; the model of sectional form of physical training is worked out not enough.
Liu, Song; Xu, Min; Yi, Haoran; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu
This paper presents a new multiple-modality method for extracting semantic information from basketball video. The visual, motion, and audio information are extracted from video to first generate some low-level video segmentation and classification. Domain knowledge is further exploited for detecting interesting events in the basketball video. For video, both visual and motion prediction information are utilized for shot and scene boundary detection algorithm; this will be followed by scene classification. For audio, audio keysounds are sets of specific audio sounds related to semantic events and a classification method based on hidden Markov model (HMM) is used for audio keysound identification. Subsequently, by analyzing the multimodal information, the positions of potential semantic events, such as "foul" and "shot at the basket," are located with additional domain knowledge. Finally, a video annotation is generated according to MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes (MDSs). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Battaglia, Otavio; Lorenzo, Alberto; Lorenzo, Jorge; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime
Ball screens are one of the most frequently used tactical behaviour in elite basketball games. The aim of the present study was to identify their predictors of success related to time, space, players, and tasks performed. The sample was composed of 818 ball screens corresponding to 20 close games (mean differences in score of 3.1 ± 0.8 points) randomly selected from the playoff games of the Spanish Basketball League (2008-2011). Classification tree analysis (CHAID) was used to analyse which variable or combination of variables, better predicts effectiveness during ball screens. The main results allowed identifying interactions with dribbler actions after the screen and the orientation of the screen on the ball. The results showed no interaction with game quarter and quarter minute temporal-related variables in both analyses. The present findings allow improving coaches' strategic plans that involve selecting the most appropriate offensive approach when performing ball screens.
Full Text Available Physical characteristics play an important role in the selection of young basketball players and the progress in their playing performance. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in chosen physical characteristics of Slovak U17 female basketball players with respect to their playing positions. We assumed, that there will be statistically significant differences between playing positions in each performance tests results. Chosen characteristics were analyzed for 14 players (mean/SD, age 16.34±0.82; body height 179.72±8.04 cm; body weight 67.62±7.10 kg; body fat 16.59±2.04 %; VO2max 46.20±4.71 ml.kg−1.min−1 according to their playing positions (guard, forward, center. Five specific performance tests for each player were conducted as a 3/4 Basketball court sprint, 10 × 5m Shuttle test, Lane agility drill, No-step vertical jump and Maximum vertical jump. The differences in tests results by playing positions were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences found in results of chosen performance tests between playing positions (p>.05. In spite of fact, that there were no significant differences, we found interesting results between playing positions in physical characteristics. Guards had better results in speed (3.73±0.16 s, quickness (17.43±0.56 s and both lower-body power tests (47.16±3.06 cm; 57.00±3.40 cm than forwards and centers. Forwards had the best results in agility test (12.54±0.43 s. The results of this study produce useful information about physical characteristics of young basketball players according to their playing position and help to diagnose and improve their performance.
Martínez García, José Antonio; Martínez Caro, Laura
In this research we examined the opinions of basketball stakeholders regarding several questions of special interests to valuate players. Players, coaches, agents, journalists, editors, bloggers, researchers, analysts, fans and chairs participated in this macro-research. After analysing their opinions using the content analysis methodology, we found that current player evaluation systems are insufficient to fulfill the expectations of stakeholders regarding the definition of value, because th...
Cusimano, Michael; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly
This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One h...
Sinem Pinar Gurel
Full Text Available This is a pioneering effort to understand and compare the dynamics of the competitive balance in Turkish First Division basketball and football leagues. Sports leagues need a certain degree of competitive balance in order to survive. If the score of the matches could be predicted before the match times, the overall leagues will become more predictable and won’t be able to maximize the revenue that could be generated from the spectators. Since revenue associated with football leagues is typically greater than with basketball’s in Turkey, one might expect to find greater levels of competitive balance in football than basketball. In this study, the determinants of competitive balance have been argued. The long term impact of competitive balance in sports industry has been investigated. In the analysis part of this study, determining and comparing the path of competitive balance level over a 16 year period of the Turkish First Division Basketball and Football League has been aimed. To this aim, match outcomes for the leagues and C5 Competitive Balance Index and Normalized Herfindahl - Hirschman Index have been used. The findings show that in Footballl Leagues although the competitive balance was converged from time to time, in general a path far from the competitive balance level was followed. In contrast there is an optimal competitive balance level was ccurred in Basketball leagues. We discuss the implications of the empirical results from a sports management perspective and suggest that the major football clubs and the regulatory bodies should develop and support policies towards coexistence and cooperative competition among the other clubs.
te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.
Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.
Hill, Theodore P
Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.
Kelly, Gerard W
Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.
... needed. The person has been bitten by a human or animal. A cut or puncture is caused by a fishhook or rusty object. You step on a nail or other similar object. An object or debris is stuck. Do ...
Rosas, Juan; Orazem, Peter
Universities spend almost $2 billion subsidizing their collegiate sports programs. Even the most popular women's sport, basketball, fails to break even. An application of Becker's theory of customer discrimination is used to calculate the relative preference for men's basketball for both men and women. Median willingness to pay for men's basketball relative to women's basketball is 180% greater for men and 37% greater for women. Pricing each sport at its revenue maximizing price, revenues fro...
Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Zawadzki, Jerzy
Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player's jumping ability.
Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly
This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete's decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players' willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs. PMID:26236986
Michael D. Cusimano
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.
Fischer, Lennart; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Tirp, Judith; Baker, Joseph; Strauss, Bernd; Schorer, Jörg
There is mounting research to suggest that cognitive and motor expertise is more resistant to age-related decline than more general capacities. The authors investigated the retention of skills in medium-aged skilled (n = 14) and older-aged skilled (n = 7) athletes by comparing them with medium-aged less skilled (n = 15) and older-aged less skilled (n = 15) participants. Participants performed basketball free throws and dart throws as a transfer task under standardized conditions. Motor performance (accuracy) and perceptual performance (quiet eye) were examined across the four groups. There were significant differences between skill groups and age groups in throwing accuracy on both throwing tasks. Skilled players outperformed less skilled and medium-aged players outperformed older-aged players in basketball and dart throws. There were no significant differences in quiet eye duration across the skill or age groups in either task. These results indicate expertise in a perceptual motor task such as the basketball free throw can be retained in older athletes and that present models of skill maintenance should be re-evaluated to consider the issue of transfer.
Jesus, A. D. C.; Sousa, R. R.; Neto, E. V.
Collisions between operational vehicles and space debris can completely derail the continuity of space missions, especially if there is chain collisions between debris, which generate even smaller fragments. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics on between an operational vehicle and space debris that form a cloud, considering the possibility of collisions between debris during an evasive maneuver the vehicle. For a radius of 3 km celestial sphere, we find possibilities of collision between debris up to 10 m, while the vehicle performs an evasive maneuver in time 3,000 s range. These results depend on the time collision, the angular positions of the collisional objects and the amount of debris that form the cloud.
Cao, Xibin; Yue, Chengfei; Liu, Ming; Wu, Baolin
This paper investigates the time efficient maneuver of rigid satellites with inertia uncertainty and bounded external disturbance. A redundant cluster of four reaction wheels is used to control the spacecraft. To make full use of the controllability and avoid frequent unload for reaction wheels, a maximum output torque and maximum angular momentum constrained torque distribution method is developed. Based on this distribution approach, the maximum allowable acceleration and velocity of the satellite are optimized during the maneuvering. A novel braking curve is designed on the basis of the optimization strategy of the control torque distribution. A quaternion-based sliding mode control law is proposed to render the state to track the braking curve strictly. The designed controller provides smooth control torque, time efficiency and high control precision. Finally, practical numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the developed torque distribution strategy and control methodology.
Whitehead, J. C.
An orbital maneuvering vehicle has a pair of opposed cylindrical piston tanks for hydrazine, and four transverse liquid rocket engines along a longitudinal plane. A new kind of pumped rocket propulsion provides maneuvering thrust on demand, and free-piston pumps which can rapidly start and stop are radially oriented between thrusters. A major advantage of this configuration is that the tanks can be close together, which maximizes the vehicle's longitudinal bending stiffness while minimizing the mass of the central bridging structure. The impulses from pump exhaust and piston reciprocation are directed through the system mass center, so they apply no disturbance torques. All high-temperature components are located on the outside of the central structure, where they are free to expand and radiate heat without detrimental effects. Virtually all lightweight components have been fabricated and tested, and photographs of hardware subassemblies are presented.
Antônio D. C. Jesus
Full Text Available We present a study of collisional dynamics between space debris and an operational vehicle in LEO. We adopted an approach based on the relative dynamics between the objects on a collisional course and with a short warning time and established a semianalytical solution for the final trajectories of these objects. Our results show that there are angular ranges in 3D, in addition to the initial conditions, that favor the collisions. These results allowed the investigation of a range of technological parameters for the spacecraft (e.g., fuel reserve that allow a safe evasive maneuver (e.g., time available for the maneuver. The numerical model was tested for different values of the impact velocity and relative distance between the approaching objects.
Crassidis, John L.; Vadali, Srinivas R.; Markley, F. Landis
An optimal control approach using variable-structure (sliding-mode) tracking for large angle spacecraft maneuvers is presented. The approach expands upon a previously derived regulation result using a quaternion parameterization for the kinematic equations of motion. This parameterization is used since it is free of singularities. The main contribution of this paper is the utilization of a simple term in the control law that produces a maneuver to the reference attitude trajectory in the shortest distance. Also, a multiplicative error quaternion between the desired and actual attitude is used to derive the control law. Sliding-mode switching surfaces are derived using an optimal-control analysis. Control laws are given using either external torque commands or reaction wheel commands. Global asymptotic stability is shown for both cases using a Lyapunov analysis. Simulation results are shown which use the new control strategy to stabilize the motion of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe spacecraft.
Optimization techniques are critical when investigating Earth to Mars trajectories since they have the potential of reducing the total (delta)V of a mission. A deep space maneuver (DSM) executed during the cruise may improve a trajectory by reducing the total mission V. Nonetheless, DSMs not only may improve trajectory performance (from an energetic point of view) but also open up new families of trajectories that would satisfy very specific mission requirements not achievable with ballistic trajectories. In the following pages, various specific examples showing the potential advantages of the usage of broken plane maneuvers will be introduced. These examples correspond to possible scenarios for Earth to Mars trajectories during the next decade (2010-2020).
Liu, Geng; Li, Chengyu; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team
Dragonflies are able to achieve fast turning maneuvers during take-off flights. Both asymmetric wing flapping and abdomen flexion have been observed during the fast turning. It's widely thought that the asymmetric wing beats are responsible of producing the aerodynamic moment needed for the body rotation. However, the dynamic effect of the abdomen flexion is not clear yet. In this study, an integrated experimental and computational approach is used to study the underlying dynamic effect of dragonfly abdomen flexion. It's found that dragonfly abdomen tended to bend towards the same side as the body reorienting to. Quantitative analysis have shown that during take-off turning maneuver the abdomen flexion can modulate the arm of force by changing the position of the center of mass relative to the thorax. As a result, roll and yaw moments produced by the wing flapping can be enhanced. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217.
There is a prevalent view outside Greece that promotion of competitiveness is tantamount with price reductions for Greek goods and services. Massive horizontal salary cuts appear, at first, to promote competitiveness by reducing unit labor costs and to reduce fiscal deficits by reducing the wage bill of the public sector. Upon closer look, however, horizontal salary cuts have been much greater than needed for Greek competitiveness, providing an alibi vis a vis the Troika for reforms that are ...
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Saeed Hemmati; Morteza Shahravi; Keramat Malekzadeh
The purpose of this study is controlling active vibration of satellite flexible structures during attitude maneuvers. A smart structure is a structure which is able to sense and control active reaction to any external factors and stimulation. As it comes from the definition of smart structures, development of this knowledge depends on the materials science development, theories and strategies for control. In materials science, smart materials are developed in such a way that they are able to ...
Previous analysis identified specific orbital parameters as being safer for conjunction avoidance for the TDRS fleet. With TDRS-9 being considered an at-risk spacecraft, a potential conjunction concern was raised should TDRS-9 fail while at a longitude of 12W. This document summarizes the analysis performed to identify if these specific orbital parameters could be targeted using the remaining drift-termination maneuvers for the relocation of TDRS-9 from 41W longitude to 12W longitude.
Jinfen Zhang; Xin Ping Yan; Di Zhang; S. Haugen
A lot of attentions are being paid to ship’s intelligent anti-collision by researchers. Several solutions have been introduced to find an optimum trajectory for ship, such as Game Theory, Genetic or Evolutionary Algorithms and so on. However, ship’s maneuverability should be taken into consideration before their real applications. This paper focuses on ship’s trajectory control problem in anti-collision maneuvering. At first, a simple linear ship maneuverability model is ...
Gokhan Acmaz; Evrim Albayrak; Gokalp Oner; Murvet Baser; Gulsum Aykut; Gulender Tas Tekin; Gokmen Zararsiz; Iptisam Ipek Muderris
Objective: The use of fundal pressure in management of the second stage of labor is controversial. The aim of this study was both to evaluate the effectiveness of fundal pressure in shortening the second stage of labor and to examine the re- lated neonatal and maternal outcomes. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to Kristeller maneuver (KM) intervention group (n = 145) and control group (n = 140). Umbilical artery blood gas analysis, creatinine kinase (CK), CK with myo...
Several typical algorithms for tracking maneuvering target with phased array radar are studied in this paper. The constant gain filter with multiple models is analyzed. A typical method for adaptively controlling the sampling interval is modified. The performance of the single model and multiple model estimator with uniform and variable sampling interval are evaluated and compared. It is shown by the simulation results that it is necessary to apply the adaptive sampling policy based on the multiple model method when the maneuvering targets are tracked by the phased array radar since saving radar resources is more important. The adaptive algorithms of variable sampling interval are better than the algorithms of variable model. The adaptive policy to determine the sampling interval based on multiple model are superior than those based on the single-model filter, because IMM estimator can adapt to the maneuver more quickly and the prediction covariance of IMM is the more sensitive and more reliable index than residual to determine the sampling interval. With IMM-based method, lower sampling interval is required for a certain accuracy.
Bowe, Aisha Ruth; Santiago, Confesor
Automated separation assurance algorithms are envisioned to play an integral role in accommodating the forecasted increase in demand of the National Airspace System. Developing a robust, reliable, air traffic management system involves safely increasing efficiency and throughput while considering the potential impact on users. This experiment seeks to evaluate the benefit of augmenting a conflict detection and resolution algorithm to consider a fuel efficient, Zero-Delay Direct-To maneuver, when resolving a given conflict based on either minimum fuel burn or minimum delay. A total of twelve conditions were tested in a fast-time simulation conducted in three airspace regions with mixed aircraft types and light weather. Results show that inclusion of this maneuver has no appreciable effect on the ability of the algorithm to safely detect and resolve conflicts. The results further suggest that enabling the Zero-Delay Direct-To maneuver significantly increases the cumulative fuel burn savings when choosing resolution based on minimum fuel burn while marginally increasing the average delay per resolution.
Full Text Available Aims: The laparoscopic "Spaghetti Maneuver" consists in holding an organ by its extremity with a grasper and rolling it up around the tool to keep the organ stable and facilitate its traction within a small space. We describe our experience with the "Spaghetti Maneuver" in some minimally invasive procedures. Materials and Methods: We successfully adopted this technique in 13 patients (5F : 8M aged between 6 and 14 years (average age, 10 on whom we performed 7 appendectomies, 2 ureteral reimplantation and 4 cholecystectomies. In all cases, after the first steps, the appendix, the gallbladder and the ureter were rolled around the grasper and easily isolated; hemostasis was thus induced and the organ was mobilized until removal during cholecystectomy and appendectomy, and before the reimplantation in case of ureteral reimplantation. Results: We found that this technique facilitated significantly the acts of holding, isolating and removing, when necessary, the structures involved, which remained constantly within the visual field of the operator. This allowed a very ergonomic work setting, overcoming the problem of the "blind" zone, which represents a dangerous and invisible area out of the operator′s control during laparoscopy. Moreover the isolation maneuvers resulted easier and reduced operating time. Conclusion: We think that this technique is easy to perform and very useful, because it facilitates the dissection of these organs, by harmonizing and stabilizing the force of traction exercised.
Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen
Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.
Scarritt, Sara K.; Marchand, Belinda G.; Brown, Aaron J.; Tracy, William H.; Weeks, Michael W.
In earlier investigations, the adaptation and implementation of a modified two-level corrections (or targeting) process as the onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion is presented. The objective of that targeting algorithm is to generate the times of ignition and magnitudes of the required maneuvers such that the desired state at entry interface is achieved. In an actual onboard flight software implementation, these times of ignition and maneuvers are relayed onto Flight Control for command and execution. Although this process works well when the burn durations or burn arcs are small, this might not be the case during a contingency situation when lower thrust engines are employed to perform the maneuvers. Therefore, a new model for the two-level corrections process is formulated here to accommodate finite burn arcs. This paper presents the development and formulation of the finite burn two-level corrector, used as an onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion. A performance comparison between the impulsive and finite burn models is also presented. The present formulation ensures all entry constraints are met, without violating the available fuel budget, while allowing for low-thrust scenarios with long burn durations.
Du, Bingxiao; Zhao, Yong; Dutta, Atri; Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiaoqian
The scheduling of multispacecraft refueling based on cooperative maneuver in a circular orbit is studied in this paper. In the proposed scheme, both of the single service vehicle (SSV) and the target satellite (TS) perform the orbital transfer to complete the rendezvous at the service places. When a TS is refueled by the SSV, it returns to its original working slot to continue its normal function. In this way, the SSV refuels the TS one by one. A MINLP model for the mission is first built, then a two-level hybrid optimization approach is proposed for determining the strategy, and the optimal solution is successfully obtained by using an algorithm which is a combination of Multi-island Genetic Algorithm and Sequential Quadratic Programming. Results show the cooperative strategy can save around 27.31% in fuel, compared with the non-cooperative strategy in which only the SSV would maneuver in the example considered. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the numerical simulations for the evenly distributed constellations. Firstly, in the cooperative strategy one of the service positions is the initial location of the SSV, other service positions are also target slots, i.e. not all targets need to maneuver, and there may be more than one TS serviced in a given service position. Secondly, the efficiency gains for the cooperative strategy are higher for larger transferred fuel mass. Thirdly, the cooperative strategy is less efficient for targets with larger spacecraft mass.
Ilmars CELMINS; Frank E.FRESCONI; Bryant P.NELSON
The US Army Research Laboratory is conducting research to explore technologies that may be suitable for maneuvering man-portable munitions. Current research is focused on the use of rotary actuators with spin-stabilized munitions. A rotary actuator holds the potential of providing a low-power solution for guidance of a spinning projectile. This is in contrast to a linear (reciprocating) actuator which would need to constantly change direction, resulting in large accelerations which in turn would require large forces, thereby driving up the actuator power. A rotational actuator would be operating at a fairly constant rotation rate once it is up to speed, resulting in much lower power requirements. Actuator experiments conducted over a variety of conditions validate the dynamic models of the actuator and supply the data necessary for model parameter estimation. Actuator performance metrics of spin rate response, friction, and power requirements were derived from the data. This study indicates that this class of maneuver concepts can be driven with these actuators. These results enable actuator design and multi-disciplinary simulation of refined maneuver concepts for a specific application.
Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen
Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework. PMID:24110214
HU Qing-lei; MA Cuang-fu
A dual-stage control system design method is presented for the three-axis-rotational maneuver and vibration stabilization of a spacecraft with flexible appendages embedded with piezoceramics as sensor and actuator.In this design approach,the attitude control and the vibration suppression sub-systems ale designed separately using the lower order model.The design of attitude controller is based on the variable structure control (VSC)theory leading to a discontinuous control law.This controller accomplishes asymptotic attitude maneuvering in the closed-loop system and is insensitive to the interaction of elastic modes and uncertainty in the system.To actively suppress the flexible vibrations,the modal velocity feedback control method is presented by using piezoelectric materials as additional sensor and actuator bonded on the surface of the flexible appendages.In addition,a special configuration of actuators for three-axis attitude control is also investigated:the pitch attitude controlled by a momentum wheel,and the roll/yaw control achieved by on-off thrustem.which is modulated by pulse width pulse frequency modulation technique to construct the proper control torque history.Numerical simulations performed show that the rotational maneuver and vibration suppression ale accomplished in spite of the presence of disturbance torque and parameter uncertainty.
Full Text Available The US Army Research Laboratory is conducting research to explore technologies that may be suitable for maneuvering man-portable munitions. Current research is focused on the use of rotary actuators with spin-stabilized munitions. A rotary actuator holds the potential of providing a low-power solution for guidance of a spinning projectile. This is in contrast to a linear (reciprocating actuator which would need to constantly change direction, resulting in large accelerations which in turn would require large forces, thereby driving up the actuator power. A rotational actuator would be operating at a fairly constant rotation rate once it is up to speed, resulting in much lower power requirements. Actuator experiments conducted over a variety of conditions validate the dynamic models of the actuator and supply the data necessary for model parameter estimation. Actuator performance metrics of spin rate response, friction, and power requirements were derived from the data. This study indicates that this class of maneuver concepts can be driven with these actuators. These results enable actuator design and multi-disciplinary simulation of refined maneuver concepts for a specific application.
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In this research a descriptive analysis about some of the parameters implied in the inside play in basketball has been studied. Data of the 16 teams of the A.C.B. league were collected: each team was studied in an official game chosen randomly. Items of observation related with the frequency of apparition of the inside play in the game, with the time expended to offence as well as the way used to finish the play, were established. Data obtained show that in the 41,61% of global possessions appears inside play while in the 37,45% of these take place a pass toward the positions near the basket. The average time expended since starting the possession of the ball until the moment in which a pass is made is 8,41 seconds. The analysis shows the considerable capacity of resolution of players who receives an inside ball, which is represented by the percentage of times in which these players finish the offence (82,78%. A bigger number of direct actions than indirect actions to finish the offence play and a very low degree of opposition to the shot have been detected, overcoat taking in account that these shots were made in areas with a big amount of players.
KEY WORDS: Basketball, inside play, inside pass.
En el presente estudio se ha realizado una análisis descriptivo de algunos parámetros que definen el juego interior en baloncesto. Se tomaron datos de cada uno de los 16 equipos que participan en la liga A.C.B.: cada equipo fue estudiado en un encuentro oficial de competición, elegido de forma aleatoria. Se establecieron conductas de observación relacionadas con la frecuencia de aparición del juego interior en los partidos, con el tiempo empleado en el ataque, así como con la forma de resolución de la jugada. Los datos obtenidos reflejan que en el 4l,61% del total de posesiones se produce juego interior, mientras que en el 37
Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden
The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.
Evans, Adam Brian; Piggott, David
a figurational framework to investigate the lived experiences of basketball amongst male Lithuanian migrants in the rural east of England. Semi-structured interviews highlighted participants’ motivations to migrate, their acculturation experiences and the role that basketball played during their sojourn...
Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros
An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…
The coach of a basketball team recounts the experiences encountered by his team in the California Special Olympics Basketball Tournament. Three days in the team's life are traced from the time the team boards the plane to Los Angeles, through initial defeat, to victory in the fourth game and winning third place medals. (SB)
Datti, R; Gentile, S L; Pisani, R.
A 35-year-old basketball player suffered a serious double head injury during a match. An acute left temporal epidural haematoma, which necessitated surgical drainage, developed. The exceptional circumstances of the trauma are discussed and the literature concerning basketball-related injuries is reviewed.
Cet article retrace la vie des acteurs et des structures qui ont introduit le basket-ball en Yougoslavie durant l’entre-deux-guerres. This article highlights the actors, who took part in the introduction of basketball in Yugoslavia during the interwar era. It also describes the structures through which this experience flourished.
The analysis of the situation and the economics of the basketball club ČEZ Basketball Nymburk, the recognition of the marketing mix, strengths and weaknesses, evaluation of financial statements. In the work there is valuated the current situation of the club and possible future steps to maintain or even improve the dominant position of the club within the Czech Republic.
De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classificat
de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J
Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr
Krosshaug, Tron; Nakamae, Atsuo; Boden, Barry P.; Engebretsen, Lars; Smith, Gerald; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Bahr, Roald
Background: The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball are not well defined. Purpose: To describe the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball based on videos of injury situations. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Six international
Olsen, Flemming Ove
Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....
Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.
Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Manzi, Vincenzo
The main aim of this study was to assess the physiological responses of male basketball players during usual basketball ball-drills. Fourteen male basketball players (age 18.9 ± 2.3 years) performed the following full-court (28 × 15 m) basketball ball-drills (3 × 4-min with 3-min passive rest): five-a-side (5v5), three-a-side (3v3) and two-a-side (2v2). A main effect (P court resulted in increments in physiological demands. The 2v2 condition provided responses in the range of those reported to improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness. The aerobic demands of ball-drills can be accurately assessed using heart-rate monitoring in basketball. PMID:21777056
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally comprehensive training program on the Ukrainian national team basketball with hearing impairment in the annual cycle for the major competitions. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Also analyzed the test results and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : We showed the need for a qualitative change in the training process through the development and application of innovative technologies. This allows a greater level of communication between the coach and athletes to intensify training process. Developed and experimentally substantiated comprehensive training program for the Ukrainian national team. In technical training device used light. This increased mobility, agility, activity and intensity workouts. In tactical training improved situational and planned change tactical drawing game using copyright protection of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Conclusions : A positive impact of the developed system for basketball training result in major competitions.
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou
This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.
Greenwood, Eric; Schmitz, Fredric; Sickenberger, Richard D.
A new model for Blade-Vortex Interaction noise generation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. Acoustic and performance data from both flight and wind tunnels are used to derive a non-dimensional and analytical performance/acoustic model that describes BVI noise in steady flight. The model is extended to transient maneuvering flight (pure pitch and roll transients) by using quasisteady assumptions throughout the prescribed maneuvers. Ground noise measurements, taken during maneuvering flight of a Bell 206B helicopter, show that many of the noise radiation details are captured. The result is a computationally efficient Blade-Vortex Interaction noise model with sufficient accuracy to account for transient maneuvering flight. The code can be run in real time to predict transient maneuver noise and is suitable for use in an acoustic mission-planning tool.
Burk, Thomas A.
The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since July 1, 2004. To remain on the planned trajectory which maximizes science data return, Cassini must perform orbit trim maneuvers using either its main engine or its reaction control system thrusters. Over 200 maneuvers have been executed on the spacecraft since arrival at Saturn. To improve performance and maintain spacecraft health, changes have been made in maneuver design command placement, in accelerometer scale factor, and in the pre-aim vector used to align the engine gimbal actuator prior to main engine burn ignition. These and other changes have improved maneuver performance execution errors significantly since 2004. A strategy has been developed to decide whether a main engine maneuver should be performed, or whether the maneuver can be executed using the reaction control system.
Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru
The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a
Legg Ditterline, Bonnie E; Aslan, Sevda C; Randall, David C; Harkema, Susan J; Ovechkin, Alexander V
Pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunctions are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Impaired respiratory motor function and decreased Baroreflex Sensitivity (BS) are predictors for the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This observational case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate if respiratory motor control deficits in individuals with SCI affect their ability to perform the Valsalva maneuver, and to determine if a sustained Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP) effort can serve as an acceptable maneuver for determination of the BS in the event that the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed. The BS outcomes (ms/mmHg) were obtained using continuous beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) recordings during Valsalva or MEP maneuvers in thirty nine individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI. Twenty one participants (54%) reported signs of intolerance during the Valsalva maneuver and only 15 individuals (39%) were able to complete this task. Cervical level of injury was a significant risk factor (p=0.001) for failing to complete the Valsalva maneuver, and motor-complete injury was a significant risk factor for symptoms of intolerance (p=0.04). Twenty eight participants (72%) were able to perform the MEP maneuver; the other 11 participants failed to exceed the standard airway pressure threshold of 27cm H2O. Neither level nor completeness of injury were significant risk factors for failure of MEP maneuver. When the required airway pressure was sustained, there were no significant differences between BS outcomes obtained during Valsalva and MEP maneuvers. The results of this study indicate that individuals with high-level and motor-complete SCI are at increased risk of not completing the Valsalva maneuver and that baroreflex-mediated responses can be evaluated by using sustained MEP maneuver when the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed. PMID:27137412
Jiang, M; de Vries, W H; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S
Detecting and predicting maneuvering satellites is an important problem for Space Situational Awareness. The spatial envelope of all possible locations within reach of such a maneuvering satellite is known as the Reachable Volume (RV). As soon as custody of a satellite is lost, calculating the RV and its subsequent time evolution is a critical component in the rapid recovery of the satellite. In this paper, we present a Monte Carlo approach to computing the RV for a given object. Essentially, our approach samples all possible trajectories by randomizing thrust-vectors, thrust magnitudes and time of burn. At any given instance, the distribution of the 'point-cloud' of the virtual particles defines the RV. For short orbital time-scales, the temporal evolution of the point-cloud can result in complex, multi-reentrant manifolds. Visualization plays an important role in gaining insight and understanding into this complex and evolving manifold. In the second part of this paper, we focus on how to effectively visualize the large number of virtual trajectories and the computed RV. We present a real-time out-of-core rendering technique for visualizing the large number of virtual trajectories. We also examine different techniques for visualizing the computed volume of probability density distribution, including volume slicing, convex hull and isosurfacing. We compare and contrast these techniques in terms of computational cost and visualization effectiveness, and describe the main implementation issues encountered during our development process. Finally, we will present some of the results from our end-to-end system for computing and visualizing RVs using examples of maneuvering satellites.
Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.
This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…
WHEN BARNSLEY council put out its tender for the 0-19 service last autumn, it laid down strict criteria. A ceiling of £4.8 million a year was put on any bids for the service, which incorporates school nursing teams and health visitors. That represented a cut of more than £1 million on the existing contract. PMID:27266736
Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris
Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)
Gomes de Araujo Gustavo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis
Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
, (2) women and elderly have a relatively lower propensity to conduct crash avoidance maneuvers, (3) drowsiness and fatigue have a greater negative marginal effect on the tendency to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers than alcohol and drug consumption, (4) difficult road conditions increase...... the propensity to perform crash avoidance maneuvers, and (5) visual obstruction and artificial illumination decrease the probability to carry out crash avoidance maneuvers. Conclusions: The results emphasize the need for public awareness campaigns to promote safe driving style for senior drivers and warning...
In this paper we study the ingress and egress of pedestrians and vehicles in a parking lot. We show how local maneuvers executed by agents permit them to create trajectories in constrained environments, and to resolve the deadlocks between them in mixed-flow scenarios. We utilize a roadmap-based approach which allows us to map complex environments and generate heuristic local paths that are feasible for both pedestrians and vehicles. Finally, we examine the effect that some agent-behavioral parameters have on parking lot ingress and egress. © 2013 IEEE.
Full Text Available High-frequency (HF over-the-horizon radar (OTHR works in a very complicated electromagnetic environment. It usually suffers performance degradation caused by transient interference. In this paper, we study the transient interference excision and full spectrum reconstruction of maneuvering targets. The segmental subspace projection (SP approach is applied to suppress the clutter and locate the transient interference. After interference excision, the spectrum is reconstructed from incomplete measurements via compressive sensing (CS by using a redundant Fourier-chirp dictionary. An improved orthogonal matching pursuit (IOMP algorithm is developed to solve the sparse decomposition optimization. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
LIN Fu-sheng 林富生; MENG Guang 孟光; Eric Hahn
The nonlinear dynamics of a cracked rotor system in an aircraft maneuvering with constant velocity or acceleration was investigated. The influence of the aircraft climbing angle on the cracked rotor system response is of particular interest and the results show that the climbing angle can markedly affect the parameter range for bifurcation, for quasi-periodic response and for chaotic response as well as for system stability. Aircraft acceleration is also shown to significantly affect the nonlinear behavior of the cracked rotor system, illustrating the possibility for on-line rotor crack fault diagnosis.
