WorldWideScience

Sample records for basis developpement amelioration

  1. Development and validation of calculation schemes dedicated to the interpretation of small reactivity effects for nuclear data improvement; Developpement et validation de schemas de calcul dedies a l'interpretation des mesures par oscillation pour l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruel, A.

    2011-10-24

    afin d'obtenir des informations pertinentes sur les donnees nucleaires de base. L'enjeu de cette these est le developpement d'un schema de calcul de reference, dont les incertitudes sont clairement identifiees et quantifiees, permettant l'interpretation des mesures par oscillation. Dans ce document plusieurs methodes de calcul de ces faibles effets en reactivite sont presentees, basees sur des codes de calculs neutroniques deterministes et/ou stochastiques. Ces methodes sont comparees sur un benchmark numerique, permettant leur validation par rapport a un calcul de reference. Trois applications sont ici presentees dans le detail: une methode purement deterministe utilisant la theorie des perturbations exacte pour la qualification des sections efficaces des principaux produits de fission en REP, dans le cadre d'etudes sur l'estimation de la perte du reactivite du combustible au cours du cycle; une methode hybride, basee sur un calcul stochastique et la theorie des perturbations exacte, permet d'obtenir un retour precis sur les donnees nucleaires de bases d'isotopes, dans notre cas l'{sup 241}Am; et enfin, une troisieme methode, reposant sur un calcul perturbatif Monte Carlo, est utilisee pour une etude de conception

  2. Quebec energy development in a sustainable development context; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.

    2010-09-15

    Quebec is a net importer of oil and it is clear that the reduction of its dependence with regards to hydrocarbons must be a main preoccupation. Moreover, the energy consumption per habitant of Quebec is higher than that of the majority of the other developed countries. This analysis looks at the choice on offer to the society of the province of Quebec, in terms of energy resources and technologies of today and tomorrow, in a context of sustainable development. [French] Le Quebec est un importateur net de petrole et il est clair que la reduction de sa dependance a l'egard des hydrocarbures doit etre une preoccupation de premier plan. De plus, la consommation energetique par habitant du Quebec est plus elevee que celle de la majorite des autres pays developpes. La presente analyse adresse les choix qui s'offrent a la societe quebecoise, en matiere de ressources et de technologies de l'energie d'aujourd'hui et de demain, dans un contexte de developpement durable.

  3. Developpement de techniques de diagnostic non intrusif par tomographie optique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubot, Fabien

    Que ce soit dans les domaines des procedes industriels ou de l'imagerie medicale, on a assiste ces deux dernieres decennies a un developpement croissant des techniques optiques de diagnostic. L'engouement pour ces methodes repose principalement sur le fait qu'elles sont totalement non invasives, qu'elle utilisent des sources de rayonnement non nocives pour l'homme et l'environnement et qu'elles sont relativement peu couteuses et faciles a mettre en oeuvre comparees aux autres techniques d'imagerie. Une de ces techniques est la Tomographie Optique Diffuse (TOD). Cette methode d'imagerie tridimensionnelle consiste a caracteriser les proprietes radiatives d'un Milieu Semi-Transparent (MST) a partir de mesures optiques dans le proche infrarouge obtenues a l'aide d'un ensemble de sources et detecteurs situes sur la frontiere du domaine sonde. Elle repose notamment sur un modele direct de propagation de la lumiere dans le MST, fournissant les predictions, et un algorithme de minimisation d'une fonction de cout integrant les predictions et les mesures, permettant la reconstruction des parametres d'interet. Dans ce travail, le modele direct est l'approximation diffuse de l'equation de transfert radiatif dans le regime frequentiel tandis que les parametres d'interet sont les distributions spatiales des coefficients d'absorption et de diffusion reduit. Cette these est consacree au developpement d'une methode inverse robuste pour la resolution du probleme de TOD dans le domaine frequentiel. Pour repondre a cet objectif, ce travail est structure en trois parties qui constituent les principaux axes de la these. Premierement, une comparaison des algorithmes de Gauss-Newton amorti et de Broyden- Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) est proposee dans le cas bidimensionnel. Deux methodes de regularisation sont combinees pour chacun des deux algorithmes, a savoir la reduction de la dimension de l'espace de controle basee sur le maillage et la regularisation par penalisation de Tikhonov

  4. Le Developpement Physique de L'Eleve: Cadre de Developpement Aspect Physique. Monographie (Students' Physical Growth: Developmental Framework, Physical Dimension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This report puts forth the position of the Ministry of Education of Alberta, Canada, with respect to the physical development of the elementary school student as the basis for his or her cognitive, emotional, social, and moral development. The report describes normal physical development during the first 10 years of life in the domains of…

  5. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencelle, Francois

    La compression de l'hydrogene est une etape incontournable de son utilisation dans l'industrie actuelle et dans les nouvelles applications energetiques de l'hydrogene (stockage stationnaire et transport). Les compresseurs mecaniques traditionnellement utilises posent plusieurs problemes d'ingenierie, de securite et de maintenance qui pourraient etre contournes en developpant de nouvelles technologies mieux adaptees a l'hydrogene. Dans cette these, notre objectif est de developper d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur les hydrures metalliques pouvant etre connecte a la sortie d'un electrolyseur fonctionnant a basse pression et d'ainsi repondre au besoin de productioncompression d'hydrogene decentralisee. La methodologie du projet comprend plusieurs etapes. Premierement, nous faisons la revue bibliographique des projets impliquant des compresseurs a hydrures metalliques. Deuxiemement, a travers des travaux experimentaux, nous recherchons des hydrures permettant une compression efficace entre 20 et 80°C. Les materiaux sont synthetises par fusion a arc electrique et caracterises sur bancs d'essais d'hydrogenation. La structure de certains materiaux est aussi investiguee par rayons X, methode de B.E.T. et microscopie electronique. Troisiemement, un reacteur d'hydrures est concu de maniere a promouvoir des echanges de chaleur rapides et efficaces. Quatriemement, le prototype et son interface de controle sont construits. Cinquiemement, le compresseur est caracterise pour en evaluer les performances en termes de debit et de capacite. Les resultats obtenus sont presentes dans trois articles publies et dans le chapitre 5 de cette these. Le compresseur (article I) est base sur trois hydrures (LaNi 4.8Sn0.2, LaNi5 et MMNi4.7Al0.3 ). Celui-ci permet d'atteindre un debit de compression de 10 a 20 L d'hydrogene par heure et son efficacite est, estimee a ˜5% par rapport a un compresseur adiabatique ideal. Il a ete demontre que l'efficacite pourrait etre augmentee en utilisant un

  6. Developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pour precipiter les defauts latents de circuits electroniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Francois

    2003-08-01

    Le procede de deverminage, ou Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), est employe principalement dans le domaine de l'electronique pour reduire les mortalites infantiles des produits avant leur livraison. Il utilise usuellement des stimulations environnementales telles que les vibrations ou la temperature produites a l'aide d'equipements conventionnels d'essais qui sont tres couteux et difficiles a implanter. Le but de cette recherche est le developpement d'une nouvelle methode d'excitation vibratoire des plaques de circuits electroniques a moindre cout par l'emploi de l'excitation acoustique. Le projet a mene au developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pouvant etre utilise lors d'implantations du procede ESS en milieu industriel. L'utilisation de cette nouvelle technologie et des methodes novatrices de personnalisation des spectres ESS proposees dans cette these permettent la precipitation de defaillances latentes presentes dans les produits electroniques de facon efficace et securitaire et ce, a moindre cout par rapport aux technologies concurrentes. La methodologie des travaux presentes dans cette these inclus: (1) La generation acoustique des vibrations sur les circuits; (2) L'analyse modale acoustique des circuits par des methodes a reference unique et a references multiples; (3) La precipitation de defauts latents typiques des circuits electroniques; (4) Une methode d'individualisation des spectres vibratoires tenant compte des caracteristiques structurelles des circuits; (5) La presentation de la configuration de l'equipement acoustique et les resultats d'implantation du procede. Nonobstant la fabrication, l'installation et la mise en service d'un equipement en milieu industriel (depuis le mois de mai 2002), ces travaux ont permis l'obtention de trois familles de brevets et la publication de six articles de conference: trois portant sur l'analyse modale a reference unique, un portant sur l'analyse modale a references multiples, un autre portant sur la

  7. Development of wind energy in Morocco; Developpement de l'energie eolienne au Maroc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzili, M. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables de Maroc, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-04-15

    Morocco's national energy policy includes the use of renewable energy sources to lessen its reliance on fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Legislation was recently passed to increase the threshold of electrical power from 10 MW to 50 MW. Solar and wind energy are the most abundant renewable energy resources in the country and are recommended for exploitation on a large scale. Feasibility studies conducted by the Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables have shown that Morocco has enough wind energy to produce electricity on a large scale and interconnect it with the national power grid. Wind energy in the country could also be used for on-site power generation in remote villages or for desalination of seawater, particularly in the southern regions of Morocco which are most affected by drought. Essaouira, Tangier, Tetouan, Tarfaya, Dakhla, Laayoune and Taza were among the regions identified with significant wind resources. The total wind energy potential for Morocco is estimated to be 2,650 GW, while the technical wind energy potential is estimated to be 1,600 GW. Several projects have been realized in the areas of electricity production, interconnection to the national power grid, decentralized rural electrification and eventually the introduction of water pumping. It was concluded that exporting green energy to Europe, via the Morocco-Spain route after the restructuring of Morocco's electricity sector will create a viable market for the medium and long-term. 3 figs.

  8. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  9. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  10. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other...

  11. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  12. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  13. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  15. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  16. Awareness of households to the development of wind energy sites - Reporting on a survey; Receptivite des menages au developpement des sites eoliens. Rapport d'enquete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, M.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents in tables and diagrams the results of a survey involving 421 households in Switzerland, about their awareness to energy issues and, in particular, to all what regards wind energy and wind power plants. Globally, 80% of the persons asked for their opinion believe that electric power demand will continue to increase. 66% of them are in favour of increased use of renewable energy sources and would consequently agree with a 10% more expensive end-user energy price. 89% of the persons taking part to the survey approve the installation of wind energy farms in Switzerland. Moreover, statistics indicates that the households living in regions already equipped with wind farms are significantly more favorable to the creation of new wind energy sites than those not living in these regions. By the end of the day, it turns out that the main reasons for accepting wind energy are environmental concerns as well as the fear of being obliged to use nuclear power. [French] Ce rapport presente par des graphiques et des tableaux le resultat d'un sondage d'opinion aupres de 421 menages en Suisse, sur la sensibilite du public aux problemes de l'energie et plus particulierement sur sa perception de tout ce qui concerne l'energie du vent et son exploitation par l'implantation d'eoliennes. Globalement, 80% des menages pensent que la demande d'energie electrique va poursuivre sa croissance. 66% d'entre eux sont favorables au developpement des energies renouvelables et prets a accepter en consequence une augmentation du prix de l'energie allant jusqu'a 10%. 89% des personnes interrogees sont favorables au developpement des eoliennes en Suisse. De plus, la statistique montre de maniere significative que les menages des regions dans lesquelles sont deja implantes des sites eoliens sont plus favorables au developpement des eoliennes que les autres. Finalement, le respect de l

  17. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  18. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  19. Developpement d'algorithmes de reconstruction statistique appliques en tomographie rayons-X assistee par ordinateur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Christian

    La tomodensitometrie (TDM) permet d'obtenir, et ce de facon non invasive, une image tridimensionnelle de l'anatomie interne d'un sujet. Elle constitue l'evolution logique de la radiographie et permet l'observation d'un volume sous differents plans (sagittal, coronal, axial ou n'importe quel autre plan). La TDM peut avantageusement completer la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP), un outil de predilection utilise en recherche biomedicale et pour le diagnostic du cancer. La TEP fournit une information fonctionnelle, physiologique et metabolique, permettant la localisation et la quantification de radiotraceurs a l'interieur du corps humain. Cette derniere possede une sensibilite inegalee, mais peut neanmoins souffrir d'une faible resolution spatiale et d'un manque de repere anatomique selon le radiotraceur utilise. La combinaison, ou fusion, des images TEP et TDM permet d'obtenir cette localisation anatomique de la distribution du radiotraceur. L'image TDM represente une carte de l'attenuation subie par les rayons-X lors de leur passage a travers les tissus. Elle permet donc aussi d'ameliorer la quantification de l'image TEP en offrant la possibilite de corriger pour l'attenuation. L'image TDM s'obtient par la transformation de profils d'attenuation en une image cartesienne pouvant etre interpretee par l'humain. Si la qualite de cette image est fortement influencee par les performances de l'appareil, elle depend aussi grandement de la capacite de l'algorithme de reconstruction a obtenir une representation fidele du milieu image. Les techniques de reconstruction standards, basees sur la retroprojection filtree (FBP, filtered back-projection), reposent sur un modele mathematiquement parfait de la geometrie d'acquisition. Une alternative a cette methode etalon est appelee reconstruction statistique, ou iterative. Elle permet d'obtenir de meilleurs resultats en presence de bruit ou d'une quantite limitee d'information et peut virtuellement s'adapter a toutes formes

  20. Developpement de mesures non destructives, par ondes ultrasonores, d'epaisseurs de fronts de solidification dans les reacteurs metallurgiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floquet, Jimmy

    Dans les cuves d'electrolyse d'aluminium, le milieu de reaction tres corrosif attaque les parois de la cuve, ce qui diminue leur duree de vie et augmente les couts de production. Le talus, qui se forme sous l'effet des pertes de chaleur qui maintiennent un equilibre thermique dans la cuve, sert de protection naturelle a la cuve. Son epaisseur doit etre controlee pour maximiser cet effet. Advenant la resorption non voulue de ce talus, les degats generes peuvent s'evaluer a plusieurs centaines de milliers de dollars par cuve. Aussi, l'objectif est de developper une mesure ultrasonore de l'epaisseur du talus, car elle serait non intrusive et non destructive. La precision attendue est de l'ordre du centimetre pour des mesures d'epaisseurs comprenant 2 materiaux, allant de 5 a 20 cm. Cette precision est le facteur cle permettant aux industriels de controler l'epaisseur du talus de maniere efficace (maximiser la protection des parois tout en maximisant l'efficacite energetique du procede), par l'ajout d'un flux thermique. Cependant, l'efficacite d'une mesure ultrasonore dans cet environnement hostile reste a demontrer. Les travaux preliminaires ont permis de selectionner un transducteur ultrasonore a contact ayant la capacite a resister aux conditions de mesure (hautes temperatures, materiaux non caracterises...). Differentes mesures a froid (traite par analyse temps-frequence) ont permis d'evaluer la vitesse de propagation des ondes dans le materiau de la cuve en graphite et de la cryolite, demontrant la possibilite d'extraire l'information pertinente d'epaisseur du talus in fine. Fort de cette phase de caracterisation des materiaux sur la reponse acoustique des materiaux, les travaux a venir ont ete realises sur un modele reduit de la cuve. Le montage experimental, un four evoluant a 1050 °C, instrumente d'une multitude de capteurs thermique, permettra une comparaison de la mesure intrusive LVDT a celle du transducteur, dans des conditions proches de la mesure

  1. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  2. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  3. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This finding suggests that simvastatin and rosuvastatin may have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced kidney damage via amelioration of lipid peroxidation as well as due to improvement of renal function, and lipid-lowering effects.

  4. Wnt7a treatment ameliorates muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Julia; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Parise, Gianni; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2012-12-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscular disorder of childhood marked by progressive debilitating muscle weakness and wasting, and ultimately death in the second or third decade of life. Wnt7a signaling through its receptor Fzd7 accelerates and augments regeneration by stimulating satellite stem cell expansion through the planar cell polarity pathway, as well as myofiber hypertrophy through the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) anabolic pathway. We investigated the therapeutic potential of the secreted factor Wnt7a for focal treatment of dystrophic DMD muscles using the mdx mouse model, and found that Wnt7a treatment efficiently induced satellite cell expansion and myofiber hypertrophy in treated mucles in mdx mice. Importantly, Wnt7a treatment resulted in a significant increase in muscle strength, as determined by generation of specific force. Furthermore, Wnt7a reduced the level of contractile damage, likely by inducing a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch. Finally, we found that Wnt7a similarly induced myotube hypertrophy and a shift in fiber type toward slow-twitch in human primary myotubes. Taken together, our findings suggest that Wnt7a is a promising candidate for development as an ameliorative treatment for DMD.

  5. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  6. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  7. “The Mind Is Its Own Place”: Amelioration of Claustrophobia in Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla N. Clark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phobias are among the few intensely fearful experiences we regularly have in our everyday lives, yet the brain basis of phobic responses remains incompletely understood. Here we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with a typical clinicoanatomical syndrome of semantic dementia led by selective (predominantly right-sided temporal lobe atrophy, who showed striking amelioration of previously disabling claustrophobia following onset of her cognitive syndrome. We interpret our patient’s newfound fearlessness as an interaction of damaged limbic and autonomic responsivity with loss of the cognitive meaning of previously threatening situations. This case has implications for our understanding of brain network disintegration in semantic dementia and the neurocognitive basis of phobias more generally.

  8. Basis Tensor Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2016-01-01

    We reformulate gauge theories in analogy with the vierbein formalism of general relativity. More specifically, we reformulate gauge theories such that their gauge dynamical degrees of freedom are local fields that transform linearly under the dual representation of the charged matter field. These local fields, which naively have the interpretation of non-local operators similar to Wilson lines, satisfy constraint equations. A set of basis tensor fields are used to solve these constraint equations, and their field theory is constructed. A new local symmetry in terms of the basis tensor fields is used to make this field theory local and maintain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below. The field theory of the basis tensor fields is what we call the basis tensor gauge theory.

  9. Development of in-service meter testing (ISMET); Developpement de test de compteurs en service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullathorne, D. [BG Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Finnerty, G. [BG Transco plc. (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Managing a population of 19 million meters in the UK is a massive task for Transco, the UK's principal regulated gas transporter. Adopting a cost-effective approach to all aspects of mater work is crucial in today's regulated business environment. It was from a critical review of mater work processes that a need was identified for new test equipment to reinforce the introduction of a mater re-use policy. This would reduce mater transportation and refurbishment costs. BG Technology and Transco have jointly developed some low cost equipment suitable for testing residential gas meters used by Transco's Competent Person (TCP) workforce or by trained local depot operatives. The test equipment can determine whether the meter meets the national requirements for registration performance and hence can be re-used without refurbishment at central workshops. The equipment has been shown to be technically feasible in the laboratory. Field testing has allowed rapid development of working prototypes and provided a basis for conducting simple inter-rig comparison to verify the acceptability of the test method. The pilot trial has shown that the project objectives have been met, in providing low cost test equipment for widespread use by properly trained personnel. (authors)

  10. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  11. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  12. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  13. Developpement de competences de resolution reflexive de problemes environnementaux aupres d'enseignants en formation du Botswana: Apport d'un modele pedagogique base sur une recherche-action participative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Benoit

    2000-10-01

    Cette etude s'interesse au developpement de competences de resolution de problemes environnementaux dans un contexte culturel africain. Pour y parvenir, elle elabore un modele pedagogique pouvant se situer dans le cadre theorique de la vision reflexive emergeant presentement en education relative a l'environnement (ERE). Provenant du champ d'etude de la systemique, la methodologie des systemes souples (MSS) s'avere compatible avec le cadre de la reflexivite qui est emergent. Un modele pedagogique preliminaire fut ainsi etabli en transposant et en adaptant plusieurs des principes et des constituantes de la MSS au domaine de l'ERE. Ce modele, s'appuyant sur une strategie de recherche-action, a ete ensuite mis a l'essai aupres d'enseignants du secondaire en formation au Botswana, dans le cadre de leurs activites parascolaires. Cette recherche-developpement de type participatif s'appuie sur une analyse qualitative. Durant sa mise a l'essai, le modele preliminaire a subi plusieurs modifications generees entre autres par les interactions entre les participants et le facilitateur; ces modifications suggerent fortement une prise en charge par les participants de la demarche d'investigation, condition essentielle pour le developpement de competences de resolution de problemes environnementaux. Durant la demarche de resolution du probleme, des competences relatives a l'acquisition de connaissances sur la situation investiguee et a l'action environnementale ont ete sollicitees de maniere repetee. Ceci ne semble pas avoir ete le cas pour les competences associees a la reflexion par les participants sur leurs propres perceptions (metacognition), sur celles des autres ou encore sur la nature de la connaissance (cognition epistemique). En ce qui a trait a la conception de chaque apprenant concernant le probleme environnemental etudie, les observations recueillies tout au long de la demarche suggerent, pour certains des participants, une complexification. Le modele resultant de l

  14. Amelioration of painful crises in sickle cell disease by venesections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombos, Yannis; Tzanetea, Revekka; Kalotychou, Vassiliki; Konstantopoulos, Kostas; Simitzis, Spyros; Tassiopoulos, Thomas; Aessopos, Athanasios; Fessas, Phaedon

    2002-01-01

    Sickle cell disease patients who acquire iron deficiency may experience a degree of amelioration from painful crises in terms of frequency, severity, and duration. This observation prompted us to identify the potential utility of iron load reduction in the management of this disease. Thirteen sickle cell patients not ameliorated by conventional treatment entered a weekly venesection protocol. Hematological values and painful crises of all degrees of severity were recorded and compared to those of the last 12 months before venesection for each case separately ("historical controls"). A decrease was noted in the frequency and intensity of several types of painful crises. Reduction of iron load by venesection seems to be a simple, safe, side-effect-free, and efficient way of preventing and ameliorating to a large extent painful crises in sickle cell disease. The biological effects of venesection on other parameters of sickle cell disease remain to be determined.

  15. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  16. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r=-0.97 between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r=0.95 with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  17. Ameliorative effect of Leucas cephalotes extract on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhini Bais; Payal Saiju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate ameliorative effect of alcoholic extract of whole herb of Lucas cephalotes (L. cephalotes) on isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Hepatoprotective potential of alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes was ascertained at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were intoxicated with isoniazid and rifampicin (100 mg/kg each, i.p.) for 21 d. Assessment was done on the basis of liver function test (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin);effect on enzymes involved in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase) and histology of liver were assessed as well. Comparison among different treatment group was done using One way ANOVA followed by Benferroni’s t test. Results: It was observed that at both of the selected doses extract exhibited significant ameliorative effect. In animals treated with the extract at both doses, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and lipid peroxidase level was found to be significantly less (P Conclusions:From the present study it can be concluded that alcoholic extract of L. cephalotes possesses significant hepatoprotective potential against isoniazid and rifampicin induced heptoxicity.

  18. Developpement d'outils de gestion des biogaz produits par les lieux d'enfouissement sanitaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroux, Martin

    The work carried out focused on two stages: (1) estimate methane emissions to the atmosphere or oxidized by methanothophic bacteria and, (2) study the behaviour and the efficiency of the CESM's landfill gas collecting system. This work is presented in three scientific articles constituting the corp of this thesis. For the first stage, work related to estimating emissions into the atmosphere was carried out throughout the summer of 2004, on three test areas covering a surface varying between 1000 and 4800 m2. The goal was to determine the effect that the air temperature, atmospheric pressure fluctuations, and precipitation, had on methane emissions. A complete 3 factors/2 levels (23) factorial experiment demonstrated that methane emissions increase when temperature goes down, when there was no rainfall during the last few days before emissions measurements, and when atmospheric pressure decrease. The observed effects can mainly be explained by the advective flow, diffusive flow, as well as biological oxidation of methane. On the basis of these experiments, a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) model was developed. Using this model, it was possible to calculate that during the summer of 2004, 54% of emissions were produced during only 17% of the time. Work of the first stage, on the biological oxidation of methane took place over two seasons, the fall of 2004 and the summer of 2005. Oxidation rate was measures at 60 occasions at four specific locations. These oxidation rates vary between 14% and 100%. The method used is the flux method for carbon contained in methane and carbon dioxide. Carbon isotopic composition measurements validated the oxidation rates calculated by the flux method. Flux intensity is the main factor influencing the oxidation rate. Observed kinetics parameters KM and Vmax, calculated with Michaelis-Menten equation, are 1.25 mol m-3 and 0.127 mole m-3 h -1 respectively. The temperature's effect is also observed when we compare the data

  19. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  20. Development, improvement and calibration of neutronic reaction rate measurements: elaboration of a base of standard techniques; Developpement, amelioration et calibration des mesures de taux de reaction neutroniques: elaboration d`une base de techniques standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelot, J.P

    1998-06-19

    In order to improve and to validate the neutronic calculation schemes, perfecting integral measurements of neutronic parameters is necessary. This thesis focuses on the conception, the improvement and the development of neutronic reaction rates measurements, and aims at building a base of standard techniques. Two subjects are discussed. The first one deals with direct measurements by fission chambers. A short presentation of the different usual techniques is given. Then, those last ones are applied through the example of doubling time measurements on the EOLE facility during the MISTRAL 1 experimental programme. Two calibration devices of fission chambers are developed: a thermal column located in the central part of the MINERVE facility, and a calibration cell using a pulsed high flux neutron generator and based on the discrimination of the energy of the neutrons with a time-of-flight method. This second device will soon allow to measure the mass of fission chambers with a precision of about 1 %. Finally, the necessity of those calibrations will be shown through spectral indices measurements in core MISTRAL 1 (UO{sub 2}) and MISTRAL 2 (MOX) of the EOLE facility. In each case, the associated calculation schemes, performed using the Monte Carlo MCNP code with the ENDF-BV library, will be validated. Concerning the second one, the goal is to develop a method for measuring the modified conversion ratio of {sup 238}U (defined as the ratio of {sup 238}U capture rate to total fission rate) by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods. Within the framework of the MISTRAL 1 and MISTRAL 2 programmes, the measurement device, the experimental results and the spectrometer calibration are described. Furthermore, the MCNP calculations of neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption are validated. It is finally shown that measurement uncertainties are better than 1 %. The extension of this technique to future modified conversion ratio measurements for {sup 242}Pu (on MOX rods) and {sup 232}Th (on Thorium rods) is also detailed and will be interesting for both studies on the accelerator driven systems and minor actinides transmutation. (author) 68 refs.

  1. Crystalizing the Spinon Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayashiki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The quasi-particle structure of the higher spin XXZ model is studied. We obtained a new description of crystals associated with the level $k$ integrable highest weight $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$ modules in terms of the creation operators at $q=0$ (the crystaline spinon basis). The fermionic character formulas and the Yangian structure of those integrable modules naturally follow from this description. We have also derived the conjectural formulas for the multi quasi-particle states at $q=0$.

  2. Study of the asymptotic expansion of multiple integrals in mathematical physics; Etudes sur les developpements asymptotiques des integrales multiples de la physique mathematique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chako, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    , provided one interprets in a proper manner the results derived from the two methods, especially the expression of the geometrical wave. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode de la phase stationnaire pour evaluer les integrales doubles et multiples du type: (A) U(k) = g(x)e{sup ik{phi}}{sup (x)} d(x), (x)=(x{sub 1},..., x{sub n}) pour les grandes valeurs du parametre k. Dans la premiere partie nous avons etendu d'une maniere rigoureuse la methode de la phase stationnaire aux integrales doubles et multiples de type (A). De plus, nous avons obtenu un developpement asymptotique de (A), lorsque l'amplitude et la phase peuvent se developper sous forme canonique au voisinage de points critiques ou stationnaires de l'integrale (A). Ce developpement contient comme cas particuliers tous les cas importants dans les applications physiques et particulierement en diffraction et diffusion d'ondes electromagnetiques et corpusculaires par des systemes optiques, corps diffractants et potentiels de diffusions. Dans la seconde partie nous avons considere le probleme de la convergence du developpement de la contribution principale a l'integrale, au sens asymptotique de Poincare. La preuve est basee sur la methode des majorantes, utilisee en analyse mathematique. La troisieme partie contient la derivation des series asymptotiques diverses, due aux types varies de points critiques ou stationnaires lies aux fonctions d'amplitude et de phase. Dans la quatrieme partie nous avons generalise la methode aux integrales multiples et au cas ou le parametre k entre implicitement dans la fonction de phase. Ce dernier type d'integrales permet l'extension du premier type a de nombreux problemes physiques, par exemple a la propagation d'ondes en milieux dispersifs et absorbants. Au dernier chapitre, nous faisons l'etude des integrales doubles de diffractions (theorie de Kirchhoff) et nous comparons les resultats par l'application de la methode

  3. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed...

  4. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep;

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... rate at the sample position between the virtual instrument simulation and experiments was found, in both time and energy distributions. This achievement was only possible after a new component for a bent single crystal analyser in McStas, using a Gaussian approximation, was developed. These findings...

  5. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ah; Joh, Eun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The seeds of Arctium lappa L. (AL, family Asteraceae), the main constituents of which are arctiin and arctigenin, have been used as an herbal medicine or functional food to treat inflammatory diseases. These main constituents were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Arctigenin more potently inhibited AChE activity than arctiin. Arctigenin at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg (p. o.) potently reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits by 62 % and 73 %, respectively, in a passive avoidance test. This finding is comparable with that of tacrine (10 mg/kg p. o.). Arctigenin also significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. On the basis of these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate memory deficits by inhibiting AChE.

  6. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nishiwaki

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP, a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  7. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Hajela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  8. Probiotic foods: can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajela, Neerja; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramakrishna, B S; Ganguly, N K

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  9. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    The stress experienced by an animal is ameliorated when the animal is exposed to distressing stimuli along with a conspecific animal(s). This is known as social buffering. Previously, we found that the presence of an unfamiliar male rat induced social buffering and ameliorated conditioned fear responses of a male rat subjected to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, because our knowledge of social buffering is highly biased towards findings in male subjects, analyses using female subjects are crucial for comprehensively understanding the social buffering phenomenon. In the present studies, we assessed social buffering of conditioned fear responses in female rats. We found that the estrus cycle did not affect the intensity of the rats' fear responses to the CS or their degree of vigilance due to the presence of a conspecific animal. Based on these findings, we then assessed whether social buffering ameliorated conditioned fear responses in female rats without taking into account their estrus cycles. When fear conditioned female rats were exposed to the CS without the presence of a conspecific, they exhibited behavioral responses, including freezing, and elevated corticosterone levels. By contrast, the presence of an unfamiliar female rat suppressed these responses. Based on these findings, we conclude that social buffering can ameliorate conditioned fear responses in female rats.

  10. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum c

  11. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects althou

  12. Improvement of Sodium Neutronic Nuclear Data for the Computation of Generation IV Reactors; Contribution a l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires neutroniques du sodium pour le calcul des reacteurs de generation IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archier, P.

    2011-09-14

    de ces incertitudes provient des donnees nucleaires et, dans le cas des RNR-Na, des donnees nucleaires du sodium, qui presentent des differences significatives entre les bibliotheques internationales (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0). L'objectif de cette these est d'ameliorer la connaissance sur les donnees nucleaires du sodium afin de mieux calculer les parametres neutroniques des RNR-Na et fournir des incertitudes fiables. Apres un etat des lieux des presentes donnees du {sup 23}Na, l'impact des differences est quantifie notamment sur les effets en reactivite de vidange du sodium, calcules avec des outils neutroniques deterministe et stochastique. Les resultats montrent qu'il est necessaire de reevaluer entierement les donnees nucleaires du sodium. Plusieurs developpements ont ete effectues dans le code d'evaluation Conrad, pour integrer de nouveaux modeles de reactions nucleaires et leurs parametres ainsi que pour permettre de proceder a des ajustements avec des mesures integrales. Suite a ces developpements, l'analyse des donnees differentielles et la propagation des incertitudes experimentales avec Conrad ont ete realisees. Le domaine des resonances resolues a ete etendu a 2 MeV et le domaine du continuum debute directement au-dela de cette energie. Une nouvelle evaluation du {sup 23}Na et les matrices de covariances multigroupes associees ont ete generees pour de futurs calculs d'incertitudes. La derniere partie de la these se focalise sur le retour des experiences integrales de vidange du sodium, par des methodes d'assimilation de donnees integrales, afin de reduire les incertitudes sur les sections efficaces du sodium. Ce document se clot sur des calculs d'incertitudes pour des RNR-Na de type industriel, qui montrent une meilleure prediction de leurs parametres neutroniques avec la nouvelle evaluation

  13. Synthesis of new materials with properties ameliorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baira, F.; Benfarhi, S.; Zidani, S.

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature. It is used mainly for the production of paper bet also as a reinforcement in the polymer matrixes[1]. The modification of this polysaccharide presents a great interest, for it is the main constituent of agricultural wastes. It is well known that the microcrystalline cellulose gives, after chemical modification, new biodegradable materials[2], which may be used, for instance, for packaging. The esterification of cellulose necessitates an acid pretreatment which makes hydroxyl groups more accessible by breaking hydrogen bonds. X-rays diffraction analysis showed a feeble diminution of the treated samples cristallinity[3]. Cellulose, activated in this way, is esterified in a classic way in DMF, in the presence of triethylamine, LiCl and acid chloride at 60C° for 24 hours[4]. The obtained ester is precipitated in MeOH. The residue, dissolved in CHCl3, gives after evaporation in the open air, a plastic film surface. The water drop test has shown the hydrophobe properties of the plastic film surface. Our work is the study of the preparation of composite materials from the basis of their derivatives. Well as the study of the photopolymerisation kinetic, and the chemical degradation. The obtained films were analyzed by IR-TF, and the volumetrie[5,6]. As a conclusion, we have prepared composite materials with improved properties with reference to the matrix alone.

  14. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    Livercirrhosis can be complicated by a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome. This is due to translocation of bacteria and bacterial product (bacterial DNA and endotoxins), which stimulate the splanchnic nitric oxide synthase and leads to splanchnic vasodilatation and haemodynamic derangement....... This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  15. Arsenic toxicity in mice and its possible amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. J. Verma; Archana Vasu, Abdu; Alim Saiyed

    2004-01-01

    Oral administration of arsenic trioxide(3 and 6 mg/kg body weight/d) for 30 d caused, as compared with vehicle control, dose- dependent significant reductions in body weight, absolute weight, protein, glycogen, as well as, total, dehydro and reduced ascorbic acid contents both in the liver) and kidney of arsenic- treated mice. Succinic dehydrogenase(SDH) and phosphorylase(only in the liver activities were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased in the liver of low dose arsenic-treated animals; however, significant rise in its activity was observed in high dose group. As compared with vehicle control, treatment also caused significant dose-dependent reductions in SDH, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities in the kidney of mice. Vitamin E cotreatment as well as, 30 d withdrawal of arsenic trioxide treatment with or without vitamin E caused significant amelioration in arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Administration of vitamin E during withdrawal of treatment also caused significant amelioration as compared from only withdrawal of the treatment. It is concluded that vitamin E ameliorates arsenic-induced toxicities in the liver and kidney of mice.

  16. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  17. Rikkunshito ameliorates cachexia associated with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice by stimulating ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Miura, Ayako; Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Iizuka, Seiichi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2014-10-01

    Cachexia is a frequent complication in patients with respiratory failure, such as lung fibrosis, and it is a determining factor for functional capacity, health status, and mortality. Reductions in body weight and skeletal muscle mass are key features of cachexia that are resistant to current therapies. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for the treatment for patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and known to stimulate ghrelin secretion. By using bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis mice in this study, we tested our hypothesis that RKT administration could ameliorate pulmonary cachexia. After BLM administration, mice were provided with either RKT or distilled water on a daily basis. Compared with the BLM-injected mice, the RKT-treated mice had smaller reductions of food intake and body weight. Skeletal muscle weights were retained in the RKT-treated mice, in conjunction with reduced expressions of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 in the lysates of skeletal muscle found in lung fibrosis. Rikkunshito administration restored the plasma concentrations of ghrelin in BLM-injected mice. The anticachectic efficacies of RKT administration in BLM-injected mice were canceled by the concurrent treatment of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Rikkunshito administration did not decrease the degree of loss of body weight or food intake reduction in either ghrelin-deficient mice or growth hormone secretagogue receptor-deficient mice. Our results indicate that RKT administration exerts protective effects on pulmonary cachexia by ameliorating skeletal muscle wasting and food intake reduction as mediated by the ghrelin system and, thus, highlight RKT as a potential therapeutic agent for the management of lung fibrosis.

  18. CMAC with General Basis Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Shin, Lin; Ching-Tsan, Chiang

    1996-10-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is often used in learning control. It can be viewed as a basis function network (BFN). The conventional CMAC uses local constant basis functions. A disadvantage is that its output is constant within each quantized state and the derivative information is not preserved. If the constant basis functions are replaced by non-constant differentiable basis functions, the derivative information will be able to be stored into the structure as well. In this paper, the generalized scheme that uses general basis functions is investigated. The conventional CMAC is a special case of the generalized technique. The mathematical foundation for the modified scheme is derived and the convergence of learning is proved. Simulations for the CMAC with Gaussian basis functions (GBFs) are performed to demonstrate the improvement of accuracy in modeling, and the capability in providing derivative information. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  19. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  20. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  1. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...... integrated drought (i.e., DI and PRD) and salt (i.e., inoculating plant with PGPB) management approaches. It is concluded that incorporation of biochar could be successfully used to ameliorate drought and salt stress in plants. However, further research is warranted under drought prone and salt affected...

  2. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O B; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Jensen, Claus J

    2004-01-01

    Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease caused by absence of dystrophin. Utrophin is a chromosome 6-encoded dystrophin-related protein (DRP), sharing functional motifs with dystrophin. Utrophin's ability to compensate for dystrophin during development and when...... ectodomain for 3 months in vivo resulted in up-regulation of utrophin, a marked improvement in the mechanical properties of muscle as evidenced by resistance to eccentric contraction mediated damage, and a reduction of muscle pathology. The amelioration of dystrophic phenotype by heregulin-mediated utrophin...

  3. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  4. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-07-20

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms.

  6. Saline-alkali land in the Yellow River Delta:amelioration zonation based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the major land degradation types andhas greatly influenced sustainable agricultural development. Zonation of saline-alkali land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present situation of saline-alkali land is monitored by remote sensing image processing. Causes for land salinization are analyzed, especially the two key factors, ground water depth and its mineralization degree, are analyzed by using long-term observation data. Previously,zonation of saline-alkali soil was made descriptively and artificially. Based on the present situation of saline-alkali land, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the zonation of salinealkali land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta was completed quantitatively. Four different ypes of saline-alkali land amelioration zones are delineated, namely, easy ameliorated zone,elatively difficult ameliorated zone, difficult ameliorated zone and unfavorable ameliorated zone.Countermeasures for ameliorating saline-alkali soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline-alkali land zones.

  7. 27 CFR 24.304 - Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. 24.304 Section 24.304 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Chaptalization (Brix adjustment) and amelioration record. (a) General. A proprietor who chaptalizes juice...

  8. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  9. Calcitonin, as SMS 201-995, ameliorates the VIPoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, A; Gambuzza, C; Bertoni, F; Baschieri, L

    1993-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for diarrhea, abdominal and back pain, weight loss, low serum potassium level. Pathological findings and high circulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) levels allowed us to diagnose "VIPoma syndrome". The patient underwent a treatment with SMS 201-995 with improvement of symptomatology and reduction of circulating VIP levels. After a wash-out period the patient was treated with salmon calcitonin with a net improvement of diarrhea, normalization of potassium serum level and reduction of VIP level. The symptomatology recurred after calcitonin withdrawal. These data confirm the effectiveness of SMS 201-995 in the VIPoma syndrome and suggest that calcitonin may ameliorate symptomatology and reduce circulating VIP level in patients with VIPoma tumor.

  10. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  11. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by phosphate salts in mungbean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnakar, Arpita; Mukherji, Subhendu

    2005-07-01

    Sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4.7H2O) is a potent inhibitor of mungbean seed germination and seedling growth. Germination is totally stopped at or above 50 microM Na2HAsO4.7H2O. Inhibition of seedling elongation started at a lower concentration of 5 microM As(V) and was drastically reduced at 20 microM As(V). Nutrients like salts of macroelements viz., NaH2PO4.2H2O, KH2PO4, K2SO4, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2.2H2O, (NH4)2SO4 NH4NO3 solutions at a concentration of 10mM and microelements viz., ZnSO4, CuSO4.5H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, MnCl2.4H2O, CoCl2.6H2O, FeSO4.7H2O solutions at a concentration of 1mM could help to ameliorate the toxic effects of As(V) to different degrees. Amelioration of As(V) toxicity was possible only when the mungbean seeds were pretreated with the above mentioned nutrients for 24 hr and then transferred to sodium arsenate. Simultaneous treatment of nutrients with As(V) or using nutrient solutions following As(V) treatment were of no help to reverse the toxic effects of sodium arsenate.

  12. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  13. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was foun

  14. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...

  15. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo;

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...

  16. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative conclusions and…

  17. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.

    2001-08-28

    To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  18. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  19. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  20. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  1. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  2. Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Theodore L.; Nayak, Debasis; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Koretsky, Alan P.; Latour, Lawrence L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly appreciated to be highly prevalent and deleterious to neurological function. At present, no effective treatment options are available, and little is known about the complex cellular response to TBI during its acute phase. To gain insights into TBI pathogenesis, we developed a novel murine closed-skull brain injury model that mirrors some pathological features associated with mild TBI in humans and used long-term intravital microscopy to study the dynamics of the injury response from its inception. Here we demonstrate that acute brain injury induces vascular damage, meningeal cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately breach the glial limitans and promote spread of the injury into the parenchyma. In response, the brain elicits a neuroprotective, purinergic-receptor-dependent inflammatory response characterized by meningeal neutrophil swarming and microglial reconstitution of the damaged glial limitans. We also show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione. Our results shed light on the acute cellular response to TBI and provide a means to locally deliver therapeutic compounds to the site of injury.

  3. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  4. Magnesium lithospermate B ameliorates renal cortical microperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-guang CHEN; Yi-ping WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae on renal microcirculation, and renal and systemic hemodynamics in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: MLB (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was injected intravenously and renal blood flow (RBF), renal cortical microperfusion (RCM), and systemic hemodynamic function parameters including heart rate (HR),mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and maximal velocity of pressure increase (dp/dtmax) were measured for 45 min after administration. Results: Intravenous MLB at doses of 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg increased RCM significantly, but had no obvious effects on RBF or systemic hemodynamics. The effect of MLB on RCM reached its peak 15 min after injection and returned to baseline after 45 min. Up to60 mg/kg MLB increased RCM by 62.4%±20.2% (changes from baseline, P<0.01),whereas RBF (3.7%±9.7% vs baseline) and renal vascular resistance (-1.4%±9.1%vs baseline) did not obviously change. Conclusion: These results indicate that MLB ameliorates renal microcirculation in a dose-dependent manner, which may be related to the renoprotective effects of MLB.

  5. Ozone therapy ameliorates paraquat-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldirim, Umit; Uysal, Bulent; Yuksel, Ramazan; Macit, Enis; Eyi, Yusuf E; Toygar, Mehmet; Tuncer, Salim K; Ardic, Sukru; Arziman, Ibrahim; Aydin, Ibrahim; Oztas, Yesim; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Topal, Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) overdose can cause acute lung injury and death. Ozone therapy (OT) was previously demonstrated to alleviate inflammation and necrosis in various pathologies. We therefore hypothesized that OT has ameliorative and preventive effects on PQ-induced lung damage due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidants properties. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were separated into three groups: sham, PQ, and PQ+OT groups. 15 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ+OT groups to induce experimental lung injury. One hour after PQ treatment, PQ+OT group was administered a single dose of ozone-oxygen mixture (1 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal route for four consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on fifth day after PQ administration. Blood samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate the inflammatory processes, antioxidant defense and pulmonary damage. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neopterin levels, tissue oxidative stress parameters, total TGF-β1 levels, and histological injury scores in PQ+OT group were significantly lower than PQ group (Ptherapy.

  6. NLRP3 deficiency ameliorates neurovascular damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Ziying; Wei, Xinbing; Han, Huirong; Meng, Xianfang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Weichen; Li, Fengli; Xin, Tao; Pang, Qi; Yi, Fan

    2014-04-01

    Although the innate immune response to induce postischemic inflammation is considered as an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of innate immunity mediator NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is unknown. In this study, focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in NLRP3(-/-), NOX2(-/-), or wild-type (WT) mice. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Evans blue permeability, and electron microscopic analyses, we found that NLRP3 deficiency ameliorated cerebral injury in mice after ischemic stroke by reducing infarcts and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We further showed that the contribution of NLRP3 to neurovascular damage was associated with an autocrine/paracrine pattern of NLRP3-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release as evidenced by increased brain microvessel endothelial cell permeability and microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Finally, we found that NOX2 deficiency improved outcomes after ischemic stroke by mediating NLRP3 signaling. This study for the first time shows the contribution of NLRP3 to neurovascular damage and provides direct evidence that NLRP3 as an important target molecule links NOX2-mediated oxidative stress to neurovascular damage in ischemic stroke. Pharmacological targeting of NLRP3-mediated inflammatory response at multiple levels may help design a new approach to develop therapeutic strategies for prevention of deterioration of cerebral function and for the treatment of stroke.

  7. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

  8. Brain microvascular endothelial cell transplantation ameliorates ischemic white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-08-21

    Ischemic insults affecting the internal capsule result in sensory-motor disabilities which adversely affect the patient's life. Cerebral endothelial cells have been reported to exert a protective effect against brain damage, so the transplantation of healthy endothelial cells might have a beneficial effect on the outcome of ischemic brain damage. In this study, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the rat internal capsule to induce lacunar infarction. Seven days after ET-1 injection, microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were transplanted into the internal capsule. Meningeal cells or 0.2% bovine serum albumin-Hank's balanced salt solution were injected as controls. Two weeks later, the footprint test and histochemical analysis were performed. We found that MVEC transplantation improved the behavioral outcome based on recovery of hind-limb rotation angle (P<0.01) and induced remyelination (P<0.01) compared with the control groups. Also the inflammatory response was repressed by MVEC transplantation, judging from fewer ED-1-positive activated microglial cells in the MVEC-transplanted group than in the other groups. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which MVECs ameliorate ischemic damage of the white matter may provide important information for the development of effective therapies for white matter ischemia.

  9. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  10. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  11. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  12. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  13. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  14. Telmisartan ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawia, Reem T; Esmat, Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Doaa A; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the potential hepatoprotective effect of telmisartan (TLM), a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 ) receptor blocker, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced acute hepatotoxity in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of male Wistar rats with CCl4 1 mL kg(-1) , 1:1 mixture with corn oil for 3 days increased serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as total bilirubin, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. This is in addition to the disrupted histological architecture in the CCl4 group. Rats receiving CCl4 and co-treated with TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) , orally) showed ameliorated serum biochemical and histological changes almost to the control level. Nevertheless, rats treated with TLM (1 mg kg(-1) ) didn't show any significant changes compared to CCl4 intoxicated group. In addition, TLM rectified oxidative status disrupted by CCl4 intoxication. Interestingly, TLM protected against CCl4 -induced expressions of nuclear factor-κB, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-II, in a dose related manner. Moreover, TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) significantly modified CCl4 -induced elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, TLM showed a marked decline in CD68+ cells stained areas and reduced activity of myeloperoxidase enzyme compared to CCl4 -intoxicated group. In conclusion, both doses of TLM (3 and 10 mg kg(-1) ) showed significant hepato-protective effects. However, TLM at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) didn't show significant efficacy above 3 mg kg(-1) which is nearly equivalent to the human anti-hypertensive dose of 40 mg. Thus, may be effective in guarding against several hepatic complications due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 359-370, 2017.

  15. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. FINDINGS: Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  16. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  17. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pedro Fernández-Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  18. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  19. Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro

    2015-05-01

    Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment, accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD.

  20. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  1. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.

  2. Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...

  3. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  4. [Natural science basis of individuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V

    1981-01-01

    Results of experiments on animals with ablation of different parts of the brain and analysis of published data suggest that the neurophysiological basis of temperaments, according to Hippocrates, of nervous system types, according to Pavlov, and of extra-introversion consists in individual peculiarities of interaction of four structures: the frontal neocortex, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the hypothalamus. Pathological disturbance of this interaction produces the basic varieties of neuroses: hysteria, neurasthenia, psychasthenia and obsessive states. The significance is discussed of individual features of sets and hierarchy of basal human needs: material-biological, social, ideal (with their variants: retention and development, "for oneself" and "for others") needs of overcoming (will) and of "fitness" - for the formation of individuality.

  5. Oxytocin ameliorates the immediate myocardial injury in heart transplant through down regulation of the neutrophil dependent myocardial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fadhil Al-Amran

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin ameliorates myocardial injury in heart transplant through down-regulation the myocardial inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil-dependant myocardial apoptosis.

  6. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  7. Bosutinib Therapy Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Silicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Priscila J.; Clevelario, Amanda L.; Padilha, Gisele A.; Silva, Johnatas D.; Kitoko, Jamil Z.; Olsen, Priscilla C.; Capelozzi, Vera L.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.; Cruz, Fernanda F.

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease for which no effective therapy exists. We hypothesized that bosutinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might ameliorate inflammatory responses, attenuate pulmonary fibrosis, and thus improve lung function in experimental silicosis. For this purpose, we investigated the potential efficacy of bosutinib in the treatment of experimental silicosis induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal administration of silica particles. After 15 days, once disease was established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or bosutinib (1 mg/kg/dose in 0.1 mL 1% DMSO) by oral gavage, twice daily for 14 days. On day 30, lung mechanics and morphometry, total and differential cell count in alveolar septa and granuloma, levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenate, M1 and M2 macrophages, total leukocytes, and T cells in BALF, lymph nodes, and thymus, and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and granuloma were analyzed. In a separate in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to silica particles in the presence or absence of bosutinib. After 24 h, gene expressions of arginase-1, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and caspase-3 were evaluated. In vivo, in silicotic animals, bosutinib, compared to DMSO, decreased: (1) fraction area of collapsed alveoli, (2) size and number of granulomas, and mononuclear cell granuloma infiltration; (3) IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β levels in lung homogenates, (4) collagen fiber content in lung parenchyma, and (5) viscoelastic pressure and static lung elastance. Bosutinib also reduced M1 cell counts while increasing M2 macrophage population in both lung parenchyma and granulomas. Total leukocyte, regulatory T, CD4+, and CD8+ cell counts in the lung-draining lymph

  8. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  9. Low concentrations of human neutrophil peptide ameliorate experimental murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Kanmura, Shuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ibusuki, Kazunari; Tanoue, Shiroh; Komaki, Yuga; Arima, Shiho; Nasu, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Fumisato; Taguchi, Hiroki; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2016-12-01

    amelioration at low concentrations and an aggravation at high concentrations. Low concentrations of HNPs may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  10. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs.

  11. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Risenmay, H R

    2001-01-01

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the ac...

  12. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  15. Community treatment orders: Bioethical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Bertolín Guillén

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Numerous opinions and medico-legal controversies have arisen up to the date from community treatment orders in Western countries, but underlying bioethical questions have not been specifically studied. The aim of this work is to contribute to further clarify the bioethical conflicts arising from community treatment orders. Methods: The bioethical deliberation of the author is principally based on what can be considered the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm. These principles, as first described by Beauchamp and Childress in 1979, will be applied in this work to the actual situation of involuntary outpatient treatment. Results: The author's deliberation considers that community treatment orders are consistent first with the deontologist-principlist dominant paradigm of practical reason, respecting its four general categories of basic principles. It also respects the principles of the medical ethics of virtue, subsumed in the personalism of ontological matrix, in the same way as its ethos affects the intrinsic purpose which is the dignity of the person; and with the consequentialist utilitarianism because it seeks the proportionality of the common good. A community treatment order prescription must ultimately be based on a bioethical exercise of responsibility by the clinician, judiciously weighing up the classic principal prima facie duties which must necessarily be translated into a real duty referring to a specific patient and context. Conclusions: Community treatment orders are seen as a method of therapeutic intervention with a bioethical basis resistant to criticism.

  16. Understanding the basis for Down syndrome phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is a collection of features that are caused by trisomy for human Chromosome 21. While elevated transcript levels of the more than 350 genes on the chromosome are primarily responsible, it is likely that multiple genetic mechanisms underlie the numerous ways in which development and function diverge in individuals with trisomy 21 compared to euploid individuals. We consider genotype-phenotype interactions with the goal of producing working concepts that will be useful for approaches to ameliorate the effects of trisomy.

  17. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  18. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  19. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  20. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  1. Transferable basis sets of numerical atomic orbitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Louwerse; G. Rothenberg

    2012-01-01

    We show that numerical atomic orbital basis sets that are variationally optimized for specific compounds are biased and not fully transferable to other compounds. The situation improves when the basis sets are optimized for several compounds and a compromise is made. We demonstrate this for basis se

  2. Keratinocyte growth factor gene therapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jie Liu; Ji-De Jin; Tong-De Lv; Zu-Ze Wu; Xiao-Qin Ha

    2011-01-01

    /mg, P < 0.01; d 10: 46.10 ± 6.23 vs 25.35 ± 4.76 and 27.82 ± 6.42 U/mg, P < 0.01) and MDA contents decreased accordingly (d 7: 7.40 ± 0.88 vs 9.81 ± 1.21 and 10.45 ± 1.40 nmol/mg, P < 0.01; d 10: 4.36 ± 0.62 vs 8.41 ± 0.92 and 8.71 ± 1.27 nmol/mg, P < 0.01), compared with SP and control groups. CONCLUSION: KGF gene therapy mediated by attenuated Salmonella ameliorates ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acids, and it may be a safe and effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.

  3. Ameliorating effect of new constituents from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla on scopolamine-induced memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Suk-Chul; LEE Dong-Ung

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical constituents and their anti-amnesic effect from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla.METHODS:The isolation of compounds was performed by chromatographic techniques and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis.Their ameliorating effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo using a Morris water-maze task and passive avoidance task system were evaluated.RESULTS:Activity-guided fractionation of the total extracts resulted in the isolation of four constituents,trans-anethole (1),p-anisaldehyde (2),estragole (3),and 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4),which were found for the first time from this plant.CONCLUSION:Compound 1 exhibited a better memory enhancing effect than tacrine,a positive agent,at the same dose in the passive avoidance test and a similar property in the water-maze test,and its action may be mediated,in part,by the acetylcholine enhancing cholinergic nervous system.

  4. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pdiabetic rats compared to the control groups. Therefore, polyphenols from Zingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats.

  5. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  6. An Overview of Sleep Deprivation and The Ameliorative Effects of Modafinil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Nap: Evolution, Chronobiology, and Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep , C. Stampi, Editor. 1992, Birkhauser: Boston. p. 217-241. 3. Babkoff...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013763 TITLE: An Overview of Sleep Deprivation and The Ameliorative...Effects of Modafinil DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited rhis paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Sleep

  7. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. de Man (Yael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic disea

  8. Synergistic antioxidant action of Phikud Navakot ameliorates hydrogen peroxide-induced stress in human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonthaneth Nalinratana

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the synergistic antioxidant action of PN ameliorates endothelial stress, which may provide some clues for understanding the traditional use of PN for the treatment of circulatory disorder. Additionally, the selection of a suitable solvent for the extraction of PN herbal combination is essential for maximal efficacy and safety.

  9. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2009-01-01

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/aj

  10. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  11. Bill of modernization and development of electricity public service; Projet de loi de modernisation et de developpement du service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Christian [Minister of State for Industry, French Government, Paris (France)

    2000-01-18

    Examination of the bill of modernization and development of electricity public service by National Assembly in February last year resulted in rich debates and numerous ameliorations in the initial text. In this outlook of the new bill's version the author chosen to point out four aspects. The bill gives for the first time a legislative value to the principle of national rectification of tariffs and reinforces the mechanism of assisting the most poor electricity consumers. The public service should became more democratic. In order to respond better to the 'citizens' need, the bill stipulates that competent local authorities, particularly, the local collectivities organizing the electricity distribution, contribute to the implementation of the missions of electricity public service and supervise the adequate accomplishment of its tasks. Secondly, the bill offers to the Government the tools to implement the national policy of energy by gathering the largest consent and guaranteeing at the same time the own role of Parliament. As the energy requires a firm policy, a multi-annual investment planning is necessary to ensure a secure supply, the environment protection and supply competitiveness through a balanced development of production capacities. The energy policy will be conducted by appealing both to 'breaks' i.e. the licensing system and 'gas', i.e. the system of calls for offers. Third, the bill aims at developing the role of local collectivities to mediate the local autonomy and the principle of equality, as well as, to decentralizing the production. The bill also establishes the proper role of local collectivities in intervening in essential issues as fostering renewable energies, management of waste and technical means of cogeneration. Finally, the bill establishes the necessary conditions guaranteeing the industrial future of EDF, that will boost the EDF on the first place in European electricity market.

  12. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  13. Isocitrate ameliorates anemia by suppressing the erythroid iron restriction response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chanté L; Delehanty, Lorrie L; Bullock, Grant C; Rival, Claudia M; Tung, Kenneth S; Kimpel, Donald L; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Goldfarb, Adam N

    2013-08-01

    The unique sensitivity of early red cell progenitors to iron deprivation, known as the erythroid iron restriction response, serves as a basis for human anemias globally. This response impairs erythropoietin-driven erythropoiesis and underlies erythropoietic repression in iron deficiency anemia. Mechanistically, the erythroid iron restriction response results from inactivation of aconitase enzymes and can be suppressed by providing the aconitase product isocitrate. Recent studies have implicated the erythroid iron restriction response in anemia of chronic disease and inflammation (ACDI), offering new therapeutic avenues for a major clinical problem; however, inflammatory signals may also directly repress erythropoiesis in ACDI. Here, we show that suppression of the erythroid iron restriction response by isocitrate administration corrected anemia and erythropoietic defects in rats with ACDI. In vitro studies demonstrated that erythroid repression by inflammatory signaling is potently modulated by the erythroid iron restriction response in a kinase-dependent pathway involving induction of the erythroid-inhibitory transcription factor PU.1. These results reveal the integration of iron and inflammatory inputs in a therapeutically tractable erythropoietic regulatory circuit.

  14. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2009. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht/Rapport sur la recherche et les experiences en 2009. Developpements dans les bases techniques et legales pour la surveillance nucleaire/Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    In terms of research into regulatory safety, ENSI awards and coordinates research projects designed to develop current scientific knowledge and expertise and to make the results available to the regulatory process. ENSI currently supports research in four different areas: Reactor Safety; Radiological Protection; Transport and Waste Management; and Human Influence, Organisation and Safety Culture. Research in reactor safety focuses on materials research of relevance to the monitoring of ageing mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, embrittlement and the development of cracks, together with research into incidents and accidents and their relevance to improvements in safety analyses. It investigates issues such as the interaction between core meltdown and water and concrete, as well as the development of methodologies and software. In addition, ENSI is a partner in a range of international database projects giving it access to information on the causes, frequency and characteristics of individual incidents. The aim of radiological protection is to protect personnel, local people and the environment in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from ionising radiation. ENSI supports research into dosimetry and radio analysis. Another area of particular importance is research designed to improve the methodologies used to monitor the release of radioactive materials into the environment. In the area of transport and waste management, ENSI investigates the suitability of geological strata for the deep storage of radioactive waste. Experiments are being conducted at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory into the geological, hydro-geological, geochemical and rock-mechanical properties of the Opalinus clay. ENSI is supporting an experiment designed to characterise the fracture generation in the excavation damage zone of a gallery triggered by stress changes in the surrounding rock. The research is also looking at the chemical reactions occurring in a deep repository, together with the physical transport processes and the management of all radioactive waste. ENSI supports research projects into the influence of human behaviour on incident management together with the development of requirement profiles for staff in the control rooms of nuclear power stations. Incidents in nuclear facilities provide concrete data on shortcomings and the potential for improvements in all areas of design and operation. Information on incidents in Swiss nuclear facilities is included in ENSI's (separate) Surveillance Report. Some incidents in nuclear facilities outside Switzerland were analysed in order to identify any relevance for Swiss nuclear facilities. There has been increase worldwide in the number of incidents involving the transport of loads. In Switzerland also, the Interim Storage Facility of Wuerenlingen AG reported an event in 2009 involving a lifting device. ENSI has increased its surveillance of cranes and other lifting devices. The Ringhals nuclear power plant (NPP) in Sweden had been operating at power for 72 days before it was discovered that the automatic initiation of the containment isolation system was not operational: the bypasses in the reactor protection system were not correctly removed. Investigations identified the absence of a clear demarcation between the responsibilities of operating and maintenance personnel. Although very improbable, a similar incident might occur in Switzerland; however it is very likely that it would be picked up during the obligatory functionality check. Nevertheless, ENSI considered it important that facilities took note of this incident. Following heavy rain, debris blocked the cooling water intake at the Cruas 4 NPP; this caused the main water sink to fail. At the Fessenheim 2 NPP, plant residues found their way into the cooling water system after the cleaning system failed. By such an incident in a Swiss NPP, the plant could be made safe because the Swiss NPPs are fed with water from their own wells or from additional intake points in the cooling water outlet. There have been defects and incidents in the construction of the new plants at Olkiluoto (Finland) and Flamanville (France) relating to concreting work and inadequate welding specifications. ENSI will develop a new surveillance concept for the construction of NPPs, so that Switzerland is prepared in time for any new builds. ENSI maintains active links with international organisations, particularly with IAEA, OECD/NEA and WENRA and also has a series of bilateral agreements with France, Germany, Austria and the USA. The ENSI contribution to current negotiations on greater global harmonisation is based on the stringent nuclear safety standards in Switzerland. At the 3{sup rd} Review Conference of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Switzerland received a rating of good for its Country Report: other countries welcomed the transparency of the master plan procedure and the participation of the public and neighbouring countries. The research programme at the rock laboratories of Mont Terri and Grimsel also received a positive reception. According to the main requirements of IAEA and the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, since 1 January 2009 ENSI has been an independent nuclear regulatory body reporting directly to the Federal Council (Swiss national government). The existing ordinances and guidelines are continuously amended to accord with the recent legislation on nuclear energy and also are harmonised with international standards. A new ordinance based on the Nuclear Energy Act took effect in 2009. In addition ENSI completed 8 guidelines, either new or revisions

  15. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  16. 20 CFR 900.1 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis. 900.1 Section 900.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.1 Basis. This statement is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the Joint Board) pursuant to...

  17. Basis Optimization Renormalization Group for Quantum Hamiltonian

    OpenAIRE

    Sugihara, Takanori

    2001-01-01

    We find an algorithm of numerical renormalization group for spin chain models. The essence of this algorithm is orthogonal transformation of basis states, which is useful for reducing the number of relevant basis states to create effective Hamiltonian. We define two types of rotations and combine them to create appropriate orthogonal transformation.

  18. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  19. Oestrogens ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carla; Montopoli, Monica; Perli, Elena; Orlandi, Maurizia; Fantin, Marianna; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Caparrotta, Laura; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Ghelli, Anna; Sadun, Alfredo A; d'Amati, Giulia; Carelli, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, the most frequent mitochondrial disease due to mitochondrial DNA point mutations in complex I, is characterized by the selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, leading to optic atrophy and loss of central vision prevalently in young males. The current study investigated the reasons for the higher prevalence of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in males, exploring the potential compensatory effects of oestrogens on mutant cell metabolism. Control and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy osteosarcoma-derived cybrids (11778/ND4, 3460/ND1 and 14484/ND6) were grown in glucose or glucose-free, galactose-supplemented medium. After having shown the nuclear and mitochondrial localization of oestrogen receptors in cybrids, experiments were carried out by adding 100 nM of 17β-oestradiol. In a set of experiments, cells were pre-incubated with the oestrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cybrids in galactose medium presented overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which led to decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased apoptotic rate, loss of cell viability and hyper-fragmented mitochondrial morphology compared with control cybrids. Treatment with 17β-oestradiol significantly rescued these pathological features and led to the activation of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2. In addition, 17β-oestradiol induced a general activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and a small although significant improvement in energetic competence. All these effects were oestrogen receptor mediated. Finally, we showed that the oestrogen receptor β localizes to the mitochondrial network of human retinal ganglion cells. Our results strongly support a metabolic basis for the unexplained male prevalence in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and hold promises for a therapeutic use for oestrogen-like molecules.

  20. Amelioration of Fluoride Toxicity with the Use of Indigenous Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitra A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was undertaken to study the efficacy of bacterial consortia isolated from different sources viz. rhizosphere of rice plant, oil spill sites of a petrol pump and from the sludge of a pharmaceutical waste water drain against the impact of fluoride. The experiments were conducted with two crops. In this mung bean experiment Vigna radiata was selected as a test crop. The seeds were sown in the field with bacterial consortia, compost and reduced dose (25% less nitrogen than recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. After 30days of seed sowing (DAS, plants were collected from the field and dipped into the sodium fluoride solution with different concentrations for 48 hours. Thereafter, the impact of fluoride on chlorophyll, sugar, proline and relative water content (% were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the stem section was performed. SEM studies revealed that anatomical structure deformed with 1.5 mg/l sodium fluoride solution. It was observed that such treatment combination during the sowing of crops leads to combat the impact of lower doses of sodium fluoride (0.2 mg/l. Another experiment was also conducted within plastic pots with and without bacterial consortia isolated from rhizosphere of rice plant and oil spilled soil of petrol pump with the same field soil. Each pot was filled with 5 kg of soil + 2lt of water (on the basis of soil saturation. Oryza sativa seedlings were transplanted with different strength of sodium fluoride solution (25 mgNaF/kg, 50 mgNaF/kg, 100 mgNaF/kg and 500mgNaF/kg within the above pots. In second experiment, rice plants dried in all pots after 500 mgNaF/kg concentration of sodium fluoride. In this pot experiment bacterial strain are capable of reducing fluoride content in soil as noted by measuring fluoride in the pot soil after the experiment.

  1. [Copper compounds ameliorate cardiovasclur dysfunction and diabetes in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for our daily life and it is found at approximately 110 mg in human adults with the body weight of 70 kg, in which this metal occurs at 46 mg in the bone and 26 mg in the muscle. Although Cu exists in the brain (approximately 5 mg/kg), liver (6 mg/kg), kidney (13 mg/kg), erythrocytes (90 mg/L), bile (6 mg/L) and serum (120 mg/L), its organ-specific distribution is not yet known. In metalloenzymes such as oxidoreductases, Cu is abundantly found and greatly contributes in life functions. In addition, intracellular Cu transport system has been revealed in connection with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) intracellular transport systems. In spite of such great contribution of Cu in life, no Cu-containing pharmaceutics have yet been known. Under such background, the author and his research group have tried to examine a possibility of Cu compounds as potential pharmaceutics. In the review, the following topics are concerned; (1) improvement of cardiovascular dysfunction in animals by di-nuclear Cu-asprinate complex on the basis of the results on its reactive oxygen scavenging (ROS) effect, (2) blood glucose-lowering effect of mono-nuclear Cu-picolinate complex in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetic animals, based on the results on in vitro insulinomimetic activity, and (3) anti-diabetic effect of copper sulfate in animals with regard to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. These results suggest that copper ion and its complexes are possible seeds for developing Cu-containing pharmaceutics in the future.

  2. Maximal coherence in a generic basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.

  3. Hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) ameliorates multiple sclerosis in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Katia; Fagone, Paolo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Quattrocchi, Cinzia; Mammana, Santa; Di Rosa, Michelino; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Coco, Marinella; Magro, Gaetano; Di Marco, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of epigenetics in the development of autoimmune disorders and the possibility of using epigenetic modifying drugs in the context of MS has not yet been investigated. We have explored the effect of the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) in two murine models of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). DAC treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the clinical and histological hallmarks of EAE in both models. These effects were observed both in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. The milder course of the disease was associated with a reduction in the number of spinal cord infiltrating lymphocytes and amelioration of the histopathological signs associated with EAE. In addition, increased transcript levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators were also observed. Finally, DAC treatment increased the percentage of circulating regulatory T cells by inducing Foxp3 expression via demethylation of a CpG island in Foxp3.

  4. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin is naturally occurring lignan from sesame oil with putative antioxidant property. The present study was designed to investigate the protective role of sesamin against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative liver injury. Male Wistar albino rats (180-200 g) were divided in to 5 groups (n=6). Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of CCl4 (0.1 ml/100 g bw., 50% v/v with olive oil) intraperitoneally. Sesamin was administered in two different dose (5 and 10 ml/kg bw) to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity. Sesamin significantly reduced the elevated serum liver marker enzymes (Psesamin treated groups shows the amelioration of oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Histopathological report also supported the hepatoprotection offered by sesamin. Sesamin effects in both the dose were in comparable to reference standard drug silymarin. From these above findings it has been concluded that sesamin ameliorate the oxidative liver injury in terms of reduction of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of liver antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Ameliorate Threshold Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSTAFA BAGHOURI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ameliorating the lifetime in heterogeneous wireless sensor network is an important task because the sensor nodes are limited in the resource energy. The best way to improve a WSN lifetime is the clustering based algorithms in which each cluster is managed by a leader called Cluster Head. Each other node must communicate with this CH to send the data sensing. The nearest base station nodes must also send their data to their leaders, this causes a loss of energy. In this paper, we propose a new approach to ameliorate a threshold distributed energy efficient clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks by excluding closest nodes to the base station in the clustering process. We show by simulation in MATLAB that the proposed approach increases obviously the number of the received packet messages and prolongs the lifetime of the network compared to TDEEC protocol.