Maneuvering targets tracking is a fundamental task in intelligent vehicle research. This paper focuses on the problem of fusion between radar and image sensors in targets tracking. In order to improve positioning accuracy and narrow down the image working area, a novel method that integrates radar filter with image intensity is proposed to establish an adaptive vision window.A weighted Hausdorff distance is introduced to define the functional relationship between image and model projection, and a modified simulated annealing algorithm is used to find optimum orientation parameter. Furthermore, the global state is estimated, which refers to the distributed data fusion algorithm. Experiment results show that our method is accurate.
Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis
When facing a conjunction between space objects, decision makers must chose whether to maneuver for collision avoidance or not. We apply a well-known decision procedure, the sequential probability ratio test, to this problem. We propose two approaches to the problem solution, one based on a frequentist method, and the other on a Bayesian method. The frequentist method does not require any prior knowledge concerning the conjunction, while the Bayesian method assumes knowledge of prior probability densities. Our results show that both methods achieve desired missed detection rates, but the frequentist method's false alarm performance is inferior to the Bayesian method's
Whitsett, C. E., Jr.; Lenda, J. A.; Josephson, J. T.
The assembly and evaluation of large space platforms in low earth orbit will become practical in the Shuttle era. Extravehicular crewmembers, equipped with manned maneuvering units (MMUs), will play a vital role in the construction and checkout of these platforms. The MMU is a propulsive backpack with mobility extending the crew's visual, mental, and manipulative capabilities beyond the cabin to on-the-spot assembly and maintenance operations. Previous MMU experience is reviewed, Shuttle MMU design features related to space platform support are described, and the use of the MMU for specific construction and assembly tasks is illustrated.
Ghosh, Alexander; Coverstone, Victoria
CubeSats, the class of small standardized satellites, are quickly becoming a prevalent scientific research tool. The desire to perform ambitious missions using multiple CubeSats will lead to innovations in thruster technology and will require new tools for the development of cooperative trajectory planning. To meet this need, a new software tool was created to compute propellant-minimizing maneuvers for two or more CubeSats. By including parallelization techniques, this tool is shown to run significantly faster than its serial counterpart.
Osipov Vitalij Nikolaevich
Full Text Available The results of research on the impact of physical rehabilitation for adaptive systems of the body athletes, especially the functioning of which were determined by the parameters of central hemodynamics and physical performance for the step-test PWC170. The study attended by 17 basketball Premier League at the age of 18-25 years. In developed and offered by us Rehabilitation Complex includes the following remedial means: special breathing exercises, yoga elements of gymnastics, Motivational, different types of sports massage and hidroprotsedury, which contributed to more effective recovery of athletes and improve their physical performance.
Leanderson, J; Wykman, A; Eriksson, E
The present study compares postural ankle stability between previously injured basketball players, uninjured players and a control/group. Postural sway was recorded and analysed by stabilometry using a specially designed computer-assisted forceplate. Recordings were obtained for 60 s on each foot. The stabilometric results in the players with no previous injuries did not differ from those in the controls. Players with a previously injured ankle differed significantly from the control group. These players had a larger mean postural sway and used a larger sway area. PMID:8536030
Saavedra, Serguei; Bagrow, James P
In basketball, timeouts are believed to reverse the momentum of a game. However, here we show timeouts have no significant effect on the final outcomes of games. Moreover, we find that the timeout factor only appears to reinforce the game of dominant teams, meaning that only the most successful teams can find any positive benefit. We find no association with team payrolls, suggesting that richer teams are not particularly better at capitalizing on timeouts. Our findings support that strategic breaks have little impact on workplace performance and productivity.
Full Text Available A health of students of unathletic institutes of higher level is studied. It is rotined that over modernization of the system of physical education brought to considerable reduction of audience employments on a physical culture. Connection is considered between the low level of health of student young people and reduction of audience employments on physical education. Insufficient motivation is marked to independent employments by physical exercises, decline of motive activity of students. Efficiency of application of basket-ball is grounded in the process of physical education of students.
Igawa Shoji; Sato Takeshi; Watanabe Takayuki
The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants) aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal) and shot timing. S...
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira
This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...
Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers. PMID:24875429
Singh Virendra Kumar
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to analyze throwing accuracy of basketball players in relation to their reasoning ability and depth perception. Materials and Methods : For present study, 200 intercollegiate basketball players (Ave. age = 21.34±1.87 years were selected as sample. Johnson Basketball Throw for Accuracy (Passing Test was the instrument which was used to assess shooting skills of selected subjects whereas reasoning ability of the selected subjects was assessed by MGTI prepared by Mehrotra (1984. To conduct the study, a 2x2 factorial design was used. Superior and inferior reasoning and perceptual abilities were ascertained by statistical method Q1 and Q3. 2x2 ANOVA results showed that the main effect of reasoning ability was not found to be statistically significant upon throwing accuracy of basketball players although it is close to .05 level of significance. Results : The main effect of depth perception upon throwing accuracy of basketball players turned out to be statistically significant. The two factor interaction effect of reasoning ability and depth perception upon throwing accuracy of basketball players was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion : It was concluded that reasoning ability and to some extent depth perception, are the two major variables which generate variance upon throwing accuracy of basketball players.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.
Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.
Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.
Furley, P; Dicks, M
In the present article, we investigate the influence of sociocultural stereotypes on the impression formation of basketball players and coaches. In Experiment 1 (n = 32), participants were shown a picture of a black or white basketball player prior to observation of a point-light video of a player executing a basketball free throw. The participant was informed that the player depicted in the picture was executing the free throw. Results indicated that ethnicity of the target player significantly influenced participant evaluations, demonstrating specific stereotypes about black and white basketball players when evaluating performance. In Experiment 2 (n = 30), results derived from the Implicit Association Test indicated that black players are implicitly associated with athletic player attributes. The results are in line with social schema theory and demonstrate that - similar to findings that have been reported in the United States - a subpopulation of German basketball players and coaches hold specific stereotypes about the abilities of black and white basketball athletes. These stereotypes bias impression formation when coaches and players make assessments of basketball performance.
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.
Furley, P; Dicks, M
In the present article, we investigate the influence of sociocultural stereotypes on the impression formation of basketball players and coaches. In Experiment 1 (n = 32), participants were shown a picture of a black or white basketball player prior to observation of a point-light video of a player executing a basketball free throw. The participant was informed that the player depicted in the picture was executing the free throw. Results indicated that ethnicity of the target player significantly influenced participant evaluations, demonstrating specific stereotypes about black and white basketball players when evaluating performance. In Experiment 2 (n = 30), results derived from the Implicit Association Test indicated that black players are implicitly associated with athletic player attributes. The results are in line with social schema theory and demonstrate that - similar to findings that have been reported in the United States - a subpopulation of German basketball players and coaches hold specific stereotypes about the abilities of black and white basketball athletes. These stereotypes bias impression formation when coaches and players make assessments of basketball performance. PMID:23714161
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have
This is the first book on cut-elimination in first-order predicate logic from an algorithmic point of view. Instead of just proving the existence of cut-free proofs, it focuses on the algorithmic methods transforming proofs with arbitrary cuts to proofs with only atomic cuts (atomic cut normal forms, so-called ACNFs). The first part investigates traditional reductive methods from the point of view of proof rewriting. Within this general framework, generalizations of Gentzen's and Sch\\"utte-Tait's cut-elimination methods are defined and shown terminating with ACNFs of the original proof. M
The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and concepts of teleoperation and video data compression as applied to OMV design and operation are described. The OMV provides spacecraft delivery, retrieval, reboost, deboost and viewing services, with ground-control or Space Station operation, through autonomous navigation and pilot controlled maneuvers. Communications systems are comprised of S-band RF command, telemetry, and compressed video data links through the TDRSS and GSTDN networks. The control console video monitors display a monochrome image at an update rate of five frames per second. Depending upon the mode of operation selected by the pilot, the video resolution is either 255 x 244 pixels, or 510 x 244 pixels. Since practically all video image redundancy is removed by the compression process, the video reconstruction is particularly sensitive to data transmission bit errors. Concatenated Reed-Solomon and convolution coding are used with helical data interleaving for error detection and correction, and an error-containment process minimizes the propagation of error effects throughout the video image. Video sub-frame replacement is used, in the case of a non-correctable error or error burst, to minimize the visual impact to the pilot.
Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura; Griffith, Boyce
Jellyfish represent one of the earliest and simplest examples of swimming by a macroscopic organism. Contractions of an elastic bell that expels water are driven by coronal swimming muscles. The re-expansion of the bell is passively driven by stored elastic energy. A current question in jellyfish propulsion is how the underlying neuromuscular organization of their bell allows for maneuvering. Using an immersed boundary framework, we will examine the mechanics of swimming by incorporating material models that are informed by the musculature present in jellyfish into a model of the elastic jellyfish bell in three dimensions. The fully-coupled fluid structure interaction problem is solved using an adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR). We then use this model to understand how variability in the muscular activation patterns allows for complicated swimming behavior, such as steering. We will compare the results of the simulations with the actual turning maneuvers of several species of jellyfish. Numerical flow fields will also be compared to those produced by actual jellyfish using particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Full Text Available Hizbollah and Hamas are guerilla and terrorist organizations that in less than 20 years have developed into quasi-governmental entities. They have done so in a relatively smaller area than is usually the case in guerilla warfare, and in the case of the Gaza Strip, primarily in urban areas suited to this type of ﬁghting. The primary military threat that Hamas and Hizbollah pose for Israel is the ongoing launching of rockets and heavy mortar bombs, with varying ranges and impact, directly at the nation’s citizens. The military forces of Hamas and Hizbollah add a secondary, parallel threat to the classical arsenal of guerilla and terrorist activities along Israel’s borders and within its territory: explosives of various kinds, sniper ﬁre, ambush shootings, car bombs, attempts to kidnap soldiers and civilians, and use of suicide bombers wearing explosive belts. Israel’s use of military force in the Second Lebanon War and Operation Cast Lead set many political processes in motion, which would largely have not occurred had it not been for the use of the ground forces. This essay examines why the ground maneuver, in conjunction with a disproportionate degree of ﬁrepower, was the primary factor in creating a real threat to Hizbollah and Hamas. In addition, the essay explains the logic of the ground maneuver and the basic conditions demanded for its effective use.
An aeroelastic optimization design methodology for air vehicle considering the uncertainties in maneuver load conditions is presented and applied to a structural design process of low-aspect-ratio wing. An aerodynamic load correction model is developed and used to predict the critical load conditions with the perturbations of theoretical linear aerodynamic forces and experimental aerodynamic forces from wind-tunnel test, when concerning the uncertainties in use of theoretical linear and experimental aerodynamic forces. Three objective functions of critical loads are defined. The load evaluations for three wing sections are investigated in four characteristic maneuvers, and the most critical load conditions are confirmed by using the sequential quadratic programming method. On this basis, the aeroelastic optimization design employing the genetic-gradient hybrid algorithm is conducted, in which the objective is to minimize structural mass subject to the constraints of stress, deformation and flutter speed. The resulting optimal structure is heavier than the one simply based on the theoretical linear or experimental aerodynamic forces. However, it is more robust when encountering the critical load conditions in actual flight due to the consideration of uncertainties in aerodynamic forces in the early design phase, thereby, the risk of structural redesign can be reduced.
Wostyn, Peter; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter Paul
Recent research findings provide evidence for Alzheimer's disease-related changes in brain diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus and traumatic brain injury, and in glaucoma at the level of the retinal ganglion cells. This is a group of diseases that affect central nervous system tissue and are characterized by elevation of intracranial or intraocular pressure and/or local shear stress and strain. This strengthens the possibility that Alzheimer-type changes in these diseases may result at least in part from exposure of central nervous system tissue to elevated mechanical load. As activities or diseases with significant Valsalva effort can generate increased intracranial pressures, we hypothesize that individuals who frequently perform strong Valsalva maneuvers (e.g., long hours of repetitive heavy lifting, sequences of blows during the playing of a wind instrument, forceful and repetitive cough, bearing-down efforts during parturition) may be more susceptible to developing Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we discuss three hypotheses about the mechanisms by which extensive use of the Valsalva maneuver might contribute to the neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: via mechanical stress-induced events in the hippocampus and/or via changes in the secretory process of the choroid plexus and/or via hemodynamic changes in cerebral blood flow. If confirmed, this hypothesis could have implications in clinical practice. PMID:19199876
Pomeschikova I. P.
Full Text Available The article studies the performance level of the spatial orientation of the basketball teams' pre-basic training, which was determined by standard methods. The study involved 12 athletes for 14 years with four years basketball. Teacher testing conducted to determine the allowed level of basketball and to determine the spatial relationship between the rates of the various manifestations of this ability. The level of spatial orientation of sportsmen evaluated according to the 8 test, methodology suggested V.A. Romanenko, L.P. Sergienko, V.I. Lyakh.
Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A
The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes. PMID:17566431
Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael
We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting.
Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.
Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.
Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth
Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
García, Javier; Ibáñez, Sergio J; De Santos, Raúl Martinez; Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime
The aim of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best discriminate winners and losers in regular season and playoffs. The sample used was composed by 323 games of ACB Spanish Basketball League from the regular season (n=306) and from the playoffs (n=17). A previous cluster analysis allowed splitting the sample in balanced (equal or below 12 points), unbalanced (between 13 and 28 points) and very unbalanced games (above 28 points). A discriminant analysis was used to identify the performance indicators either in regular season and playoff games. In regular season games, the winning teams dominated in assists, defensive rebounds, successful 2 and 3-point field-goals. However, in playoff games the winning teams' superiority was only in defensive rebounding. In practical applications, these results may help the coaches to accurately design training programs to reflect the importance of having different offensive set plays and also have specific conditioning programs to prepare for defensive rebounding. PMID:23717365
Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki
Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of increased distance on basketball jump shot outcome and performance. Ten male expert basketball players were filmed and a number of kinematic variables analyzed during jump shot that were performed from three conditions to represent close, intermediate and far distances (2.8, 4.6, and 6.4m, respectively. Shot accuracy decreased from 59% (close to 37% (far, in function of the task constraints (p < 0.05. Ball release height decreased (p < 0.05 from 2.46 m (close to 2.38m (intermediate and to 2.33m (long. Release angle also decreased (p < 0.05 when shot was performed from close (78.92° in comparison to intermediate distances (65.60°. While, ball release velocity increased (p < 0.05 from 4.39 m/s (close to 5.75 m·s-1 (intermediate to 6.89 m·s-1 (far. These changes in ball release height, angle and velocity, related to movement performance adaptations were suggested as the main factors that influence jump shot accuracy when distance is augmented
Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Rodacki, André Luiz Félix
The present study analyzed the effect of increased distance on basketball jump shot outcome and performance. Ten male expert basketball players were filmed and a number of kinematic variables analyzed during jump shot that were performed from three conditions to represent close, intermediate and far distances (2.8, 4.6, and 6.4m, respectively). Shot accuracy decreased from 59% (close) to 37% (far), in function of the task constraints (p distances (65.60°). While, ball release velocity increased (p distance is augmented. Key pointsThe increased distance leads to greater spatial con-straint over shot movement that demands an adapta-tion of the movement for the regulation of the accu-racy and the impulse generation to release the ball.The reduction in balls release height and release angle, in addition to the increase in balls release ve-locity, were suggested as the main factors that de-creased shot accuracy with the distance increased.Players should look for release angles of shooting that provide an optimal balls release velocity to im-prove accuracy. PMID:24149195
Ramos, Terry J.
A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.
Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu
ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.
‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive char...
Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.
A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.
Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco
This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.
... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Teens Talk About Cutting Do People Who Self-Injure Have to Be Hospitalized? Stress & Coping Center Stress Cutting How Can I Help a ...
Alexey A. Smetkin
the high EVLWI group experienced a change by only −1((−13–(+5 % (=0.035. Conclusion. In ARDS, the response to a recruitment maneuver might be related to the severity of pulmonary edema. In patients with incresed EVLWI, the recruitment maneuver is less effective.
Brown, Jonathan M.; Petersen, Jeremy D.
NASA's WIND mission has been operating in a large amplitude Lissajous orbit in the vicinity of the interior libration point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system since 2004. Regular stationkeeping maneuvers are required to maintain the orbit due to the instability around the collinear libration points. Historically these stationkeeping maneuvers have been performed by applying an incremental change in velocity, or (delta)v along the spacecraft-Sun vector as projected into the ecliptic plane. Previous studies have shown that the magnitude of libration point stationkeeping maneuvers can be minimized by applying the (delta)v in the direction of the local stable manifold found using dynamical systems theory. This paper presents the analysis of this new maneuver strategy which shows that the magnitude of stationkeeping maneuvers can be decreased by 5 to 25 percent, depending on the location in the orbit where the maneuver is performed. The implementation of the optimized maneuver method into operations is discussed and results are presented for the first two optimized stationkeeping maneuvers executed by WIND.
Junqueira, Luiz Fernando, Jr.
In this report, a brief history of the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver is outlined, followed by an explanation on the use of this approach for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic function based on underlying heart rate changes. The most important methodological and interpretative aspects of the Valsalva-Weber maneuver are critically updated,…
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
This study focuses on the linkage between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers. Various emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers are considered in response to different critical events that made the crash imminent. Partial proportional odds models are estimated to accommodate the ord...
Lambert, Joseph M; Copeland, Bailey A; Karp, Erica L; Finley, Crystal I; Houchins-Juarez, Nealetta J; Ledford, Jennifer R
Individuals with developmental disabilities successfully participate in fewer recreation activities, including sports activities, than their typically developing peers. Although a functional basketball-playing repertoire might increase social opportunities and physical health for these individuals, no research has outlined a behavior-analytic strategy for teaching this sport. In our study, we taught a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism to play basketball. During phase 1, we employed discrete-trial training to establish proficiency with nine fundamental basketball skills (i.e., recruiting attention, passing, dribbling, etc.). During phase 2, we used a forward chaining procedure to teach-specific sequences of these component skills that are appropriate for playing offense and defense and for participating in a full-court basketball drill. The participant learned all pre-requisite skills and response chains came under the control of contextually appropriate discriminative stimuli. PMID:27622126
Polvino, Geri, Ed.; And Others
Tips and techniques for teachers and coaches involved with women's volleyball and basketball competition are given. Off-season conditioning, safety on the court, and team morale are some of the issues considered. (Author/LH)
de Lira, C A B; Vancini, R L; Minozzo, F C; Sousa, B S; Dubas, J P; Andrade, M S; Steinberg, L L; da Silva, A C
Participation in sports for individuals with disabilities continues to gain popularity. In order to provide fair and equitable competition among persons with different disabilities and functional capacity, a separate functional classification system has been devised for each sport. The aims of the present study were to evaluate aerobic and anaerobic performance of wheelchair basketball athletes and verify a correlation with the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation functional classification system. For this, 17 highly trained male Brazilian basketball wheelchair athletes (25.4+/-4.4 years) from the national team who had taken part in the Athens 2004 Paralympic Games were assessed. These athletes were submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise testing and Wingate-like 30-s sprint test using upper limbs. The present study demonstrated that the functional classification score correlated with relative (r=0.90; Pcourt, which also correlated with aerobic and anaerobic performance parameters of the elite wheelchair basketball players. PMID:19793219
Full Text Available Currently, Basketball players must know the progress well in time in the game, the presence of electronic timer with LED display influences the basketball games. The wired operation influences the control distance, control reliability, control efficiency and so on. So how to make it longer, anti-interference, easy operation and high efficiency is a difficult problem. A kind of wireless basketball timer is designed based on micro-computer unit (MCU and wireless nRF24L01 module to compensate for the existing disadvantages, which has LED digital tube of large size for the section number display and middle size for game display and 24s display. The user is easy to carry and control the timer wirelessly at any place in the basketball court using the sending control device. The test results show that the system, easy to control and stable to operate, is reliable to transmit the wireless data.
Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane
A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.
Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane
A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident. PMID:25226324
Mcdonald, M. W.
A frequency-modulated continuous wave radar system is under development in the Communications Systems Branch of the Information and Electronic Systems Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. The radar unit is being designed for use on the teleoperator maneuvering system. Its function is to provide millimeter-level accuracy in range and range rate measurements out to a range of thirty meters. This will facilitate soft docking with accuracy. This report is an updating of previous developments reported on this system. An innovation in the system is the utilization of a standard reference signal generated by shunting a portion of the radar energy into a shorted coaxial delay line. The regular radar target return signal is constantly compared with the reference signal to provide internal error compensation. Within a five meter range, a limit imposed by present laboratory dimensions, the radar system exhibits reliable accuracy with range error less than 0.2%.
Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Costantini, Mauro
Lung collapse is a known complication that affects most of the patients undergoing positive pressure mechanical ventilation. Such atelectasis and airways closure lead to gas exchange and lung mechanics impairment and has the potential to develop an inflammatory response in the lungs. These negative effects of lung collapse can be reverted by a lung recruitment maneuver (RM) i.e. a ventilatory strategy that resolves lung collapse by a brief and controlled increment in airway pressures. However, an unsolved question is how to assess such RM at the bedside. The aim of this paper is to describe the usefulness of lung sonography (LUS) to conduct and personalize RM in a real-time way at the bedside. LUS has favorable features to assess lung recruitment due to its high specificity and sensitivity to detect lung collapse together with its non-invasiveness, availability and simple use. PMID:27496127
Chun, H. M.; Turner, J. D.; Yu, C. C.
Presented here are the results of an advanced control design as well as a discussion of the requirements for automating both the structures and control design efforts for maneuvering a large spacecraft. The advanced control application addresses a general three dimensional slewing problem, and is applied to a large geostationary platform. The platform consists of two flexible antennas attached to the ends of a flexible truss. The control strategy involves an open-loop rigid body control profile which is derived from a nonlinear optimal control problem and provides the main control effort. A perturbation feedback control reduces the response due to the flexibility of the structure. Results are shown which demonstrate the usefulness of the approach. Software issues are considered for developing an integrated structures and control design environment.
method is the Direct Approximation of Value Function (DAVF) method. In this method, unlike the CSR method, the player formulates an objective function for the opponent but does not formulates a strategy directly; rather, indirectly the player assumes that the opponent is playing optimally. Thus, a value function satisfying the HJB equation corresponding to the opponent's cost function exists. The DAVF method finds an approximate solution for the value function based on previous observations of the opponent's control. The approximate solution to the value function is then used to predict the opponent's future behavior. Game examples in which only a single player is learning its opponent's behavior are simulated. Subsequently, examples in which both players in a two-player game are learning each other's behavior are simulated. In the second part of this research, a reorientation control maneuver for a spinning spacecraft will be developed. This will aid the application of behavior learning and differential games concepts to the specific scenario involving multiple spinning spacecraft. An impulsive reorientation maneuver with coasting will be analytically designed to reorient the spin axis of the spacecraft using a single body fixed thruster. Cooperative maneuvers of multiple spacecraft optimizing fuel and relative orientation will be designed. Pareto optimality concepts will be used to arrive at mutually agreeable reorientation maneuvers for the cooperating spinning spacecraft.
Full Text Available A lot of attentions are being paid to ship’s intelligent anti-collision by researchers. Several solutions have been introduced to find an optimum trajectory for ship, such as Game Theory, Genetic or Evolutionary Algorithms and so on. However, ship’s maneuverability should be taken into consideration before their real applications. This paper focuses on ship’s trajectory control problem in anti-collision maneuvering. At first, a simple linear ship maneuverability model is introduced to simulate its movement under different speed and rudder angle. After that, ship’s trajectory control is studied by considering the duration of rudder, operation distance to turning points, and maximum angular velocity. The details for algorithm design are also introduced. By giving some restrictions according to the requirements from COLREGs, the intervals for rudder angle in different circumstances can be determined by the curves. The results can give very meaningful guidance for seafarers when making decisions.
Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis
A document discusses sequential probability ratio tests that explicitly allow decision-makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models the null hypotheses that the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming, highly elliptical orbit formation flying mission.
Yener BEKTAŞ; Başak Koca Özer; Timur Gültekin; Mehmet Sağır; Galip Akın
This study aimed to analyse the somatotype and body composition characteristics of female basketball players and to demonstrate the changes between different category levels. For this purpose 37 female basketball players were subjected from Et-Balik Sports Club representing 4 different categories. 11 anthropometric measurements; body weight, height, humerus and femur bicondylar breadth, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, biceps and thigh circumference data ...
Liu, Hai-Bin; Yuan, Wen-Xue; Qin, Kai-Rong; Hou, Jie
Objective To compare the acute effects of a cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics between basketball athletes and sedentary controls. Methods Ten young long-term trained male basketball athletes (BA) and nine age-matched male sedentary controls (SC) successively underwent four bouts of exercise on a bicycle ergometer at the same workload. Hemodynamic variables at right common carotid artery were determined at rest and immediately following each bout of exercise. An ANCOVA was ...
The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of ...
Craig A. Depken, II; Courtney Williams
This paper empirically investigates whether schools with an intercollegiate football team experience greater attendance at women’s basketball games. The empirical question is important because if football increases attendance and hence revenue to other sports then these benefits should be included when considering the net benefits of football. Using a cross-section of 329 Division IA women’s basketball programs from 2005-2006, we find that having a football program corresponds with an increas...
Jesús Gil Gómez; Pablo Juan Verdoy
Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommend...
Full Text Available This article describes the results of multifactor method of express-diagnostics S. Dushanin and evaluation vegetovascular regulation to predict the reaction of students involved in basketball and judo to physical activity. It is shown that the reaction of basketball has the same type that suits the sport. In judo identified two opposing tendencies of functional changes. Study shows promise to control the training process, the ratio of different types of metabolism.
Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;
We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...... fairness notion — using a protocol that circumvents a standard lower bound via parallel information elicitation. Cake divisions satisfying another prominent fairness notion, envy-freeness, are impossible to compute in the simultaneous model, but admit arbitrarily good approximations....
Capuano, L.E. Jr.
This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.
Martin, Kaela M.
During axial thrusting of a spin-stabilized spacecraft undergoing orbital injections or control maneuvers, misalignments and center-of-mass offset create undesired body-fixed torques. The effects of the body-fixed torques, which in turn cause velocity pointing errors, can be reduced by ramping up (and then ramping down) the thruster. The first topic discussed in this thesis derives closed-form solutions for the angular velocity, Euler angles, inertial velocity, and inertial displacement solutions with nonzero initial conditions. Using the closed-form solutions, the effect of variations in the spin-axis moment of inertia and spin-rate on the spacecraft velocity pointing error are shown. The analytical solutions closely match numerical simulations. The next topic considers various ramp-up profiles (including parabolic, cosine, logarithmic, exponential, and cubic) to heuristically find a suboptimal solution to reduce the velocity pointing error. Some of the considered cosine, logarithmic, exponential, parabolic, and cubic profiles drive the velocity pointing error to nearly zero and hence qualify as effective solutions. The third topic examines a large tethered spacecraft that produces artificial gravity with the propulsion system on one end of the tether. Instead of thrusting through the center of mass, the offset thrust occurs at an angle to the tether which is held in the desired direction by changing the spin rate to compensate for decreasing propellant mass. The dynamics and control laws of the system are derived for constant, time-varying, planar, and non-planar thrust as well as spin-up maneuvers. The final topic discusses how the Bodewadt solution of a self-excited rigid body is unable to accurately predict the motion compared to a numerical integration of the equations of motion.
Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Sell, Timothy C.; Otten, Bert
Purpose Female athletes have a significantly higher risk of sustaining an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Biomechanical and neuromuscular factors have been reported as the main cause. The purpose of this review was to critically review results of the published literature
Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin
We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball. PMID:24197721
Leppänen, M; Pasanen, K; Kulmala, J-P; Kujala, U M; Krosshaug, T; Kannus, P; Perttunen, J; Vasankari, T; Parkkari, J
Poor knee alignment is associated with increased loading of the joints, ligaments and tendons, and may increase the risk of injury. The study purpose was to compare differences in knee kinematics between basketball and floorball players during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task. We wanted to investigate whether basketball players, whose sport includes frequent jump-landings, exhibited better knee control compared with floorball players, whose sport involves less jumping. Complete data was obtained from 173 basketball and 141 floorball players. Peak knee valgus and flexion angles during the VDJ were analyzed by 3D motion analysis.Larger knee valgus angles were observed among basketball players (- 3.2°, 95%CI -4.5 to - 2.0) compared with floorball players (- 0.9°, 95%CI -2.3 to 0.6) (P=0.022). Basketball players landed with a decreased peak knee flexion angle (83.1°, 95%CI 81.4 to 84.8) compared with floorball players (86.5°, 95%CI 84.6 to 88.4) (P=0.016). There were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between basketball and floorball players. Female athletes exhibited significantly greater valgus angles than males. This study revealed that proper knee control during jump-landing does not seem to develop in young athletes simply by playing the sport, despite the fact that jump-landings occur frequently in practice and games.
The objective of the present study was to describe the occurrence of orofacial, particularly dental injuries in basketball, and to survey the athletes' awareness concerning the use of mouthguards during basketball training and competition. A pilot questionnaire was designed and tested with basketball players. Two hundred and thirty-six male athletes were surveyed. Seventy-seven players were professional players. Exactly 80.6% professionals and 37.7% semi-professional athletes had an experience of oral soft tissue laceration and dental injuries in basketball practice. The difference between the two groups is significant. The incidence of dental and oral injuries was related to the length of training time. About 59% of the athletes ranked the risk of orofacial and dental injury in basketball as medium. Although the awareness of mouthguards among the basketball players was very high (80.1%), only one of them had used the custom-made mouthguard. Most of the athletes gained the knowledge about mouthguards from foreign players (33.5%), media (24.8%) and teammates/classmates (24.3%). The influence of dentists was very weak. Athletes should be informed about the high risk of oral injuries when participating in contact sports. Dentists should play a more significant role in the program of promoting mouthguard use to prevent the occurrence of oral injury in sport participation. PMID:18721342
Leppänen, M; Pasanen, K; Kulmala, J-P; Kujala, U M; Krosshaug, T; Kannus, P; Perttunen, J; Vasankari, T; Parkkari, J
Poor knee alignment is associated with increased loading of the joints, ligaments and tendons, and may increase the risk of injury. The study purpose was to compare differences in knee kinematics between basketball and floorball players during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task. We wanted to investigate whether basketball players, whose sport includes frequent jump-landings, exhibited better knee control compared with floorball players, whose sport involves less jumping. Complete data was obtained from 173 basketball and 141 floorball players. Peak knee valgus and flexion angles during the VDJ were analyzed by 3D motion analysis.Larger knee valgus angles were observed among basketball players (- 3.2°, 95%CI -4.5 to - 2.0) compared with floorball players (- 0.9°, 95%CI -2.3 to 0.6) (P=0.022). Basketball players landed with a decreased peak knee flexion angle (83.1°, 95%CI 81.4 to 84.8) compared with floorball players (86.5°, 95%CI 84.6 to 88.4) (P=0.016). There were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between basketball and floorball players. Female athletes exhibited significantly greater valgus angles than males. This study revealed that proper knee control during jump-landing does not seem to develop in young athletes simply by playing the sport, despite the fact that jump-landings occur frequently in practice and games. PMID:26701826
Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin
We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.
Sindik, Joško; Nazor, Damir
Identification of differences in individual conative characteristics and in perceived group cohesion of the basketball players playing in different positions in the team could provide guidelines for a better selection of basketball players and better coaching work. The aim of our study was to determine the differences in relation to the positions of guards and forwards/ centres, and the four major positions in the team. The final sample of subjects (74 basketball players) is selected...