  6. Selecting an economically justifiable method of calculating ameliorant application rates for solonetzes with different sodium contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropaeva, Z. I.

    2010-01-01

    The comparative assessment of methods for the calculation of the gypsum application rates based on the exchangeable sodium (Gedroits, Schollenberger), the estimated sodium (Schoonover), and the soil’s requirement for calcium (the version of the Omsk State Agrarian University) showed that, for the chemical amelioration of solonetzes with different contents of exchangeable sodium in Western Siberia, it is economically and ecologically advisable to calculate the ameliorant application rates from the estimated sodium. It was experimentally shown that the content of displaced magnesium used by Schoonover is a more efficient unified criterion than the value of the calcium adsorption by zonal soils. For improving the method’s accuracy, it was proposed to change the conditions of the soil preparation by regulating the concentration of the displacing solution, the interaction time, and the temperature.

  7. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against Aflatoxin B1 toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Ameliorating potential of P. amarus was dose and duration dependant. These extracts significantly reduced the mutagenicity and genotoxicity that were produced due to AFB1 treatment both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Ameliorative effect of antioxidants (vitamins C and E against abamectin toxicity in liver, kidney and testis of male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilson Magdy

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion, it appears that vitamins C and E, or in combination (as antioxidants ameliorate the hepato-renal and testicular toxicity of abamectin, but are not completely protective, especially in liver tissue.

  9. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  10. Sodium fusidate (fusidin) ameliorates the course of monophasic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, R; Puglisi, G; Papaccio, G;

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on the course of acute monophasic experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE) in male Lewis rats. Prophylactic treatment with fusidin, 80 or 120 mg/kg bd wt., markedly ameliorated the course of the disease in rats immunized ....... These data provide further evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of fusidin and suggest that this drug may be valuable for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis....

  11. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Panchal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  12. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced gly...

  13. Synergism of atenolol and nitrendipine on hemody-namic amelioration and organ protection in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-huiXIE; Chao-yuMIAO; Yuan-yingJIANG; Ding-fengSU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible synergism of atenolol and nitrendipine on blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) reductions, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) amelioration, and organ protection in hypertensive rats. METHODS:The dose is 20 mg/kg for atenolol, 10 mg/kg for nitrendipine and the combination of these two drugs. In acute study, a single dose was given via a catheter previously inserted

  14. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chun-Bin Jiang; Mei-Lien Cheng; Chia-Yuan Liu; Szu-Wen Chang; Jen-Shiu Chiang Chiau; Hung-Chang Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orall...

  15. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Ying Fan; Ming-Yan Yang; Dong Qi; Zuo-Kai Zhang; Lin Zhu; Xiu-Xin Shang-Guan; Ke Liu; Hui Xu; Xin Che

    2015-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investi...

  16. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SnehaPanchal; RamtejJ. Verma

    2014-01-01

    High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  17. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  18. Mucosal Administration of Collagen V Ameliorates the Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden by Inducing Interleukin 35-dependent Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Arick C; Huang, Guorui; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Massoudi, Dawiyat; Kernien, John F; Vignali, Dario A; Sullivan, Jeremy A; Wilkes, David S; Burlingham, William J; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2016-02-12

    We have shown previously that collagen V (col(V)) autoimmunity is a consistent feature of atherosclerosis in human coronary artery disease and in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. We have also shown sensitization of Apoe(-/-) mice with col(V) to markedly increase the atherosclerotic burden, providing evidence of a causative role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic pathogenesis. Here we sought to determine whether induction of immune tolerance to col(V) might ameliorate atherosclerosis, providing further evidence for a causal role for col(V) autoimmunity in atherogenesis and providing insights into the potential for immunomodulatory therapeutic interventions. Mucosal inoculation successfully induced immune tolerance to col(V) with an accompanying reduction in plaque burden in Ldlr(-/-) mice on a high-cholesterol diet. The results therefore demonstrate that inoculation with col(V) can successfully ameliorate the atherosclerotic burden, suggesting novel approaches for therapeutic interventions. Surprisingly, tolerance and reduced atherosclerotic burden were both dependent on the recently described IL-35 and not on IL-10, the immunosuppressive cytokine usually studied in the context of induced tolerance and amelioration of atherosclerotic symptoms. In addition to the above, using recombinant protein fragments, we were able to localize two epitopes of the α1(V) chain involved in col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerotic Ldlr(-/-) mice, suggesting future courses of experimentation for the characterization of such epitopes.

  19. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness.

  20. Immunomodulatory Activities of the Benzoxathiole Derivative BOT-4-One Ameliorate Pathogenic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Gyu; Cho, Nam-Chul; Jeong, Ae Jin; Li, Yu-Chen; Rhie, Sung-Ja; Choi, Jung Sook; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Pae, Ae Nim; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Byung-Hak

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in body protection. However, aberrantly activated immune responses are responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The regulation of pathologic immune responses may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases. Despite that multiple pharmacologic properties of benzoxathiole derivatives have been defined, the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain to be clarified. Here, we demonstrated the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) regulated immune responses and ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases both in vitro and in vivo. BOT-4-one inhibited the differentiation of CD4(+) T-cell subsets by regulating the expression and production of T-cell lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited TCR-mediated Akt and NF-κB signaling. Topical application of BOT-4-one ameliorated experimentally induced inflammatory skin diseases in mice models such as 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact and atopic dermatitis and IL-23-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Our study demonstrated that BOT-4-one ameliorates inflammatory skin diseases by suppressing the pathogenic CD4(+) T cell differentiation and overall immune responses.

  1. The Ameliorative Effects of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Shin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC on acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 in liver tissues was reduced by administration of OTC in a dose dependent manner. The ameliorative effects of OTC on APAP-induced liver damage in mice was similar to that of NAC. These results suggest that OTC has ameliorative effects on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes.

  2. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  3. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered 25 or 50 μg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil per d for 45 d.The testis was isolated, blotted free of blood and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a dose-dependent significantlyhigher lipid peroxidation in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice than in the controls. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, total and reduced ascorbic acid, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/d per animal; orally) pretreatment significantly ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation which could be due to higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone. Conclusion: Vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxininduced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

  4. A novel MitoNEET ligand, TT01001, improves diabetes and ameliorates mitochondrial function in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takehiro; Yamamoto, Masashi; Amikura, Kazutoshi; Kato, Kozue; Serizawa, Takashi; Serizawa, Kanako; Akazawa, Daisuke; Aoki, Takumi; Kawai, Koji; Ogasawara, Emi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Kainoh, Mie

    2015-02-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane protein mitoNEET is a binding protein of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (5-[[4-[2-(5-ethylpyridin-2-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione) and is considered a novel target for the treatment of type II diabetes. Several small-molecule compounds have been identified as mitoNEET ligands using structure-based design or virtual docking studies. However, there are no reports about their therapeutic potential in animal models. Recently, we synthesized a novel small molecule, TT01001 [ethyl-4-(3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)thioureido)piperidine-1-carboxylate], designed on the basis of pioglitazone structure. In this study, we assessed the pharmacological properties of TT01001 in both in vitro and in vivo studies. We found that TT01001 bound to mitoNEET without peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation effect. In type II diabetes model db/db mice, TT01001 improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance, and its efficacy was equivalent to that of pioglitazone, without the pioglitazone-associated weight gain. Mitochondrial complex II + III activity of the skeletal muscle was significantly increased in db/db mice. We found that TT01001 significantly suppressed the elevated activity of the complex II + III. These results suggest that TT01001 improved type II diabetes without causing weight gain and ameliorated mitochondrial function of db/db mice. This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of a mitoNEET ligand on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in an animal disease model. These findings support targeting mitoNEET as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type II diabetes.

  5. Bio-amelioration of alkali soils through agroforestry systems in central Indo-Gangetic plains of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P. Singh; Gurbachan Singh; D.K. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    A long-term field study was initiated during 1995 at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Lucknow (26°47′58′ N and 80°46′24′ E) to analyze the effect of agroforestry systems on amelioration of alkali soils. Three agroforestry systems (pas-toral, silvipastoral and silvicultural) were compared with the control where no agroforestry system was introduced. Tree-based silvicultural and silvipastoral systems were characterized by tree species Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica along with grass species Leptochloa fusca, Panicum maximum, Trifolium alexandrium and Chloris gayana. Growth of ten-year-old Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica planted in combi-nation with grasses was significantly higher over the silviculture system with the same species. Tree biomass yields of P. juliflora (77.20 t⋅ha-1) and A. nilotica (63.20 t⋅ha-1) planted under silvipastoral system were significantly higher than the sole plantation of (64.50 t⋅ha-1 and 52.75 t⋅ha-1). Fodder yield under the pastoral system was significantly higher than the silvipastoral system during initial years but it was at par with that of silvipastoral systems after eight years of plantation. The microbial biomass carbon in the soils of silvipastoral systems was significantly higher than in soils under sole plantation of trees and control systems. The Prosopis-based silvipastoral system proved more effective in reduc-ing soil pH, displacing Na+ from the exchange complex, increasing or-ganic carbon and available N, P and K. Improvement in soil physical properties such as bulk density, porosity, soil moisture and infiltration rate was higher in the Prosopis-based silvipastoral system than in the silviculture system or control. On the basis of biomass production and improvement in soil health due to tree + grass systems, silvipastoral agroforestry system could be adopted for sustainable reclamation of highly alkali soils.

  6. Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha B

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of West Bengal, India and adjoining areas of Bangladesh. Because of the tremendous magnitude of the problem, there seems to be no way to tackle the problem overnight. Efforts to provide arsenic free water to the millions of people living in these dreaded zones are being made, but are awfully inadequate. In our quest for finding out an easy, safe and affordable means to combat this problem, a homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album-30, appears to yield promising results in mice. The relative efficacies of two micro doses of this drug, namely, Arsenicum Album-30 and Arsenicum Album-200, in combating arsenic toxicity have been determined in the present study on the basis of some accepted biochemical protocols. Methods Mice were divided into different sets of control (both positive and negative and treated series (As-intoxicated, As-intoxicated plus drug-fed. Alanine amino transferase (ALT and aspartate amino transferase (AST activities and reduced glutathione (GSH level in liver and blood were analyzed in the different series of mice at six different fixation intervals. Results Both Arsenicum Album-30 and Arsenicum Album-200 ameliorated arsenic-induced toxicity to a considerable extent as compared to various controls. Conclusions The results lend further support to our earlier views that microdoses of potentized Arsenicum Album are capable of combating arsenic intoxication in mice, and thus are strong candidates for possible use in human subjects in arsenic contaminated areas under medical supervision.

  7. Ameliorative symbiosis of endophyte (Penicillium funiculosum LHL06) under salt stress elevated plant growth of Glycine max L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2011-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of a newly isolated endophytic fungus GMC-2A on physiology of host plant (Glycine max. L cv. Hwangkeum-kong) growing under salinity stress. GMC-2A was identified as a new strain of Penicillium funiculosum on the basis of sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of D1/D2 regions of 28S rDNA. Preliminary screening experiment showed that the culture filtrate (CF) of GMC-2A promoted the growth of Waito-C, a dwarf gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis mutant rice cultivar. Analysis of fungal CF revealed the presence of GAs (GA₁ 1.53 ng/ml; GA₄ 9.34 ng/ml; GA₈ 1.21 ng/ml; GA₉ 37.87 ng/ml) and indole acetic acid (14.85 μg/ml). GMC-2A also showed high phosphate solubilization of tricalcium phosphate. Besides that, GMC-2A application enhanced soybean seed germination as compared to control. Under salinity stress (70 and 140 mM), GMC-2A significantly promoted the soybean growth attributes (shoot length, shoot fresh/dry biomass, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate and leaf area) in comparison to control treatments. We also observed low endogenous abscisic acid and elevated jasmonic acid contents in GMC-2A treated plants under salt stress. GMC-2A treatment significantly enhanced levels of isoflavones (34.22% and 75.37%) under salinity stress as compared to control. In conclusion, P. funiculosum LHL06 has significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of salinity induced abiotic stress, and re-programmed soybean to higher growth and isoflavone biosynthesis.

  8. Generalized multiscale radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Stephen A; Wei, Hua-Liang; Balikhin, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    A novel modelling framework is proposed for constructing parsimonious and flexible multiscale radial basis function networks (RBF). Unlike a conventional standard single scale RBF network, where all the basis functions have a common kernel width, the new network structure adopts multiscale Gaussian functions as the bases, where each selected centre has multiple kernel widths, to provide more flexible representations with better generalization properties for general nonlinear dynamical systems. As a direct extension of the traditional single scale Gaussian networks, the new multiscale network is easy to implement and is quick to learn using standard learning algorithms. A k-means clustering algorithm and an improved orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm are used to determine the unknown parameters in the network model including the centres and widths of the basis functions, and the weights between the basis functions. It is demonstrated that the new network can lead to a parsimonious model with much better generalization property compared with the traditional single width RBF networks.

  9. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  10. Development of novel protective high temperature coatings on heat exchanger steels and their corrosion resistance in simulated coal firing environment; Developpement de revetements pour les aciers d'echangeurs thermiques et amelioration de leur resistance a la corrosion en environnement simulant les fumees de combustion et de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, V.

    2005-10-15

    Improving the efficiencies of thermal power plants requires an increase of the operating temperatures and thus of the corrosion resistance of heat exchanger materials. Therefore, the present study aimed at developing protective coatings using the pack cementation process. Two types of heat exchanger steels were investigated: a 17% Cr-13% Ni austenitic steel and three ferritic-martensitic steels with 9 (P91 and P92) and 12% Cr (HCM12A). The austenitic steel was successfully aluminized at 950 C. For the ferritic-martensitic steels, the pack cementation temperature was decreased down to 650 C, in order to maintain their initial microstructure. Two types of aluminides, made of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl, were developed. A mechanism of the coating formation at low temperature is proposed. Furthermore, combining the pack cementation with the conventional heat treatment of P91 allowed to take benefit of higher temperatures for the deposition of a two-step Cr+Al coating. The corrosion resistance of coated and uncoated steels is compared in simulated coal firing environment for durations up to 2000 h between 650 and 700 C. It is shown that the coatings offer a significant corrosion protection and, thus, an increase of the component lifetime. Finally, the performance of coated 9-12% Cr steels is no longer limited by corrosion but by interdiffusion between the coating and the substrate. (author)

  11. Reduced basis techniques for stochastic problems

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaval, Sébastien; Bris, Claude Le; Lelièvre, Tony; Maday, Yvon; Nguyen, Ngoc Cuong; Patera, Anthony T.

    2010-01-01

    We report here on the recent application of a now classical general reduction technique, the Reduced-Basis approach initiated in [C. Prud'homme, D. Rovas, K. Veroy, Y. Maday, A. T. Patera, and G. Turinici. Reliable real-time solution of parametrized partial differential equations: Reduced-basis output bounds methods. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 124(1):7080, 2002.], to the specific context of differential equations with random coefficients. After an elementary presentation of the approach, ...

  12. Drinfel'd basis of twisted Yangians

    CERN Document Server

    Belliard, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantization of a Lie bi-ideal structure for twisted half-loop algebras of finite dimensional simple complex Lie algebras. We obtain Drinfel'd basis formalism and algebra closure relations of twisted Yangians for all symmetric pairs of simple Lie algebras and for simple twisted even half-loop Lie algebras. We also give an explicit form of twisted Yangians in Drinfel'd basis for the sl3 Lie algebra.

  13. The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Budinich, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of $\\Gamma$. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).

  14. The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of \\Gamma. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).

  15. The importance of basis states: an example using the Hydrogen basis

    CERN Document Server

    Forestell, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    We use a simple system, the electron configuration in a Hydrogen-like atom, to demonstrate the importance of using a complete basis set to provide a proper quantum mechanical description. We first start with what might be considered a successful strategy --- to diagonalize a truncated Hamiltonian matrix, written in a basis consisting of Hydrogen ($Z=1$) basis states. This fails to provide the correct answer, and we then demonstrate that the continuum basis states provided the rest of the true wave function, for the bound ground states. This work then shows, in a relatively simple system, the need to utilize a complete basis set, consisting of both bound and continuum states.

  16. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Tuomas P., E-mail: tuomas.rossi@alumni.aalto.fi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J. [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Lehtola, Susi, E-mail: susi.lehtola@alumni.helsinki.fi [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Nieminen, Risto M. [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Dean’s Office, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 11000, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  17. CEA develops organic photovoltaic cells that might replace silicon cells; La promesse du plastique. Le CEA developpe des cellules photovoltaiques organiques qui pourraient detroner le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnars, O.

    2003-01-01

    The program ''plastic photovoltaic solar cells'' was launched in june 2002 at LCOF (laboratory of functional organic components - CEA). The aim of this program is to show the feasibility of efficient organic photovoltaic cells. At the moment the most efficient organic cells reach a conversion rate of 3,5 % compared to the average value of 16 % for silicon cells. This program sets a term of 4 years to reach a conversion rate of 5 % and an operating life of 5000 hours. Plastics (or polymers) are less expensive than silicon, are available on an unlimited basis and are environment friendly. Plastics are easy to handle and a sole technology (serigraphy) is necessary for all the stages of the fabrication process of the organic cells: serigraphy technology is used for the deposition of the substrate, of the material in which the conversion takes place, and of the protective skin. (A.C.)

  18. D\\'eveloppement et analyse multi outils d'un protocole MAC d\\'eterministe pour un r\\'eseau de capteurs sans fil

    CERN Document Server

    Val, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a multi-tool method for the development and the analysis of a new medium access method. IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee technology has been used as a basis for this new determinist MAC layer which enables a high level of QoS. This WPAN can be typically used for wireless sensor networks which require strong temporal constraints. To validate the proposed protocol, three complementary and adequate tools are used: Petri Nets for the formal validation of the algorithm, a dedicated simulator for the temporal aspects, and some measures on a real prototype based on a couple of ZigBee FREESCALE components for the hardware characterization of layers #1 and #2.

  19. Pathophysiology and a Rational Basis of Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Maeso-Díaz, Raquel; Bosch, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    sufficiently to promote the development of intrahepatic shunts and portal-systemic collaterals, including varices, through which portal blood flow bypasses the liver. In human portal hypertension collateralization and hyperdynamic circulation start at a portal pressure gradient >10 mm Hg. Rational therapy for portal hypertension aims at correcting these pathophysiological abnormalities: liver injury, fibrogenesis, increased hepatic vascular tone and splanchnic vasodilatation. Continuing liver injury may be counteracted specifically by etiological treatments (the best example being the direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C viral infection), while architectural disruption and fibrosis can be ameliorated by a variety of antifibrotic drugs and antiangiogenic strategies. Several drugs in this category are currently under investigation in phase II-III randomized controlled trials. Sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction is ameliorated by statins as well as by other drugs increasing NO availability. It is of note that simvastatin has already been proven to be clinically effective in two randomized controlled trials. Splanchnic hyperemia can be counteracted by nonselective β-blockers (NSBBs), vasopressin analogs and somatostatin analogs, drugs that until recently were the only available treatments for portal hypertension, but that are not very effective in the initial stages of cirrhosis. There is experimental and clinical evidence indicating that a more effective reduction of portal pressure is obtained by combining agents acting on these different pathways. It is likely that the treatment of portal hypertension will evolve to use etiological treatments together with antifibrotic agents and/or drugs improving sinusoidal endothelial function in the initial stages of cirrhosis (preprimary prophylaxis), while NSBBs will be added in advanced stages of the disease.

  20. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  1. Weak basis for “systemic” silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is presented of the ecological basis of the so-called “selvicoltura sistemica” (systemic silviculture. Systemic silviculture implies an “a-structured forest”: the meaning of this particular condition is discussed in the paper, exploring the different possible interpretations and thus demonstrating that an “a-structured” forest can not be observed in nature. The silvicultural method proposed therefore seems to have a fragile ecological basis moving it away from a close-to-nature forest management approach, which is currently believed to be the most promising one for achieving forests that provide multiple goods and services.

  2. Synergism of irbesartan and amlodipine on hemodynamic amelioration and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen SHANG; Ping HAN; Cheng-bing YANG; Xiao-wen GU; Wei ZHANG; Li-ping XU; Shou-ting FU; Ding-feng SU; He-hui XlE

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the synergism of low-doses of amlodipine and irbesartan on reduction of blood pressure variability (BPV),amelioration of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods:The rats were administered amlodipine (1 mg-kgl.dl) alone,irbesartan (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) alone,or the combination of the two drugs for 4 months.The drugs were mixed into the rat chow.Blood pressure (BP) was continuously monitored in conscious animals.After the determination of BRS,the rats were killed for morphological evaluation of organ damages.Results:The combination of low-dose irbesartan and amlodipine had statistically significant synergism on reduction of BP and BPV,amelioration of BRS and organ protection in SHR.Multiple regression analysis showed that the decrease in left ventricular hypertrophy was associated with the decrease in systolic BPV (r=0.665,P<0.01); the decrease in aortic hypertrophy was associated with the increase in BRS (r=0.656,P<0.01); and the amelioration in renal lesion was associated with the increase in BRS (r=0.763,P<0.01)and the decrease in systolic BPV (r=0.706,P<0.01).Conclusion:Long-term treatment with a combination of low-doses of amlodipine and irbesartan showed significant synergism on reduction of BP and BPV,restoration of BRS and organ protection in SHR.Besides BP reduction,the enhancement of BRS and reduction of BPV might contribute to the organ protection.

  3. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  4. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( < 0.05) in nutrient-restricted ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( < 0.05) in RP-Arg-treated and NCG-treated underfed ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( < 0.05) concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and ammonia in serum of underfed ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( < 0.05) concentrations of AA (particularly arginine-family AA and branched-chain AA) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids within nutrient-restricted ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  5. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna [Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  6. CD44 antibodies and immune thrombocytopenia in the amelioration of murine inflammatory arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Mott

    Full Text Available Antibodies to CD44 have been used to successfully ameliorate murine models of autoimmune disease. The most often studied disease model has been murine inflammatory arthritis, where a clear mechanism for the efficacy of CD44 antibodies has not been established. We have recently shown in a murine passive-model of the autoimmune disease immune thrombocytopenia (ITP that some CD44 antibodies themselves can induce thrombocytopenia in mice, and the CD44 antibody causing the most severe thrombocytopenia (IM7, also is known to be highly effective in ameliorating murine models of arthritis. Recent work in the K/BxN serum-induced model of arthritis demonstrated that antibody-induced thrombocytopenia reduced arthritis, causing us to question whether CD44 antibodies might primarily ameliorate arthritis through their thrombocytopenic effect. We evaluated IM7, IRAWB14.4, 5035-41.1D, KM201, KM114, and KM81, and found that while all could induce thrombocytopenia, the degree of protection against serum-induced arthritis was not closely related to the length or severity of the thrombocytopenia. CD44 antibody treatment was also able to reverse established inflammation, while thrombocytopenia induced by an anti-platelet antibody targeting the GPIIbIIIa platelet antigen, could not mediate this effect. While CD44 antibody-induced thrombocytopenia may contribute to some of its therapeutic effect against the initiation of arthritis, for established disease there are likely other mechanisms contributing to its efficacy. Humans are not known to express CD44 on platelets, and are therefore unlikely to develop thrombocytopenia after CD44 antibody treatment. An understanding of the relationship between arthritis, thrombocytopenia, and CD44 antibody treatment remains critical for continued development of CD44 antibody therapeutics.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 Ameliorate MRSA Pneumonia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The only human cathelicidin, LL-37, and the innate defense regulator peptide IDR-1, which have been proven to have antimicrobial activity, represent essential elements of immunity. Our previous study showed that the peptide LL-37 was protective in vitro to attenuate LTA-induced inflammatory effects. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA causes a multitude of serious and sometimes life-threatening diseases around the globe. However, the effect of LL-37 and IDR-1 in MRSA-induced pneumonia is unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential of LL-37 and IDR-1 in ameliorating MRSA-induced pneumonia in vivo. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups and perfused intratracheally with PBS, peptide, MRSA and MRSA plus peptide, respectively. Pulmonary tissue pathology, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR were employed. The relative signal pathways were further explored by western blot analysis. Results: Pathological analysis of the lung tissue sections demonstrated that, when compared with the MRSA-treated group, both the LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate the MRSA-induced pneumonia. The phosphorylation of JNK and Akt were markedly decreased in the peptide plus MRSA-treated group compared with the MRSA-treated group. Furthermore, both of them also reduced TNF-α and IL-6 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum in vivo. Conclusion: We report the first evidence of peptides inhibiting inflammation, decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and restoring pulmonary function in vivo. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and IDR-1 could ameliorate MRSA-induced pneumonia by exerting an anti-inflammatory property and attenuating pro-inflammatory cytokine release, thus providing support for the hypothesis that both innate and synthetic peptides could protect against MRSA in vivo.

  8. THE UNIVERSAL GROEBNER BASIS UNDER COMPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinwang; HOU Jinjun; PENG Zhenyun; CAO Wensheng

    2005-01-01

    Composition is the operation of replacing variables in a polynomial with other polynomials. The main question in this paper is: when does composition commute with universal Groebner basis computation? We prove that this happens iff the composition is single variable. This has a natural application in the computation of universal Groebner bases of composed polynomials.

  9. A biosystematic basis for pelagic biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    Biodiversity can be considered to be a human appreciation of the biological entity diversity. Diversity can be expressed numerically on the basis of taxa found, but it can also be expressed as the contribution of a specimen to the diversity, for which a formula is proposed. Diversity is the sum of t

  10. The neurocognitive basis of feature integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, André Willem

    2010-01-01

    One of the most striking features of the brain is that it is modular; it consists of often highly specialized areas. This modular organization requires efficient communication in order to integrate the information that is represented in distinct brain areas. In my thesis, I studied the neural basis

  11. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  12. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  13. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  14. 41 CFR 105-70.001 - Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basis. 105-70.001 Section 105-70.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  15. Analysis of radial basis function interpolation approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou You-Long; Hu Fa-Long; Zhou Can-Can; Li Chao-Liu; Dunn Keh-Jim

    2013-01-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) interpolation approach proposed by Freedman is used to solve inverse problems encountered in well-logging and other petrophysical issues. The approach is to predict petrophysical properties in the laboratory on the basis of physical rock datasets, which include the formation factor, viscosity, permeability, and molecular composition. However, this approach does not consider the effect of spatial distribution of the calibration data on the interpolation result. This study proposes a new RBF interpolation approach based on the Freedman's RBF interpolation approach, by which the unit basis functions are uniformly populated in the space domain. The inverse results of the two approaches are comparatively analyzed by using our datasets. We determine that although the interpolation effects of the two approaches are equivalent, the new approach is more flexible and beneficial for reducing the number of basis functions when the database is large, resulting in simplification of the interpolation function expression. However, the predicted results of the central data are not sufficiently satisfied when the data clusters are far apart.

  16. 42 CFR 489.1 - Statutory basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL General Provisions § 489.1 Statutory basis... services covered under Medicare and the providers that may be reimbursed for furnishing those services....

  17. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  18. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale correla

  19. Conductance calculations with a wavelet basis set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    . The linear-response conductance is calculated from the Green's function which is represented in terms of a system-independent basis set containing wavelets with compact support. This allows us to rigorously separate the central region from the contacts and to test for convergence in a systematic way...

  20. The Contextualist Basis of Scientific Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guichun

    2014-03-01

    From perspectives of contextual structure, elements and features, this paper analyses the contextualist basis of scientific explanation. It is articulated that contextual analysis specifies the boundary conditions of syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics, clarifies the essence and value-orientation, constructs a conversational platform, and unveils the progress condition and historical continuity of scientific explanation.

  1. On Sociolinguistic Theoretical Basis of Brand Name

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海洋; 司宇婷

    2015-01-01

    Brand names are the offspring of highly development of market economics, and play a crucial role in modern society. This paper discusses the soci-olinguistic theoretical basis of brand name. Attention should be paid to the cultural factors of brand naming, including customs and manners, religious beliefs, ethics, regional culture and so on.

  2. Eurocode I: Basis of design. Background information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the background philosophy of Eurocode 1, Basis of Design. The main ideas behind the various parts of the document are discussed. The emphasize is put on the reliability aspects and the partial factor method. Recommendations for future developments are given.

  3. Screening criteria for design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    A risk based screening criteria was developed to assist in determining whether issues raised during K-reactor restart safety analyses needed to be part of the design basis, and if so, to guide the degree of conservatism in the analysis. This paper describes the development of this criterias existing precedents, and its implementation guidelines and restrictions.

  4. Screening criteria for design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    A risk based screening criteria was developed to assist in determining whether issues raised during K-reactor restart safety analyses needed to be part of the design basis, and if so, to guide the degree of conservatism in the analysis. This paper describes the development of this criterias existing precedents, and its implementation guidelines and restrictions.

  5. RBF networks with mixed radial basis functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2000-01-01

    After the introduction to neural network technology as multivariable function approximation, radial basis function (RBF) networks have been studied in many different aspects in recent years. From the theoretical viewpoint, approximation and uniqueness of the interpolation is studied and it has been

  6. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    OpenAIRE

    Showkat A. Bhat; Bharat Bhushan; Sajad A. Sheikh; Chandrasekar, T.; Asu Singh Godara; Pranay Bharti; K. Puhle Japheth

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana) calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protec...

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G1 to G6. Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G2 ...

  8. Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hippen, Keli L.; Bucher, Christoph; Schirm, Dawn K.; Bearl, Amanda M.; Brender, Ty; Mink, Kathy A.; Waggie, Kimberly S; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Janin, Anne; Curtsinger, Julie M.; Dillon, Stacey R.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Socie, Gerard; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    In rodent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models, anti–IL-21 neutralizing mAb treatment ameliorates lethality and is associated with decreases in Th1 cytokine production and gastrointestinal tract injury. GVHD prevention was dependent on the in vivo generation of donor-inducible regulatory T cells (Tregs). To determine whether the IL-21 pathway might be targeted for GVHD prevention, skin and colon samples obtained from patients with no GVHD or grade 2 to 4 GVHD were analyzed for IL-21 protei...

  9. Ameliorating Hemorheology by Direct Hemoperfusion with a Polymyxin B-immobilized Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan; Wang Xiang; Gao Wei; Cai Shaoxi

    2004-01-01

    Direct hemoperfusion (DHP) with an adsorbent column using polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads has been used to investigate the changes of hemorheology in rabbits with endotoxemia. We measured whole blood viscosity and hemotocrit before and after DHP with polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads. Reduction in blood endotoxin concentration by DHP therapy positively correlated with improvement in hemorheological indexs. Our findings indicate that the amelioration in hemorheology was related directly to endotoxin removal by the adsorbent column with polymyxin B-immobilize polystyrene beads. So DHP with polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene beads seems to be an important therapeutic strategy for endotoxemia.

  10. Effect of Furfural Residue on Control of Soil Alkalization and Amelioration of Solonetz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIAXING; SONGRONGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Furfural residue ,an industrial waste,is a kind of strongly acidic organic materials.Its comprehensive utilization in agriculture showed a significant effect on control of soil alkaliztion,amelioration of solonetz and increase of crop yields.In detail it may adjust pH,depress alkalinity,reduce bulk density and compactness and increase water permeability and retention ability of the soil.Meanwhile agricultural use of furfural residue provided an effective way to avoid its pollution of the soil,water and air.

  11. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F.; Menoux, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et

  12. 75 FR 75896 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR 1 RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In rule document 2010-25504 beginning on page 64072 in the issue of...

  13. 75 FR 6166 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts, 1, 31, and 301 RIN 1545-Bl66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In proposed rule document E9-29855 beginning on...

  14. RATIONAL BASIS FOR SUSPENDED SEDIMENT MODELING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHOU; Binliang LIN; Bingnan LIN

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a rational basis to model the transport of suspended sediment. The looseboundary condition for 3D models and the adjustment coefficients for both the depth-integrated 2D and laterally integrated 1D models are treated comprehensively. A combination of Dirichlet and Neumann conditions is proposed as the loose-boundary condition. The adjustment coefficient for 2D models is obtained on the basis of the proposed boundary condition and analytical solutions developed for some simple cases of non-equilibrium transport of sediment in uniform flows. The adjustment coefficient for 1D models for natural rivers is further obtained from lateral integration. Comparisons with analytical solutions and a considerable amount of laboratory and prototype data show that mathematical models developed along the proposed line of attack would well simulate the transport of suspended sediment in practical problems.

  15. Basis-neutral Hilbert-space analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Lane; Kondakci, H Esat; Larson, Walker D; Shabahang, Soroush; Jahromi, Ali K; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A Nick; Atia, George K; Abouraddy, Ayman F

    2016-01-01

    Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes -- a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication -- basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of `delay.' Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis -- exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such generalized delays correspond to optical implementations of fractional transforms; for example, the fractional Hankel transform is the generalized delay associated with the space of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and an interferometer incorporating such a `delay' obtains modal weights in the associated Hilbert space. By implementing an inherently stable, rec...

  16. Reduced basis method for source mask optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pomplun, J; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; Tyminski, J; Flagello, D; Toshiharu, N; 10.1117/12.866101

    2010-01-01

    Image modeling and simulation are critical to extending the limits of leading edge lithography technologies used for IC making. Simultaneous source mask optimization (SMO) has become an important objective in the field of computational lithography. SMO is considered essential to extending immersion lithography beyond the 45nm node. However, SMO is computationally extremely challenging and time-consuming. The key challenges are due to run time vs. accuracy tradeoffs of the imaging models used for the computational lithography. We present a new technique to be incorporated in the SMO flow. This new approach is based on the reduced basis method (RBM) applied to the simulation of light transmission through the lithography masks. It provides a rigorous approximation to the exact lithographical problem, based on fully vectorial Maxwell's equations. Using the reduced basis method, the optimization process is divided into an offline and an online steps. In the offline step, a RBM model with variable geometrical param...

  17. Basis of valve operator selection for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. S.; Lee, D. J.; See, J. K.; Park, C. K.; Choi, B. S

    2000-05-01

    SMART, an integral reactor with enhanced safety and operability, is under development for use of the nuclear energy. The valve operator of SMART system were selected through the data survey and technical review of potential valve fabrication vendors, and it will provide the establishment and optimization of the basic system design of SMART. In order to establish and optimize the basic system design of SMART, the basis of selection for the valve operator type were provided based on the basic design requirements. The basis of valve operator selection for SMART will be used as a basic technical data for the SMART basic and detail design and a fundamental material for the new reactor development in the future.

  18. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  19. Genetic basis of human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-12-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against over-interpretation of current data.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  1. Nearest lattice point algorithms on semi k-reduced basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚海斌; 沈鸿

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly generalize the relations among the basis vectors of LLL reduced basis to semi k-reduced basis. Then we analyze the complexities of the nearest plane algorithm and round-off algorithm on semi k-reduced basis, which, compared with L. Babai's results on LLL reduced basis, have better approximate ratios and contain almost the same time complexities.

  2. Hypothermia ameliorates gastrointestinal ischemic injury sustained in a porcine cardiac arrest model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; WANG Shuo; LI Chun-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background During cardiac arrest,the gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to ischemia.Protection of the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor in determining prognosis following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).This study seeks to determine the extent of gastrointestinal tract injury and the potential protective effect of inducing hypothermia following a porcine cardiac arrest model and CPR.Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation in 16 male domestic pigs (n=8 per group).Four minutes after ventricular fibrillation,CPR was performed.Pigs that successfully restored spontaneous circulation then received intravenous infusions of saline at either 4C or room temperature to produce hypothermic and control conditions respectively.Serum diamine oxidase and gastrointestinal adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity were determined and histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract was performed by light microscopy and electron microscopy.Results Significant injury of the gastrointestinal tract after CPR was found.Na+-K+ and Ca2+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in the gastric tissue were significantly high in animals receiving hypothermia treatment compared to controls.Hypothermia also significantly reduced serum diamine oxidase after CPR compared to the control group.Moreover,severe injury sustained by the gastrointestinal tissue was significantly ameliorated under hypothermic conditions compared to controls.Conclusions Gastrointestinal injury and abnormal energy metabolism are strikingly evident following CPR.Hypothermia,which is induced by an infusion of 4C saline,can rapidly reduce internal body temperature,improve energy metabolism,and ameliorate injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa after CPR.

  3. Oroxylin A, but Not Vasopressin, Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction of Endotoxemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in septic patients with myocardial dysfunction is higher than those without it. Beneficial effects of flavonoid oroxylin A (Oro-A on endotoxemic hearts were evaluated and compared with that of arginine vasopressin (AVP which is used to reverse hypotension in septic patients. Endotoxemia in rats was induced by one-injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 mg/kg, i.p., and hearts were isolated 5-hrs or 16-hrs later. Isolated hearts with constant-pressure or constant-flow mode were examined by Langendorff technique. Rate and force of contractions of isolated atrial and ventricular strips were examined by tissue myography. Isolated endotoxemic hearts were characterized by decreased or increased coronary flow (CF in LPS-treated-for-5hr and LPS-treated-for-16-hr groups, respectively, with decreased inotropy in both groups. Oro-A-perfusion ameliorated while AVP-perfusion worsened the decreased CF and inotropy in both preparations. Oro-A and AVP, however, did not affect diminished force or rate of contraction of atrial and ventricular strips of endotoxemic hearts. Oro-A-induced CF increase was not affected following coronary endothelium-denudation with saponin. These results suggest that Oro-A ameliorates LPS-depressed cardiac functions by increasing CF, leading to positive inotropy. In contrast, AVP aggravates cardiac dysfunction by decreasing CF. Oro-A is a potentially useful candidate for treating endotoxemia complicated with myocardial dysfunction.

  4. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  5. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum ameliorates influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 could ameliorate influenza virus (IFV) infection in a mice model. Mice were orally administrated BB536 or saline for 2 weeks and then infected with IFV. Orally administered BB536 significantly alleviated symptoms, reduced the loss of body weight, and inhibited viral proliferation in the lungs relative to the control group findings. Histopathological findings in the lungs were improved in the BB536 group compared to control group findings. There was no significant difference in the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-12p40 in the lungs between the groups, but the levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were lower (p=0.076, 0.103, respectively) in the BB536 group compared with those of control group. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 correlated significantly with the values of weight loss, and the levels of IFN-γ correlated with the virus titers in the lungs. These results suggested the potential of the oral administration of BB536 in ameliorating IFV infection and the possible involvement of anti-inflammatory effects of BB536 in the anti-infection effects against IFV.

  6. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Panagea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  7. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  8. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted.

  9. Inhibition of autophagy ameliorates atherogenic inflammation by augmenting apigenin-induced macrophage apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Zeng, Ping; Liu, Yuanliang; Wen, Ge; Fu, Xiuqiong; Sun, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidences showed that the survival of macrophages promotes atherogenesis. Macrophage apoptosis in the early phase of atherosclerotic process negatively regulates the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. We demonstrated that a natural anti-oxidant apigenin could ameliorate atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice. It reduced the number of foam cells and decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. Our results showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Apigenin-induced apoptosis and downregulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. It is further supported by the use of zVAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, demonstrating that apigenin lowered cytokine profile through induction of macrophage apoptosis. Moreover, apigenin-induced Atg5/Atg7-dependent autophagy in macrophages pretreated with oxLDL. Results illustrated that autophagy inhibition increased apigenin-induced apoptosis through activation of Bax. The present findings suggest that oxLDL maintained the survival of macrophages and activated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines to initiate atherosclerosis. Apigenin-induced apoptosis of lipid-laden macrophages and resolved inflammation to ameliorate atherosclerosis. In conclusion, combination of apigenin with autophagy inhibition may be a promising strategy to induce foam cell apoptosis and subdue atherogenic cytokines.

  10. Cisplatin-induced acute renal failure is ameliorated by erdosteine in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Hüseyin; Yildirim, Zeki; Kotuk, Mahir; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Yağmurca, Murat; Iraz, Mustafa; Söğüt, Sad; Gergerlioglu, Serdar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum dosage of erdosteine to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Three different doses of erdosteine at 25, 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) were studied in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of 7 mg kg(-1) cisplatin led to acute renal failure, as indicated by kidney histology and increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. At 5 days after cisplatin injection the BUN level was increased significantly from 15.1 +/- 4.3 to 126.7 +/- 152.6 mg dl(-1) and plasma creatinine levels increased from 0.37 +/- 0.005 to 1.68 +/- 1.9 mg dl(-1). When the rats were administered 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) erdosteine 24 h before cisplatin injection that was continued until sacrifice (total of 6 days), the BUN and creatinine levels remained similar to control levels and the grade of histology was similar. Erdosteine at doses of 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal failure. The optimum dose of erdosteine may be 50 mg kg(-1) in this study.

  11. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  12. Dihydro-Resveratrol Ameliorates Lung Injury in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ze-Si; Ku, Chuen Fai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Shi, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Hong-Qi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process originated in the pancreas; however, it often leads to systemic complications that affect distant organs. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is indeed the predominant cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. In this study, we aimed to delineate the ameliorative effect of dihydro-resveratrol, a prominent analog of trans-resveratrol, against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury and the underlying molecular actions. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats with repetitive injections of cerulein (50 µg/kg/h) and a shot of lipopolysaccharide (7.5 mg/kg). By means of histological examination and biochemical assays, the severity of lung injury was assessed in the aspects of tissue damages, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. When treated with dihydro-resveratrol, pulmonary architectural distortion, hemorrhage, interstitial edema, and alveolar thickening were significantly reduced in rats with acute pancreatitis. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activity of myeloperoxidase in pulmonary tissues were notably repressed. Importantly, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation was attenuated. This study is the first to report the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol ameliorated acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury via an inhibitory modulation of pro-inflammatory response, which was associated with a suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  13. Choline and betaine ameliorate liver lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Erina; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Fujishita, Mayuko; Ota, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the efficacy of supplementing the diet with choline or betaine in ameliorating lipid accumulation induced by vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were fed a control, B6-deficient, choline-supplemented (2, 4, or 6 g choline bitartrate/kg diet) B6-deficient diet or betaine-supplemented (1, 2, or 4 g betaine anhydrous/kg diet) B6-deficient diet for 35 d; all diets contained 9 g L-methionine (Met)/kg diet. Choline or betaine supplementation attenuated liver lipid deposition and restored plasma lipid profiles to control levels. These treatments restored the disruptions in Met metabolism and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio induced by B6 deficiency in liver microsomes. These results suggest that choline and betaine ameliorated liver lipid accumulation induced by B6 deficiency via recovery of Met metabolism and very low-density lipoprotein secretion by restoring the supply of PC derived from PE.

  14. Rikkunshito Ameliorates Cancer Cachexia Partly through Elevation of Glucarate in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Ohbuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient’s morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo, ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma.

  15. Intermedin ameliorates IgA nephropathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Tian, Jihua; Guo, Haixiu; Mi, Yang; Zhang, Ruijing; Li, Rongshan

    2016-05-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of IgAN has been reported. Intermedin (IMD) is a newly discovered peptide that is closely related to adrenomedullin. We have recently reported that IMD can significantly reduce renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by diminishing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. The present study was designed to explore whether IMD ameliorates IgAN via oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent mechanisms. Our results showed that IMD administration resulted in the prevention of albuminuria and ameliorated renal pathomorphological changes. These findings were associated with (1) decreased renal TGF-β1 and collagen IV expression, (2) an increased SOD level and reduced MDA level, (3) the inhibition of the renal activation of NF-κB p65 and (4) the downregulation of the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, MCP-1 and MMP-9) in the kidney. These results indicate that IMD in the kidney protects against IgAN by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation.

  16. Evaluating the ameliorative potential of plant flavonoids and their nanocomposites in bleomycin induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srabani Kar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary Fibrosis can severely disrupt lung function. The cause of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is still unclear. The treatment currently available for IPF provides minimal benefits. Bleomycin is used in research to induce experimental pulmonary fibrosis in animals. Plant flavonoids such as fisetin and curcumin are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. The aim was to demonstrate the path of physiological changes in bleomycin induced IPF and to further evaluate the reversal and ameliorative potentials of some plant flavonoids and their nanocomposites. Bleomycin administration is known to damage the lung epithelial cells resulting in lower cell numbers. Results: Our colony forming assay in BALF also demonstrated a reduction (1.65 fold in colony-forming unit after bleomycin administration. The number of colonies increased upon treatment with fisetin(1.20 fold and curcumin (1.13 fold respectively. MTT proliferation assay demonstrated a significant increase in the number of viable cells upon treatment with curcumin (1.42 fold and fisetin (1.74 fold respectively, in the lung. The NBT assay demonstrated a significant effect of curcumin in BALF, lung and peripheral blood. A significant effect of fisetin was observed in BALF and peripheral blood. Conclusion: These findings were also supported by the histological analyses of the lung samples. Curcumin showed highestpotential for the treatment of IPF and fisetin showed its ameliorative effect. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(7.000: 707-722

  17. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  18. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-05-09

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  19. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day. Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  20. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szantoi, Zoltan [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: szantzo@auburn.edu; Chappelka, Arthur H. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: chappah@auburn.edu; Muntifering, Russell B. [Animal Sciences Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Somers, Greg L. [School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: somergl@auburn.edu

    2007-11-15

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O{sub 3}) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O{sub 3} in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O{sub 3} interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O{sub 3} effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent. - EDU can potentially ameliorate negative effects of O{sub 3} on nutritive quality in purple coneflower.

  1. Treatment with Anti-EGF Ab Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Induction of Neurogenesis and Oligodendrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Amir-Levy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The neural stem cells (NSCs migrate to the damaged sites in multiple sclerosis (MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. However, the differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes is blocked. Epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulates NSC proliferation and mobilization to demyelinated lesions but also induces astrogenesis and glial scar. Objective. To examine the clinical and histopathological effects of EGF neutralization on EAE. Methods. EAE-induced SJL mice were intravenously treated with either anti-EGF neutralizing antibody (Ab or isotype control or PBS. On day 9 after immunization, 3 mice of each group were daily treated for 9 days with BrdU and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis. Results. Treatment with anti-EGF Ab significantly ameliorated EAE symptoms during the second relapse. Anti-EGF Ab induced a shift from BrdU+GFAP+ NSCs to BrdU+DCX+ neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ, increased BrdU+NeuN+ neurons in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, and increased BrdU+O4+ oligodendrocytes in the SVZ. There was no change in the inflammatory infiltrates in response to anti-EGF Ab. Conclusions. Therapy with anti-EGF Ab ameliorates EAE via induction of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. No immunosuppressive effect was found. Further investigation is needed to support these notions of beneficial effect of anti-EGF Ab in MS.

  2. Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Sunil Kumar; Barhwal, Kalpana; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2009-04-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, depleted mitochondrial bioenergetics, altered neurotransmission and apoptosis. This multifactorial response of the brain to hypobaric hypoxia limits the use of therapeutic agents that target individual pathways for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment. The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of a bacoside rich leaf extract of Bacopa monniera in improving the memory functions in hypobaric conditions. The learning ability was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats along with memory retrieval following exposure to hypobaric conditions simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft for different durations. The effect of bacoside administration on apoptosis, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels, and oxidative stress markers and on plasma corticosterone levels was investigated. Expression of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, neuronal cell adhesion molecules and was also studied along with CREB phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of bacoside action. Bacoside administration was seen to enhance learning ability in rats along with augmentation in memory retrieval and prevention of dendritic atrophy following hypoxic exposure. In addition, it decreased oxidative stress, plasma corticosterone levels and neuronal degeneration. Bacoside administration also increased cytochrome c oxidase activity along with a concomitant increase in ATP levels. Hence, administration of bacosides could be a useful therapeutic strategy in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive dysfunctions and other related neurological disorders.

  3. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15 male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=5. Group I (control and Group II (diabetic control group were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (P<0.01, 0.001. VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus.

  4. Exploring the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavinder; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2009-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis. DSS (2%) was administered orally in drinking water for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. The extent and severity of ulceration was analysed macroscopically, histopathologically and using a disease activity index. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific marker of inflammation; histamine, a marker of mast cell degranulation; superoxide anion generation and, lipid peroxides were analysed. Administration of DSS resulted in a significant development of ulceration in the colon along with a rise in histamine, MPO activity and oxidative stress. Treatment with Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic inflammation along with attenuation of histamine, MPO and oxidative stress. The antiulcerative effect of Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction were comparable to sulphasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg/kg i.p). It is concluded that Punica granatum has a potential for ameliorating DSS-induced colitis and its ellagic acid rich fraction may be responsible for this effect. Further, the antiulcerative effects may be attributed to mast cell stabilizing, antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions.

  5. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization.

  6. Amelioration of Saline-Sodic Soils with Tillage Implements and Sulfuric Acid Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SADIQ; G.HASSAN; S.M.MEHDI; N.HUSSAIN; M.JAMIL

    2007-01-01

    Amelioration of saline-sodic soils through land preparation with three tillage implements(disc plow,rotavator and cultivator)each followed by application of sulfuric acid at 20%of gypsum(CaSO4·2H2O)requirement or no sulfuric acid application during crop growth period was evaluated in a field study for 2.5 years at three sites,i.e., Jhottianwala, Gabrika(Thabal),and Thatta Langar,in Tehsil Piudi Bhattian,Hafizabad District,Pakistan.Within 2.5 years,there was a decrease in the salinity parameters measured(electrical conductivity,pH,and sodium adsorption ratio),with a gradual increase in rice and wheat grain yields.It was observed that the disc plow,which not only ensured favorable yields but also helped improve soil health at all the three sites,was the most effective tillage implement.Also,application of sulfuric acid resulted in higher yields and promoted rapid amelioration of the saline-sodic soils.

  7. Salvianolic acid A as a multifunctional agent ameliorates doxorubicin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Qi, Dong; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Zhu, Lin; Shang-Guan, Xiu-Xin; Liu, Ke; Xu, Hui; Che, Xin

    2015-07-21

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is still a therapeutic challenge. To date there is no ideal treatment. Evidence suggest that multidrug therapy has more effect than monotherapy in amelioration of renal injury. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the major active component of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Bunge. Previous studies have demonstrated that SAA is a multi-target agent and has various pharmacological activities. The pleiotropic properties of SAA predict its potential in the treatment of NS. The study investigated the effect of SAA on doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The kidney function related-biochemical changes, hemorheological parameters and oxidative stress status were determined, and histological examination using light and transmission electron microcopies and western blot analysis were also performed. Results revealed that treatment with SAA alleviated histological damages, relieved proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, reduced oxidative stress, as well as improving hemorheology. Furthermore, SAA restored podocin expression, down-regulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα while up-regulating IκBα protein expression. Overall, as a multifunctional agent, SAA has a favorable renoprotection in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy. The anti-inflammation, antioxidant, amelioration of podocyte injury, improvement of hemorheology and hypolipidemic properties may constituent an important part of its therapeutic effects. All these indicate that SAA is likely to be a promising agent for NS.

  8. A mucoactive drug carbocisteine ameliorates steroid resistance in rat COPD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Yu, Ping; Lu, Juan-Juan; Lu, Hao-Zhong; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2016-08-01

    Steroid insensitivity has been commonly found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, which is mediated by the reduction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2. Here we aimed to establish a steroid resistant model on experimental COPD rats and evaluate the effect of carbocisteine (S-CMC), a mucoactive drug. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) caused marked pathological features of COPD which are insensitive to DEX associated with the down-regulation of HDAC2 expression/activity. The DEX insensitivity observed in COPD featured rats was improved by S-CMC in the aspects of inhibiting chronic lung inflammation (total and differential inflammatory cell counts, inflammatory cytokines release and inflammatory cells infiltration); ameliorating airway remodeling (thickness of airway epithelium and smooth muscle, airway fibrosis, and the level of α-SMA and TGF-β1); improving emphysema (emphysema index D2, level of MMP-9 in BALF and the expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin) and preventing impairments of lung function (PEF, IP and IP-slope). Simultaneously, down-regulation of HDAC2 expression/activity was ameliorated by S-CMC treatment. These results indicate that the rat COPD model with steroid resistance was established by active smoking in a short time frame and demonstrate that the failure of steroid therapy can be restored by S-CMC accompanied by increasing HDAC2 expression/activity, providing additional evidence that S-CMC might be used for GC resistance in COPD.

  9. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  10. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  11. Honey Supplementation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Elicits Antihypertensive Effect via Amelioration of Renal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertension. This study investigated the effect of honey on elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. It also evaluated the effect of honey on the amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR as a possible mechanism of its antihypertensive effect. SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered distilled water or honey by oral gavage once daily for 12 weeks. The control SHR had significantly higher SBP and renal malondialdehyde (MDA levels than did control WKY. The mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST were significantly downregulated while total antioxidant status (TAS and activities of GST and catalase (CAT were higher in the kidney of control SHR. Honey supplementation significantly reduced SBP and MDA levels in SHR. Honey significantly reduced the activities of GST and CAT while it moderately but insignificantly upregulated the Nrf2 mRNA expression level in the kidney of SHR. These results indicate that Nrf2 expression is impaired in the kidney of SHR. Honey supplementation considerably reduces elevated SBP via amelioration of oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR.

  12. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Tianyin

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  14. Green tea epigallo-catechin-galleate ameliorates the development of obliterative airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Olin D; Kleibrink, Bjoern E; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Khatwa, Umakanth U; Mfarrej, Bechara; Subramaniam, Meera

    2011-09-01

    Lung transplantation has the worst outcome compared to all solid organ transplants due to chronic rejection known as obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Pathogenesis of OB is a complex interplay of alloimmune-dependent and -independent factors, which leads to the development of inflammation, fibrosis, and airway obliteration that have been resistant to therapy. The alloimmune-independent inflammatory pathway has been the recent focus in the pathogenesis of rejection, suggesting that targeting this may offer therapeutic benefits. As a potent anti-inflammatory agent, epigallo-catechin-galleate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, has been very effective in ameliorating inflammation in a variety of diseases, providing the rationale for its use in this study in a murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model of OB. Mice treated with EGCG had reduced inflammation, with significantly less neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and significantly reduced fibrosis. On further investigation into the mechanisms, inflammatory cytokines keratinocyte (KC), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), involved in neutrophil recruitment, were reduced in the EGCG-treated mice. In addition, monocyte chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was significantly reduced by EGCG treatment. Antifibrotic cytokine interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) was increased and profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was reduced, further characterizing the antifibrotic effects of EGCG. These findings suggest that EGCG has great potential in ameliorating the development of obliterative airway disease.

  15. Insulin receptor isoform A ameliorates long-term glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castroverde, Sabela; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Fernández, Silvia; García-Gómez, Gema; Di Scala, Marianna; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Fernández-Millán, Elisa; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; García-Bravo, María; Chambon, Pierre; Álvarez, Carmen; Perdomo, Liliana; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Oscar; Benito, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion. Previous in vitro data showed that insulin receptor isoform A, but not B, favours basal glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous GLUT1/2 in murine hepatocytes and beta cells. With this background, we hypothesized that hepatic expression of insulin receptor isoform A in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes could potentially increase the glucose uptake of these cells, decreasing the hyperglycaemia and therefore ameliorating the diabetic phenotype. To assure this hypothesis, we have developed recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors expressing insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) or isoform B (IRB) under the control of a hepatocyte--specific promoter. Our results demonstrate that in the long term, hepatic expression of IRA in diabetic mice is more efficient than IRB in ameliorating glucose intolerance. Consequently, it impairs the induction of compensatory mechanisms through beta cell hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy that finally lead to beta cell failure, reverting the diabetic phenotype in about 8 weeks. Our data suggest that long-term hepatic expression of IRA could be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Decitabine treatment could ameliorate primary iron-overload in myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucheng, Gu; Chunkang, Chang; Youshan, Zhao; Juan, Guo; Chengming, Fei; Xi, Zhang; Chao, Xiao; Xiao, Li

    2015-04-01

    In order to research how does hypomethylating agents ameliorate iron metabolism in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we performed methylation-specific, polymerase chain reaction (MSP), bisulfate genomic sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), quantitative real-time PCR and western blot of hemojuvelin (HJV) and ELISA assay for hepcidin before and after demethylating therapy (decitabine) to determine whether the change of HJV methylation status would have an influence on hepcidin expression. Eleven of 22 MDS patients achieved CR or PR according to IWG criteria (50%). HJV mRNA was induced in decitabine responders (p = .006 comparing pre/post decitabine treatment) but not in non-responders (p = .121). Similarly, hepcidin serum expression increased from 320.77 ± 34.8 μg/L to 366.77 ± 21.90 μg/L (p = .012) in responders but did not significantly change in non-responders (p = .058), while no difference of adjusted serum ferritin (ASF) was found. In conclusion, hypermethylation of HJV promoter region could silence the gene expression and demethylating therapy might ameliorate iron-overload through HJV demethylation.

  17. A Genetic Basis for Motivated Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Deborah J; Li, Mengjiao; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a genetic basis for motivated exercise, with evidence of a role for nescient helix-loop-helix-2 (NHLH2/Nhlh2). Nhlh2 transcriptionally regulates the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene. This article examines the evidence for the hypothesis that polymorphisms in NHLH2 or MAO-A contribute to differences in the human motivation for exercise and physical activity. The genetic pathways that link exercise and motivation are discussed.

  18. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...

  19. A brain basis for musical hallucinations ☆

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to exam...

  20. Neurons with radial basis like rate functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt László

    2005-01-01

    Artificial neural networks constructed with "locally tuned processing units" and more generally referred to as "radial basis function networks" have been proposed by a number of workers. In this communication, I submit a conjecture, based on indirect experimental and direct computational evidence of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, that there may be biological neurons in nervous systems for which the rate function is locally tuned. If proved to be valid, this conjecture may simplify neurodynamic models of some functions of nervous systems.

  1. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  2. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  3. The genetic basis of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woad, Kathryn J; Watkins, Wendy J; Prendergast, Deborah; Shelling, Andrew N

    2006-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common condition, affecting approximately 1:100 women. It is characterised by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotrophin levels in women under the age of 40. It is often an unexpected and distressing diagnosis, which coincides with infertility and menopausal symptoms. There is a well recognised genetic basis to the development of POF. Our laboratory has identified several candidate genes associated with POF.

  4. Microscopic Basis of the Interacting Boson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, T.

    The microscopic basis of the IBM is discussed in this paper, presenting a derivation of the IBM system from the multi-nucleon system. Although there could be different approaches to this goal as stated in the preface of this supplement, we focus on two approaches. One is the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello mapping, which works for the spherical and near-spherical nuclei. The other is a mapping for deformed nuclei.

  5. Low-dose thalidomide ameliorates cytopenias and splenomegaly in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Monia; Barosi, Giovanni; Balestri, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    daily and increasing to 400 mg as tolerated. RESULTS: Half of the patients sustained daily doses more than 100 mg and the drop-out rate was 51% at 6 months: the drop-out rate was lower in patients with high baseline fatigue score. At efficacy analysis, anemia was ameliorated in 22% of the patients...... score occurred in 31% of patients and was associated with a significant reduction of fatigue. Disease severity amelioration was independently predicted by a high baseline myeloproliferative index (ie, large splenomegaly, thrombocytosis, or leukocytosis). CONCLUSION: Low-dose thalidomide displays...

  6. Analysis and development of spatial hp-refinement methods for solving the neutron transport equation; Analyse et developpement de methodes de raffinement hp en espace pour l'equation de transport des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, D.

    2011-10-10

    The different neutronic parameters have to be calculated with a higher accuracy in order to design the 4. generation reactor cores. As memory storage and computation time are limited, adaptive methods are a solution to solve the neutron transport equation. The neutronic flux, solution of this equation, depends on the energy, angle and space. The different variables are successively discretized. The energy with a multigroup approach, considering the different quantities to be constant on each group, the angle by a collocation method called SN approximation. Once the energy and angle variable are discretized, a system of spatially-dependent hyperbolic equations has to be solved. Discontinuous finite elements are used to make possible the development of hp-refinement methods. Thus, the accuracy of the solution can be improved by spatial refinement (h-refinement), consisting into subdividing a cell into sub-cells, or by order refinement (p-refinement), by increasing the order of the polynomial basis. In this thesis, the properties of this methods are analyzed showing the importance of the regularity of the solution to choose the type of refinement. Thus, two error estimators are used to lead the refinement process. Whereas the first one requires high regularity hypothesis (analytical solution), the second one supposes only the minimal hypothesis required for the solution to exist. The comparison of both estimators is done on benchmarks where the analytic solution is known by the method of manufactured solutions. Thus, the behaviour of the solution as a regard of the regularity can be studied. It leads to a hp-refinement method using the two estimators. Then, a comparison is done with other existing methods on simplified but also realistic benchmarks coming from nuclear cores. These adaptive methods considerably reduces the computational cost and memory footprint. To further improve these two points, an approach with energy-dependent meshes is proposed. Actually, as the

  7. Tests for Wavelets as a Basis Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven

    A wavelet transformation is a special type of filter usually reserved for image processing and other applications. We develop metrics to evaluate wavelets for general problems on test one-dimensional systems. The goal is to eventually use a wavelet basis in electronic structure calculations. We compare a variety of orthogonal wavelets such as coiflets, symlets, and daubechies wavelets. We also evaluate a new type of orthogonal wavelet with dilation factor three which is both symmetric and compact in real space. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #DE-SC008696.

  8. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  9. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  10. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  11. The Cellular Basis of a Corollary Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2006-01-01

    How do animals discriminate self-generated from external stimuli during behavior and prevent desensitization of their sensory pathways? A fundamental concept in neuroscience states that neural signals, termed corollary discharges or efference copies, are forwarded from motor to sensory areas. Neurons mediating these signals have proved difficult to identify. We show that a single, multisegmental interneuron is responsible for the pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of auditory neurons in singing crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). Therefore, this neuron represents a corollary discharge interneuron that provides a neuronal basis for the central control of sensory responses.

  12. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  13. Basis set independent calculation of molecular polarizabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, James D.

    2012-08-01

    It is shown that e-F, where F is the Hartree-Fock (HF) operator, can be inverted, for molecular systems, in numerical Cartesian coordinates. The method was originally applied to finding corrections to approximate Hartree-Fock orbitals [J. D. Talman, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.052518 82, 052518 (2010)]. The approach is applied to determine basis set independent dipole polarizabilities for the water molecule using the Sternheimer method within the uncoupled HF and coupled perturbed HF approximations.

  14. The sustainable management of ameliorated peatlands on changed land use conditions; scenarios of constrains and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanskiy, , Merrit; Vollmer, Elis; Penu, Priit

    2015-04-01

    The utilization of organic soils for forestry or agriculture requires the land amelioration that could result on the peat losses from 15 to 20 t ha-1 in a year on following five years. After five years, the peat losses will be 5 - 15 t ha-1 in a year. The agricultural land resource on different types of organic soils (including ameliorated bogs) in Estonia is 360 000 ha that comprises 41% of total agricultural land area. The landscape iself is a valuable resource that considered to be a set of characteristics that satisfy needs of people using the landscape: economical or non-economical value; ecological, social, recreational, aesthetical, educational, scientific or even protective value. More diverse landscapes have higher biodiversity and yield more services to public, they are also seen as more sustainable and resilient to short-term changes. In order to maintain landscape diversity, sustainable maintenance is important. The purpose of current study was to estimate the land use potential on three different ameliorated peat areas and to develop the methodology for the futher sustainable utilization in order to secure the best ecological functioning of soil while taking into account maintaining and increasing landscape value. Therefore, site specific soil sampling (n=77) was carried out on predetermined eight study sites. Soil samples were analyzed for main agrochemical parameters (n=17; pHKCl, P, K, C%, N%, S%, ash, main anions and cations). This enables determing site-specific best suitable crops and land use scenarios. For the land resource description (soils type, topology) the digital soil map (1: 10,000) and field sudy based database were used for describing the model areas. For more specific identification of the field layers the Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) and databases of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) payments were used for subsidy schemes chekout. Estonian Nature Information System map tool was used to specify the

  15. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail: xmma@bjut.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  16. The Interpolation Theory of Radial Basis Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, it is first shown that, when the radial basis function is a $p$-norm and $1 2$. Specifically, for every $p > 2$, we construct a set of different points in some $\\Rd$ for which the interpolation matrix is singular. The greater part of this work investigates the sensitivity of radial basis function interpolants to changes in the function values at the interpolation points. Our early results show that it is possible to recast the work of Ball, Narcowich and Ward in the language of distributional Fourier transforms in an elegant way. We then use this language to study the interpolation matrices generated by subsets of regular grids. In particular, we are able to extend the classical theory of Toeplitz operators to calculate sharp bounds on the spectra of such matrices. Applying our understanding of these spectra, we construct preconditioners for the conjugate gradient solution of the interpolation equations. Our main result is that the number of steps required to achieve solution of the lin...

  17. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  18. Spherical radial basis functions, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbert, Simon; Morton, Tanya M

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to be devoted to the theory and applications of spherical (radial) basis functions (SBFs), which is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising techniques for solving problems where approximations are needed on the surface of a sphere. The aim of the book is to provide enough theoretical and practical details for the reader to be able to implement the SBF methods to solve real world problems. The authors stress the close connection between the theory of SBFs and that of the more well-known family of radial basis functions (RBFs), which are well-established tools for solving approximation theory problems on more general domains. The unique solvability of the SBF interpolation method for data fitting problems is established and an in-depth investigation of its accuracy is provided. Two chapters are devoted to partial differential equations (PDEs). One deals with the practical implementation of an SBF-based solution to an elliptic PDE and another which describes an SBF approach for solvi...

  19. The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang

    2016-10-24

    Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time. Hence, as humans and chimpanzees cannot be crossed or genetically manipulated, no direct evidence for linking particular genetic and molecular changes to human brain evolution can be obtained. Here, I sketch a framework how indirect evidence can be obtained and review findings related to the molecular basis of human cognition, vocal learning and brain size. In particular, I discuss how a comprehensive comparative approach, leveraging cellular systems and genomic technologies, could inform the evolution of our brain in the future.

  20. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  1. Sex differences regarding the amelioration of wrinkles due to skin dryness by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Iizuka, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) exerts an amelioration effect on wrinkle formation due to skin dryness. We examined the sex differences in this effect. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to male and female Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In the treated female mice, the amelioration effect on the wrinkle score, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, and decrease in the expression of collagen type I was stronger than in the male treated mice. Furthermore, the level of β-endorphin in the plasma and the expression of β-endorphin, μ-opioid receptor, and macrophages in the dorsal skin increased after the administration of tranexamic acid, and this increase was higher in female mice than in males. In addition, the macrophage production was increased by the administration of tranexamic acid in the ovary but did not change after administration in the testes. A histological examination revealed that these macrophages produce the β-endorphin, clarifying the source of the elevated levels. The amelioration effect in the female treated mice was decreased by the administration of clophosome (a macrophage inhibitor) to a degree that did not markedly differ from the effect observed in the male treated mice. These results suggest that the amelioration effect on wrinkles is stronger in female NOA mice than in males and that β-endorphin produced by macrophages plays an important role in this sex difference.

  2. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  3. Bezafibrate ameliorates diabetes via reduced steatosis and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic TallyHo mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our data showed that BEZ ameliorates diabetes probably via reduced steatosis, enhanced hepatic mitochondrial mass, improved metabolic flexibility and elevated hepatic insulin sensitivity in TallyHo mice, suggesting that BEZ treatment could be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism.

  4. Design and synthesis of novel arctigenin analogues for the amelioration of metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shudong; Huang, Suling; Gong, Jian; Shen, Yu; Zeng, Limin; Feng, Ying; Ren, Wenming; Leng, Ying; Hu, Youhong

    2015-04-09

    Analogues of the natural product (-)-arctigenin, an activator of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase, were prepared in order to evaluate their effects on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in L6 myotubes and possible use in ameliorating metabolic disorders. Racemic arctigenin 2a was found to display a similar uptake enhancement as does (-)-arctigenin. As a result, the SAR study was conducted utilizing racemic compounds. The structure-activity relationship study led to the discovery of key substitution patterns on the lactone motif that govern 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities. The results show that replacement of the para-hydroxyl group of the C-2 benzyl moiety of arctigenin by Cl has a pronounced effect on uptake activity. Specifically, analogue 2p, which contains the p-Cl substituent, stimulates glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in L6 myotubes.

  5. Smart Soup, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates amyloid pathology and related cognitive deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Hou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.

  6. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-03-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals.

  7. Pycnogenol ameliorates depression-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT-) treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL) was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  8. Pycnogenol Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Repeated Corticosterone-Induced Depression Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a mechanism of major depression. Pycnogenol (PYC is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Aiton and has potent antioxidant activities. We studied the ameliorative effect of PYC on depression-like behavior in chronic corticosterone- (CORT- treated mice for 20 days. After the end of the CORT treatment period, PYC (0.2 mg/mL was orally administered in normal drinking water. Depression-like behavior was investigated by the forced swimming test. Immobility time was significantly longer by CORT exposure. When the CORT-treated mice were supplemented with PYC, immobility time was significantly shortened. Our results indicate that orally administered PYC may serve to reduce CORT-induced stress by radical scavenging activity.