Furley, Philip; Dicks, Matt
In the present article, we investigate the influence of sociocultural stereotypes on the impression formation of basketball players and coaches. In Experiment 1 (n = 32), participants were shown a picture of a black or white basketball player prior to observation of a point-light video of a player executing a basketball free throw. The participant was informed that the player depicted in the picture was executing the free throw. Results indicated that ethnicity of the target player significan...
The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non technical language many o...
Rottigni, S A; Hopper, D
Female A-grade basketballers were examined for invertor and evertor muscle strength. Two test groups participated. The injured group were players who had persisting disability following ankle sprains. The control group were players who had never sustained an ankle sprain. Test apparatus was the Orthotron isokinetic dynamometer at contraction speed of 180° per second. Trends towards higher invertor and evertor strength in uninjured group when compared with the injured group found in the present study have been supported by one other report. Invertors were found to be significantly stronger than evertors in both injured and uninjured groups, with the exception of the dominant leg of the uninjured group. A significant weakness in non-dominant evertors of the uninjured group was detected. Dominance did not significantly alter strength differences in the invertor or evertor muscle groups within the uninjured population. The clinical importance of strengthening the peroneal muscles in ankle sprain rehabilitation is discussed, and further research considerations provided. PMID:25025187
Full Text Available The number of businesses whose activities are based on immaterial assets is growing very rapidly, which demands new ways of evaluating the economic relevance of intangible assets. The aim of this study is precisely to examine the Basketball World Cup 2006 -a particular experience within the industry of spectacle - through applying a novel methodology. The analysis of this sport event is an interesting exercise in itself, since it allows achieving important lessons and conclusions. Yet, the scope of this paper is broader, including another major goal. Effectively, the present study illustrates the potential capacity that ESIrg methodology has for evaluating intangible assets of different types and character (that must not necessary be linked to the sport industry.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.
Full Text Available In elite basketball, the high demands of competition and training require a detailed follow-up of the effects on the player's performance and health. Controlling these effects could improve the knowledge about the players' recovery process and allow a better design of their individual workloads. Aim: To describe the behavior of the total testosterone serum levels (T, cortisol (C and T/C ratio. Methodology: 8 blood samples were collected during the whole season of an elite basketball team (n=8 of the First Spanish Division (ACB. The samples were taken every 4-6 weeks, at 8:00 AM, after 24-36 hours of post-game recovery. Results: T increases after 4 after 3.5 days of rest (6th vs. 1st, p=0.039; 6th vs. 5th, p=0.041 and decreases significantly at the end of the season (8th vs. 7th, p=0.003. C does not show significant variation along the season. T/C ratio shows a significant decrease at the end of the season (8th vs. 1st , p=0.021; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.017 and in VarT/C (8th vs. 1st, p=0.005; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.036. Conclusions: Concentration values as well as percentages of variation are useful indicators to describe the studied parameters. T/C ratio and/or T could be used as recovery state indicators and could even induce, in conjunction with other indicators, necessary actions to optimize individual workloads. Future investigations should compare these variations to objective workload parameters and/or other hormonal modulators.
Questions are considered on the problems of the modern system of preparation of young basketball-players. In an inspection girls took part in age of 13-15 years old, specialization basket-ball, in an amount 99 persons. For passing of further complex inspection 24 girls were selected (part on 2 groups). Directions of account of level of the biological ripening are rotined in the command of basketball-players of one passport age. Influence of the biological ripening of young basketball-players ...
Full Text Available This study examines the political economy of women’s professional basketball in the United States, including both the American Basketball League (ABL and the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA. To do so, we employ the structure-conductperformance paradigm (hereafter SCP from industrial organization. In addition to the importance of television revenues and corporate sponsorships to the success of the leagues, we find evidence of economies of scope, bilateral monopoly issues, and reverse causality in the SCP paradigm as applied to women’s professional basketball in the United States.
挡拆配合是篮球比赛中很有效的进攻基础配合，具有配合简单、易执行且攻击力强等特点，是篮球运动员必须掌握的基本配合之一。2010年FIBA新规则将三分线与篮框之间的距离增加了0．5米，使防守者协防的难度增加，同时拓展了进攻者切入或切入后传球的空间，使篮球进攻战术中最基本的挡拆配合威力更强大。就挡拆配合的教学重点进行探讨，帮助球员加深对该战术的理解与领悟，提高挡拆配合成功率。%Pick and roll is a very effective offensive play in basketball games, with the characteristics of simple cooperation,easy implementation and strong offensive force,which is one of the basic cooperation plays for basketball players to master.The new rule of FIBA (201 0)increases the distance between three point line and basket by 0.5 meters so as to increase the defensive difficulties and expand the attacker's cut or cut back space,making the pick and roll tactic more powerful.This paper based on the discussion on the teaching of pick and roll has helped players to deepen the understanding of the tactics and improve the success rate of the pick and roll.
Wheel-off-loadings and orbital maneuvers of the GEO satellite result in additional accelerations to the satellite itself. Complex and difficult to model, these time varying accelerations are an important error source of precise orbit determination (POD). In most POD practices, only non-maneuver orbital arcs are treated. However, for some applications such as satellite navigation RDSS services, uninterrupted orbital ephemeris is demanded, requiring the development of POD strategies to be processed both during and after an orbital maneuver. We in this paper study the POD for a maneuvered GEO satellite, using high precision and high sampling rate ranging data obtained with Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS). The strategy of long arc POD including maneuver arcs is studied by using telemetry data to model the maneuver thrust process. Combining the thrust and other orbital perturbations, a long arc of 6 days’ CAPS ranging data is analyzed. If the telemetry data are not available or contain significant errors, attempts are made to estimate thrusting parameters using CAPS ranging data in the POD as an alternative to properly account for the maneuver. Two strategies achieve reasonably good data fitting level in the tested arc with the maximal position difference being about 20 m.
Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi
Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.
Neas, Charles Bennett
This thesis presents a greedy search algorithm for maneuver-based motion planning of agile vehicles. In maneuver-based motion planning, vehicle maneuvers are solved offline and saved in a library to be used during motion planning. From this library, a tree of possible vehicle states can be generated through the search space. A depth-first, library-based algorithm called AD-Lib is developed and used to quickly provide feasible trajectories along the tree. AD-Lib combines greedy search tech...
Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting
Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.
The questions of sporting selection and orientation of skilled basketball-players are considered. The complex of informing indexes of technical tactical actions is presented. The psychophysiological and morphological features of basketball-players are presented. The criteria of evaluation of basketball-players are resulted in the process of selection and orientation. Priority meaningfulness of these indexes is certain for the basketball-players of different playing line of business. The neces...
Savu Cristian Florian
Full Text Available STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF PHYSICAL TRAINING IN JUNIOR I BASKETBALL PLAYERS24 october 2015 back Current archive Domain:Sport de performanta Tags:sport training physical training physiological indicators Savu Cristian Florian Abstract Sports training must benefit from scientific progress of fundamental research, which he conducted on it considerably influence through concrete answers in getting sports performance. Sports training must be subjected to rational application of principles and objectives to ensure a successful and analysing progress in training. Research objectives: To assess the level of general and specific physical training of junior basketball players I in dependent on the objectives of the team and the game. Determine the program for general and specific physical training and operational resources necessary in the framework of the annual training and incorporation of periods of junior basketball players I. Experimental verification of the rationale and effectiveness of sports training methodology based on global and differentiated treatment of General and specific physical training of junior basketball players I. Studies and research will demonstrate that the level of physical preparation has baschetbalistilor is characterized by a rather large difference in age, the dependence of the athletes and team performance goals to which they belong. Contributing research: Investigation will show that the physical training of basketball is characterized by a pretty big difference, depending on the age of the athletes playing position and team performance objectives they belong. Today, basketball is trying to universalise game stations, where each athlete can perform tasks, skills and abilities of every post game in different situations. Our research is based on the scientific-methodical argument preparation and differentiated global players primarily in terms of physical preparation. Hypothesis paper: General and specific physical
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a plan for developing new technology to provide accurate real-time noise prediction for rotorcraft in steady and maneuvering flight. Main...
Lauderdale, Todd A.; Santiago, Confesor; Pankok, Carl
Most aircraft managed by air-traffic controllers in the National Airspace System are capable of flying parallel-offset routes. This paper presents the results of two related studies on the effects of increased use of offset routes as a conflict resolution maneuver. The first study analyzes offset routes in the context of all standard resolution types which air-traffic controllers currently use. This study shows that by utilizing parallel-offset route maneuvers, significant system-wide savings in delay due to conflict resolution of up to 30% are possible. It also shows that most offset resolutions replace horizontal-vectoring resolutions. The second study builds on the results of the first and directly compares offset resolutions and standard horizontal-vectoring maneuvers to determine that in-trail conflicts are often more efficiently resolved by offset maneuvers.
Halbertsma, F.J.; Vaneker, M.; Pickkers, P.; Neeleman, C.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der
INTRODUCTION: Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) are advocated to prevent pulmonary collapse during low tidal volume ventilation and improve oxygenation. However, convincing clinical evidence for improved outcome is lacking. Recent experimental studies demonstrate that RMs translocate pulmonary inflammator
Martin, Kaela M.; Landau, Damon F.; Longuski, James M.
Artificial gravity has long been proposed to limit the harmful effects of the micro-gravity environment on human crews during mission to Mars. A tethered spacecraft spinning at 4 rpm (to avoid motion sickness) provides an attractive configuration. However, if the spacecraft is required to spin down for impulsive maneuvers and then spin up for interplanetary travel, the propellant cost may be unacceptably high. This paper proposes a maneuver that is performed while the spacecraft is spinning thus avoiding additional spin-down and spin-up maneuvers. A control law is provided to achieve the required ΔV while maintaining spin rate. A hypothetical human mission from Earth to Mars is analyzed using the new maneuver which, in this example, may save over 700 kg of propellant.
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
This study focuses on the propensity of drivers to engage in crash avoidance maneuvers in relation to driver attributes, critical events, crash characteristics, vehicles involved, road characteristics and environmental attributes. Five alternative actions involving emergency lateral and speed con...
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Ellison, Donald H.
The performance of impulsive, gravity-assist trajectories often improves with the inclusion of one or more maneuvers between flybys. However, grid-based scans over the entire design space can become computationally intractable for even one deep-space maneuver, and few global search routines are capable of an arbitrary number of maneuvers. To address this difficulty a trajectory transcription allowing for any number of maneuvers is developed within a multi-objective, global optimization framework for constrained, multiple gravity-assist trajectories. The formulation exploits a robust shooting scheme and analytic derivatives for computational efficiency. The approach is applied to several complex, interplanetary problems, achieving notable performance without a user-supplied initial guess.
Jouan, Alexandre; Bosse, Eloi; Simard, Marc-Alain; Shahbazian, Elisa
Tracking maneuvering targets is a complex problem which has generated a great deal of effort over the past several years. It has now been well established that in terms of tracking accuracy, the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm, where state estimates are mixed, performs significantly better for maneuvering targets than other types of filters. However, the complexity of the IMM algorithm can prohibit its use in these applications of which similar algorithms cannot provide the necessary accuracy and which can ont afford the computational load of IMM algorithm. This paper presents the evaluation of the tracking accuracy of a multiple model track filter using three different constant-velocity models running in parallel and a maneuver detector. The output estimate is defined by selecting the model whose likelihood function is lower than a target maneuver threshold.
The MEMS Reaction Control and Maneuvering for Picosat Beyond LEO project will further develop a multi-functional small satellite technology for low-power attitude control, or orientation, of picosatellites beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The Film-Evaporation MEMS Tunable Array (FEMTA) concept initially developed in 2013, is a thermal valving system which utilizes capillary forces in a microchannel to offset internal pressures in a bulk fluid. The local vapor pressure is increased by resistive film heating until it exceeds meniscus strength in a nozzle which induces vacuum boiling and provides a stagnation pressure equal to vapor pressure at that point which is used for propulsion. Interplanetary CubeSats can utilize FEMTA for high slew rate attitude corrections in addition to desaturating reaction wheels. The FEMTA in cooling mode can be used for thermal control during high-power communication events, which are likely to accompany the attitude correction. Current small satellite propulsion options are limited to orbit correction whereas picosatellites are lacking attitude control thrusters. The available attitude control systems are either quickly saturated reaction wheels or movable high drag surfaces with long response times.
In recent years, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (UAV) research and development at Bandung Institute of Technology in Indonesia has achieved the testing stage in the field. This testing was still being classified as the early testing, since some of the preliminary tests were carried out in the scale of the laboratory. The paper would discuss the laboratory test and several tests that were done in the field. Discussions were stressed in the procedure and the aim that will be achieved, along with several early results. The testing was carried out in the lake with the area around 8300 Ha and the maximum depth of 50 meters. The location of the testing was chosen with consideration of minimizing the effect of the current and the wave, as well as the location that was not too far from the Laboratory. The type of testing that will be discussed in paper was Heading Lock Maneuver Testing. The vehicle was tested to move with a certain cruising speed, afterwards it was commanded by an arbitrarily selected heading directio...
A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.
Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to Kristeller maneuver (KM intervention group (n = 145 and control group (n = 140. Umbilical artery blood gas analysis, creatinine kinase (CK, CK with myocardial specific isoform, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and lactic acid were assessed. Vaginal laceration, cervical laceration, length of episiotomy and vagina before and after delivery and duration of the second stage of labor in minutes were recorded. Neonatal information included: Infant birth weight, Apgar scores, babies requiring pediatric help, and admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICU were examined. Results: KM leads to elongation of episiotomy incision. Vaginal lacerations were similar between control and intervention groups; however the cervical laceration rate was higher in intervention group. Gestational week, Apgar scores, birth weight, NICU admission, babies requiring pediatrician help or healthy babies were not different between the two groups. Conclusions: The possibility of lacerations to the perineum and cervix is increased by using KM. On the other hand, fundal pressure seems safe for the fetus. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(1.000: 29-35
Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.
Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra
In studies of biological propulsion, metrics for quantitative analysis of the vortex wake, including circulation, impulse, and their time derivatives, are a valuable indicator of performance. To better utilize volumetric PIV data in this type of analysis, a discretized method of deriving vortex impulse relying only on velocity data is developed. The impulse formulation is based on the geometry and distribution of circulation along the vortex core line, which can be detected using critical points in the velocity field. This analysis method is then applied to time-resolved velocity data of a turning giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and a jumping archer fish (Toxotes microlepis) obtained using Synthetic Aperture PIV (SAPIV). In the case of the danio, the vortex force vector derived from the impulse derivative shows good agreement with the kinematics of the fish tail during the turning maneuver. With the archer fish, the model is used to explore the relationship between the number of tail beats prior to the jump and the jump height.
Bettinger, Robert A.
Comprised of exo- and trans-atmospheric trajectory segments, atmospheric re-entry represents a complex dynamical event which traditionally signals the mission end-of-life for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft, both manned and unmanned. Transcending this paradigm, atmospheric re-entry can be employed as a means of operational maneuver whereby the aerodynamic forces of the upper atmosphere can be exploited to create an aeroassisted maneuver. Utilizing a notional trans-atmospheric, lifting re-entry vehicle with L/D=6, the first phase of research demonstrates the terrestrial reachability potential for skip entry aeroassisted maneuvers. By overflying a geographically diverse set of sample ground targets, comparative analysis indicates a significant savings in DeltaV expenditure for skip entry compared with planar phasing and simple plane change exo-atmospheric maneuvers. In the second phase, the Design of Experiments method of orthogonal arrays provides optimal vehicle and skip entry trajectory designs by employing main effects and Pareto front analysis. Depending on the chosen re-circularization altitude, the coupled optimal design can achieve an inclination change of 19.91 deg with 50-85% less DeltaV than a simple plane change. Finally, the third phase introduces the descent-boost aeroassisted maneuver as an alternative to combined Hohmann and bi-elliptic transfers in order to perform LEO injection. Compared with bi-elliptic transfers, simulations demonstrate that a lifting re-entry vehicle with L/D=6 performing a descent-boost maneuver requires 6-12% less DeltaV for injection into orbits lower than 650 km. In addition, the third phase also introduces the "Maneuver Performance Number" as a dimensionless means of comparative effectiveness analysis for both exo- and trans-atmospheric maneuvers.