  9. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  10. Reactivation of autophagy by spermidine ameliorates the myopathic defects of collagen VI-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisam, Martina; Pirozzi, Marinella; Castagnaro, Silvia; Blaauw, Bert; Polishchuck, Roman; Cecconi, Francesco; Grumati, Paolo; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process responsible for the clearance of damaged or unnecessary cellular components. We have previously found that persistence of dysfunctional organelles due to autophagy failure is a key event in the pathogenesis of COL6/collagen VI-related myopathies, and have demonstrated that reactivation of a proper autophagic flux rescues the muscle defects of Col6a1-null (col6a1(-/-)) mice. Here we show that treatment with spermidine, a naturally occurring nontoxic autophagy inducer, is beneficial for col6a1(-/-) mice. Systemic administration of spermidine in col6a1(-/-) mice reactivated autophagy in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a concurrent amelioration of the histological and ultrastructural muscle defects. The beneficial effects of spermidine, together with its being easy to administer and the lack of overt side effects, open the field for the design of novel nutraceutical strategies for the treatment of muscle diseases characterized by autophagy impairment.

  11. Bacterial and Archaeal α-Amylases: Diversity and Amelioration of the Desirable Characteristics for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent, and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  12. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  13. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Rani Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS on high fat diet (HFD induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  14. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  15. AMELIORATION OF GENOTOXICITY BY PAPAYA EXTRACT INDUCED BY ARSENIC CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHARMSHILA KUMARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is an established genotoxic carcinogen in human. Arsenic trioxide (0.04mg/animal when administeredorally daily to albino swiss mice for 15 continuous days, increased the incidence of abnormalities to 30.6% inmeiotic metaphase chromosome, 5.88% in the gross morphology of sperm head and decreased the sperm countper unit volume of caput epididymal suspension to 64.16 in comparison to the control. The concurrent treatmentof papaya fruit extract and arsenic trioxide significantly decreased the abnormalities to19.6% in meioticchromosome, 4.16% in the sperm head morphology and increased the mean count of sperm to 82.28. Theincrease in abnormality of meiotic chromosome as well as abnormality in gross morphology of the sperm headand decrease in sperm count, as observed upon arsenic trioxide treatment, were ameliorated by the aqueouspapaya fruit extract. Therefore, it is suggested that the papaya fruit extract may reduce the risk of arsenic-inducedgenotoxicity.

  16. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance.

  17. The Roles of Exercise and Yoga in Ameliorating Depression as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are no effective pharmaceutical treatments to reduce cognitive decline or prevent dementia. At the same time, the global population is aging, and rates of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are on the rise. As such, there is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative interventions to treat or reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Depression is one potentially modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Notably, exercise and yoga are two interventions known to both reduce symptoms of depression and improve cognitive function. The current review discusses the efficacy of exercise and yoga to ameliorate depression and thereby reduce the risk of cognitive decline and potentially prevent dementia. Potential mechanisms of change, treatment implications, and future directions are discussed. PMID:28044084

  18. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on potassium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Shati

    2014-07-01

    There was a significant accumulation of Cr in the livers of the Cr group compared with the control group. In addition, exposure to K2Cr2O7 induced significant increases in the level of thiobarbituric-reactive substances (TBARS and significant decreases in glutathione (GSH content and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the Cr group compared with the control group. Moreover, livers of the Cr group showed major histological alterations, such as severe necrosis, increased lymphocytic infiltration, and a significant decrease in the DNA content. Oral vitamin E administration concomitant with K2Cr2O7 ameliorated all these changes and resulted in normal hepatic histological and cellular contents. In conclusion, oral vitamin E administration has a hepatoprotective role against K2Cr2O7-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  19. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model.

  20. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  1. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates cypermethrin-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabdtis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, Shivaiah; Rajini, P S

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress and other effects induced by cypermethrin (CYP, 15 mM) and their amelioration by alpha-tocopherol (400 microM) was studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The worms exposed for 4 h to CYP showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (46%), H2O2 (37%) and protein carbonyls (29%), accompanied by decreased lifespan and brood size. However, exposure to both CYP and alpha-tocopherol resulted in diminution of above alterations with the worms exhibiting relatively lower levels of ROS (30%), H2O2 (15%), protein carbonyls (14%), altered antioxidant enzyme activities and normal lifespan and brood size. The results suggest that CYP induces oxidative stress in C. elegans and the strategy of intervention with alpha-tocopherol could be exploited to offset this induced oxidative stress.

  2. Hydroxycitric acid ameliorates inlfammation and oxidative stress in mouse models of multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi Goudarzvand; Shahin Khadem Azarian; Abbas Mirshaifey; Gholamreza Azizi; Sanaz Afraei; Somaye Yaslianifard; Saleh Ghiasy; Ghazal Sadri; Mustafa Kalvandi; Tina Alinia; Ali Mohebbi; Reza Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is derived primarily from the Garcinia plant and is widely used for its anti-in-lfammatory effects. Multiple sclerosis can cause an inlfammatory demyelination and axonal damage. In this study, to validate the hypothesis that HCA exhibits therapeutic effects on multiple sclerosis, we established female C57BL/6 mouse models of multiple sclerosis,i.e., experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, using Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) emulsion containing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35–55). Treatment with HCA at 2 g/kg/d for 3 weeks obviously improved the symptoms of nerve injury of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice, decreased serum interleulin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione reduc-tase activities. hTese ifndings suggest that HCA exhibits neuroprotective effects on multiple sclerosis-caused nerve injury through ameliorating inlfammation and oxidative stress.

  3. Enhanced killing activity of regulatory T cells ameliorates inflammation and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Nadir

    2013-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are pivotal suppressor elements in immune homeostasis with potential therapeutic applications in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Using Treg as vehicles for targeted immunomodulation, a short-lived Fas-ligand (FasL) chimeric protein (killer Treg) was found efficient in preventing the progression of autoimmune insulitis in NOD mice, and amelioration of chronic colitis and graft versus host disease. The main mechanisms of disease suppression by killer Treg are: a) in the acute phase induction of apoptosis in effector cells at the site of inflammation decreases the pathogenic burden, and b) persistent increase in FoxP3⁺ Treg with variable CD25 co-expression induced by FasL sustains disease suppression over extended periods of time. Reduced sensitivity of Treg to receptor-mediated apoptosis under inflammatory conditions makes them optimal vehicles for targeted immunotherapy using apoptotic agents.

  4. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through transplantation of placental derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tian, Kewei; Wang, Beibei; Han, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Placental derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) have been suggested as a possible source of cells to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) due to their immunomodulatory functions, lack of ethical concerns, and potential to differentiate into neurons and oligodendrocytes. To investigate whether PMSCs share similar characteristics with embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), and if transplanted PMSCs have the ability to integrate and replace degenerated neural cells, we transplanted rat PMSCs and EMSCs into the central nervous system (CNS) of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Our findings demonstrated that transplanted PMSCs, similar to EMSCs, were effective in decreasing infiltrating inflammatory cells, preserving axons, and ameliorating demyelination, thereby improving the neurological functions of animals. Moreover, both PMSCs and EMSCs had the ability to migrate into inflamed tissues and express neural–glial lineage markers. These findings suggest that PMSCs may replace EMSCs as a source of cells in MS stem cell therapy. PMID:28186117

  5. Ameliorative effects of arctiin from Arctium lappa on experimental glomerulonephritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Du, Jian; Ye, Qi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu-Guang

    2009-11-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) remains the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome in the world and up to 40% of untreated patients will progress to end-stage renal disease. Although the treatment of MGN with immunosuppressants or steroid hormones can attenuate the deterioration of renal function, numerous treatment-related complications have also been established. In this study, the ameliorative effects of arctiin, a natural compound isolated from the fruits of Arctium lappa, on rat glomerulonephritis induced by cationic bovine serum albumin (cBSA) were determined. After oral administration of arctiin (30, 60, 120 mg/kgd) for three weeks, the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-h urine protein content markedly decreased, while endogenous creatinine clearance rate (ECcr) significantly increased. The parameters of renal lesion, hypercellularity, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), fibrinoid necrosis, focal and segmental proliferation and interstitial infiltration, were reversed. In addition, we observed that arctiin evidently reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity, and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These findings suggest that the ameliorative effects of arctiin on glomerulonephritis is carried out mainly by suppression of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear translocation and the decreases in the levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, while SOD is involved in the inhibitory pathway of NF-kappaB activation. Arctiin has favorable potency for the development of an inhibitory agent of NF-kappaB and further application to clinical treatment of glomerulonephritis, though clinical studies are required.

  6. Catechin Treatment Ameliorates Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus causes atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative properties of catechin (CTN) have been reported in several studies. Objective: This study assesses the possible protective effects of CTN against oxidative damage in the diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the control, untreated diabetic, and 3 CTN-treated diabetic groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal). The diabetic rats were induced by streptozotocin. Catechin was injected for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, glucose, lipid profile, apoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apoprotein B (apo B), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in serum. Statistical analyses were performed using the InStat 3.0 program. Results: Streptozotocin caused an elevation of glucose, MDA, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apo B with reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST in the serum (P < .05). The findings showed that the significant elevation in the body weight, glucose, MDA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and apo B and reduction in HDL-C, apo A-I, SOD, CAT, and GST were ameliorated in the CTN-treated diabetic groups versus the untreated group, in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Conclusion: The present investigation proposes that CTN may ameliorate diabetes and its complications by modification of oxidative stress. PMID:28228702

  7. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Y.C. [Graduate Institute of Natural Healing Sciences, Nanhua University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.C. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.W. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.Y. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, A. [College of Biological Science, University of California, Davis (United States); Su, C.S. [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, T.J., E-mail: trliu@vghtc.gov.tw [Cardiovascular Center and Department of Anesthesiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Center, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  8. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr; Faten Roshdy Abdel-Ghafar; Samah Mohamed Abo-El-Yazid

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods:Four groups of rats were used (n=10), Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10μg/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results:Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  9. Calhex231 Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Cellular Autophagy in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i homeostasis, an initial factor of cardiac hypertrophy, is regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR and is associated with the formation of autolysosomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Calhex231, a CaSR inhibitor, on the hypertrophic response via autophagy modulation. Methods: Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in 40 male Wistar rats, while 10 rats underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Cardiac function was monitored by transthoracic echocardiography, and the hypertrophy index was calculated. Cardiac tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E or Masson's trichrome reagent and examined by transmission electron microscopy. An angiotensin II (Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model was established and used to test the involvement of active molecules. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i was determined by the introduction of Fluo-4/AM dye followed by confocal microscopy. The expression of various active proteins was analyzed by western blot. Results: The rats with TAC-induced hypertrophy had an increased heart size, ratio of heart weight to body weight, myocardial fibrosis, and CaSR and autophagy levels, which were suppressed by Calhex231. Experimental results using Ang II-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes confirmed that Calhex231 suppressed CaSR expression and downregulated autophagy by inhibiting the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent-protein kinase-kinase-β (CaMKKβ- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway to ameliorate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conclusions: Calhex231 ameliorates myocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure-overload or Ang II via inhibiting CaSR expression and autophagy. Our results may support the notion that Calhex231 can become a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, K C

    2013-06-01

    The ameliorating potentials of ginger incorporated feed (10%) on the relative organ weights of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experiment lasted for three weeks. Results show that administration of 10% ginger feed to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in a 29.81% decrease in their resulting hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity as well as renal growth. In addition, administration of the ginger incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in 9.88% increase in body weight with a corresponding 60.24% increase in growth compared with the non-diabetic rats administered standard rat pellets that had 6.21% increase in weight with a corresponding 60.14% increase in growth unlike the diabetic control rats that recorded 28.62% decrease in body weight with a corresponding 239.9% decrease in growth rates. Analysis of the chemical composition of the flour of the ginger incorporated feed indicated that it contained moderate amounts of moisture, crude fibre, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, Fe and Zn but considerable amounts of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, flavonoids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and energy value. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the liver and relative liver weights of the diabetic control rats and the diabetic -ginger treated rats. In addition, there were no significant differences in the kidney weights of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic treated rats (P>0.05) while there were significant differences in the relative kidney weights of the non-diabetic rats and the diabetic rats treated with ginger feeds (Pginger in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for novel plants that could prevent the development of diabetic glomerular hypertrophy.

  11. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  12. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  14. Manual therapy ameliorates delayed-onset muscle soreness and alters muscle metabolites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sakai, Shigekazu; Matsuda, Teru; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-02-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can be induced by lengthening contraction (LC); it can be characterized by tenderness and movement-related pain in the exercised muscle. Manual therapy (MT), including compression of exercised muscles, is widely used as physical rehabilitation to reduce pain and promote functional recovery. Although MT is beneficial for reducing musculoskeletal pain (i.e. DOMS), the physiological mechanisms of MT remain unclear. In the present study, we first developed an animal model of MT in DOMS; LC was applied to the rat gastrocnemius muscle under anesthesia, which induced mechanical hyperalgesia 2-4 days after LC. MT (manual compression) ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia. Then, we used capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (CE-TOFMS) to investigate early effects of MT on the metabolite profiles of the muscle experiencing DOMS. The rats were divided into the following three groups; (1) normal controls, (2) rats with LC application (LC group), and (3) rats undergoing MT after LC (LC + MT group). According to the CE-TOFMS analysis, a total of 171 metabolites were detected among the three groups, and 19 of these metabolites were significant among the groups. Furthermore, the concentrations of eight metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, carnitine, and malic acid, were significantly different between the LC + MT and LC groups. The results suggest that MT significantly altered metabolite profiles in DOMS. According to our findings and previous data regarding metabolites in mitochondrial metabolism, the ameliorative effects of MT might be mediated partly through alterations in metabolites associated with mitochondrial respiration.

  15. Metformin ameliorates ionizing irradiation-induced long-term hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoshun; Wu, Hongying; Zhang, Junling; Li, Deguan; Wang, Yueying; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Lu; Li, Chengcheng; Huang, Song; Xing, Yonghua; Zhou, Daohong; Meng, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only by the radiolysis of water but also through IR-induced perturbation of the cellular metabolism and disturbance of the balance of reduction/oxidation reactions. Our recent studies showed that the increased production of intracellular ROS induced by IR contributes to IR-induced late effects, particularly in the hematopoietic system, because inhibition of ROS production with an antioxidant after IR exposure can mitigate IR-induced long-term bone marrow (BM) injury. Metformin is a widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin also has the ability to regulate cellular metabolism and ROS production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Therefore, we examined whether metformin can ameliorate IR-induced long-term BM injury in a total-body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. Our results showed that the administration of metformin significantly attenuated TBI-induced increases in ROS production and DNA damage and upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 expression in BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These changes were associated with a significant increase in BM HSC frequency, a considerable improvement in in vitro and in vivo HSC function, and complete inhibition of upregulation of p16Ink4a in HSCs after TBI. These findings demonstrate that metformin can attenuate TBI-induced long-term BM injury at least in part by inhibiting the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs and HSC senescence. Therefore, metformin has the potential to be used as a novel radioprotectant to ameliorate TBI-induced long-term BM injury. PMID:26086617

  16. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  17. Candesartan and glycyrrhizin ameliorate ischemic brain damage through downregulation of the TLR signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Waleed; Safwet, Nancy; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Zakaria, Mohamed N M

    2014-02-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. The final outcome of stroke is determined not only by the volume of the ischemic core, but also by the extent of secondary brain damage inflicted to penumbral tissues by brain swelling, impaired microcirculation, and inflammation. The only drug approved for the treatment ischemic stroke is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of candesartan (0.15 mg/kg, orally) and glycyrrhizin (30 mg/kg, orally) experimentally-induced ischemic brain damage in C57BL/6 mice (middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO) in comparison to the effects of a standard neuroprotective drug (cerebrolysin, 7.5 mg/kg, IP). All drugs were administered 30 min before and 24h after MCAO. Both candesartan and glycyrrhizin ameliorated the deleterious effects of MCAO as indicated by the improvement in the performance of the animals in behaviour tests, reduction in brain infarction, neuronal degeneration, and leukocyte infiltration. In addition, MCAO induced a significant upregulation in the different elements of the TLR pathway including TLR-2 and TLR-4, Myd88, TRIF and IRF-3 and the downstream effectors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-kB. All these changes were significantly ameliorated by treatment with candesartan and glycyrrhizin. The results of the current study represent a new indication for both candesartan and glycyrrhizin in the management of ischemic stroke with effects comparable to those of the standard neuroprotective drug cerebrolysin.

  18. A humanin derivative reduces amyloid beta accumulation and ameliorates memory deficit in triple transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Niikura

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN, a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta, in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APP(swe, tau(P310L, and PS-1(M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD.

  19. Silicon-Mediated Amelioration of Fe2+ Toxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU You-Qiang; SHEN Hong; WU Dao-Ming; CAI Kun-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can enhance the resistance of plants to many abiotic stresses. To explore whether Si ameliorates Fe2+ toxicity,a hydroponic experiment was performed to investigate whether and how Si detoxifies Fe2+ toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots.Results indicated that rice cultivar Tianyou 998 (TY998) showed greater sensitivity to Fe2+ toxicity than rice cultivar Peizataifeng (PZTF).Treatment with 0.1 mmol L-1 Fe2+ inhibited TY998 root elongation and root biomass significantly.Reddish iron plaque was formed on root surface of both cultivars.TY998 had a higher amount of iron plaque than PZTF.Addition of Si to the solution of Fe treatment decreased the amount of iron plaque on root surface by 17.6% to 37.1% and iron uptake in rice roots by 37.0% to 40.3%,and subsequently restored root elongation triggered by Fe2+ toxicity by 13.5% in the TY998.Compared with Fe treatment,the addition of 1 mmol L-1 Si to the solution of Fe treatment increased xylem sap flow by 19.3% to 24.8% and root-shoot Fe transportation by 45.0% to 78.6%.Furthermore,Si addition to the solution of Fe treatment induced root cell wall to thicken.These results suggested that Si could detoxify Fe2+ toxicity and Si-mediated amelioration of Fe2+ toxicity in rice roots was associated with less iron plaque on root surface and more Fe transportation from roots to shoots.

  20. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental

  1. Combination of telmisartan with sildenafil ameliorate progression of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahdy, Nageh Ahmed; El-Sayad, Magda El-Sayed; El-Kadem, Aya Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the world. Several signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of DN including elevation in level of angiotensin II, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), activation of protein kinase c (PKC), and lipid accumulation. These pathways activate one another mutually leading to oxidative stress, increasing expression of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β 1) and release of interleukins and adhesion molecules, so the aim of this study is to interrupt more than pathogenic pathway to ameliorate the progression of DN. In the present study, white male rats (N=48) were divided into six groups (8 rats each), the first two groups served as normal control and a control vehicle group while the remaining four groups were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) and being left for 4 weeks to develop DN. Thereafter, the rats were divided into DN group, DN group receiving Telmisartan or Sildenafil or Telmisartan Sildenafil combination. After the specified treatment period, urine samples were collected (using metabolic cages) to measure proteinuria, animals were then euthanized, blood and tissue samples were collected for measurement of Blood glucose,BUN, S.Cr, LDL, NO, TGF-β1, IL-1β, AGEPs, and SOD. The combination therapy showed significant decrease in BUN, S.Cr,LDL, TGF-β1, IL-1β, Proteinuria and AGEPs and significant increase in SOD and NO. The findings showed that combination therapy was able to ameliorate DN and that the effects were superior to the single drugs alone.

  2. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daycare centres/nurseries have become popular because of the need for working mothers to leave young children with caregivers. However, the high poverty level (54% relative and 35% extreme poverty makes it difficult for disadvantaged parents to pay the high fees charged by the centres. This study describes an attempt to economically empower mothers through the organisation of free early life education in a peri-urban community in Lagos.Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period.Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation.Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  3. Changes in the properties of a crusty solonetz with soda salinization after single and repeated amelioration with phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropaeva, Z. I.; Trotsenko, I. A.; Parfenov, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    Different effects of single and repeated application of various rates of phosphogypsum to a crusty meadow chernozemic high-sodium solonetz with soda salinization formed in the zone of insufficient moistening in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (the Ishim-Irtysh interfluve area) with the mean annual precipitation of 325 mm are revealed. Repeated phosphogypsum application provided a higher saturation of the soil exchange complex with exchangeable calcium, deeper desalinization of the soil profile, and more intensive removal of the exchange products beyond the 1-m-thick layer as compared to a single phosphogypsum application. The soil reclamation results in the soil profile's differentiation into three zones with respect to the salt content: the desalinization, transit, and accumulation zones. The greater the ameliorant rate, the higher the soil desalinization upon a single application of phosphogypsum. Upon the repeated phosphogypsum application, the zones of desalinization and salt transit are thicker irrespectively of the ameliorant rate. Despite the additional salt application, the degree of salinization in the upper 2 m does not increase. Data of the long-term investigations show that a single gypsum application exerts a favorable and long-term ameliorative effect. In the solonetz repeatedly ameliorated with phosphogypsum at the rates of 8 and 16 t/ha, the amount of the reacted phosphogypsum considerably exceeds the applied calculated rate and is almost equal to that upon a single application of phosphogypsum at the double rate (32 t/ha). It has been shown that not only the repeatedly applied phosphogypsum but also the soil calcium participates in the exchange reactions. This makes it possible to apply smaller rates of the ameliorant or calculate its rate for the upper 10-cm-thick layer.

  4. Quantum Fourier transform in computational basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. S.; Loke, T.; Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    The quantum Fourier transform, with exponential speed-up compared to the classical fast Fourier transform, has played an important role in quantum computation as a vital part of many quantum algorithms (most prominently, Shor's factoring algorithm). However, situations arise where it is not sufficient to encode the Fourier coefficients within the quantum amplitudes, for example in the implementation of control operations that depend on Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we detail a new quantum scheme to encode Fourier coefficients in the computational basis, with fidelity 1 - δ and digit accuracy ɛ for each Fourier coefficient. Its time complexity depends polynomially on log (N), where N is the problem size, and linearly on 1/δ and 1/ɛ . We also discuss an application of potential practical importance, namely the simulation of circulant Hamiltonians.

  5. Sensitive cooperation: a basis for assisted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe sensitive cooperation as a basis for assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury (hcSCI). BACKGROUND: People who contract a complete hcSCI will require lifelong assistance from others with all activities of daily living. Initially......, they prefer getting help from people they already know and are reluctant to cooperate with personal assistants. Assisted feeding is a situation where the nature of the cooperation between the two parties involved is crucial. DESIGN: Qualitative. METHOD: Sixteen people with hcSCI were interviewed twice within...... needing assisted feeding, but has the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitive cooperation implies genuine acquaintance and sincere concern for the person...

  6. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  7. Mentoring as the basis for social business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artcer Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept of mentoring as a basis for social business is considered. Besides, the ways of increase of efficiency of labor use through the institute of mentoring of young workers are considered by elderly people. Features of employment, work and dismissal of aging employees are also considered. Possibilities of application of mentoring, attraction of experience of pensioners taking into account the high level of their qualification are reflected. Tasks which the institute of mentoring will help to solve are formulated. The article examines the possibility of using mentoring and engaging retired employees with their experience, a high level of their education and professional qualification in the training of young inexperienced workers. Mentoring is presented as an element of social entrepreneurship.

  8. Basis Function Sampling for Material Property Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-03-01

    Wang-Landau sampling, and the associated class of flat histogram simulation methods, have been particularly successful for free energy calculations in a wide array of physical systems. Practically, the convergence of these calculations to a target free energy surface is hampered by reliance on parameters which are unknown a priori. We derive and implement a method based on orthogonal (basis) functions which is fast, parameter-free, and geometrically robust. An important feature of this method is its ability to achieve arbitrary levels of description for the free energy. It is thus ideally suited to in silico measurement of elastic moduli and other quantities related to free energy perturbations. We demonstrate the utility of such applications by applying our method to calculation of the Frank elastic constants of the Lebwohl-Lasher model.

  9. Framing effects: behavioral dynamics and neural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongming; Wang, X T; Zhu, Liqi

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the neural basis of framing effects using life-death decision problems framed either positively in terms of lives saved or negatively in terms of lives lost in large group and small group contexts. Using functional MRI we found differential brain activations to the verbal and social cues embedded in the choice problems. In large group contexts, framing effects were significant where participants were more risk seeking under the negative (loss) framing than under the positive (gain) framing. This behavioral difference in risk preference was mainly regulated by the activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, including the homologue of the Broca's area. In contrast, framing effects diminished in small group contexts while the insula and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere were distinctively activated, suggesting an important role of emotion in switching choice preference from an indecisive mode to a more consistent risk-taking inclination, governed by a kith-and-kin decision rationality.

  10. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  11. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool.

  12. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  13. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    of translation of FLO11. In conclusion, I have conducted the first global study of the genetic program for yeast biofilm formation on polystyrene. This work provide several target genes as good basis for further research of biofilm, that I believe can contribute to fields such as cell biology, genetics, system......In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic......, but only a small subset is previously described as regulators of FLO11. These results reveal that the regulation of biofilm formation and FLO11 is even more complex than what has previously been described. I find that the molecular program for biofilm formation shares many essential components with two...

  14. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  15. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  16. A brain basis for musical hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Sedley, William; Barnes, Gareth R; Teki, Sundeep; Friston, Karl J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    The physiological basis for musical hallucinations (MH) is not understood. One obstacle to understanding has been the lack of a method to manipulate the intensity of hallucination during the course of experiment. Residual inhibition, transient suppression of a phantom percept after the offset of a masking stimulus, has been used in the study of tinnitus. We report here a human subject whose MH were residually inhibited by short periods of music. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allowed us to examine variation in the underlying oscillatory brain activity in different states. Source-space analysis capable of single-subject inference defined left-lateralised power increases, associated with stronger hallucinations, in the gamma band in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, and in the beta band in motor cortex and posteromedial cortex. The data indicate that these areas form a crucial network in the generation of MH, and are consistent with a model in which MH are generated by persistent reciprocal communication in a predictive coding hierarchy.

  17. A logical basis for constructive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Japaridze, Giorgi

    2010-01-01

    The work is devoted to Computability Logic (CoL) -- the philosophical/mathematical platform and long-term project for redeveloping classical logic after replacing truth} by computability in its underlying semantics (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html). This article elaborates some basic complexity theory for the CoL framework. Then it proves soundness and completeness for the deductive system CL12 with respect to the semantics of CoL, including the version of the latter based on polynomial time computability instead of computability-in-principle. CL12 is a sequent calculus system, where the meaning of a sequent intuitively can be characterized as "the succedent is algorithmically reducible to the antecedent", and where formulas are built from predicate letters, function letters, variables, constants, identity, negation, parallel and choice connectives, and blind and choice quantifiers. A case is made that CL12 is an adequate logical basis for constructive applied theories, including complexity-orien...

  18. Generalization performance of radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunwen; Ding, Lixin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies the generalization performance of radial basis function (RBF) networks using local Rademacher complexities. We propose a general result on controlling local Rademacher complexities with the L1 -metric capacity. We then apply this result to estimate the RBF networks' complexities, based on which a novel estimation error bound is obtained. An effective approximation error bound is also derived by carefully investigating the Hölder continuity of the lp loss function's derivative. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the RBF network minimizing an appropriately constructed structural risk admits a significantly better learning rate when compared with the existing results. An empirical study is also performed to justify the application of our structural risk in model selection.

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory Fission Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keksis, A.L.; Chadwick, M.B.; Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Wallstrom, T.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report is an overview of two main publications that provide a comprehensive review of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Fission Basis. The first is the experimental paper, {sup F}ission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, [Selby, H. D., et al., Nucl. Data Sheets, Vol. 111 2010, pp. 2891-2922] and the second is the theoretical paper, Fission Product Yields from Fission Spectrum n+ {sup 239}Pu for ENDF/B-VII.1, [Chadwick, M. B., et al., Nucl. Data Sheets, Vol. 111, 2010, pp. 2923-2964]. One important note is that none of this work would have been possible without the great documentation of the experimental details and results by G.W. Knobeloch, G. Butler, C.I. Browne, B. Erdal, B. Bayhurst, R. Prestwood, V. Armijo, J. Hasty and many others. (authors)

  20. Molecular basis of chloroplast photorelocation movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Chloroplast photorelocation movement is an essential physiological response for sessile plant survival and the optimization of photosynthetic ability. Simple but effective experiments on the physiological, cell biological and molecular genetic aspects have been widely used to investigate the signaling components of chloroplast photorelocation movement in Arabidopsis for the past few decades. Although recent knowledge on chloroplast photorelocation movement has led us to a deeper understanding of its physiological and molecular basis, the biochemical roles of the downstream factors remain largely unknown. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances regarding chloroplast photorelocation movement and propose that a new high-resolution approach is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying actin-based chloroplast photorelocation movement.

  1. The scientific basis for patient blood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M F; Goodnough, L T

    2015-08-01

    Patient blood management is an increasingly used term to describe an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to optimising the care of patients who might need transfusion. It encompasses measures to avoid transfusion such as anaemia management without transfusion, cell salvage and the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce bleeding as well as restrictive transfusion. It ensures that patients receive the optimal treatment, and that avoidable, inappropriate use of blood and blood components is reduced. This paper provides an overview of the scientific basis for patient blood management with a focus on the increasing evidence for restrictive rather than liberal transfusion practice and the use of electronic blood ordering and decision support to facilitate its implementation.

  2. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  3. The basis of the Fermi liquid theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apostol, M

    2001-01-01

    Interaction may affect drastically the many-particle ensembles; for instance an attraction, even weak, between electrons, binds them up in pairs, leading to superconductivity; interacting fermions in one dimension get bosonized; anisotropic fermions with 'nested' Fermi surfaces become non-homogeneous, when interacting, and develop charge- or spin- density waves. All these are different phases, and appear as symmetry breakings, spontaneous or induced; they are also termed as instabilities of the many-body systems, under interaction. Hints toward their nature are often obtained through studying the interacting two-particle problem, scattering included. In this paper the basis of the Fermi liquid theory is shown, and electronic liquid is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. The neural basis of human tool use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we propose that the neural basis for the spontaneous, diversified human tool use is an area devoted to the execution and observation of tool actions, located in the left anterior supramarginal gyrus (aSMG. The aSMG activation elicited by observing tool use is typical of human subjects, as macaques show no similar activation, even after an extensive training to use tools. The execution of tool actions, as well as their observation, requires the convergence upon aSMG of inputs from different parts of the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Non semantic features of the target object may be provided by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC for tool-object interaction, paralleling the well-known PPC input to AIP for hand-object interaction. Semantic information regarding tool identity, and knowledge of the typical manner of handling the tool, could be provided by inferior and middle regions of the temporal lobe. Somatosensory feedback and technical reasoning, as well as motor and intentional constraints also play roles during the planning of tool actions and consequently their signals likewise converge upon aSMG.We further propose that aSMG may have arisen though duplication of monkey AIP and invasion of the duplicate area by afferents from PPC providing distinct signals depending on the kinematics of the manipulative action. This duplication may have occurred when Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus emerged, generating the Oldowan or Acheulean Industrial complexes respectively. Hence tool use may have emerged during hominid evolution between bipedalism and language.We conclude that humans have two parietal systems involved in tool behavior: a biological circuit for grasping objects, including tools, and an artifactual system devoted specifically to tool use. Only the latter allows humans to understand the causal relationship between tool use and obtaining the goal, and is likely to be the basis of all technological developments.

  5. PREFACE: Progress in the ITER Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.

    2007-06-01

    I would firstly like to congratulate all who have contributed to the preparation of the `Progress in the ITER Physics Basis' (PIPB) on its publication and express my deep appreciation of the hard work and commitment of the many scientists involved. With the signing of the ITER Joint Implementing Agreement in November 2006, the ITER Members have now established the framework for construction of the project, and the ITER Organization has begun work at Cadarache. The review of recent progress in the physics basis for burning plasma experiments encompassed by the PIPB will be a valuable resource for the project and, in particular, for the current Design Review. The ITER design has been derived from a physics basis developed through experimental, modelling and theoretical work on the properties of tokamak plasmas and, in particular, on studies of burning plasma physics. The `ITER Physics Basis' (IPB), published in 1999, has been the reference for the projection methodologies for the design of ITER, but the IPB also highlighted several key issues which needed to be resolved to provide a robust basis for ITER operation. In the intervening period scientists of the ITER Participant Teams have addressed these issues intensively. The International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) has provided an excellent forum for scientists involved in these studies, focusing their work on the high priority physics issues for ITER. Significant progress has been made in many of the issues identified in the IPB and this progress is discussed in depth in the PIPB. In this respect, the publication of the PIPB symbolizes the strong interest and enthusiasm of the plasma physics community for the success of the ITER project, which we all recognize as one of the great scientific challenges of the 21st century. I wish to emphasize my appreciation of the work of the ITPA Coordinating Committee members, who are listed below. Their support and encouragement for the preparation of the PIPB were

  6. On the theoretical basis for plea bargaining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Before discussing the introduction of the plea bargaining system to China's criminal justice system,it is necessary to study its theoretical basis.Among which,the following aspects should be focused on: the philosophical viewpoint of pragmatism is its thinking basis;the concept of contract is its cultural basis;the structure form of adversary procedure is its systematic basis;and the system of fight to silence and discovery of evidence are its symbiotic basis.

  7. The Role of the Basis Set: Assessing Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Boese, A D; Handy, N C; Martin, Jan M. L.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    2003-01-01

    When developing and assessing density functional theory methods, a finite basis set is usually employed. In most cases, however, the issue of basis set dependency is neglected. Here, we assess several basis sets and functionals. In addition, the dependency of the semiempirical fits to a given basis set for a generalised gradient approximation and a hybrid functional is investigated. The resulting functionals are then tested for other basis sets, evaluating their errors and transferability.

  8. Reduced Order Model Basis Vector Generation: Generates Basis Vectors fro ROMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-03

    libROM is a library that implements order reduction via singular value decomposition (SVD) of sampled state vectors. It implements 2 parallel, incremental SVD algorithms and one serial, non-incremental algorithm. It also provides a mechanism for adaptive sampling of basis vectors.

  9. Chemical basis of metabolic network organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the metabolic networks of the three domains of life consist of different constituents and metabolic pathways, they exhibit the same scale-free organization. This phenomenon has been hypothetically explained by preferential attachment principle that the new-recruited metabolites attach preferentially to those that are already well connected. However, since metabolites are usually small molecules and metabolic processes are basically chemical reactions, we speculate that the metabolic network organization may have a chemical basis. In this paper, chemoinformatic analyses on metabolic networks of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. It was found that there exist qualitative and quantitative correlations between network topology and chemical properties of metabolites. The metabolites with larger degrees of connectivity (hubs are of relatively stronger polarity. This suggests that metabolic networks are chemically organized to a certain extent, which was further elucidated in terms of high concentrations required by metabolic hubs to drive a variety of reactions. This finding not only provides a chemical explanation to the preferential attachment principle for metabolic network expansion, but also has important implications for metabolic network design and metabolite concentration prediction.

  10. Structural basis for spectrin recognition by ankyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsaro, Jonathan J.; Mondragón, Alfonso (NWU)

    2010-10-19

    Maintenance of membrane integrity and organization in the metazoan cell is accomplished through intracellular tethering of membrane proteins to an extensive, flexible protein network. Spectrin, the principal component of this network, is anchored to membrane proteins through the adaptor protein ankyrin. To elucidate the atomic basis for this interaction, we determined a crystal structure of human {beta}I-spectrin repeats 13 to 15 in complex with the ZU5-ANK domain of human ankyrin R. The structure reveals the role of repeats 14 to 15 in binding, the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions along the interface, and the necessity for a particular orientation of the spectrin repeats. Using structural and biochemical data as a guide, we characterized the individual proteins and their interactions by binding and thermal stability analyses. In addition to validating the structural model, these data provide insight into the nature of some mutations associated with cell morphology defects, including those found in human diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. Finally, analysis of the ZU5 domain suggests it is a versatile protein-protein interaction module with distinct interaction surfaces. The structure represents not only the first of a spectrin fragment in complex with its binding partner, but also that of an intermolecular complex involving a ZU5 domain.

  11. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex.

  12. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  13. Molecular Basis of Laminin-Integrin Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Laminins are composed of three polypeptide chains, designated as α, β, and γ. The C-terminal region of laminin heterotrimers, containing coiled-coil regions, short tails, and laminin globular (LG) domains, is necessary and sufficient for binding to integrins, which are the major laminin receptor class. Laminin recognition by integrins critically requires the α chain LG domains and a glutamic acid residue of the γ chain at the third position from the C-terminus. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of the β chain contains a short amino acid sequence that modulates laminin affinity for integrins. Thus, all three of the laminin chains act cooperatively to facilitate integrin binding. Mammals possess 5 α (α1-5), 3 β (β1-3), and 3 γ (γ1-3) chains, combinations of which give rise to 16 distinct laminin isoforms. Each isoform is expressed in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, exerting its functions through binding of integrins. In this review, we detail the current knowledge surrounding the molecular basis and physiological relevance of specific interactions between laminins and integrins, and describe the mechanisms underlying laminin action through integrins.

  14. The Perceptual Basis of Vast Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Thompson, William B; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Gill, Devin; McGee, D Kevin

    2017-03-20

    "Vast" is a word often applied to environmental terrain that is perceived to have large spatial extent. This judgment is made even at viewing distances where traditional metric depth cues are not useful. This paper explores the perceptual basis of vast experience, including reliability and visual precursors. Experiment 1 demonstrated strong agreement in ratings of the spatial extent of two-dimensional (2D) scene images by participants in two countries under very different viewing conditions. Image categories labeled "vast" often exemplified scene attributes of ruggedness and openness (Oliva & Torralba, 2001). Experiment 2 quantitatively assessed whether these properties predict vastness. High vastness ratings were associated with highly open, or moderately open but rugged, scenes. Experiment 3 provided evidence, consistent with theory, that metric distance perception does not directly mediate the observed vastness ratings. The question remains as to how people perceive vast space when information about environmental scale is unavailable from metric depth cues or associated scene properties. We consider possible answers, including contribution from strong cues to relative depth.

  15. Pragmatic and motivation basis of flora nominations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabko Olga Pavlovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By now the theory of language nomination has overcome two periods in its academic research: the first-classical one and the second-post-classical period. The first period is characterized, first of all, by onomaseological works of Russian linguists and may truelly be considered as the forthcoming of cognitivism in our country. The second period has been influenced by stimulative ideas of cognitive linguistics. This period is defined as the development of cognitive theory of nomination. The theory of terminology nomination has consequently acquired cognitive trends. The object of our thorough study is the terminology in flora namings. We have gained econormus factual material and classified it into flora macrofield. The macrofield of flora namings embraces three microfields (parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal, which determine motivation in flora theory of nomination. In the article we have focused on motivated-nominative pragmatic qualities of flora namings, presented in three classified groups: functional- pragmatic, denotative-objective and alethic ones. Each group has in its turn several subgroups of qualities in flora namings, which are studied through defenition from authorized lexicographical dictionaries. Pragmatic nomination is realized by inductive-logical mechanism. Classificated system of qualities in flora namings has determined an integrated pragmatically-motivated basis of flora nomination.

  16. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  17. The genetic basis of myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoda, Radek

    2007-01-01

    For many decades, myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) were largely neglected orphan diseases. The conceptual work of William Dameshek in 1951 provided the basis for understanding MPD as a continuum of related syndromes, possibly with a common pathogenetic cause. Recognition of the clonal origin of peripheral blood cells in MPD in 1976 and the ability to grow erythroid colonies in vitro in the absence of added growth factors in 1974 initiated the search for genetic alterations that might be responsible for myeloproliferation. Mutations in the genes for the erythropoietin receptor, thrombopoietin and the von Hippel-Lindau protein were found to cause familial syndromes resembling MPD, but despite their phenotypic similarities, none of these mutations were later found in patients with the sporadic form of MPD. The discovery of activating mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in most patients with MPD has fully transformed and energized the MPD field. Sensitive assays for detecting the JAK2-V617F mutation have become an essential part of the diagnostic work-up, and JAK2 now constitutes a prime target for developing specific inhibitors for the treatment of patients with MPD. Despite this progress, many questions remain unsolved, including how a single JAK2 mutation causes three different MPD phenotypes, what other genes might be involved in the pathogenesis, and what are the factors determining the progression to acute leukemia.

  18. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.

    1990-03-01

    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  19. Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, Daniel P; Renault, Ludovic; Serrao, Erik; Lesbats, Paul; Matadeen, Rishi; Hare, Stephen; Lindemann, Dirk; Engelman, Alan N; Costa, Alessandro; Cherepanov, Peter

    2015-07-16

    Retroviral integration is catalysed by a tetramer of integrase (IN) assembled on viral DNA ends in a stable complex, known as the intasome. How the intasome interfaces with chromosomal DNA, which exists in the form of nucleosomal arrays, is currently unknown. Here we show that the prototype foamy virus (PFV) intasome is proficient at stable capture of nucleosomes as targets for integration. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reveals a multivalent intasome-nucleosome interface involving both gyres of nucleosomal DNA and one H2A-H2B heterodimer. While the histone octamer remains intact, the DNA is lifted from the surface of the H2A-H2B heterodimer to allow integration at strongly preferred superhelix location ±3.5 positions. Amino acid substitutions disrupting these contacts impinge on the ability of the intasome to engage nucleosomes in vitro and redistribute viral integration sites on the genomic scale. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis for nucleosome capture by the viral DNA recombination machinery and the underlying nucleosome plasticity that allows integration.

  20. Neuronal basis of amblyopia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigg John

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is an acquired defect in vision due to an abnormal visual experience during a sensitive period of visual development. The neuronal basis of amblyopia is the study of the effects of "abnormal" environmental influences on the genetically programmed development of the visual processing system. Visual pathway development commences with ganglion cells forming the optic nerve. The process that guides these neurones initially to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and then onto the visual cortex is genetically programmed. Initially this process is influenced by spontaneously generated impulses and neurotrophic factors. Following birth, visual stimuli modify and refine the genetically programmed process. Exposure to the visual environment includes the risk of abnormal inputs. Abnormal stimuli disrupt the formation of patterned inputs allowing alteration of visual cortical wiring with reduction in ocular dominance columns driven by the abnormal eye. Correction of the abnormal visual input and penalisation of the "normal" input is the mainstay of therapy for amblyopia. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of a normal visual processing system will allow trialing therapies for amblyopia not responding to occlusion therapy. Levodopa is one agent providing insights into recovery of visual function for short periods in apparently mature visual systems.

  1. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eBenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI while playing a game that involved monitoring progress towards either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress towards a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring.

  2. Theoretical Basis Of The Company Competitiveness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic theoretical questions of the company competitiveness assessment. The state of modern economic thought on this issue is shown. The main factors of the company competitiveness are specified. A specific role of staff of an enterprise is revealed: on the one hand, it is a resource, on the other is a subject, resulting in productive movement all factors of competitiveness, i.e. the staff is a critical factor in the company competitiveness. The criterion of company competitiveness is proposed, on its basis, the concept of “competitive enterprise” is defined. The most well-known approaches for assessing the company competitiveness are analyzed. The author’s method of the company competitiveness assessment based on the dynamics of the integral index of competitiveness is provided. For those cases, when it is impossible to determine the proportion of products on the market, it is proposed to evaluate the company competitiveness on the profitability of its production. The article shows the experience in calculating of the company competitiveness on the proposed author’s methods.

  3. The neural basis of following advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning by following explicit advice is fundamental for human cultural evolution, yet the neurobiology of adaptive social learning is largely unknown. Here, we used simulations to analyze the adaptive value of social learning mechanisms, computational modeling of behavioral data to describe cognitive mechanisms involved in social learning, and model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the neurobiological basis of following advice. One-time advice received before learning had a sustained influence on people's learning processes. This was best explained by social learning mechanisms implementing a more positive evaluation of the outcomes from recommended options. Computer simulations showed that this "outcome-bonus" accumulates more rewards than an alternative mechanism implementing higher initial reward expectation for recommended options. fMRI results revealed a neural outcome-bonus signal in the septal area and the left caudate. This neural signal coded rewards in the absence of advice, and crucially, it signaled greater positive rewards for positive and negative feedback after recommended rather than after non-recommended choices. Hence, our results indicate that following advice is intrinsically rewarding. A positive correlation between the model's outcome-bonus parameter and amygdala activity after positive feedback directly relates the computational model to brain activity. These results advance the understanding of social learning by providing a neurobiological account for adaptive learning from advice.

  4. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  5. The neural basis of altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Fischbacher, Urs; Treyer, Valerie; Schellhammer, Melanie; Schnyder, Ulrich; Buck, Alfred; Fehr, Ernst

    2004-08-27

    Many people voluntarily incur costs to punish violations of social norms. Evolutionary models and empirical evidence indicate that such altruistic punishment has been a decisive force in the evolution of human cooperation. We used H2 15O positron emission tomography to examine the neural basis for altruistic punishment of defectors in an economic exchange. Subjects could punish defection either symbolically or effectively. Symbolic punishment did not reduce the defector's economic payoff, whereas effective punishment did reduce the payoff. We scanned the subjects' brains while they learned about the defector's abuse of trust and determined the punishment. Effective punishment, as compared with symbolic punishment, activated the dorsal striatum, which has been implicated in the processing of rewards that accrue as a result of goal-directed actions. Moreover, subjects with stronger activations in the dorsal striatum were willing to incur greater costs in order to punish. Our findings support the hypothesis that people derive satisfaction from punishing norm violations and that the activation in the dorsal striatum reflects the anticipated satisfaction from punishing defectors.

  6. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunwar; Shailubhai; Vaseem; Palejwala; Krishna; Priya; Arjunan; Sayali; Saykhedkar; Bradley; Nefsky; John; A; Foss; Stephen; Comiskey; Gary; S; Jacob; Scott; E; Plevy

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administeredplecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models.METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cG MP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cellbased assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid(5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic(TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout(TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity.RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C(GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cG MP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs(0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity(P < 0.05) and disease activity index(P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is the first

  7. The sustainable development; Le developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Aspects Technologiques et Developpementaspects Technologiques et Developpement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebedio Jean-Louis

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available L’acide linoléique conjugué (CLA est présent dans les aliments d’origine animale, en particulier ceux issus des ruminants. Le CLA peut aussi être synthétisé au laboratoire par isomérisation alcaline de l’acide linoléique. Alors que l’isomère naturel est le 18 : 2 9c,11t, les produits de synthèse contiennent principalement deux isomères, les 18 : 2 9c,11t et 10t,12c. De nombreuses études menées sur des modèles animaux, le plus souvent avec des mélanges synthétiques, montrent des effets potentiellement bénéfiques pour la santé (anticarcinogènes, protecteurs vis-à-vis de l’athérosclérose, modulateurs de la composition corporelle… alors que la plupart des études menées chez l’homme concernent les effets des CLA sur la composition corporelle. À ce jour, les données concernant les effets sur la composition corporelle chez l’homme semblent indiquer un bénéfice potentiel, mais les résultats restent controversés. Par ailleurs, bien qu’un effet anticarcinogène soit démontré chez l’animal, aucune étude chez l’homme n’a pu établir de relation entre CLA et cancer du sein. De plus, peu d’études traitant des aspects sécuritaires liés à la consommation à long terme ont été publiées. Par conséquent, il est nécessaire de disposer de plus de données en particulier chez l’Homme pour garantir l’innocuité de ces acides gras afin de protéger le consommateur, avant d’envisager l’utilisation de CLA dans des aliments fonctionnels.

  9. Evolutionary Software Development (Developpement evolutionnaire de logiciels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Développement évolutionnaire de logiciels (RTO-TR-IST-026) Synthèse Ceci est le rapport final du groupe de travail IST-026/RTG-008. Pendant...the arrival of a long-standing and passionate voice for evolutionary and iterative development. Gilb is one of the earliest and most active IID

  10. The sustainable development; Le developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robreau, Y.; Porcher, P

    2002-11-01

    This document aims to define the sustainable development concept with a special attention for France and Israel position. The first part recalls the history of the sustainable development from the ''Man and Biosphere'' program of the UNESCO to Rio protocol. Then are described the principles of the sustainable development, the France plans and the France position at Johannesburg conference. The last part is devoted to the Israel position and a short presentation of the consequences of the greenhouse gases on the human health and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation mildly ameliorates experimental diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; TIAN Hao-ming; LONG Yang; ZHANG Xiang-xun; ZHONG Li; DENG Li; CHEN Xiao-he; LI Xiu-qun

    2009-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus.This study aimed to explore whether mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)transplantation could attenuate diabetic nephropathy in experimental diabetic rats.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ)(60 mg/kg).Diabetic rats were randomized to four groups:diabetes control group(DC),ciclosporin A group(CsA),MSC group,and MSC+CsA group(MSCA).Bone marrow mesenchymal stern cells were cultured,identified and labeled by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(BrdU)in vitro.Then they were transplanted to diabetic rats via introcardiac infusion.Ciclosporin A was administered daily at 5 mg/kg.At 1,2,4,8 weeks after transplantation,random blood glucose,urine albumin/creatinine ratio(Alb/Cr),endogenous creatinine clearance rate and renal mass index were tested.Renal morphology and labeled cells were examined.Results Cultured MSCs expressed mesenchymal cell phenotype,and could be multidifferentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells.Labeled MSCs could be detected in the kidney of nephropathic rats,mainly in renal interstitium,but they did not propagate after engrafting in kidney.Over the course of the experiment,MSCA group showed a significant decrease in blood glucose compared with MSC group,CsA group and DC group(P<0.05,respectively).The Alb/Cr in MSCA group and MSC group were significantly lower than CsA group and DC group(P<0.05).And the Alb/Cr in MSCA group showed a significant decrease compared with MSC group(0.74 vs 0.84,P<0.05).There was a significant difference in renal mass index between the MSCA group and DC group(5.66 vs 6.37,P<0.05).No significant difference was found in creatinine clearance rate among 4 groups(P>0.05).Treatment with MSC+CsA significantly ameliorated the morphology of diabetic kidney.Conclusion MSC could mildly ameliorate diabetic nephropathy by decreasing blood glucose,Alb/Cr ratio and renal mass index.

  12. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Curcuma oil (C. oil isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Methods: Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg or C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Results: Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Interpretation

  13. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  14. [Environmental Effect of Substrate Amelioration on Lake: Effects on Phragmites communis Growth and Photosynthetic Fluorescence Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-hua; Zhong, Ji-cheng; Fan, Cheng-xin; Huang, Wei; Shang, Jing-ge; Gu, Xiao-zhi

    2015-12-01

    Growth of rooted aquatic macrophytes was affected by the nature and composition of lake bottom sediments. Obviously, it has been recognized as an important ecological restoration measure by improving lake substrate and then reestablishing and restoring aquatic macrophytes in order to get rid of the environmental problem of lake. This study simulated five covering thickness to give an insight into the influence of substrate amelioration on Phragmites communis growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics. The results showed that the total biomass, plant height, leaf length and leaf width of Phragmites communis under capping 5 cm were much more significant than those of capping 18 cm (P Phragmites communis , but the growth of control group Phragmites communis was slightly constrained by eutrophicated sediment. In addition, as the capping thickness growing, the underground: shoot biomass ratio of the plant would be reduced dramatically, in order to acquire much more nutrients from sediment for plant growing, the underground biomass of Phragmites communis would be preferentially developed, especially, the biomass of fine root. However, Photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), quantum yield (Yield), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Phragmites communis under different treatments had no significant differences (P > 0.05), furthermore, with much greater capping thickness, the photosynthesis structure of PS II would be much easier destroyed, and PS II would be protected by increasing heat dissipating and reducing leaf photosynthetic area and leaf light-captured pigment contents. In terms of the influence of sediment amelioration by soil exchange on the growth and photosynthetic fluorescence characteristics of Phragmites communis, plant growth could be effectively promoted under capping 2 cm and capping 5 cm by increasing the Eh value and nutrient content, whereas plant under capping 18 cm would be much easier

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II

  16. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  17. Melatonin ameliorates experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Tao Hong; Jian-Ming Xu; Qiao Mei

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protective effects of melatonin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in experimental rats. METHODS:All rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group treated with CCl4 for 12 wk, CCl4 + NAC group treated with CCl4 + NAC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-1 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (2.5 mg/kg) for 12 wk, CCl4 + MEL-2 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (5.0 mg/kg) for 12 wk, and CCl4 + MEL-3 group treated with CCl4 + melatonin (10 mg/kg). Rats in the treatment groups were injected subcutaneously with sterile CCl4 (3 mL/kg, body weight) in a ratio of 2:3 with olive oil twice a week. Rats in normal control group received hypodermic injection of olive oil at the same dose and frequency as those in treatment groups. At the end of experiment, rats in each group were anesthetized and sacrificed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Van Gieson staining were used to examine changes in liver pathology. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and protein concentration were measured with routine laboratory methods using an autoanalyzer. Hydroxyproline (HYP) content in liver and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in liver homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometry. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), and procollagen Ⅲ N-terminal peptide (PⅢNP) were determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:Pathologic grading showed that the fibrogenesis was much less severe in CCl4 + MEL3 group than in model control group ( u = 2.172, P < 0.05), indicating that melatonin (10 mg/kg) can significantly ameliorate CCl4-induced hepatic fibrotic changes. The serum levels of ALT and AST were markedly lower in CCl4 + MEL treatment groups (5, 10 mg/kg) than in model control group (ALT:286.23 serum laminin (LN) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and hydroxyproline (HYP) contents in liver were significantly lower in CCl4 + MEL-3 group (10

  18. PARFUME Theory and Model basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrell L. Knudson; Gregory K Miller; G.K. Miller; D.A. Petti; J.T. Maki; D.L. Knudson

    2009-09-01

    The success of gas reactors depends upon the safety and quality of the coated particle fuel. The fuel performance modeling code PARFUME simulates the mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation. This report documents the theory and material properties behind vari¬ous capabilities of the code, which include: 1) various options for calculating CO production and fission product gas release, 2) an analytical solution for stresses in the coating layers that accounts for irradiation-induced creep and swelling of the pyrocarbon layers, 3) a thermal model that calculates a time-dependent temperature profile through a pebble bed sphere or a prismatic block core, as well as through the layers of each analyzed particle, 4) simulation of multi-dimensional particle behavior associated with cracking in the IPyC layer, partial debonding of the IPyC from the SiC, particle asphericity, and kernel migration (or amoeba effect), 5) two independent methods for determining particle failure probabilities, 6) a model for calculating release-to-birth (R/B) ratios of gaseous fission products that accounts for particle failures and uranium contamination in the fuel matrix, and 7) the evaluation of an accident condition, where a particle experiences a sudden change in temperature following a period of normal irradiation. The accident condi¬tion entails diffusion of fission products through the particle coating layers and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. This document represents the initial version of the PARFUME Theory and Model Basis Report. More detailed descriptions will be provided in future revisions.

  19. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

    2014-04-18

    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.

  20. The genetic basis of music ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ting eTan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realisation of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioural and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  1. Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1998-04-29

    This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate inflammatory factor-induced dysfunction of INS-1 cells on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Yao, Zhina; Lin, Peng; Hou, Xinguo; Chen, Li

    2014-05-01

    Using a microfluidic chip, we have investigated whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could ameliorate IL-1β/IFN-γ-induced dysfunction of INS-1 cells. BM-MSCs were obtained from diabetes mellitus patients and their cell surface antigen expression profiles were analyzed by flow cytometric. INS-1 cells were cocultured with BM-MSCs on a microfluidic chip with persistent perfusion of medium containing 1 ng/mL IL-1β and 2.5 U/mL IFN-γ for 72 h. BM-MSCs could partially rescue INS-1 cells from cytokine-induced dysfunction and ameliorate the expression of insulin and PDX-1 gene in INS-1 cells. Thus BM-MSCs can be viewed as a promising stem cell source to depress inflammatory factor-induced dysfunction of pancreatic β cells in diabetic patients.

  3. A study of the ameliorating effects of carnitine on hepatic steatosis induced by total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Jian; Yin, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Shi-Min; Zheng, Jin-Fang; Lu, Ming-De; Huang, Jie-Fu

    1999-08-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of carnitine on ameliorating hepatic steatosis induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in animal model.METHODS: Eighteen normal Wistar rats and 19 cirrhotic Wistar rats induced by carbon tetrachloride were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., free access to food and drink (group A), TPN (group B) and TPN+carnitine (group C) for one week, respectively. Hepatic function, histology and its fat content were determined on the 7th day.RESULTS: Hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) contents were significantly higher in groups B and C than in group A,and significantly lower in group C than in group B in both normal and cirrhotic rats (all P Carnitine can ameliorate hepatic steatosis associated with TPN in both non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic rats.

  4. 阿霉素改善三叉神经痛的疗效分析%Effect analysis of adriamycin on amelioration of trifacial neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊懋昌; 史有亮

    2002-01-01

    @@ Backgroud:Trifacial neuralgia is a refractory disease.Radio-frequency,operation or blocking with anhydrous alcohol in Western medicine get no satisfying effect. Objective:To investigate the effect of adriamycin on amelioration of trifacial neuralgia.

  5. Enhanced proliferation of acinar and progenitor cells by prophylactic pilocarpine treatment underlies the observed amelioration of radiation injury to parotid glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burlage, Fred R.; Faber, Hette; Kampinga, Harm H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Administration of pilocarpine before irradiation can ameliorate radiation-induced hyposalivation. Indirect evidence Suggests that this effect may be mediated through induction of a compensatory response. In this study, this hypothesis is tested directly, by assessing the proliferation of

  6. Ameliorative properties of Iranian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds and Punica granatum L. peel extracts in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Abdel Salam Ahmed Hasona

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The Iranian T. foenum-graecum seeds and P. granatum peel extracts are significantly potent in ameliorating diabetic condition induced by streptozotocin and improving various biochemical parameters in serum and liver of guinea pigs.

  7. Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali H; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated the ability of melatonin in reducing metabolic risk factors and cardiac apoptosis induced by diabetes. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into male rats, and after diabetic induction melatonin (10mg/kg i.g.) was administered orally for 21 days. Diabetic hearts showed increased number of apoptotic cells with downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of p53 and CD95 as well as the caspases 9, 8 and 3. In addition, there was a significant decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated HOMA-IR, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein. These changes were coupled with a significant increase in the activities of creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of the diabetic rats indicating myocardium injury. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 weeks after diabetes induction ameliorated the levels of hyperglycemia, insulin, HbA1c, lipids profile and HOMA-IR. The oral melatonin treatment of diabetic rats significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the heart compared to diabetic rats. It enhanced Bcl-2 expression and blocked the activation of CD95 as well as caspases 9, 8 and 3. These changes were accompanied with significant improvement of CK-MB and LDH in the serum indicating the ameliorative effect of melatonin on myocardium injury. Melatonin effectively ameliorated diabetic myocardium injury, apoptosis, reduced the metabolic risk factors and modulated important steps in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Thus, melatonin may be a promising pharmacological agent for ameliorating potential cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.

  8. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-san Miao; Lin Guo; Rui-qi Li; Xiao-lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the po...

  9. Modelling of {sup 137}Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system following the application of ameliorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, S.; Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    A set of countermeasures aimed at reducing {sup 137}Cs uptake by plant products includes agrochemical measures based on changes in the soil properties after the application of ameliorants. The dynamic models for studying the effect of the application of potassium fertilizers and dolomite powder on {sup 137}Cs accumulation in plants are presented. Conceptual approaches to the development of models are based on the identification of mechanisms governing a complex of physico-chemical processes in soil after the use of ameliorants. The following assumptions were used in the development of models: - dynamics of {sup 137}Cs distribution in each soil layer depends on the sorption processes characterized by different time to achieve quasi-equilibrium (exchangeable uptake and fixation by clay minerals) as well as on vertical migration process; - change in {sup 137}Cs content in soil solution results from the radionuclide sorption on selective and nonselective exchange sites; - uptake of extra amounts of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} in soil solution produces effect on processes of {sup 137}Cs exchangeable sorption and initiate specific processes responsible for {sup 137}Cs fixation in the crystal lattice of clay minerals; - Ca{sup 2+} and K{sup +} cations have a competing effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants from soil solution, which along with the fixation processes, causes lower accumulation of this radionuclide by plants during the application of ameliorants. The developed models were parameterized for soils of the coniferous forest located in the Bryansk region in area suffered from the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Effects of ameliorants and time of their application on {sup 137}Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system are assessed. The contribution of soil chemical and biological processes to the decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants is estimated. (author)

  10. Heat shock protein 90 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating skeletal muscle abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nour Erekat; Ahed Al-Khatib; Muhammed Al-Jarrah

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have conifrmed that heat shock protein 90 overexpression can lead to dopami-nergic neuronal death. This study was designed to further investigate what effects are produced by heat shock protein 90 after endurance exercise training. Immunohistochemistry results showed that exercise training signiifcantly inhibited heat shock protein 90 overexpression in the soleus and gastrocnemius in Parkinson’s disease rats, which is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating skeletal muscle abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease.

  11. Geniposide ameliorates TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats via reducing inflammatory cytokine release and restoring impaired intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Li, Yan-Li; Xu, Ming; Yu, Chang-Chun; Lian, Meng-Qiao; Tang, Ze-Yao; Li, Chuan-Xun; Lin, Yuan

    2017-03-06

    Geniposide is an iridoid glycosides purified from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is known to have antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide on experimental rat colitis and to reveal the related mechanisms. Experimental rat colitis was induced by rectal administration of a TNBS solution. The rats were treated with geniposide (25, 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) or with sulfasalazine (SASP, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) as positive control for 14 consecutive days. A Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was used as an epithelial barrier dysfunction model. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured to evaluate intestinal barrier function. In rats with TNBS-induced colitis, administration of geniposide or SASP significantly increased the TNBS-decreased body weight and ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental colitis and related symptoms. Geniposide or SASP suppressed inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) release and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) in the colon. In Caco-2 cells, geniposide (25-100 μmol/L) ameliorated LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction via dose-dependently increasing transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The results from both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that geniposide down-regulated NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and MLCK protein expression, up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1), and facilitated AMPK phosphorylation. Both AMPK siRNA transfection and AMPK overexpression abrogated the geniposide-reduced MLCK protein expression, suggesting that geniposide ameliorated barrier dysfunction via AMPK-mediated inhibition of the MLCK pathway. In conclusion, geniposide ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental rat colitis by both reducing inflammation and modulating the disrupted epithelial barrier function via activating the AMPK signaling pathway..

  12. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.

    La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de

  13. The neural circuit basis of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kaifosh William John

    The astounding capacity for learning ranks among the nervous system's most impressive features. This thesis comprises studies employing varied approaches to improve understanding, at the level of neural circuits, of the brain's capacity for learning. The first part of the thesis contains investigations of hippocampal circuitry -- both theoretical work and experimental work in the mouse Mus musculus -- as a model system for declarative memory. To begin, Chapter 2 presents a theory of hippocampal memory storage and retrieval that reflects nonlinear dendritic processing within hippocampal pyramidal neurons. As a prelude to the experimental work that comprises the remainder of this part, Chapter 3 describes an open source software platform that we have developed for analysis of data acquired with in vivo Ca2+ imaging, the main experimental technique used throughout the remainder of this part of the thesis. As a first application of this technique, Chapter 4 characterizes the content of signaling at synapses between GABAergic neurons of the medial septum and interneurons in stratum oriens of hippocampal area CA1. Chapter 5 then combines these techniques with optogenetic, pharmacogenetic, and pharmacological manipulations to uncover inhibitory circuit mechanisms underlying fear learning. The second part of this thesis focuses on the cerebellum-like electrosensory lobe in the weakly electric mormyrid fish Gnathonemus petersii, as a model system for non-declarative memory. In Chapter 6, we study how short-duration EOD motor commands are recoded into a complex temporal basis in the granule cell layer, which can be used to cancel Purkinje-like cell firing to the longer duration and temporally varying EOD-driven sensory responses. In Chapter 7, we consider not only the temporal aspects of the granule cell code, but also the encoding of body position provided from proprioceptive and efference copy sources. Together these studies clarify how the cerebellum-like circuitry of the

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation....

  15. 42 CFR 403.800 - Basis and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and scope. 403.800 Section 403.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Program § 403.800 Basis and scope. (a) Basis. This subpart is based on section 1860D-31 of the...

  16. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by...

  17. Corosolic acid ameliorates acute inflammation through inhibition of IRAK-1 phosphorylation in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Cha, Ji-Young; Kang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Im, Seung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Corosolic acid (CA), a triterpenoid compound isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Banaba) leaves, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating phosphorylation of interleukin receptor- associated kinase (IRAK)-2 via the NF-κB cascade. However, the protective effect of CA against endotoxic shock has not been reported. LPS (200 ng/mL, 30 min) induced phosphorylation of IRAK-1 and treatment with CA (10 μM) significantly attenuated this effect. In addition, CA also reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and ASC which are the main components of the inflammasome in BMDMs. LPS-induced inflammasome assembly through activation of IRAK-1 was down-regulated by CA challenge. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of IκB-α, had no effect on CA-mediated inhibition of IRAK-1 activation, indicating that CA-mediated attenuation of IRAK-1 phosphorylation was independent of NF-κB signaling. These results demonstrate that CA ameliorates acute inflammation in mouse BMDMs and CA may be useful as a pharmacological agent to prevent acute inflammation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 276-281] PMID:26615974

  18. Exosomes derived from MSCs ameliorate retinal laser injury partially by inhibition of MCP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Shao, Hui; Su, Chang; Jiang, Yuanfeng; Chen, Xiteng; Bai, Lingling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qiutang; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence supports the notion that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) act in a paracrine manner, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Recently, MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos), a type of microvesicle released from MSCs, were thought to carry functional proteins and RNAs to recipient cells and play therapeutic roles. In the present study, we intravitreally injected MSCs derived from either mouse adipose tissue or human umbilical cord, and their exosomes to observe and compare their functions in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury. We found that both MSCs and their exosomes reduced damage, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed inflammatory responses to obtain better visual function to nearly the same extent in vivo. Obvious down-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in the retina was found after MSC-Exos injection. In vitro, MSC-Exos also down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in primarily cultured retinal cells after thermal injury. It was further demonstrated that intravitreal injection of an MCP-1-neutralizing antibody promoted the recovery of retinal laser injury, whereas the therapeutic effect of exosomes was abolished when MSC-Exos and MCP-1 were administrated simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that MSC-Exos ameliorate laser-induced retinal injury partially through down-regulation of MCP-1. PMID:27686625

  19. Rapamycin ameliorates chitosan nanoparticle-induced developmental defects of preimplantation embryos in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, DaSom; Jang, Hyung Seok; Park, Woo-Jin; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Song, Hyuk; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) are used as drug or gene delivery vehicles. However, a detailed understanding of the effects of CSNPs on embryonic development remains obscure. Here, we show that CSNPs can be internalized into mouse blastocysts, such as the zona pellucida, the perivitelline space, and the cytoplasm. Consequently, CSNPs-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress increases both of Bip/Grp78, Chop, Atf4, Perk, and Ire1a mRNAs expression levels, and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, CSNPs show double- and multi-membraned autophagic vesicles, and lead to cell death of blastocoels. Conversely, treatment with rapamycin, which plays an important role as a central regulator of cellular proliferation and stress responses, decreased CSNPs-induced mitochondrial Ca+2 overloading, apoptosis, oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy. In vivo studies demonstrated that CSNPs injection has significant toxic effect on primordial and developing follicles. Notably, rapamycin rescued oxidative stress-induced embryonic defects via modulating gene expression of sirtuin and mammalian target of rapamycin. Interestingly, CSNPs treatment alters epigenetic reprogramming in mouse embryos. Overall, these observations suggest that rapamycin treatment could ameliorate CSNPs-induced developmental defects in preimplantation embryos. The data from this study would facilitate to understand the toxicity of these CSNPs, and enable the engineering of safer nanomaterials for therapeutic applications. PMID:27463007

  20. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Sabine; McGeary, Aleixandria; Rudloff, Sandra; Wilke, Andrea; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25–35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress. PMID:28103249

  1. Lowered insulin signalling ameliorates age-related sleep fragmentation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Metaxakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep fragmentation, particularly reduced and interrupted night sleep, impairs the quality of life of older people. Strikingly similar declines in sleep quality are seen during ageing in laboratory animals, including the fruit fly Drosophila. We investigated whether reduced activity of the nutrient- and stress-sensing insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS/TOR signalling network, which ameliorates ageing in diverse organisms, could rescue the sleep fragmentation of ageing Drosophila. Lowered IIS/TOR network activity improved sleep quality, with increased night sleep and day activity and reduced sleep fragmentation. Reduced TOR activity, even when started for the first time late in life, improved sleep quality. The effects of reduced IIS/TOR network activity on day and night phenotypes were mediated through distinct mechanisms: Day activity was induced by adipokinetic hormone, dFOXO, and enhanced octopaminergic signalling. In contrast, night sleep duration and consolidation were dependent on reduced S6K and dopaminergic signalling. Our findings highlight the importance of different IIS/TOR components as potential therapeutic targets for pharmacological treatment of age-related sleep fragmentation in humans.