Ray-Qing Lin; Tim Smith; Michael Hughes
This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL). In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, re...
Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Voiriot, Guillaume; Zhou, Tong; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dudek, Steven M.; Jacobson, Jeff R.; Machado, Roberto,; Adnot, Serge; Brochard, Laurent; Maitre, Bernard; Joe G N Garcia
Low tidal volume ventilation, although promoting atelectasis, is a protective strategy against ventilator-induced lung injury. Deep inflation (DI) recruitment maneuvers restore lung volumes, but potentially compromise lung parenchymal and vascular function via repetitive overdistention. Our objective was to examine cardiopulmonary physiological and transcriptional consequences of recruitment maneuvers. C57/BL6 mice challenged with either PBS or LPS via aspiration were placed on mechanical ven...
Piacentini Gómez, Enrique; Villagrá, Ana; López Aguilar, Josefina; Blanch Torra, Lluís
Mechanical ventilation can cause and perpetuate lung injury if alveolar overdistension, cyclic collapse, and reopening of alveolar units occur. The use of low tidal volume and limited airway pressure has improved survival in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The use of recruitment maneuvers has been proposed as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue. Many investigators have studied the benefits of recruitment maneuvers in ...
Herbst-Rodrigues Marcus; Carvalho Vitor; Abrahao Ludhmila; Nozawa Emilia; Feltrim Maria Ignez; Gomes-Galas Filomena Regina
Abstract Objective This case report describes an unusual presentation of right upper lobe atelectasis associated with refractory hypoxemia to conventional alveolar recruitment maneuvers in a patient soon after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Method Case-report. Results The alveolar recruitment with PEEP = 40cmH2O improved the patient’s atelectasis and hypoxemia. Conclusion In the present report, the unusual alveolar recruitment maneuver with PEEP 40cmH2O showed to be safe and efficie...
Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim
The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513
An energy-balanced multiple-sensor collaborative scheduling is proposed for maneuvering target tracking in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). According to the position of the maneuvering target, some sensor nodes in WSNs are awakened to form a sensor cluster for target tracking collaboratively. In the cluster, the cluster head node is selected to implement tracking task with changed sampling interval. The distributed interactive multiple model (IMM) filter is employed to estimate the target state. The estimat...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is one of the most frequent peripheral vestibular system disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Epley maneuver in treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (p- BPPV and to discover possible causes of failure. Methods. This prospective study included 75 patients. In all the cases medical history showed and the positioning Dix-Hallpike test confirmed the diagnosis of p-BPPV. We also performed clinical ENT examination, searching for spontaneous nystagmus, vestibulospinal tests, caloric test, and audiometry. All the patients were treated by the modified Epley canalith repositioning maneuver. The patients were followed up at the intervals of seven and, fourteen days, and one, tree, and six months and one year. The maneuver was repeated if vertigo and nystagmus on control positioning test persisted. The transition from positive into negative Dix Hallpike test after one or two Epley maneuver was considered as success in treatment. Results. After the initial Epley maneuver the recovery rate was 90.7%, and after the second 96%. In three (4% patients with secondary p-BPPV, symptoms did not cease even after the second repositioning maneuver. The etiology of p-BPPV had a significant effect on the maneuver’s success rate (p < 0.01, whereas duration of symptoms, age and gender had no effect (p > 0.05. After a successful treatment 11 (14.66% patients had recurrent attack of BPPV during the first year. Conclusion. The Epley maneuver is very successful repositioning procedure in treating p- BPPV. The patients with idiopathic form p-BPPV showed higher success rate with Epley maneuver than those with secondary p-BPPV.
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde
Full Text Available Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls; with age range 15 – 18 years who participated in the 2010 National Finals of the Nigeria Nestlé Milo Basketball Competition. Basketball-related injury data were collected by an assessor during the competition using a standardized basketball injury report form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results A total of 32 injuries were recorded with an incidence of 22.7 injuries per 100 participants same for boys and girls. This is equivalent to 1.1 injury per match for boys and 0.9 injuries per match for girls. Jumping/landing was the most common cause of injury (28.1%, N = 9. Most of the injuries were at the lower extremities (75%, N = 24; with majority at the knee joint (40.6%, N = 13. Ligament sprain was the most common types of injury. The pattern of injuries among boys did not significantly differ from that of girls (P > 0.05. Most injuries (N = 13, 41% occurred in the offensive half of the court and cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality. Conclusion The overall incidence of match injury among adolescent amateur basketball players during a national competition in Nigeria was 22.7 injuries per 100 participants; equivalence of 1.0 injury per match. The pattern of injuries was similar in both genders and consistent with what has been previously reported in literature for adolescent basketball players. Exercise-based injury prevention programmes aimed at improving core strength and
Short-term cuts, perhaps, but long-term growth in China may be inevitable T he world's largest chipmaker, Intel, is sending a ripple effect through its pool of labor globally, including in China, with the announcement of deep workforce cuts.
Harbalis, Thomas; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Theodorakis, Yannis
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a self-talk intervention program on performance of wheelchair basketball drills. Twenty-two (N = 22) wheelchair basketball athletes from two different clubs of the same league participated in the study. The duration of the intervention was 12 weeks and its aim was the improvement of two…
Cummins, Paul; O'Boyle, Ian
This article investigated the key psychosocial factors that impact upon National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-1 male basketball players, as they transition from college to postcollege athletic or nonathletic careers. Participants (N = 9) were current/former NCAA Division-1 basketball players. Four participants were selected…
Coelho e Silva, M. J.; Moreira Carvalho, H.; Goncalves, C. E.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Philippaerts, R. M.; Malina, R. M.
Aim. The influence of maturity status on body size, functional capacities and basketball-specific skills was evaluated and multivariate relationships between domains of variables were examined in 80 male basketball players 12.0-13.9 years. Methods. Height, body mass and two skinfolds were measured.
Bressel, Eadric; Yonker, Joshua C; Kras, John; Heath, Edward M
Context: How athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: To compare static and dynamic balance among collegiate athletes competing or training in soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. Design: A quasi-experimental, between-groups design. Independent variables included limb (dominant and nondominant) and sport played. Setting: A university athletic training facility. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female volunteers who competed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer (n = 11), basketball (n = 11), or gymnastics (n = 12). Intervention(s): To assess static balance, participants performed 3 stance variations (double leg, single leg, and tandem leg) on 2 surfaces (stiff and compliant). For assessment of dynamic balance, participants performed multidirectional maximal single-leg reaches from a unilateral base of support. Main Outcome Measure(s): Errors from the Balance Error Scoring System and normalized leg reach distances from the Star Excursion Balance Test were used to assess static and dynamic balance, respectively. Results: Balance Error Scoring System error scores for the gymnastics group were 55% lower than for the basketball group (P = .01), and Star Excursion Balance Test scores were 7% higher in the soccer group than the basketball group (P = .04). Conclusions: Gymnasts and soccer players did not differ in terms of static and dynamic balance. In contrast, basketball players displayed inferior static balance compared with gymnasts and inferior dynamic balance compared with soccer players. PMID:17597942
Full Text Available This study examined the emotional intelligence and will to win level among female basketball players. A group of fifty (N=50 female inter-college level basketball players of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab were selected for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this study. Summarizing the findings we can say that significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-awareness, Empathy, Self-development, Value orientation and Altruistic behaviour. However no-significant no significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-motivation, Emotional stability, Managing relations, Integrity and Commitment. Conculdingly from the above findings that insignificant differences were present among female basketball players on the sub-variables of will to win.
Franciosi, Emanuele; Guidetti, Laura; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo
The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of selected fundamental factors to basketball performance in adult players with mental retardation (MR). Fourteen trained male players with MR (32.1 +/- 7.4 years) were recruited. The athletes' performances were assessed using adapted basketball tests that assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of 4 fundamental areas: ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting. The fundamental factors included anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and body mass index), static balance, muscular strength and endurance, explosive leg power, cardiovascular endurance, and motor coordination. This study showed that greater explosive leg power and upper-body muscular strength and endurance had significant contributions to ball handling (85%, p basketball performance. Therefore, the basketball coach could improve a selected fundamental factor to increase specific basketball ability. This should be addressed in a specific training to help players with MR to perform successfully in their competitions. PMID:20634745
Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra
The aim of this study was to assess differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between competitive wheelchair basketball participants and those non-participants. Forty-six wheelchair participants, 24 Basketball players (aged 35.60 ± 7.56) and 22 non-players (aged 36.20 ± 6.23), completed three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale [PWBS] and Symptom Checklist 90 R [SCL-90-R]. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score, evaluated by PS, was significantly higher in the non-basketball participants (p=0.00001) than the basketball participants. The PWB Scale showed significant differences in all 6 dimensions: positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life and self-acceptance (pbasketball participants. The SCL-90-R scores were significantly lower for the basketball group in the following 6 symptomatic dimensions: depression, phobic anxiety, and sleep disorder (pbasketball participants showed better psychological well-being and social skills than those non-participants.
We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.
The intelligent optimizing method of cutting parameters and the cutting stable districts searching method are set up. The cutting parameters of each cutting pass could be optimized automatically, the cutting chatter is predicted through setting up the dynamic cutting force AR(2) model on-line, the spindle rotation speed is adjusted according to the predicting results so as to ensure the cutting system work in stable district.
Full Text Available In operant learning, behaviors are reinforced or inhibited in response to the consequences of similar actions taken in the past. However, because in natural environments the "same" situation never recurs, it is essential for the learner to decide what "similar" is so that he can generalize from experience in one state of the world to future actions in different states of the world. The computational principles underlying this generalization are poorly understood, in particular because natural environments are typically too complex to study quantitatively. In this paper we study the principles underlying generalization in operant learning of professional basketball players. In particular, we utilize detailed information about the spatial organization of shot locations to study how players adapt their attacking strategy in real time according to recent events in the game. To quantify this learning, we study how a make\\miss from one location in the court affects the probabilities of shooting from different locations. We show that generalization is not a spatially-local process, nor is governed by the difficulty of the shot. Rather, to a first approximation, players use a simplified binary representation of the court into 2 pt and 3 pt zones. This result indicates that rather than using low-level features, generalization is determined by high-level cognitive processes that incorporate the abstract rules of the game.
Steingard, S A
The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court. PMID:8481964
Neiman, Tal; Loewenstein, Yonatan
In operant learning, behaviors are reinforced or inhibited in response to the consequences of similar actions taken in the past. However, because in natural environments the "same" situation never recurs, it is essential for the learner to decide what "similar" is so that he can generalize from experience in one state of the world to future actions in different states of the world. The computational principles underlying this generalization are poorly understood, in particular because natural environments are typically too complex to study quantitatively. In this paper we study the principles underlying generalization in operant learning of professional basketball players. In particular, we utilize detailed information about the spatial organization of shot locations to study how players adapt their attacking strategy in real time according to recent events in the game. To quantify this learning, we study how a make\\miss from one location in the court affects the probabilities of shooting from different locations. We show that generalization is not a spatially-local process, nor is governed by the difficulty of the shot. Rather, to a first approximation, players use a simplified binary representation of the court into 2 pt and 3 pt zones. This result indicates that rather than using low-level features, generalization is determined by high-level cognitive processes that incorporate the abstract rules of the game. PMID:24853373
Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Rudzitis, Andris; Spunde, Andris; Brice, Tamara; Nitiss, Edgars
We recorded eye movements of eight elite junior basketball players. We hypothesized that a more stable gaze is correlated to a better shot rate. Upon preliminary testing we invited male juniors whose eyes could be reliably tracked in a game situation. To these ends, we used a head-mounted video-based eye tracker. The participants had no record of ocular or other health issues. No significant differences were found between shots made with and without the tracker cap, Paired samples t-test yielded p= .130 for the far and p=..900 > .050 for the middle range shots. The players made 40 shots from common far and middle range locations, 5 and 4 meters respectively for aged 14 years As expected, a statistical correlation was found between gaze fixation (in milliseconds) for the far and middle range shot rates, r=.782, p=.03. Notably, juniors who fixated longer before a shot had a more stable fixation or a lower gaze dispersion (in tracker's screen pixels), r=-.786, p=.02. This finding was augmented by the observation that the gaze dispersion while aiming at the basket was less (i.e., gaze more stable) in those who were more likely to score. We derived a regression equation linking fixation duration to shot success. We advocate infra-red eye tracking as a means to monitor player selection and training success.
Gomez, E; DeLee, J C; Farney, W C
We studied the incidence of injury in girl's varsity basketball to characterize injury demographics in high school athletics. We defined a reportable injury as one that occurred during organized practice or competition, resulted in either missed practice or game time, required physician consultation, or involved the head or face. We prospectively evaluated the athletes on team rosters during the 1993 to 1994 season from 100 randomly selected Class 4A and 5A Texas public high schools that employed full-time certified athletic trainers. The 890 student athletes from 80 schools ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Four hundred thirty-six injuries were reported for a rate of 0.49 per athlete per season. Injury risk, calculated on the basis of exposure time, was 0.4% per hour per athlete. Although game time accounted for only 12.5% of exposure time, it represented one half of the total injuries. Sprains and strains (56%) were the most common injuries, followed by contusions (15%) and dental injuries (14%). Injuries to the ankle (31%) and knee (19%) were by far the most common. There were 34 severe injuries defined as requiring surgery or hospitalization, for a rate of 0.038 per athlete per season. Knee injuries were by far the most likely to require surgeries, and ACL injuries accounted for 69% of the severe knee injuries. PMID:8883693
Miller, S; Bartlett, R
Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range. PMID:8809716
Christina D. Davlin
Full Text Available An unfused acromial epiphysis, called os acromiale, can become unstable and mobile when the deltoid contracts. This may cause pain and lead to impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tearing. After sustaining a direct blow to the right shoulder, a male division I basketball player was diagnosed with impingement syndrome and an os acromiale. Following failed conservative treatment, the athlete underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression & debridement of the loose os acromiale in the right shoulder. One year later, following a fall on the left shoulder, the athlete was diagnosed with os acromiale, impingement syndrome and a superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP lesion. Arthroscopic repair of the unstable type II SLAP lesion, together, with arthroscopic subacromial decompression, and resection of the os acromiale was performed on the left shoulder. Both surgeries were successful and the athlete was able to return to competition subsequent to completing a progressive shoulder rehabilitation program. Symptomatic os acromiale is rarely seen in young athletes. However, proper diagnosis and management is necessary for a successful recovery. Os acromiale should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis in any athlete with rotator cuff impingement symptoms
In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking or whether the team should hold the ball and wait for a better opportunity. In this paper, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense are assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?", and show that this "lower cutoff" for shot quality $f$ depends crucially on the number $n$ of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger $n$ demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function $f(n)$, which here is dubbed "the shooter's sequence", has a surprisingly intricate mathematical form, constituting a recursive, quadratic map with no...
Full Text Available The questions of sporting selection and orientation of skilled basketball-players are considered. The complex of informing indexes of technical tactical actions is presented. The psychophysiological and morphological features of basketball-players are presented. The criteria of evaluation of basketball-players are resulted in the process of selection and orientation. Priority meaningfulness of these indexes is certain for the basketball-players of different playing line of business. The necessity of the complex going is grounded near the evaluation of possibilities of basketball-players at a selection in a command, determination of their playing functions on a ground.
Asmar, Sami W.