  2. The ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Eman E; Kames, Amany O G; Sayed, S M; Nisr, Neveen A E L; Wahba, Nahed M; Elsherif, Walaa M; Nafady, Allam M; Abdel-Hafeez, M M; Aamer, A A

    2014-12-01

    A study was designed to evaluate ameliorative effect of propolis against methoxychlor (MXC) induced ovarian toxicity in rat. The organochlorine pesticide (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether chronic exposure to MXC could cause ovarian dysfunction, two groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats were exposed to MXC alone in a dose of 200mg/kg, twice/weekly, orally or MXC dose as previous plus propolis in a dose of 200mg/l/day, in drinking water for 10 months. Another two groups of rat were given corn oil (control) or propolis. Multiple reproductive parameters, ovarian weight, serum hormone levels, ovarian oxidative status and ovarian morphology were examined. In MXC-exposed group, there is a significant decrease in body and ovarian weight vs. control. MXC decreases serum estradiol and progesterone levels. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation was obtained while a significant decrease of the total antioxidant was recorded. Ovarian histopathology showed primary, secondary and vesicular follicles displaying an atretic morphology. Increase in the ovarian surface epithelium height accompanied with vacuolated, pyknotic oocytes were obtained. The previous toxic effects were neutralized by the administration of propolis in MXC+propolis group. The present results suggest that propolis may be effective in decreasing of MXC-induced ovarian toxicity in rat.

  3. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Pitarokoili

    Full Text Available Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system.Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53-78 of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN.We conclude that immunomodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies.

  4. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway.

  5. Lycopene Pretreatment Ameliorates Acute Ethanol Induced NAD+ Depletion in Human Astroglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Guest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with reduced brain volume and cognition. While the mechanisms by which ethanol induces these deleterious effects in vivo are varied most are associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative processes. In order to further characterise the effect of acute ethanol exposure on oxidative damage and NAD+ levels in the brain, human U251 astroglioma cells were exposed to physiologically relevant doses of ethanol (11 mM, 22 mM, 65 mM, and 100 mM for ≤ 30 minutes. Ethanol exposure resulted in a dose dependent increase in both ROS and poly(ADP-ribose polymer production. Significant decreases in total NAD(H and sirtuin 1 activity were also observed at concentrations ≥ 22 mM. Similar to U251 cells, exposure to ethanol (≥22 mM decreased levels of NAD(H in primary human astrocytes. NAD(H depletion in primary astrocytes was prevented by pretreatment with 1 μM of lycopene for 3.5 hours. Unexpectedly, in U251 cells lycopene treatment at concentrations ≥ 5 μM resulted in significant reductions in [NAD(H]. This study suggests that exposure of the brain to alcohol at commonly observed blood concentrations may cause transitory oxidative damage which may be at least partly ameliorated by lycopene.

  6. Ameliorative effects of 7-methylcoumarin and 7-methoxycoumarin against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Sandesh; Sancheti, Shruti; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2013-01-01

    The available conventional remedies for the treatment of drug-induced liver diseases are highly inadequate and possess serious adverse effects; therefore, the development of new, effective drugs is considered necessary. This article explores the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of 7-methylcoumarin (MC) and 7-methoxycoumarin (MOC) in CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. MC and MOC individually, at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, were administered orally once-daily for 7 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP), and albumin (TA). Serum antioxidant enzyme [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] levels were determined. Also, thiobarbituric-acid-related substances (TBARS) levels, along with histopathological studies of liver tissue, were scrutinized. Pretreatment with MC and MOC significantly decreased ALT, AST, and TB in the serum of CCl(4)-induced liver damaged rats in a dose-dependent manner. TA and TP levels in the serum were also restored significantly in all presupplemented MC and MOC groups. In addition, oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) was prevented significantly; thereby, increasing SOD and CAT levels and decreasing TBARS levels in liver homogenates. Histopathological studies revealed the ameliorative natures of both the compounds. This study demonstrates the strong hepatoprotective activity of MC and MOC, which could be attributed to their potent antioxidant effects.

  7. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Does intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorate the methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Mayir, Burhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Polat, Cemal; Baştürk, Ahmet; Soyer, Vural; Koç, Süleyman; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used for many cancer treatments. It leads to toxicity with its oxidative injury. The purpose of our study is investigating the medical ozone preconditioning and treatment has any effect on the methotrexate-induced kidneys by activating antioxidant enzymes in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups; control, Mtx without and with medical ozone. Nephrotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx intraperitoneally at the fifteenth day of experiment on groups 2 and 3. Medical ozone preconditioning was performed at a dose of 25 mcg/ml (5 ml) intraperitoneally everyday in the group 3 and treated with medical ozone for five more days while group 2 was received only 5 ml of saline everyday for twenty days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of third week and the blood and kidney tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. Kidney injury score was evaluated histolopatologically. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorated the biochemical parameters and kidney injury induced by Mtx. There was significant increase in tissue MDA, MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β (Pnephrotoxicity induced by Mtx in rats by activating antioxidant enzymes and prevented renal tissue.

  9. Intervention of ginger or propolis ameliorates methotrexate-induced ileum toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Salah, Marwa

    2016-02-01

    The long-term clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) is restricted due to its severe intestinal toxicity. The protective effect of ginger or propolis on the toxicity induced by MTX is relatively less understood, so the possible protective effect of ginger or propolis, used separately, was investigated. A total of 60 male albino rats were divided into six groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) ginger group; (3) propolis group; (4) MTX group; (5) ginger + MTX group; and (6) propolis + MTX group. The present results show that MTX caused ileum injury, including shortening and fusion of the villi, inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion. Administration of ginger or propolis ameliorated the MTX-induced ileum injury as shown by histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations and statistical analysis. This is revealed by intact villi, which shows marked increase in brown colouration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive nuclei in the crypts region, improvement in the number of goblet cells and brush border length of ileum. The current results conclude the efficacy and safety of ginger and propolis, which may be due to their antioxidant properties.

  10. Autophagy ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of PVT1 and apoptosis in diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigui; Hao, Shuang; Yin, Hongqiang; Gao, Jing; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-05-15

    The underlying mechanisms of cognitive impairment in diabetes remain incompletely characterized. Here we show that the autophagic inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) aggravates cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, including exacerbation of anxiety-like behaviors and aggravation in spatial learning and memory, especially the spatial reversal memory. Further neuronal function identification confirmed that both long term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DPT) were exacerbated by autophagic inhibition in diabetic mice, which indicating impairment of synaptic plasticity. However, no significant change of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) was recorded in diabetic mice with autophagic suppression compared with the diabetic mice, which indicated that presynaptic function was not affected by autophagic inhibition in diabetes. Subsequent hippocampal neuronal cell death analysis showed that the apoptotic cell death, but not the regulated necrosis, significantly increased in autophagic suppression of diabetic mice. Finally, molecular mechanism that may lead to cell death was identified. The long non-coding RNA PVT1 (plasmacytoma variant translocation 1) expression was analyzed, and data revealed that PVT1 was decreased significantly by 3-MA in diabetes. These findings show that PVT1-mediated autophagy may protect hippocampal neurons from impairment of synaptic plasticity and apoptosis, and then ameliorates cognitive impairment in diabetes. These intriguing findings will help pave the way for exciting functional studies of autophagy in cognitive impairment and diabetes that may alter the existing paradigms.

  11. Herbal medicine Ninjinyoeito ameliorates ribavirin-induced anemia in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu Motoo; Hisatsugu Mouri; Koushiro Ohtsubo; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Norio Sawabu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Ribavirin (RBV) shows a strong antiviral effect on hepatitis C virus when used in combination with interferon.However, RBV-induced anemia is a major problem in this therapy. It would be of great clinical importance to ameliorate the anemia without reducing the RBV dose.We report here that, Ninjinyoeito (NYT), a herbal medicine can reduce the RBV-induced anemia.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with interferon alpha 2b plus RBV with (NYT group) or without (control group) NYT by a randomized selection. Eighteen patients completed the treatment schedule, and hemato-biochemical and virological effects were evaluated.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in biochemical and virological responses between the two groups. However, anemia was significantly reduced in the NYT group compared with the control group. The maximal decrease of Hb in the NYT group (2.59±1.10 g/dL)was significantly (P= 0.026) smaller than that in the control group (3.71±0.97 g/dL). There was no significant difference in serum glutathione peroxidase activity, serum RBV concentration, and Th1/Th2 balance between the two groups. There was no specific adverse effect in NYT administration.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NYT could be used as a supportive remedy to reduce the RBV-induced anemia in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  12. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.

  13. Vulnerability of Gastric Mucosa in Diabetic Rats, Its Pathogenesis and Amelioration by Cuminum cyminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vador, N; Jagtap, Aarti G; Damle, Archana

    2012-09-01

    Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic) rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  14. Vulnerability of gastric mucosa in diabetic rats, its pathogenesis and amelioration by Cuminum cyminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have indicated that peptic ulcers occurring during the course of diabetic state are more severe and often associated with complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding. This study is the first attempt to understand the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers occurring during the diabetic state considering alternate biochemical pathways using suitable markers and its amelioration by Cuminum cyminum. In this study, diabetic rats showed a progressive increase in the stomach advanced glycated end products formation, gastric mucosal tumour necrosis factor-α and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as compared to normal control (nondiabetic rats. There was decrease in gastric mucosal content, antioxidant enzymes and cellular ATPase enzyme levels of diabetic gastric mucosa when compared to the normal control group. mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor was found to be significantly higher as compared to normal control animals. Further methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum treatment to diabetic animals caused a reduction in blood glucose, and ulcer score when compared to diabetic control rats. It significantly increased gastric mucus content, antioxidant status and cellular ATPase enzyme levels as compared to diabetic control animals. Methanol extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibited advanced glycated end products formation in vitro as well as in vivo.

  15. Mannose-binding lectin blunts macrophage polarization and ameliorates lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficiency in clearance of self nuclear antigens, including DNA, is the hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a chronic autoimmnue disease characterized by the production of various autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and severe organ damage. Our previous studies revealed that administration of syngeneic BALB/c mice with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA could induce SLE disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a secreted pattern recognition receptor with binding activity to DNA, has been proved to be a modulator of inflammation, but whether MBL takes responsibility for DNA clearance, modulates the DNA-mediated immune responses, and is involved in the development of DNA-induced SLE disease remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The levels of serum MBL significantly decreased in lupus mice induced by ALD-DNA and were negatively correlated with SLE disease. MBL blunted macrophage M2b polarization by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling while enhancing the activation of CREB. Furthermore, MBL suppressed the ability of ALD-DNA-stimulated macrophages to polarize T cells toward Th1 cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, MBL supplement in vivo could ameliorate lupus nephritis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest MBL supplement could alleviate SLE disease and might imply a potential therapeutic strategy for DNA-induced SLE, which would further our understanding of the protective role of MBL in SLE disease.

  16. Targeting AGEs Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Naguib Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE, AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze, neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining, AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications.

  17. Spirulina did not ameliorate idiopathic chronic fatigue in four N-of-1 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicus, Cristian; Baicus, Anda

    2007-06-01

    Idiopathic chronic fatigue is an exclusion diagnosis established when no chronic disease is found. Spirulina platensis is an alga with a rich content of proteins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids and is considered as a bioactive additive with multiple effects, among them being effects against fatigue. However, despite the worldwide utilization of Spirulina, there are only a few quality studies with it and none concerning fatigue. The N-of-1 randomized trials are made on one patient, and by this kind of study the efficacy of a treatment on that particular patient can be assessed. A series of four N-of-1 double-blind, randomized trials were performed on four physicians who complained of chronic fatigue. Each patient was his own control and received three pairs of treatments comprising 4 weeks of spirulina and 4 weeks of placebo. Spirulina platensis was administered in a dose of 3 g/day. For each pair, the order of treatments was randomized. Outcome measures were severity of fatigue measured on a 10-point scale. The scores of fatigue were not significantly different between spirulina and placebo. Spirulina administered in a dose of 3 g/day did not ameliorate fatigue more than the placebo in any of the four subjects, and possibly it has no effect on chronic fatigue.

  18. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  19. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment.

  1. Resveratrol Ameliorated Vascular Calcification by Regulating Sirt-1 and Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Li, Y; Du, Y; Li, G; Wang, L; Zhou, F

    2016-12-01

    Pathologic vascular calcification is a significant reason for mortality and morbidity in patients who suffer from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Resveratrol, a scavenger for many free radicals, is a crucial compound for biomedicine. However, the role and mechanism of resveratrol in vascular calcification is still unknown. In this study, to mimic vascular calcification in ESRD, we used β-glyceophosphate to stimulate the rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We investigate the therapeutic role of resveratrol pretreatment in vascular calcification. In the current in vitro study, we observe the effects of resveratrol on improving intracellular calcium deposition and protecting against mitochondria dysfunction in calcific RASMCs. Resveratrol decreased the mRNA level of fibroblast growth factor-23, then increased the mRNA level of klotho and the nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2]) in RASMCs after calcification. Further, resveratrol activated the expression of sirtuin-1 and Nrf2, and inhibited the expression of osteopontin, runt-related transcription factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1. Our study shows that resveratrol could ameliorate oxidative injury of RASMCs by preventing vascular calcification-induced calcium deposition and mitochondria dysfunction through involving sirtuin-1 and Nrf2. These results might indicate a novel role for resveratrol in resistance to oxidative stress for ESRD patients suffering from vascular calcification.

  2. Melatonin ameliorates low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Reiter, Russel J; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Ibán-Arias, Ruth; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Adem, Abdu; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n = 30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n = 30) were used. At 6 wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of 10 rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Pro-inflammatory state was evaluated by plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, oxidative stress was assessed by plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), both basal and after Fe(2+)/H2O2 inducement. ZDF rats exhibited higher levels of IL-6 (112.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL), TNF-α (11.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and CRP (828 ± 16.0 µg/mL) compared with lean rats (IL-6, 89.9 ± 1.0, P Melatonin lowered IL-6 (10%, P Melatonin improved basal LPO (15%, P melatonin administration ameliorates the pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress, which underlie the development of insulin resistance and their consequences, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)-S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment:Perkhaploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/- compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition,Perkdeficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non-Schwann-cell autonomous manner.

  4. Prevention effects ameliorate the prospective association between nonsupportive parenting and diminished telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with diminished TL associated with several chronic diseases of aging and with heightened mortality risk. Research has begun to focus on the ways in which stress contributes to telomere attrition. The purposes of this study were (a) to establish whether exposure to nonsupportive parenting, defined as high levels of conflict and rancor with low levels of warmth and emotional support, at age 17 would forecast TL 5 years later; and (b) to determine whether participation in an efficacious family-centered prevention program could ameliorate any associations that emerged. Rural African American adolescents participated in the Adults in the Making (AIM) program or a control condition. Primary caregivers provided data on nonsupportive parenting during a pretest when adolescents were age 17. Adolescents provided data on anger at the pretest and at a posttest administered 7 months later. When the youths were age 22, TL was assayed from a blood draw. The results indicated that heightened nonsupportive parenting forecast diminished TL among young adults in the control condition but not among those who participated in AIM; socioeconomic status risk, life stress, and the use of alcohol and cigarettes at age 17, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 22, were controlled. Subsequent exploratory analyses suggested that AIM-induced reductions in adolescents' anger served as a mediator connecting group assignment to TL. The results suggest that the cellular-level sequelae of nonsupportive parenting and stress are not immutable.

  5. Erdosteine ameliorates lung injury induced by transient aortic occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tunay; Sacar, Mustafa; Inan, Bilal Kaan; Duver, M Harun; Guler, Adem; Ucak, Alper; Us, Melih Hulusi; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the protective effect of erdosteine on lung injury induced by ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) of the lower extremities of rats. Wistar albino rats (n = 21) were divided into three groups. In the IR group (n = 7), the aorta was cross-clamped for two hours, followed by one hour of reperfusion. In the erdosteine group (n = 7), animals were pretreated with erdosteine 100 mg/kg daily via gastric lavage, starting three days before aortic occlusion. In the control group (n 5 7), the lungs were removed and blood samples were taken immediately after sternotomy. No treatment was given in the control and IR groups. After both lungs were removed, biochemical parameters were measured and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL ) assessment was made. MDA levels and MPO activities in the lung tissue were significantly reduced in the erdosteine group compared to the IR group. BAL assessment revealed decreased neutrophil counts in the erdosteine-treated group. Pretreatment of animals with erdosteine significantly attenuated transient aortic occlusion-induced remote lung injury, characterised by leukocyte accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that erdosteine may be beneficial in amelioration of lung injury caused by IR.

  6. Erdosteine ameliorates PTZ-induced oxidative stress in mice seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Atilla; Aladag, M Arif; Kocer, Abdulkadir; Boluk, Ayhan; Gurel, Ahmet; Armutcu, Ferah

    2005-05-30

    The role of oxygen-derived free radicals has been suggested in genesis of epilepsy and in the post seizure neuronal death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether erdosteine has a preventive effect against epilepsy and postepileptic oxidative stress. The mice (n=27) were divided into three groups: (i) PTZ-induced-epilepsy group (n=9); (ii) PTZ-induced-epilepsy+erdosteine group (n=9); (iii) control group (n=9). The animals were observed for a period of 30 min for latency to first seizure onset, total seizure duration, the number of seizure episodes. Then they were sacrificed and the brains were quickly removed, and frozen for biochemical analysis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were carried out in the brain tissue. The latent period between PTZ induction and seizure are longer in the PTZ+erdosteine group than in PTZ-induced-epilepsy group (Perdosteine group. SOD level did not change in this group. While MDA and XO levels are significantly lower, SOD level is significantly higher in the PTZ+erdosteine group compared to PTZ and control groups (Perdosteine treatment both may increase latent interval between seizures and may decrease oxidative stress, thus may ameliorate neuronal death in brain during seizures. It may be used as an adjunct therapy in epilepsy.

  7. Targeting the transcription factor Nrf2 to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Stacey; Pergola, Pablo E; Zager, Richard A; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2013-06-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are mediators in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, and they are inseparably linked as each begets and amplifies the other. CKD-associated oxidative stress is due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diminished antioxidant capacity. The latter is largely caused by impaired activation of Nrf2, the transcription factor that regulates genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying molecules. Protective effects of Nrf2 are evidenced by amelioration of oxidative stress, inflammation, and kidney disease in response to natural Nrf2 activators in animal models, while Nrf2 deletion amplifies these pathogenic pathways and leads to autoimmune nephritis. Given the role of impaired Nrf2 activity in CKD-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, interventions aimed at restoring Nrf2 may be effective in retarding CKD progression. Clinical trials of the potent Nrf2 activator bardoxolone methyl showed significant improvement in renal function in CKD patients with type 2 diabetes. However, due to unforeseen complications the BEACON trial, which was designed to investigate the effect of this drug on time to end-stage renal disease or cardiovascular death in patients with advanced CKD, was prematurely terminated. This article provides an overview of the role of impaired Nrf2 activity in the pathogenesis of CKD-associated oxidative stress and inflammation and the potential utility of targeting Nrf2 in the treatment of CKD.

  8. AMIGO2 modulates T cell functions and its deficiency in mice ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilin; Khan, Mohd Moin; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin; Chen, Zhi Jane; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Rauvala, Heikki; Tian, Li

    2017-05-01

    The immune function of AMIGO2 is currently unknown. Here, we revealed novel roles of AMIGO2 in modulating T-cell functions and EAE using Amigo2-knockout (AMG2KO) mice. Amigo2 was abundantly expressed by murine T helper (Th) cells. Its deficiency impaired transplanted T-cell infiltration into the secondary lymphoid organs and dampened Th-cell activation, but promoted splenic Th-cell proliferation and abundancy therein. AMG2KO Th cells had respectively elevated T-bet in Th1- and GATA-3 in Th2-lineage during early Th-cell differentiation, accompanied with increased IFN-γ and IL-10 but decreased IL-17A production. AMG2KO mice exhibited ameliorated EAE, dampened spinal T-cell accumulation, decreased serum IL-17A levels and enhanced splenic IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic AMG2KO T cells induced milder EAE and dampened spinal Th-cell accumulation and Tnf expression. Mechanistically, Amigo2-overexpression in 293T cells dampened NF-kB transcriptional activity, while Amigo2-deficiency enhanced Akt but suppressed GSK-3β phosphorylation and promoted nuclear translocations of NF-kB and NFAT1 in Th-cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that AMIGO2 is important in regulating T-cell functions and EAE, and may be harnessed as a potential therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis.

  9. Ac-SDKP ameliorates the progression of lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hechang; Zhao, Jijun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Hongyue; Huang, Bin; Liang, Yingjie; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Niansheng

    2012-12-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is an endogenous tetrapeptide which can inhibit the differentiation, migration and activation of macrophages and suppress the proliferation of fibroblast. This study examined the effects of Ac-SDKP on the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). MRL/lpr mice received subcutaneous infusion of Ac-SDKP (1.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or vehicle through implanted osmotic mini-pumps from 12 to 20 weeks until being euthanized. MRL/MpJ mice served as normal controls. The data indicative of renal inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated before and after treatment. Ac-SDKP-treated MRL/lpr mice showed reduced proteinuria and improved renal function compared with vehicle-treated controls. Ac-SDKP-treated mice demonstrated decreased inflammatory infiltrates of T cells and macrophages in the kidneys as compared to vehicle-treated animals. The treatment also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α. Despite this, immune complex deposition and plasma anti-dsDNA levels were not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the treatment inhibited renal expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA and fibronectin as well as the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Ac-SDKP treatment ameliorated LN through exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects on MRL/lpr mice, providing therapeutic potential for halting the progression of LN.

  10. Treatment of GABA from Fermented Rice Germ Ameliorates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Hee Jin; Choung, Se Young

    2015-05-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is involved in sleep physiology. Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induce wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. This study was performed to examine whether GABA extracts from fermented rice germ ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, without affecting spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination. Indeed, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA treatment (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), especially at 100 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. In locomotor tests, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA slightly but not significantly reduced the caffeine-induced increase in locomotor activity without affecting motor coordination. Additionally, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA per se did not affect the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination of mice. In conclusion, rice germ ferment extracts-GABA supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine, without affecting the general locomotor activities of mice.

  11. Diesel Exhaust Particles Induce Impairment of Vascular and Cardiac Homeostasis in Mice: Ameliorative Effect of Emodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: There is strong epidemiological and clinical evidence that components of the cardiovascular system are adversely affected by particulate air pollutants through the generation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, which is commonly found in the roots of rhubarb plant, has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its possible protective effect on the cardiovascular effect of particulate air pollutants has never been reported before. Methods: We tested, in Tuck-Ordinary mice, the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on the acute (24h cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP, 1 mg/kg or saline (control. Emodin (4 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 7h after pulmonary exposure to DEP. Twenty four h following DEP exposure, several cardiovascular endpoints were assessed. Results: Emodin significantly prevented the increase of leukocyte (n=8, Pin vivo prothrombotic effect of DEP in pial arterioles (n=6, Pin vitro in whole blood (n=4-5, PConclusion: We conclude that emodin treatment has consistently protected against DEP-induced impairment of vascular and cardiac homeostasis in mice. Our study provides experimental evidence that the use of functional food such as emodin, pending further studies, can be considered a useful agent and may have the potential to protect or mitigate the cardiovascular detrimental effects observed in people living in cities with high concentrations of particulate air pollution.

  12. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  13. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  14. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Solomon, Benjamin R; Ulibarri, Adam L; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism.

  15. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  16. Tetrandrine Ameliorates Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide in Cirrhotic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 陈孝平

    2004-01-01

    To examine the role and effect of nitric oxide synthase type Ⅱ (NOSⅡ) in cirrhotic rats,expression of NOSⅡ mRNA was detected by real time RT-PCR. The enzymatic activity of nitric oxide synthase and the circulating levels of NO, systemic and portal hemodynamics and quantification of cirrhosis were measured. Chinese traditional medicine was used to treat cirrhotic rats and the effect of NO was evaluated. Double-blind method was used in experiment. Our results showed the concentration of NO and the enzymatic activity of NOS increased markedly at all stages of cirrhosis and iNOSmRNA was strongly expressed. Meanwhile, the portal-venous-pressure (PVP) and portal-venous-flow (PVF) were significantly increased. NO, NOS and iNOSmRNA were positively correlated to the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Tetrandrine significantly inhibited NO production and the expression of iNOSmRNA. Our results suggested that increased hepatic expression of NOS Ⅱ is one of the important factors causing cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Tetrandrine can significantly ameliorate cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  17. Caffeic acid ameliorates early and delayed brain injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHOU; San-hua FANG; Yi-lu YE; Li-sheng CHU; Wei-ping ZHANG; Meng-ling WANG; Er-qing WEI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of caffeic acid on early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and the possible relation to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Caffeic acid (10 and 50 mg/kg) was ip injected for 5 d after ischemia. The brain injuries were observed, and the levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 in the brain tissue were measured. Results: Caffeic acid (50 mg/kg) ameliorated neurological dysfunction and neuron loss, and decreased infarct volume 24 h after ischemia; it attenuated brain atrophy, infarct volume, and particularly astrocyte proliferation 14 d after ischemia. In addition, it reduced the production of leukotrienes (5-lipoxygenase metabolites) in the ischemic hemispheres 3 h and 7 d after ischemia. Conclusion: Caffeic acid has protective effect on both early and delayed injuries after focal cerebral ischemia in rats; and this effect may partly relate to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Ameliorates Hepatic Reperfusion Injury After Prolonged Cold Preservation in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahisa; Fukumori, Daisuke; Shibata, Maki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Todo, Satoru; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen gas reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver and other organs. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We investigated whether hydrogen gas ameliorated hepatic I/R injury after cold preservation. Rat liver was subjected to 48-h cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution. The graft was reperfused with oxygenated buffer with or without hydrogen at 37° for 90 min on an isolated perfusion apparatus, comprising the H2 (+) and H2 (-) groups, respectively. In the control group (CT), grafts were reperfused immediately without preservation. Graft function, injury, and circulatory status were assessed throughout the perfusion. Tissue samples at the end of perfusion were collected to determine histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the H2 (-) group, IRI was indicated by a higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, portal resistance, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cell rate, apoptotic index, and endothelial endothelin-1 expression, together with reduced bile production, oxygen consumption, and GSH/GSSG ratio (vs. CT). In the H2 (+) group, these harmful changes were significantly suppressed [vs. H2 (-)]. Hydrogen gas reduced hepatic reperfusion injury after prolonged cold preservation via the maintenance of portal flow, by protecting mitochondrial function during the early phase of reperfusion, and via the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades thereafter.

  19. Nitric oxide ameliorates zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced phytotoxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Chao; Yin, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Peng, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-10-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to function in enhancing plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, role of NO in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. Here, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) was used to investigate the possible roles and the regulatory mechanisms of NO in counteracting ZnO NPs toxicity in rice seedlings. Our results showed that 10 μM SNP significantly inhibited the appearance of ZnO NP toxicity symptoms. SNP addition significantly reduced Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation caused by ZnO NPs. The protective role of SNP in reducing ZnO NPs-induced oxidative damage is closely related to NO-mediated antioxidant system. A decrease in superoxide dismutase activity, as well as an increase in reduced glutathione content and peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed under SNP and ZnO NPs combined treatments, compared to ZnO NPs treatment alone. The relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes exhibited a similar change. The role of NO in enhancing ZnO NPs tolerance was further confirmed by genetic analysis using a NO excess mutant (noe1) and an OsNOA1-silenced plant (noa1) of rice. Together, this study provides the first evidence indicating that NO functions in ameliorating ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity.

  20. Sesamin Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs, the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate whether sesamin protects against AGEs-evoked β-cell damage via its antioxidant property. The effects of sesamin were examined in C57BL/6J mice and MIN6 cell line. In in vivo studies, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AGEs (120 mg/kg and orally treated with sesamin (160 mg/kg for four weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin releasing tests were performed. Insulin content, ROS generation and β-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets were also measured. In in vitro studies, MIN6 cells were pretreated with sesamin (50 or 100 μM and then exposed to AGEs (200 mg/L for 24 h. Insulin secretion, β-cell death, ROS production as well as expression and activity of NADPH oxidase were determined. Sesamin treatment obviously ameliorated AGE-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were associated with decreased ROS production, down-regulated expression of p67phox and p22phox, and reduced NADPH oxidase activity. These results suggest that sesamin protects β-cells from damage caused by AGEs through suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.

  1. Oral supplementation with cholecalciferol 800 IU ameliorates albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels can be associated with albuminuria, and vitamin D analogs are effective anti-proteinuric agents. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D levels between those with micro- and those with macroalbuminuria, and to determine whether low dose cholecalciferol increases vitamin D levels and ameliorates albuminuria. METHODS: Two studies were performed in which 25-OH vitamin D(3 (25(OHD(3 concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay: 1 a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (n = 481 and healthy controls (n = 78; and 2 a longitudinal study of T2DM patients with albuminuria treated with conventional doses, 800 IU, of cholecalciferol for 6 months (n = 22, and a control group (n = 24. RESULTS: 1 Cross-sectional study: Compared to controls and T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria, serum 25(OHD(3 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with macro-albuminuria, but not in those with micro-albuminuria. Serum 25(OHD(3 levels were independently correlated with microalbuminuria. 2 Longitudinal study: Cholecalciferol significantly decreased microalbuminuria in the early stages of treatment, in conjunction with an increase in serum 25(OHD(3 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels are common in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria, particularly in patients with macroalbuminuria, but not in those with microalbuminuria. Conventional doses of cholecalciferol may have antiproteinuric effects on Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

  2. Sesamin Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Ma, Ming-Zhe; Deng, Ru-Yuan; Guo, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jun-Xiu; Yang, Jie-Ren; Su, Qing

    2015-06-09

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the direct modulators of β-cells, have been shown to cause insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis through increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Sesamin has been demonstrated to possess antioxidative activity. This study was designed to investigate whether sesamin protects against AGEs-evoked β-cell damage via its antioxidant property. The effects of sesamin were examined in C57BL/6J mice and MIN6 cell line. In in vivo studies, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AGEs (120 mg/kg) and orally treated with sesamin (160 mg/kg) for four weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin releasing tests were performed. Insulin content, ROS generation and β-cell apoptosis in pancreatic islets were also measured. In in vitro studies, MIN6 cells were pretreated with sesamin (50 or 100 μM) and then exposed to AGEs (200 mg/L) for 24 h. Insulin secretion, β-cell death, ROS production as well as expression and activity of NADPH oxidase were determined. Sesamin treatment obviously ameliorated AGE-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were associated with decreased ROS production, down-regulated expression of p67(phox) and p22(phox), and reduced NADPH oxidase activity. These results suggest that sesamin protects β-cells from damage caused by AGEs through suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress.

  3. Sesamin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: involvement of Sirt1 and Mn-SOD pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Suwen; Li, Qian; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Chen; Li, Junxia; Zhang, Rong; Niu, Yujie; Zhao, Lijuan; Wang, Yongli; Guo, Huicai

    2014-01-13

    Oxidative stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX) is believed to be a major underlying molecular mechanism of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Sesamin (Ses), an active component extracted from sesame seeds, exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, possible protective mechanisms of Ses on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were investigated in rats and cultured H9C2 cells. We demonstrated that Ses exhibits a significant protective effect on cardiac tissue in animal and cell models of DOX-induced cardiac injury. Moreover, Ses can ameliorate DOX-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Further studies suggested that Ses is able to up-regulate the protein expression of Mn-SOD in normal rats and to restore the decreased expression of Mn-SOD in DOX-induced cardiac injury rats. Exposure to Ses or DOX alone slightly increased the protein expression of Sirt1; however, a more remarkable increase in Sirt1 protein level was detected in the Ses+DOX group. Treatment with a pan-sirtuin inhibitor (nicotinamide) or a Sirt1-specific inhibitor (EX-527) partially antagonised the effect of Ses on DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and completely abolished the effect of Ses on Mn-SOD expression. These findings indicate that the protective mechanisms of Ses on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity are involved in the alleviation of oxidative stress injury and Mn-SOD dysfunction, partially via the activation of Sirt1.

  4. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  5. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Puerarin Ameliorates D-Galactose Induced Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tao; Yin, Ni-Na; Han, Yong-Ming; Yuan, Fang; Duan, Yan-Jun; Shen, Feng; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Ze-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized with amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and progressive neuronal loss. Previously we reported that tau phosphorylation played an essential role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3), a crucial tau kinase, could induce increased hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we found that treatment of D-galactose rats with Puerarin could significantly improve behavioral performance and ameliorate the enhanced neurogenesis and microtubule-associated protein tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of D-galactose rat brains. FGF-2/GSK-3 signaling pathway might be involved in the effects of Puerarin on hippocampal neurogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our finding provides primary in vivo evidence that Puerarin can attenuate AD-like enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylation. Our finding also suggests Puerarin can be served as a treatment for age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  7. Circumventing furin enhances factor VIII biological activity and ameliorates bleeding phenotypes in hemophilia models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siner, Joshua I.; Samelson-Jones, Benjamin J.; Crudele, Julie M.; French, Robert A.; Lee, Benjamin J.; Zhou, Shanzhen; Merricks, Elizabeth; Raymer, Robin; Camire, Rodney M.; Arruda, Valder R.

    2016-01-01

    Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645–1648) in the design of B-domain–deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity. Inhibition of furin increases the secretion and decreases the intracellular retention of FVIII-BDD protein in mammalian cells. Our new variant (FVIII-ΔF), in which this recognition motif is removed, efficiently circumvents furin. FVIII-ΔF demonstrates increased recombinant protein yields, enhanced clotting activity, and higher circulating FVIII levels after adeno-associated viral vector–based liver gene therapy in a murine model of severe hemophilia A (HA) compared with FVIII-BDD. Moreover, we observed an amelioration of the bleeding phenotype in severe HA dogs with sustained therapeutic FVIII levels after FVIII-ΔF gene therapy at a lower vector dose than previously employed in this model. The immunogenicity of FVIII-ΔF did not differ from that of FVIII-BDD as a protein or a gene therapeutic. Thus, contrary to previous suppositions, FVIII variants that can avoid furin processing are likely to have enhanced translational potential for HA therapy. PMID:27734034

  8. Evening primrose oil ameliorates platelet aggregation and improves cardiac recovery in myocardial-infarct hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Gresha, Noha M; Abel-Aziz, Eman Z; Greish, Sahar M

    2014-01-01

    Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) are well known for their role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We proposed that Evening prime rose oil (EPO) can improve the outcome of a heart with myocardial infarction (MI) in the presence of diet-induced hyperaggregability. This study was designed to examine its cholesterol lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. High fat diet was administered for 4 weeks then MI was induced by isoproterenol (85 mg/kg/s.c./24 h). Treatment with EPO (5 or 10 gm/kg/day) for 6 weeks improved the electrocardiographic pattern, serum lipid profile, cardiac biomarkers as well as Platelet aggregation percent. We reported decreased serum level of TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 with attenuation of TNF-α and TGF-β in the cardiac homogenate. Moreover, histopathology revealed marked amelioration. Finally, we provide evidence that EPO improve cardiac recovery in hypercholesterolemic myocardial infarct rats. These effects are attributed to direct hypocholesterolemic effect and indirect effect on the synthesis of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, cytokines).