Communicating information from spacecraft in deep space utilizes sophisticated techniques of modulations onto a microwave signal carrier. Under most conditions, there is a high success rate of sending commands to the spacecraft and receiving science data acquired by on-board instruments along with health and status information. There are conditions, however, where the signal dynamics are too high and/or the received signal-to-noise ratio is below the receiver threshold. Under these conditions, often by design and sometimes as a result of planned or unplanned critical maneuvers, events (e.g., orbit insertion or descent and landing), safe mode, etc., it becomes highly critical but exceedingly challenging to receive information about the health and dynamical behavior of the spacecraft. The Deep Space Network, being a world-class instrument for Radio Science research, developed openloop receivers, called the Radio Science Receiver, designed to capture the raw incoming electromagnetic signals and associated noise for Radio Science experiments; post data capture digital signal processing extracts the signal carrier for scientific analysis. This receiver provides a high level of configuration flexibility and can be optimized for the various types of experiments. In addition to its scientific utility, it proved to be useful, and in some cases critical, for the support of missions during specific scenarios were the link budget is below the threshold of the tracking receiver to maintain lock or the frequency dynamics are faster than the limits of the tracking receiver. In these cases, the signal carrier is often detected only in the open-loop receiver to provide information on the specific behavior of the spacecraft from the carrier dynamics. This paper describes the utility of the system to support mission-critical events for the three cases of Cassini's Saturn orbit insertion, Huygens Titan landing, and Mars rovers landing.
Repairing damaged thermal protection system tile requires the Space Shuttle to be oriented such that repair platform access from the International Space Station (ISS) is possible. To do this, the Space Shuttle uses the Orbiter Repair Maneuver (ORM), which utilizes the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) to rotate the Space Shuttle in relation to the ISS, for extended periods of time. These positions cause difficulties and challenges to performing a safe separation (no collision or thruster plume damage to sensitive ISS structures) should an inadvertent release occur or a contingency procedure require it. To help protect for an SRMS failure or other failures, a method for separating without collision and the ability to redock to ISS from the ORM configuration was needed. The contingency ORM separation solution elegantly takes advantage of orbital mechanics between ISS and the separating Space Shuttle. By pitching the ISS down approximately 45 degrees, in a majority of the ORM repair positions, the altitude difference between the ISS and Space Shuttle center of gravity is maximized. This altitude difference results in different orbital energies (orbital periods) causing objects to separate from each other without requiring translational firings. Using this method, a safe contingency ORM separation is made possible in many odd positions even though some separation positions point high powered thrusters directly at fragile ISS and Soyuz solar arrays. Documented in this paper are the development simulations and procedures of the contingency ORM separation and the challenges encountered with large constraints to work around. Lastly, a method of returning to redock with the ISS to pick up the stranded crew members (or transfer the final crew members) is explained as well as the thruster and ISS loads analysis.
M\\u00AA Isabel Pi\\u00F1ar
Full Text Available This study presents the differences of competition between mini-basketball with the traditional rules (5-a-side and minibasket with rule modifications (3-a-side such as: reduced number of players on court, compulsory participation in 2 of the match's 4 periods, reduced court size, placing the free throw line at 3m from the basket, and including a three-point line. The sample that was selected included 47 mini-basketball players, and the study was carried out using a quasi-experimental design without a control group. The aim was to determine the effect of rule modifications on the participation of the player with the ball. It was demonstrated that the degree of individual participation is greater in mini-basketball with modified rules.
De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J M; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M; Janssen, Thomas W J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classification and competition standard, and rating of coach and player. Six field tests' test-retest showed good reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.80-0.97), while the pass-for-accuracy, free throws, lay-up and spot shot showed weak to moderate reliability (ICC = 0.26-0.67). Most tests showed moderate to good validity (r > 0.60). The results suggest that wheelchair basketball field tests are reliable and valid with the exception of the shooting and passing items, which should be interpreted carefully. PMID:22489567
Saavedra, Serguei; Mukherjee, Satyam; Bagrow, James P.
Experience is an important asset in almost any professional activity. In basketball, there is believed to be a positive association between coaching experience and effective use of team timeouts. Here, we analyze both the extent to which a team's change in scoring margin per possession after timeouts deviate from the team's average scoring margin per possession--what we called timeout factor, and the extent to which this performance measure is associated with coaching experience across all teams in the National Basketball Association over the 2009-2012 seasons. We find that timeout factor plays a minor role in the scoring dynamics of basketball. Surprisingly, we find that timeout factor is negatively associated with coaching experience. Our findings support empirical studies showing that, under certain conditions, mentors early in their careers can have a stronger positive impact on their teams than later in their careers.
Fibre laser cutting of mild steel using oxygen and nitrogen is widely used in industries throughout the world. An IPG YLR-2000 Ytterbium fibre machine with a maximum power of 2 kW and a wavelength of 1.06 µm is used throughout this research. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen as assist gases on the feature of laser cutting process are different in terms of kerf width, surface roughness, heat affected zone and striation pattern. The kerf width in oxygen laser cutting is wider than that for nit...
Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.
Gil Susana María
Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw. The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05 to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84, the maximal pass (r=0.67 and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67. Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01: 5 m (r= −0.80 and 20 m (r= −0.77 and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01. Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68 and the T-test (r= −0.57 correlated (p<0.05 with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.
Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.
Full Text Available There is a lack of information about the influence of different practice levels on physical fitness and performance variables of male basketball players competing in different divisions. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare selected physical fitness and performance variables of male players in Turkey National Basketball League’s Division I (D1, II (D2 and III (D3=Regional and to evaluate whether players with different divisional characteristics have different physical fitness and performance variables. From the Turkey basketball league, ninety male basketball players who are competing in the division I (n=30, division II (n=30 and division III (n=30 voluntarily participated in the study. Physical fitness (body height, mass and fat percentage and performance (vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, VO2max and 20 m sprint measurements were taken in three separate consecutive days following the completion of the first session. D1 and D3 players overall weighed more and D1 players had more body fat (BF and lean body mass (LBM than D2. There were significant differences in VJP between divisions (D1>D2>D3= p≤0.05, but, the differences in sprint ability and body height were not significant. Although there was no difference between D1 and D2 in VO2max and VJH, their values were significantly higher than D3 (p≤0.05. These results showed that in spite of relatively little differences in the average physical characteristics, there were very large statistical differences between divisions in physical performance variables of male basketball players, especially VJP and LBM which is an important criterion of performance at basketball.
Muhammad Irfan Ul Haq
Full Text Available Background: Failure to maintain a patent airway is one of the commonest causes of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Many protocols, algorithms, and different combinations of tested methods for airway assessment have been developed to predict difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. The reported incidence of a difficult intubation varies from 1.5% to 13%. The objective of this study was to compare Mallampati test (MT with lower jaw protrusion (LJP maneuver in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and sixty patients were included in the study. All the patients underwent MT and LJP maneuver for their airway assessment. After a standardized technique of induction of anesthesia, primary anesthetist performed laryngoscopy and graded it according to the grades described by Cormack and Lehane. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for both these tests with 95% confidence interval (CI using conventional laryngoscopy as gold standard. Area under curve was also calculated for both, MT and LJP maneuver. A P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: LJP maneuver had higher sensitivity (95.9% vs. 27.1%, NPV (98.7% vs. 82.0%, and accuracy (90.1% vs. 80.3% when compared to MT in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Both tests, however, had similar specificity and PPV. There was marked difference in the positive and negative likelihood ratio between LJP and MT. Similarly, the area under the curve favored LJP maneuver over MT. Conclusion: The results of this study show that LJP maneuver is a better test to predict difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. We recommend the addition of this maneuver to the routine preoperative evaluation of airway.
YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu
The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.
Ul Haq, Muhammad Irfan; Ullah, Hameed
Background: Failure to maintain a patent airway is one of the commonest causes of anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Many protocols, algorithms, and different combinations of tested methods for airway assessment have been developed to predict difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. The reported incidence of a difficult intubation varies from 1.5% to 13%. The objective of this study was to compare Mallampati test (MT) with lower jaw protrusion (LJP) maneuver in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and sixty patients were included in the study. All the patients underwent MT and LJP maneuver for their airway assessment. After a standardized technique of induction of anesthesia, primary anesthetist performed laryngoscopy and graded it according to the grades described by Cormack and Lehane. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both these tests with 95% confidence interval (CI) using conventional laryngoscopy as gold standard. Area under curve was also calculated for both, MT and LJP maneuver. A P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: LJP maneuver had higher sensitivity (95.9% vs. 27.1%), NPV (98.7% vs. 82.0%), and accuracy (90.1% vs. 80.3%) when compared to MT in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Both tests, however, had similar specificity and PPV. There was marked difference in the positive and negative likelihood ratio between LJP and MT. Similarly, the area under the curve favored LJP maneuver over MT. Conclusion: The results of this study show that LJP maneuver is a better test to predict difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. We recommend the addition of this maneuver to the routine preoperative evaluation of airway. PMID:24106353
M\\u00AA Isabel Pi\\u00F1ar; David C\\u00E1rdenas; Francisco Alarc\\u00F3n; Raquel Escobar; Elisa Torre
This study presents the differences of competition between mini-basketball with the traditional rules (5-a-side) and minibasket with rule modifications (3-a-side) such as: reduced number of players on court, compulsory participation in 2 of the match???s 4 periods, reduced court size, placing the free throw line at 3m from the basket, and including a three-point line. The sample that was selected included 47 mini-basketball players, and the study was carried out using a quasi-experim...
Botzung, Anne; Rubin, David C.; Miles, Amanda; Cabeza, Roberto; LaBar, Kevin S.
The rivalry between the men’s basketball teams of Duke University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) is one of the most storied traditions in college sports. A subculture of students at each university form social bonds with fellow fans, develop expertise in college basketball rules, team statistics, and individual players, and self-identify as a member of a fan group. The present study capitalized on the high personal investment of these fans and the strong affective teno...
Full Text Available Outcomes of testing of special physical and technical readiness of basketball players of student's teams are exhibited. They characterize a level of readiness of sportsmen as below average. Among basketball players of one team essential individual discrepancies on anthropometric parameters and parameters of special physical and technical readiness are revealed. Discrepancies are supervised and on parameters of functionalities, vegetative balance. All this is necessary for taking into account at scheduling loadings, construction of training process, development of individual programs of preparation of sportsmen.
Bar-Eli, M; Sachs, S; Tenenbaum, G; Pie, J S; Falk, B
This study presents a unique observational approach to basketball, based on the theory of psychological performance crisis in competition. The approach used takes into account the responses of a player' s actions to significant social factors such as team-mates, spectators, the coach and the referees. The contribution of this approach beyond traditional observational techniques is discussed. In our investigation, a single case design was used, in which a professional basketball player was observed during 10 home and 3 away games of the regular season. The relations between the observations and the crisis concept are discussed in detail. In addition, some relevant methodological and applied aspects are presented. PMID:8960655
Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; VANSTEENWEGEN, Pieter
Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...
Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.
The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.
Zhang Xueyan; Wu Zhenye; Zhou Guohua
With the three criteria for cutting variables proposed by W. W. Gilbert and K.Hitomi, th is paper analyzes the reasonable selection of cutting variables, and further states the relations among maximum profit-oriented cutting speed,minimum cost-oriented cutting speed and maximum productivity-oriented cutting speed. It puts forward a mathematical model for the optimization of cutting variables in machining.
Jinrang Li; Pengfei Guo; Shiyu Tian; Keliang Li; Hao Zhang
Objective:To investigate the efficacy of quick repositioning maneuver for horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (H-BPPV). Methods:Clinical data of 67 patients with H-BPPV who underwent quick repositioning maneuver in our hospital from July 2009 to November 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The maneuver involved rotating the patient in the axial plane for 180? from the involved side towards contralateral side as quickly as possible. Results:Complete symptom resolution was achieved in 61 patients (91.0%) at one week and in 64 patients (95.5%) at 3 months post-treatment. During the repositioning maneuver process, there were no obvious untoward responses except transient nausea with or without vomiting in a few patients. Conclusion:The results indicate that the quick repositioning maneuver is an easy and effective alternative treatment in the management of H-BPPV. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Full Text Available The multiple maneuvering target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter is addressed. The equivalent-noise approach is adopted, which uses a simple dynamic model consisting of target state and equivalent noise which accounts for the combined effects of the process noise and maneuvers. The equivalent-noise approach converts the problem of maneuvering target tracking to that of state estimation in the presence of nonstationary process noise with unknown statistics. A novel method for identifying the nonstationary process noise is proposed in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, a particle filter based multiscan Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA filter is proposed to deal with the data association problem in a multiple maneuvering target tracking. In the proposed multiscan JPDA algorithm, the distributions of interest are the marginal filtering distributions for each of the targets, and these distributions are approximated with particles. The multiscan JPDA algorithm examines the joint association events in a multiscan sliding window and calculates the marginal posterior probability based on the multiscan joint association events. The proposed algorithm is illustrated via an example involving the tracking of two highly maneuvering, at times closely spaced and crossed, targets, based on resolved measurements.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Flexible fiber optic bronchoscopy is a valuable intervention for evaluation and management of respiratory diseases in both infants, pediatric and adult patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the airway supporting maneuvers on glottis view during pediatric flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy.MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this randomized, controlled, crossover study; patients aged between 0 and 15 years who underwent flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy procedure having American Society of Anesthesiologists I---II risk score were included. Patients having risk of difficult intubation, intubated or patients with tracheostomy, and patients with reduced neck mobility or having cautions for neck mobility were excluded from this study. After obtaining best glottic view at the neutral position, patients were positioned jaw trust with open mouth, jaw trust with teeth prottution, head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers and best glottis scores were recorded.RESULTS:Total of 121 pediatric patients, 57 girls and 64 boys, were included in this study. Both jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers improved the glottis view compared with neutral position (p 0.05. Head tilt chin lift and triple airway maneuvers improved glottis view when compared with both jaw trust with open mouth and jaw trust with teeth prottution maneuvers and neutral position (p 0.05.
Costa, Daniela Caetano; Rocha, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Tatiane Flores
The acute respiratory distress syndrome is the clinical presentation of acute lung injury characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and development of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position can be used in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The objective of this review of literature was to identify possible benefits, indications, complications and care of the associated recruitment maneuvers and prone position for treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. This national and international scientific literature review was developed according to the established criteria for searching the databases MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed, Cochrane, from 1994 to 2008 in Portuguese and English, with the key words: acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar recruitment maneuver and prone position. Despite advances in the understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome pathophysiology, mortality is still expressive. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position significantly contribute to treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome patient aiming to improve oxygenation and minimizing complications of refractory hypoxemia and reduction of pulmonary compliance. However,as there are few studies in literature associating alveolar recruitment maneuvers and prone position for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, additional research and evidences of clinical application are required. PMID:25303351
Neves, Valéria Cabral; Koliski, Adriana; Giraldi, Dinarte José
Recent changes were introduced in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure children ventilation methods. There are evidences that less aggressive ventilation strategies can improve severe pulmonary injury survival. Experimental trials evidenced a relationship between inappropriate ventilatory measures and delayed acute pulmonary injury improvement, or even worsening. From this, a protective ventilatory measure arises in combination with alveolar recruitment maneuver. This association is believed in clinical practice to determine importantly reduced morbidity and mortality as well as reduced mechanic ventilation-induced injuries. It is indicated for acute lung injury patients, generally from pneumonia or sepsis, with severe hypoxemia. Its main contraindications are homodynamic instability, pneumothorax and intracranial hypertension. Experimental trials showed beneficial maneuver effects on both oxygenation and alveolar collapse. Adult studies showed improved pulmonary function with hypoxemia reversion. In children, the maneuver lead to significant inspired oxygen fraction and alveolar collapse reductions, less oxygen dependency, improved pulmonary complacency, and reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, studies in children are limited. Additional investigation is warranted on this matter, and its clinical application evidence. A literature review was conducted based on textbooks and MEDLINE, Pubmed, Cochrane library, SciELO, and Ovid databases, from 1998 to 2009, both in Portuguese and English. Publications on alveolar recruitment maneuver both in adults and children, review articles, experimental and clinical trials were included using the key words: protective ventilatory strategy, alveolar recruitment maneuver, pediatrics and mechanic ventilation. PMID:25307339
Concha, Marco a.
On March 22, 2006, the Space Technology 5 (ST5) constellation spacecraft were successfully delivered to orbit by a Pegasus XI, launch vehicle. An unexpected relative motion experienced by the constellation after orbit insertion brought about a problem. Soon after launch the observed relative position of the inert rocket body was between the leading and the middle spacecraft within the constellation. The successful planning and execution of an orbit maneuver that would create a fly-by of the rocket body was required to establish the.formation. This maneuver would create a close approach that needed to conform to predefined collision probability requirements. On April 21, 2006, the ST5 "155" spacecraft performed a large orbit maneuver and successfully passed the inert Pegasus 3rd Stage Rocket Body on April 30, 2006 15:20 UTC at a distance of 2.55 km with a Probability of Collision of less than 1.0E-06. This paper will outline the technique that was implemented to establish the safe planning and execution of the fly-by maneuver. The method makes use of Gaussian distribution models of state covariance to determine underlying probabilities of collision that arise under low velocity encounters. Specific numerical examples used for this analysis are discussed in detail. The mechanics of this technique are explained to foster deeper understanding of the concepts presented and to improve existing processes for use in future constellation maneuver planning.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the different defensive performance indicators in basketball, analyzing the difference in relation to success (efficacious or non-efficacious defenses and the game result (win or loss. All halfcourt offenses (n=1045 from the quarterfinal, semifinal, consolation game, and final of the 2008 Olympics Games were analyzed. In each defense phase, the following variables were analyzed with regard to the team on defense: (1 Type of defense used, (2 Pressure in offense transition, (3 Defensive switches, (4 Helping on defense, (5 Inside passes, (6 Degree of opposition when shooting, (7 Points allowed, (8 Final result of the game, and (9 Defensive efficacy. The most significant results show that: : a the type of defense that was most used was quarter-court an-on-man (man-on-man at 6.25m, but the one that was most efficacious was the half-court zone defense; b transition pressure was used in 23.83% of the game phases; c defensive switches were done in 7.85% of the game phases; d helping on defense was used in 60% of the game phases; e inside passes were taken in 30.9% of the game phases; f 38.9% of the shots were done with high opposition; and g points were scored in 42.28% of the game phases, such that winning teams allowed the opponent to score in 38.81% of the game phases, and losing teams in 45.77%.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.
Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T
The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players. PMID:22289699
A study examined, through comparison, The "New York Times'" coverage of the 1995 women's and men's National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments. The study sought to answer three questions: (1) Does the "Times" frame the women's event as unimportant?; (2) If so, how?; and (3) What does this say about the "Times'" attitude…
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Div. for Girls and Women's Sports.
The official American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) rules for girls and women's basketball, July 1972 - July 1973 are listed. Exact court measurements are given as are official scoring rules, timing procedures, duties of officials, definition of playing terms, violations and penalties, and officials' signals.…
Xavi Schelling, Lorena Torres
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the workload during basketball-specific drills measured through microtechnology. Twelve professional male basketball players from the Spanish 1st Division were monitored over a 4-week period. Data were collected from 16 sessions, for a total of 95 ± 33 drills per player. Workload data (Acceleration load; AL were obtained from a tri-axial accelerometer at 100Hz sampling frequency, and were expressed over time (AL.min-1. Comparisons among training drills (i.e., 2v2, 3v3, 4v4, and 5v5 were assessed via standardized mean differences. Full-court 3v3 and 5v5 showed the highest physical demand (AL.min-1: 18.7 ± 4.1 and 17.9 ± 4.6, respectively compared with other traditional balanced basketball drills such as 2v2 and 4v4 (14.6 ± 2.8 and 13.8±2.5, respectively. The AL.min-1 on half-court showed trivial-to-moderate differences with a likely increase of ~10-20% in 2v2 drill compared with any other formats. This study provides insight into the specific requirements of a range of exercises typically performed in basketball sessions. The use of accelerometer data is presented as a useful tool in assessing the workload.
Tucker, Irvin B., III; Amato, Louis
Examines the effects of academics and athletics (including football and basketball variables) on first-year college students' Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores at U.S. universities engaged in big-time intercollegiate sports. Academic variables rather than athletic success variables determine the level of average first-year students' SAT…
Jesús Gil Gómez
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players. mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.
Kuigi uus Leedu kodakondsusseaduse muudatus lubab anda Leedu koondises mängivatele välismaa tippsportlastele Leedu kodakondsuse, lükkas president Valdas Adamkus USA korvpalluri Kathryn Douglas'e kodakondsustaotluse tagasi. Sama ka: Adamkus denies U.S. basketball star citizenship//The Baltic Times 2006, 24-30 aug., lk 4
This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…
Stanley Ilango Thangaraj
Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop information technology for technical and tactical training of skilled basketball players with hearing impairments. Material : the study involved 24 women's national team athletes Ukrainian Basketball hearing impaired (age - 25-30 years. Technical protocols were processed 12 games from the World Cup and Europe, XXII Summer Deaflympics. Fixed number of shots and hit free throws, steals, rebounds and on its offensive rebounds, fouls and errors. Results : the developed system of tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments. Accentuation was made of the prevalence of method visibility while developing tactical interactions. The main result was the development of the author's method of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Also, use the lamp LS Line-3-65-12-C to control the training process athletes. Conclusions : there was a significant improvement in competitive activity athletes. Athletes performed significantly more hits from the foul line and successful shots from long range compared to main rivals. Also increased the number of interceptions in games. Application of information technology had an impact on the competitive result: basketball team of Ukraine took the second place in the Deaflympics in Sofia in 2013.
Full Text Available The main object of this research was to determine the existance of statistically significant differences in physiological load of the referees concidering the period of the basketball game. The sample of subjects consisted of 31 referees, avarage age of 33.35 ± 5.17, from the A referee list of the 1st Croatian Basketball League in the contest season 2008/2009. The sample of variables consisted of the following: FSM - avarage heart rate; Fsmax – maximum heart rate; E – energy consumption (kcal/min. Measuring was done during official games of the 1st Croatian Basketball League in the contest season of 2008/2009. During the game, heart rate was measured with a cardiotachometer (an electronic device for heart rate measurement, produced by POLAR, model RS400 (Finland. Data processing was done using a programme package STATISTICA for Windows, ver 8. Based on the obtained results of univariate variance analysis it was concluded that there are no statistically significant differences in the physiological load between the first and second half – time, as well as between particular quarters of basketball games.
Graduation rates of football players and men's and women's basketball players at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I colleges have reached their lowest level in seven years, with fewer black athletes graduating than at any time since the mid-1980s. Eight universities graduated at least 90% of athletes enrolling between 1989 and…
Full Text Available Basketball is a rich game in techniques, with a variety of tactical actions, presenting tendencies of universalism by requiring players with advanced technical training to meet the demands of the game. The issue of training and development of the tactical thinking is a factor to which special attention must be given in training athletes and in the game, but also in training the future teachers and coaches in basketball. Tactics is an active contribution in the game of reason, seeking to capitalize on the preparation of the players and of the team, taking into account the opponent's weaknesses. So, using the moments when the attacking team, in the game of basketball, is around the adverse basket, there is a great probability to obtain favorable situations for marking points which may contribute to the final victory. For this reason in the 30 lessons allocated on the fixed moments of the game we are using a large number of repetitions, modern tools and complex, simplify situations during matches. Were also selected six tactical combinations of throwing the ball under adverse panel that have demonstrated effectiveness in the two games check. It was found that the optimal approach to reinstatement under adverse panel leads to effective fixed moments of the game achieving the objectives in the offensive basketball: marking as many points.
Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.
Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…
Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M
Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.
The Qualitative research will explore issues that interface particularly with Black student- athletes on Division 1 basketball scholarships regarding academic readiness, academic support, family support and how the experience of a Division 1 scholarship impacted their lives. The population of Black student-athletes that the focus of the research…
Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent
This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.
Alferink, Larry A.; Critchfield, Thomas S.; Hitt, Jennifer L.; Higgins, William J.
Based on a small sample of highly successful teams, past studies suggested that shot selection (two- vs. three-point field goals) in basketball corresponds to predictions of the generalized matching law. We examined the generality of this finding by evaluating shot selection of college (Study 1) and professional (Study 3) players. The matching law…
Padulo, Johnny; Laffaye, Guillaume; Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Attene, Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Chamari, Karim; Pizzolato, Fabio
The present study aimed to compare the changes of direction on repeated sprint ability (RSA) vs. intensive repeated sprint ability (IRSA) protocols in basketball. Eighteen young male basketball players performed on RSA [10 × 30-m (15 + 15-m, one change of direction)] and IRSA [10 × 30-m (10 + 10 + 10-m, two changes of direction)]. A correlation matrix between RSA, IRSA, "squat jump (SJ)-countermovement jump (CMJ)", footstep analysis and total distance in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 was performed. The best time, worst time, total time and the number of footsteps were significantly smaller in the RSA test compared to IRSA test (P 0.80, P 0.478, P 0.515, P 0.489, P basketball game's actions (~2 s). Besides, IRSA could be an appropriate choice for assessing both RSA and changes of direction capacities in basketball players.
Clark, Langston; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Bimper, Albert Y.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze the insights and experiences of the 1st African American student-athlete (in basketball) at a prominent predominantly White institution in the Deep South as well as the later insights and experiences of his sons at the same university; and (b) to present a counterstory to the dominant…
Tufa, Gemechu Beker
The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…
Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre
This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the Yo-Yo IE2 test could reflect the repeatability of high-intensity intermittent basketball dribbling performance, while dribbling skills may have different influences on high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity in adolescent players at different ages.
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.
The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…
Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…
de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.
For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…
English, Vincent; Crotty, Yvonne; Farren, Margaret
Inspiring Science Education (ISE) (http://www.inspiringscience.eu/) is an EU funded initiative that seeks to further the use of inquiry-based science learning (IBSL) through the medium of ICT in the classroom. The Basketball Shot is a scenario (lesson plan) that involves the use of video capture to help the student investigate the concepts of…
Pappano, Laura; Tracy, Allison J.
Tickets to college sports--and men's and women's Division I college basketball in particular--may appear on the surface no different than tickets members of the public may buy to attend professional sporting events. But unlike professional franchises, colleges are non-profit organizations and, in many cases, public institutions. Decisions around…
Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J
The present investigation described and compared the internal and external training loads during basketball training. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (mean ± SD, age: 26.3 ± 6.7 years; stature: 188.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 7-week period during the preparatory phase of the annual training plan. A total of 44 total sessions were monitored. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate, and accelerometer data were collected across each training session. Internal training load was determined using the sRPE, training impulse (TRIMP), and summated-heart-rate-zones (SHRZ) training load models. External training load was calculated using an established accelerometer algorithm. Pearson product-moment correlations with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine the relationships between internal and external training load models. Significant moderate relationships were observed between external training load and the sRPE (r42 = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.23-0.69, p basketball settings. Basketball coaching and conditioning professionals should not assume a linear dose-response between accelerometer and internal training load models during training and are recommended to combine internal and external approaches when monitoring training load in players.
Mazinan, A H; Shakhesi, S
The research attempts to deal with the autonomous space systems incorporating new automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties. The main subject behind the investigation is to realize the high-resolution small amplitude orbital maneuvers via the first control strategy. And subsequently to realize the large amplitude orbital maneuvers via the second control strategy, as well. There is a trajectory optimization to provide the three-axis referenced commends for the aforementioned overactuated autonomous space system to be able to transfer from the initial orbit to its final ones, in finite burn, as long as the uncertainties of key parameters of the system such as the thrust vector, the center of the gravity, the moments of the inertia and so on are taken into real consideration. The strategies performances are finally considered through a series of experiments and a number of benchmarks to be tangibly verified. PMID:26895709
Gencpinar, Pinar; Duman, Murat
Foreign body aspiration in children under four years old is one of the most frequently observed reasons for accident related deaths. It is more common in this age group due to inadequate swallowing functions and exploration of objects with the mouth. The most frequently encountered foreign bodies are food and toy parts. Life threatening complete laryngeal obstruction is rarely observed. Dyspnea, hypersalivation, cough and cyanosis can be seen. The basic and life-saving treatment approach is complete removal of foreign body maneuvers in the sudden onset of total obstruction. Here we report a six-month old male, who ingested a foreign body and was treated with back blow maneuvers successfully. In this case we emphasized the importance of back blow maneuvers. PMID:27239623
Cone, Andrew C.
This paper examines uncertainty in the maneuver execution delay for data linked conflict resolution maneuvers. This uncertainty could cause the previously cleared primary conflict to reoccur or a secondary conflict to appear. Results show that the likelihood of a primary conflict reoccurring during a horizontal conflict resolution maneuver increases with larger initial turn-out angles and with shorter times until loss of separation. There is also a significant increase in the probability of a primary conflict reoccurring when the time until loss falls under three minutes. Increasing horizontal separation by an additional 1.5 nmi lowers the risk, but does not completely eliminate it. Secondary conflicts were shown to have a small probability of occurring in all tested configurations.
Mesarch, Michael A.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)
The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission utilized a strategy combining highly eccentric phasing loops with a lunar gravity assist to provide a zero-cost insertion into a Lissajous orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 point. Maneuvers were executed at the phasing loop perigees to correct for launch vehicle errors and to target the lunar gravity assist so that a suitable orbit at L2 was achieved. This paper will discuss the maneuver planning process for designing, verifying, and executing MAP's maneuvers. This paper will also describe how commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) tools were used to execute these tasks and produce a command sequence ready for upload to the spacecraft. These COTS tools included Satellite Tool Kit, MATLAB, and Matrix-X.
The present paper investigates the chaotic attitude dynamics and reorientation maneuver for completely viscous liquid-filled spacecraft with flexible appendage. All of the equations of motion are derived by using Lagrangian mechanics and then transformed into a form consisting of an unperturbed part plus perturbed terms so that the system's nonlinear characteristics can be exploited in phase space.Emphases are laid on the chaotic attitude dynamics produced from certain sets of physical parameter values of the spacecraft when energy dissipation acts to derive the body from minor to major axis spin. Numerical solutions of these equations show that the attitude dynamics of liquid-filled flexible spacecraft possesses characteristics common to random, nonperiodic solutions and chaos, and it is demonstrated that the desired reorientation maneuver is guaranteed by using a pair of thruster impulses. The control strategy for reorientation maneuver is designed and the numerical simulation results are presented for both the uncontrolled and controlled spins transition.
Jikuya, Ichiro; Fujii, Kenta; Yamada, Katsuhiko
In this paper, two types of computational procedures are presented for a rest-to-rest spacecraft maneuver using a variable-speed double-gimbal control moment gyro (VSDGCMG). The first procedure is a numerical computational procedure in which a quasi-time-optimal trajectory satisfying several physical constraints is obtained by repeating the Newton's method. The other procedure is an approximate computational procedure in which an analytical solution is obtained by approximately solving a series of linear optimal control problems. The two procedures play complementary roles: the former is suitable for implementation, and the latter can be used to select an initial value for use in the former. The effectiveness of the proposed procedures is demonstrated by plotting the surfaces of maneuvering time for all rotational axes and by plotting time responses for several maneuvering examples.
Schiefer, Márcio; Júnior, Yonder Archanjo Ching-San; Silva, Sérgio Maurício; Fontenelle, César; Dias Carvalho, Marcos Genúncio; de Faria, Fabio Garcia; Franco, José Sérgio
Objective: To evaluate the Bear Hug maneuver for clinically diagnosing subscapularis tendon tears, and compare this with other maneuvers described previously (Lift-off, Napoleon and Belly Press). Methods: Forty-nine patients with rotator cuff injuries who had undergone arthroscopy to repair the injury and had previously been assessed using the semiological maneuvers mentioned above were evaluated. Results: The diagnostic values obtained for the Bear Hug test were as follows: sensitivity 75%, specificity 56%, positive predictive value 62%, negative predictive value 70% and accuracy 65%. Conclusion: The highest sensitivity and negative predictive value values were obtained with the Bear Hug test. The highest specificity value was seen with the Lift-off test. The Belly press test gave the greatest specificity, positive predictive and accuracy values. PMID:27047870