  9. Reducing TMPRSS6 ameliorates hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuling; Casu, Carla; Gardenghi, Sara; Booten, Sheri; Aghajan, Mariam; Peralta, Raechel; Watt, Andy; Freier, Sue; Monia, Brett P; Rivella, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    β-Thalassemia and HFE-related hemochromatosis are 2 of the most frequently inherited disorders worldwide. Both disorders are characterized by low levels of hepcidin (HAMP), the hormone that regulates iron absorption. As a consequence, patients affected by these disorders exhibit iron overload, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. HAMP expression is controlled by activation of the SMAD1,5,8/SMAD4 complex. TMPRSS6 is a serine protease that reduces SMAD activation and blocks HAMP expression. We identified second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting mouse Tmprss6. ASO treatment in mice affected by hemochromatosis (Hfe(-/-)) significantly decreased serum iron, transferrin saturation and liver iron accumulation. Furthermore, ASO treatment of mice affected by β-thalassemia (HBB(th3/+) mice, referred to hereafter as th3/+ mice) decreased the formation of insoluble membrane-bound globins, ROS, and apoptosis, and improved anemia. These animals also exhibited lower erythropoietin levels, a significant amelioration of ineffective erythropoiesis (IE) and splenomegaly, and an increase in total hemoglobin levels. These data suggest that ASOs targeting Tmprss6 could be beneficial in individuals with hemochromatosis, β-thalassemia, and related disorders.

  10. bFGF Protects Pre-oligodendrocytes from Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Injury to Ameliorate Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xuebin; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Ma, Li; Wu, Xiuxiang; Luo, Mengjiao; Dong, Fuxing; Yao, Ruiqin

    2015-10-01

    One of the pathological hallmarks of periventricular white matter injury is the vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes (preOLs) to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). There is increasing evidence that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an important signaling molecule for neurogenesis and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. However, it is unknown whether bFGF protects preOLs from oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) damage in vitro and promotes remyelination in HI-induced rats. In this present study, bFGF exerted a protective effect on myelin by increasing the myelin thickness, the number of myelinated axons, and myelin basic protein expression in the HI-induced demyelinated neonatal rat corpus callosum. In vitro, bFGF ameliorated the impaired mitochondria and cell processes induced by OGD to promote the survival of isolated O4-positive preOLs. Additionally, the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was dramatically up-regulated in the preOLs after bFGF administration in vivo and in vitro. Thus, bFGF-stimulated remyelination in HI-induced rats by protecting the preOLs from hypoxic injury, and the mechanism involved may be mediated by FGFR3.

  11. Coffee bean polyphenols ameliorate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the effect of coffee bean polyphenols (CBPs) on blood vessels, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CBPs on acute postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen healthy non-diabetic men (mean age, 44.9 ± 1.4 years) consumed a test beverage (active: containing CBPs, placebo: no CBPs) before a 554-kcal test meal containing 14 g of protein, 30 g of fat and 58 g of carbohydrates. Then, a crossover analysis was performed to investigate the time-dependent changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery. In the active group, the postprandial impairment of FMD was significantly improved, the two-hour postprandial nitric oxide metabolite levels were significantly increased and the six-hour postprandial urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group. The test meal increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides in both groups with no significant intergroup differences. These findings indicate that CBPs intake ameliorates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in healthy men.

  12. Alteration of the Intestinal Environment by Lubiprostone Is Associated with Amelioration of Adenine-Induced CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eikan; Fukuda, Shinji; Shima, Hisato; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Fukuda, Noriko N; Suzuki, Takehiro; Suzuki, Chitose; Yuri, Akinori; Kikuchi, Koichi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-08-01

    The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment.

  13. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  14. Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Carlo; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Sograte Idrissi, Shama; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Estranero, Jasper G.; Moore, Gareth G. L.; Green, Edward W.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Schwarcz, Robert; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation have been closely linked to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Recent work has highlighted the therapeutic potential of inhibiting two critical regulatory enzymes in this pathway—kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Much evidence indicates that the efficacy of KMO inhibition arises from normalizing an imbalance between neurotoxic [3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK); quinolinic acid (QUIN)] and neuroprotective [kynurenic acid (KYNA)] KP metabolites. However, it is not clear if TDO inhibition is protective via a similar mechanism or if this is instead due to increased levels of TRP—the substrate of TDO. Here, we find that increased levels of KYNA relative to 3-HK are likely central to the protection conferred by TDO inhibition in a fruit fly model of Huntington’s disease and that TRP treatment strongly reduces neurodegeneration by shifting KP flux toward KYNA synthesis. In fly models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, we provide genetic evidence that inhibition of TDO or KMO improves locomotor performance and ameliorates shortened life span, as well as reducing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's model flies. Critically, we find that treatment with a chemical TDO inhibitor is robustly protective in these models. Consequently, our work strongly supports targeting of the KP as a potential treatment strategy for several major neurodegenerative disorders and suggests that alterations in the levels of neuroactive KP metabolites could underlie several therapeutic benefits. PMID:27114543

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT): a longitudinal primary prevention program targeting cognitive vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Eggleston, A Meade; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Vasey, Michael W; Richey, J Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Fear of arousal symptoms, often referred to as anxiety sensitivity (AS) appears to be associated with risk for anxiety pathology and other Axis I conditions. Findings from a longitudinal prevention program targeting AS are reported. Participants (n=404) scoring high on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) were randomly assigned to receive a brief intervention designed to reduce AS (Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT)) or a control condition. Participants were followed for up to 24 months. Findings indicate that ASAT produced greater reductions in ASI levels compared with the control condition. Moreover, reductions were specific to anxiety sensitivity relative to related cognitive risk factors for anxiety. ASAT also produced decreased subjective fear responding to a 20% CO(2) challenge delivered postintervention. Data from the follow-up period show a lower incidence of Axis I diagnoses in the treated condition though the overall group difference was not statistically different at all follow-up intervals. Overall, findings are promising for the preventative efficacy of a brief, computer-based intervention designed to decrease anxiety sensitivity.

  16. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  17. Alkaline ameliorants increase nitrous oxide emission from acidified black soil in Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zuoqiang; Zhang, Xilin; Qiao, Yanjiao; Wang, Lianfeng

    2011-06-01

    Lime and plant ash are common management used to achieve optimum pH for plant growth and improve soil properties in agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation was conducted to assess N20 emissions as influenced by different soil amendments (lime and plant ash) in a slightly acidic arable soil (pH 5.34). The experimental treatments consisted of CK, lime and plant ash fertilized with NH4(+)-N or N03(-)-N as nitrogen resource. The results show that lime and plant ash dramatically increases the soil pH and N20 emission. For N03(-)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 421, 1669 and 921 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. For NH4(+)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 361, 576 and 559 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. N03(-)-N addition leads to more N20 emission than that of NH4(+)-N addition, and lime increases more N20 emission than that of plant ash. After incubation, N03(-)-N content decreased largely. The findings suggested that alkaline ameliorants increase N20 emissions due to enhancement of soil denitrification.

  18. Blockade of PLD2 Ameliorates Intestinal Mucosal Inflammation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangxi; Yu, Lin; Yang, Wenjing; Wu, Wei; Fang, Leilei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronically remittent and progressive inflammatory disorders. Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, the exact role of PLD2 in IBD is obscure. Methods. PLD2 expression was determined in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa from patients with IBD by qRT-PCR. Colonic biopsies were also obtained from CD patients before and after infliximab (IFX) treatment to examine PLD2 expression. PLD2 selective inhibitor (CAY10594) was administrated daily by oral gavage in DSS-induced colitis mice. Bone marrow neutrophils from colitis mice were harvested to examine the migration using Transwell plate. Results. PLD2 was found to be significantly increased in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa in patients with active IBD. Treatment with IFX could significantly decrease PLD2 expression in intestinal mucosa in patients with CD. Moreover, blockade of PLD2 with CAY10594 could markedly ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice and promote neutrophil migration. Conclusions. PLD2 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Blockade of PLD2 may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of IBD. PMID:27721573

  19. Fly ash as a soil ameliorant for improving crop production - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jala, S.; Goyal, D. [Deemed University, Patiala (India)

    2006-06-15

    Fly ash, a resultant of combustion of coal at high temperature, has been regarded as a problematic solid waste all over the world. Many possible beneficial applications of fly ash are being evaluated to minimize waste, decrease cost of disposal and provide value-added products. The conventional disposal methods for fly ash lead to degradation of arable land and contamination of the ground water. However fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of problem soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients. In conjunction with organic manure and microbial inoculants, fly ash can enhance plant biomass production from degraded soils. Detailed studies on the nature and composition of fly ash, conducted during the latter half of the 20th century have helped in repeatedly confirming the various useful applications of this hitherto neglected industrial waste. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various attributes of fly ash and explore the possibility of exploiting them for agronomic advantage.

  20. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  1. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  2. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  3. Electroacupuncture in conscious free-moving mice reduces pain by ameliorating peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Mihir; Peng, Fei; Lam, Sarah; Jha, Ritu; Raduenz, Ellis; Beitz, Al J.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Integrative approaches such as electroacupuncture, devoid of drug effects are gaining prominence for treating pain. Understanding the mechanisms of electroacupuncture induced analgesia would benefit chronic pain conditions such as sickle cell disease (SCD), for which patients may require opioid analgesics throughout life. Mouse models are instructive in developing a mechanistic understanding of pain, but the anesthesia/restraint required to administer electroacupuncture may alter the underlying mechanisms. To overcome these limitations, we developed a method to perform electroacupuncture in conscious, freely moving, unrestrained mice. Using this technique we demonstrate a significant analgesic effect in transgenic mouse models of SCD and cancer as well as complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced pain. We demonstrate a comprehensive antinociceptive effect on mechanical, cold and deep tissue hyperalagesia in both genders. Interestingly, individual mice showed a variable response to electroacupuncture, categorized into high-, moderate-, and non-responders. Mechanistically, electroacupuncture significantly ameliorated inflammatory and nociceptive mediators both peripherally and centrally in sickle mice correlative to the antinociceptive response. Application of sub-optimal doses of morphine in electroacupuncture-treated moderate-responders produced equivalent antinociception as obtained in high-responders. Electroacupuncture in conscious freely moving mice offers an effective approach to develop a mechanism-based understanding of analgesia devoid of the influence of anesthetics or restraints. PMID:27687125

  4. Salvianolic acid B ameliorates CNS autoimmunity by suppressing Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhihui; Ma, Dihui; Gong, Ye; Yu, Tingmin; Yao, Gang

    2016-04-21

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is a Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease. Therefore, immune regulation is a key target for therapy. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water-soluble bioactive component of the famous traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is notable for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus Sal B, by impairing Th1 or Th17 responses in EAE/MS, might ameliorate the crippling symptoms. Here we show that the intraperitoneal administration of 30mg/kg Sal B daily for 14 days after the onset of MOG-induced EAE in mice effectively reduced its severity. Additionally, Sal B treatment downgraded the infiltration of inflammatory cells, limited astrogliosis and blocked Th1 responses other than that of Th17. These results indicated that Sal B may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for MS/EAE by inhibiting Th1 cell responses.

  5. Correction of Cortisol Overreplacement Ameliorates Morbidities in Patients with Hypopituitarism: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Danilowicz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hyporituitarism in adults is known to be associated with deleterious effects on body composition, lipid profile and quality of life (QoL. This was attributed to GH deficiency. The potential role of glucocorticoid overreplacement had never been investigated. Objective: To investigate whether reduction in glucocorticoid replacement dose to more physiological one could ameliorate the "AO-GHD"-attributed symptomatology in patients with hypopituitarism. Design: Eleven patients with panhypopituitarism taking 20-30 mg/day of hydrocortisone, but on no GH replacement were switched to 10 to 15 mg of hydrocortisone daily. Both basally and 6-12 months later, their body mass index, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid profile, and the score of quality of life, QOL-AGHDA were measured. Results: Within 6-12 months of lower hydrocortisone dose, subjects lost an average of 7.1 kg of total body fat and 4.1 kg of abdominal fat. No changes were seen in lean body mass, bone mineral content and HOMA-IR Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly (<0.05 and the QoL improved (p=0.018. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that decreasing the glucocorticoid replacement dose to ~ 15 mg/ day is beneficial in terms of patients' body composition, lipid profile and quality of life.

  6. Special low-protein foods ameliorate postprandial off in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Marczewska, Agnieszka; De Notaris, Roberta; Vairo, Antonella; Baldo, Cinzia; Mauri, Andrea; Savardi, Chiara; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2006-10-01

    Protein intake interferes with levodopa therapy. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) should restrict daily protein intake and shift protein intake to the evening. For further reduction of protein intake in the first part of the day, special low-protein products (LPP) should be used instead of normal food products at breakfast and lunch. We studied the efficacy of LPP on postprandial off periods, in PD patients on levodopa therapy. The methods included a randomized, cross-over, single-blind, pilot clinical trial comparing a 2-month balanced diet with a 2-month LPP diet in 18 PD patients with motor fluctuations. The off phases were significantly shorter after LPP diet than after balanced diet (postprandial off, 49 +/- 73 min vs. 79 +/- 72 min and total off, 164 +/- 148 min vs. 271 +/- 174 min, both P < 0.0001). Moreover, a reduction in total off time during LPP diet (3.3 +/- 2.7 hr vs. 4.7 +/- 3.3 hr, P < 0.0001), occurred also in the 9 patients who did not experience subjective benefit. No significant changes in hematological and biochemical variables or body composition were recorded; a slight reduction in body weight (mean, -1.8%) was observed. Consumption of LPP in the first part of the day ameliorates off periods in PD patients, but additional studies including pharmacokinetics are needed.

  7. Cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction and its amelioration by Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuwon, S A; Femi-Akinlosotu, O M; Omirinde, J O

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the ameliorative potential of Launea taraxacifolia (LT) aqueous leaf extract on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) of 5 rats each: Group A which served as control received water; Group B was intraperitoneally (ip) injected 10 mg kg(-1) body wt cisplatin on day 21; Groups C and D were given 100 and 400 mg of LT via oral administration, respectively, for 21 days while Groups E and F received similar treatment as Groups C and D, respectively, and then exposed to ip administration of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight cisplatin on the 21st day. Exclusively, Cisplatin-exposed Group B rats showed reduced sperm characteristics and increased sperm morphological abnormalities; distorted histological architecture of seminiferous tubules; significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)levels in the testes. These parameters in LT alone treated Groups C and D were not markedly different compared with the control group. The rats with the combined treatment in Groups E and F showed significantly improved sperm parameters, testicular histo-architecture and antioxidant enzymatic activities. Conclusively, aqueous extract of L. taraxacifolia has protective potential against cisplatin damage.

  8. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  9. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  10. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii inhibits interleukin-17 to ameliorate colorectal colitis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii, one of the dominant intestinal bacterial flora, may protect colonic mucosa against the development of inflammation and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, with the underlying mechanisms being unclear.The impacts of F. prausnitzii and its metabolites on IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway markers were determined in human monocytes and a rat model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. F. prausnitzii and its culture medium (containing complete metabolites were used to treat the rats in vivo, as well as rat splenocytes and human monocytes in vitro. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in colon tissue, plasma and cell culture medium.The culture supernatant of F. prausnitzii increased plasma anti-Th17 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-12and suppressed IL-17 levels in both plasma and colonic mucosa, with ameliorated colonic colitis lesions. This inhibition of IL-17 release has also been observed in both rat splenocytes and human venous monocytes in vitro. The culture supernatant of F. prausnitzii also suppressed Th17 cell differentiation induced by cytokines (TGF-ß and IL-6 and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs in vitro. The metabolites of F. prausnitzii in the culture supernatant exert a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the bacterium itself. F. prausnitzii protected the colon mucosa against the development of IBD by its metabolites, suggesting a promising potential for the use of F. prausnitzii and its metabolic products in the treatment of IBD.

  11. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Suganya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Euphorbia hirta (L. (Euphorbiaceae is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01 enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05 depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity.

  12. Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide Ameliorates Hyperglycemia-Induced Endothelial Cell Death via a Mitochondria-ROS Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Yao, Yu-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Shao, Deng-Yin; Gong, De-Ming; Cui, Steve W; Phillips, Glyn O; He, Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial function in hyperglycemia-induced angiopathy. In this work, ROS scavenger, oxidizing agent tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH), mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) blockers, and caspase inhibition are used to investigate whether PSG-1 may promote survival of human umbilical vein cells (HUVECs) through preventing the overproduction of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental results show that exposure of HUVECs to 35.5 mmol/L glucose increases the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis. PSG-1, mPTP blocker, or caspase inhibition can reduce apoptosis and ROS generation. PSG-1 also increases mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) but inhibits Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. In summary, vascular protection of PSG-1 can be mediated by a mitochondria-ROS pathway. ROS generation and mPTP induction are critical for high glucose-mediated apoptosis. PSG-1 ameliorates endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Topical application of glycyrrhizin preparation ameliorates experimentally induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohiro Kudo; Shinichi Okamura; Yajing Zhang; Takashige Masuo; Masatomo Mori

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of glycyrrhizin preparation (GL-p) in the treatment of a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate. Rats with colitis were intrarectally administered GL-p or saline. The extent of colitis was evaluated based on body weight gain,colon wet weight,and macroscopic damage score. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the inflamed mucosa were measured by cytokine antibody array analysis. The effect of GL-p on myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the inflamed mucosa and purified enzyme was assayed. RESULTS: GL-p treatment significantly ameliorated the extent of colitis compared to sham treatment with saline. Cytokine antibody array analysis showed that GL-p treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,including interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,tumor necrosis factor-α,cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2,and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the inflamed mucosa. Furthermore,GL-p inhibited the oxidative activity of mucosal and purified MPO. CONCLUSION: GL-p enema has a therapeutic effect on experimental colitis in rats and may be useful in the treatment of UC.

  14. Ameliorative effect of Matricaria chamomilla.L on paraquat: Induced oxidative damage in lung rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicines have been long used for antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcholic extract Matricaria chamomilla. L (M. chamomilla against Paraquat (PQ induced pulmonary injury in association with its antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Effective doses of PQ (5 mg/kg/day and M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg/day were administered alone or in combination for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, lung tissue of the animals was separated. The activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LPO and total antioxidant power (TAP were measured. Results: In these samples, the LPO, SOD, and GPx were higher in the PQ group as compared with controls. M. chamomilla extract ameliorated LPO, SOD, GPx and increased TAP in plasma and lung tissue of PQ induced changes. Co administration of PQ with M. chamomilla improved LPO and SOD, and GPx. Conclusion: M. chamomilla as natural antioxidant may be considered beneficial for the protection oxidative lung injury in PQ poisoning.

  15. Manganese-induced oxidative stress in two ontogenetic stages of chamomile and amelioration by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef; Švec, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Impact of manganese (Mn(2+)) excess (100, 500 and 1000 μM over 7 days) on two ontogenetic stages (7-week-old plants and 7-day-old seedlings) of Matricaria chamomilla was compared. Mn excess depressed growth of seedlings (but not germination) and stimulated oxidative stress (ROS and lipid peroxidation) in both plants and seedlings. Growth inhibition could be evoked by higher Mn uptake and higher translocation factor in seedlings than in plants. Total thiols staining revealed elevation in almost all treatments. In 7-week-old plants, activity of peroxidases increased slightly and rather decreased under high Mn doses. Superoxide rather than hydrogen peroxide contributed to visualized ROS presence. Fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO) showed stimulation in plants but decrease in seedlings. Impact of exogenous nitric oxide donor (sodium nitroprusside/SNP) was therefore tested and results showed amelioration of 1000 μM Mn-induced oxidative stress in seedlings (decrease in H2O2 and increase in NO content while antioxidative enzyme activities were variably affected) concomitantly with depleted Mn accumulation. It is concluded that NO participates in tolerance to Mn excess but negative effects of the highest SNP dose were also observed. Extensive fluorescence microscopy is also explanatively discussed.

  16. Aliskiren ameliorates sympathetic nerve sprouting and suppresses the inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmia in postinfarcted rat heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yin-yu; BAO Zhi-wei; WEI Mei-fang; ZHU Jian-hua; GUI Le

    2013-01-01

    Background Aliskiren is an oral renin inhibitor,which inhibits the first rate limiting step in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system.In this study,sympathetic nerve sprouting and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation after aliskiren treatment in myocardial infarction were investigated.Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats after coronary artery ligation were randomly allocated to four groups:angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril,angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan,β adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol and rennin inhibitor aliskiren treatment for six weeks.Electrophysiological study,histological examination and Western blotting were performed.Results The plasma norepinephrine level and sympathetic nerve innervation significantly increased in treated infarcted rats compared to untreated rats.Aliskiren treatment reduced the sympathetic nerve innervations after myocardial infarction.There is no significant difference in sympathetic nerve innervations after myocardial infarction among the enalapril,valsartan,carvediloand or aliskiren treated groups.Programmed electrical stimulation study showed that inducible ventricular arrhythmia was reduced,ventricular fibrillation threshold was increased and ventricular effective refractory period was prolonged in enalapril,valsartan,carvedilol and aliskiren treated infarcted rats compared to untreated infarcted rats.Cardiomyocytic apoptosis in infarcted region was significantly decreased in enalapril,valsartan,carvedilol and aliskiren treated infarcted rats.Conclusions Aliskiren ameliorated cardiomyocytic apoptosis,attenuated the sympathetic nerve innervations and reduced the vulnerability of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.Enalapril,valsartan and carvedilol have similar effects as aliskiren on cardiomyocytic apoptosis,sympathetic nerve innervations and vulnerability of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.

  17. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Musner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner.

  18. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  19. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice.

  20. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IP Oyeyipo; Y Raji; AdeyomboF Bolarinwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase as a means of intervention in nicotine-induced infertility in male rats.Methods:Forty-eight male and thirty female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly assigned to six groups and treated orally for 30 days with saline (control), nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg) with or without NG Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L- NAME, 50 mg/kg). Treated male rats were cohabited with untreated females in ratio 1:2 for fertility studies. Sperm analysis was done by microscopy. Results:There was a significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility and count after nicotine treatment. However, the percentage of abnormality significantly increased in nicotine treatment groups. Fertility studies revealed that nicotine reduced libido in male rats and decreased litter weight and number delivered by the untreated female during the experiments. Co-treatment with L-NAME effectively reversed the nicotine-mediated alterations in the sperm functional parameters, fertility indexes and hormone when compared to nicotine only.Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of L-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  1. Omigapil ameliorates the pathology of muscle dystrophy caused by laminin-alpha2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Michael; Meinen, Sarina; Barzaghi, Patrizia; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Courdier-Früh, Isabelle; Rüegg, Markus A; Meier, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Laminin alpha2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, called MDC1A, is a rare, devastating genetic disease characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia ("floppy infant syndrome"), peripheral neuropathy, inability to stand or walk, respiratory distress, and premature death in early life. Transgenic overexpression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein BCL-2, or deletion of the proapoptotic Bax gene in a mouse model for MDC1A prolongs survival and mitigates pathology, indicating that apoptotic events are involved in the pathology. Here we demonstrate that the proapoptotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-Siah1-CBP/p300-p53 pathway is activated in a mouse model for MDC1A. Moreover, we show that omigapil, which inhibits GAPDH-Siah1-mediated apoptosis, ameliorates several pathological hallmarks in the MDC1A mouse model. Specifically, we demonstrate that treatment with omigapil inhibits apoptosis in muscle, reduces body weight loss and skeletal deformation, increases locomotive activity, and protects from early mortality. These data qualify omigapil, which is in late phase of clinical development for human use, as a drug candidate for the treatment of MDC1A.

  2. Paeoniflorin Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Inhibition of Dendritic Cell Function and Th17 Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Qi, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Yuanyang; Cai, Li; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Lili; Su, Bing; Nie, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a monoterpene glycoside and exhibits multiple effects, including anti-inflammation and immunoregulation. To date, the effect of PF on multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of PF in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. After administered with PF, the onset and clinical symptoms of EAE mice were significantly ameliorated, and the number of Th17 cells infiltrated in central nervous system (CNS) and spleen was also dramatically decreased. Instead of inhibiting the differentiation of Th17 cells directly, PF influenced Th17 cells via suppressing the expression of costimulatory molecules and the production of interlukin-6 (IL-6) of dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo and in vitro, which may be attributable to the inhibition of IKK/NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. When naïve CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with PF-treated dendritic cells under Th17-polarizing condition, the percentage of Th17 cells and the phosphorylation of STAT3 were decreased, as well as the mRNA levels of IL-17, RORα, and RORγt. Our study provided insights into the role of PF as a unique therapeutic agent for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and illustrated the underlying mechanism of PF from a new perspective. PMID:28165507

  3. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  4. Use of ethylenediurea (EDU) to ameliorate ozone effects on purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Chappelka, Arthur H; Muntifering, Russell B; Somers, Greg L

    2007-11-01

    Purple coneflower plants (Echinacea purpurea) were placed into open-top chambers (OTCs) for 6 and 12 weeks in 2003 and 2004, respectively, and exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF) or twice-ambient (2x) ozone (O3) in 2003, and to CF, 2x or non-filtered (NF), ambient air in 2004. Plants were treated with ethylenediurea (EDU) weekly as a foliar spray. Foliar symptoms were observed in >95% of the plants in 2x-treated OTCs in both years. Above-ground biomass was not affected by 2x treatments in 2003, but root and total-plant biomass decreased in 2004. As a result of higher concentrations of select cell wall constituents (% ADF, NDF and lignin) nutritive quality was lower for plants exposed to 2x-O3 in 2003 and 2004 (26% and 17%, respectively). Significant EDU x O3 interactions for concentrations of cell wall constituents in 2003 indicated that EDU ameliorated O3 effects on nutritive quality. Interactions observed in 2004 were inconsistent.

  5. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpesh P. Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.. Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction diabetic rats were orally treated with hesperidin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment kidney functions, oxidative stress indices, biochemical estimations and histopathological examination were carried out to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited significant rise in blood glucose level, altered kidney functions, oxidative stress and histological abnormalities compared to control rats. Hesperidin treatment significantly reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, creatinine, urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with diabetic control rats. Significant rise in renal hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, microalbuminuria as well as oxidative stress in the diabetic rats were effectively attenuated with hesperidin treatment, dose dependently. Moreover, basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion observed in the kidney of diabetic rats restored near to normal structure. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that hesperidin ameliorate early diabetic nephropathy. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(4.000: 261-267

  6. Apoptotic signaling through Fas and TNF receptors ameliorates GVHD in mobilized peripheral blood grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, K; Yaniv, I; Ash, S; Stein, J; Askenasy, N

    2014-05-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) is a prevalent source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation; however, allogeneic and haploidentical transplants are often accompanied by severe GVHD. Following the observation that murine GVHD is ameliorated by pretransplant donor cell exposure to Fas-ligand (FasL) without host-specific sensitization, we assessed the susceptibility of mPB cells to spontaneous and receptor-induced apoptosis as a possible approach to GVHD prophylaxis. Short incubation for 4 h resulted in spontaneous apoptosis of 50% of the T and B lymphocytes and 60% myeloid cells. Although expression of Fas and TNF-R1 was proportionate to fractional apoptosis, cell death was dominated by spontaneous apoptosis. Functional assays revealed that the death receptors modulated mPB graft composition as compared with incubation in medium, without detectable quantitative variations. Removal of dead cells increased the frequency of mPB myeloid progenitors (P<0.001 vs medium), and recipients of mPB exposed to death ligands displayed reduced GVHD (P<0.01 vs medium) and improved survival following lipopolysacharide stimulation. mPB grafts exposed to the apoptotic challenge retained SCID reconstituting potential and graft versus tumor activity. These data emphasize that short-term exposure of mPB grafts to an apoptotic challenge is effective in reduction of GVHD effector activity.

  7. ErbB inhibitors ameliorate behavioral impairments of an animal model for schizophrenia: implication of their dopamine-modulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M; Sotoyama, H; Namba, H; Shibuya, M; Eda, T; Wang, R; Okubo, T; Nagata, K; Iwakura, Y; Nawa, H

    2013-04-30

    Ligands for ErbB receptors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin-1, have a neurotrophic activity on midbrain dopaminergic neurons and are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate behavioral deficits of the schizophrenia model that was established by hippocampal lesioning of rat pups, the antipsychotic action of ErbB kinase inhibitors and its general applicability to other models are not fully characterized. Using a different animal model, here, we examined whether and how ErbB kinase inhibitors ameliorate the behavioral endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. The animal model for schizophrenia was prepared by exposing neonatal rats to the cytokine EGF. Intraventricular infusion of the ErbB1 inhibitors ZD1839 and PD153035 in these animals ameliorated the deficits in startle response and prepulse inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The deficits of latent inhibition of fear learning were also alleviated by ZD1839 with its limited effects on body weight gain or locomotor activity. ZD1839 infusion also decreased the busting activity of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons and reduced pallidal DA metabolism, a result that mimics the anti-dopaminergic profile of risperidone and haloperidol in this brain region. ErbB inhibitors appear to have anti-dopaminergic actions to alleviate some of the behavioral deficits common to animal models for schizophrenia.

  8. Phytoestrogen calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ameliorates advanced glycation end products-induced HUVEC damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youhua; Feng, Liang; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Quan; Lin, Jing; Lou, Chihan; Xiang, Ping; He, Bao; Zheng, Zhaoguang; Tang, Dan; Zuo, Guoying

    2011-10-01

    Vasculopathy including endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and inflammation contributes to the high incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction in diabetic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (CG), a phytoestrogen, on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced HUVEC damage. We observed that CG can significantly ameliorate AGEs-induced HUVEC oxidative stress and apoptosis. The ratio of SOD/MDA was significantly increased to the normal level by CG pretreatment. CG preincubation dramatically increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 while decreased pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad expressions as detected by immunocytochemistry. Moreover, CG ameliorated macrophage migration and adhesion to HUVEC; the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-6 levels in the culture supernatant were dramatically reduced by CG as determined by ELISA; the expressions of inflammatory proteins including ICAM-1, TGF-β1, and RAGE in both protein and mRNA levels were significantly reduced to the normal level by CG pretreatment as determined by immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The intracellular investigation suggests that CG can reverse AGEs-activated ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation, in which estrogen receptors were involved in. Our results strongly indicate that CG can modulate EC dysfunction by ameliorating AGEs-induced cell apoptosis and inflammation.

  9. Identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum strain that ameliorates chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, T; Mochizuki, J; Ikegami, S; Itou, H

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we identified a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that induces high levels of IL-10 production by immune cells, and evaluated the ability of the strain to suppress chronic inflammation and ameliorate metabolic disorders in in vitro and in vivo models. Among a collection of LAB strains, Lactobacillus plantarum strain OLL2712 (OLL2712) induced the highest levels of IL-10 production in mouse-derived dendritic cells and peritoneal macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of this strain were evaluated using a co-culture system comprising RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 cells. We also administered heat-killed OLL2712 to obese and type 2 diabetic KKAy mice for 3 wk to evaluate the in vivo effects of the strain. The OLL2712 significantly decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Likewise, the administration of OLL2712 significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine levels in both the visceral adipose tissue and the serum of KKAy mice, and reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. The strain also alleviated oxidative stress and adrenaline levels in the serum of KKAy mice. On the other hand, Lactobacillus gasseri strain MEP222804 (a moderate IL-10 inducer) did not ameliorate the systemic inflammation and hyperlipidemia in KKAy mice. Our results suggest that treatment with strong IL-10-inducing LAB has the potential to ameliorate metabolic disorders by suppressing chronic inflammation in the host animal.

  10. Transplanted bone marrow stromal cells protect neurovascular units and ameliorate brain damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Taku; Maruichi, Katsuhiko; Kawabori, Masahito; Nakayama, Naoki; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) could ameliorate brain damage when transplanted into the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). The BMSC or vehicle was stereotactically engrafted into the striatum of male SHR-SP at 8 weeks of age. Daily loading with 0.5% NaCl-containing water was started from 9 weeks. MRIs and histological analysis were performed at 11 and 12 weeks, respectively. Wistar-Kyoto rats were employed as the control. As a result, T2-weighted images demonstrated neither cerebral infarct nor intracerebral hemorrhage, but identified abnormal dilatation of the lateral ventricles in SHR-SP. HE staining demonstrated selective neuronal injury in their neocortices. Double fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed that they had a decreased density of the collagen IV-positive microvessels and a decreased number of the microvessels with normal integrity between basement membrane and astrocyte end-feet. BMSC transplantation significantly ameliorated the ventricular dilatation and the breakdown of neurovascular integrity. These findings strongly suggest that long-lasting hypertension may primarily damage neurovascular integrity and neurons, leading to tissue atrophy and ventricular dilatation prior to the occurrence of cerebral stroke. The BMSC may ameliorate these damaging processes when directly transplanted into the brain, opening the possibility of prophylactic medicine to prevent microvascular and parenchymal-damaging processes in hypertensive patients at higher risk for cerebral stroke.

  11. Escitalopram Ameliorates Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Spatial Memory Deficits Induced by Protein Kinase A Activation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Wang, Yan-Juan; Gong, Wei-Gang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of escitalopram pretreatment on protein kinase A (PKA)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits in rats using western blot and behavioral tests, respectively. We demonstrated that escitalopram effectively ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation and the spatial memory deficits induced by PKA activation. We measured the total and activity-dependent Ser9-phosphorylated levels of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in hippocampal extracts. No significant change in the total level of GSK-3β was observed between the different groups. However, compared with forskolin injection alone, pretreatment with escitalopram increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. We also demonstrated that escitalopram increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (the active form of Akt). Furthermore, we identified other important kinases and phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and MAP kinase kinase-1/2, that have previously been reported to play a crucial role in tau phosphorylation; however, we did not detect any significant change in the activation of these kinases or phosphatases in our study. We unexpectedly demonstrated that forskolin caused anxiety-like behavior in rats, and pretreatment with escitalopram did not significantly ameliorate the anxiety-like behavior induced by forskolin. These data provide the first evidence that escitalopram ameliorates forskolin-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory impairment in rats; these effects do not occur via the anti-anxiety activity of escitalopram but may involve the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  12. Molecular Basis of β-Thalassemia Intermedia in Erbil Province of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoon, Rawand P; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Cappellini, Maria D; Di Pierro, Elena; Brancaleoni, Valentina; Granata, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    β-Thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) is a clinical term describing a range of clinical phenotypes that are intermediate in severity between the carrier state and β-thalassemia major (β-TM). To characterize the molecular basis of β-TI in Erbil Province, Northern Iraq, 83 unrelated patients were investigated. Detection of β-globin gene mutations was carried out by reverse hybridization assay and direct gene sequencing. All patients were screened for the XmnI polymorphism by direct sequencing of HBG2 ((G)γ promoter gene). Detection of α-globin gene deletions and triplication was carried out using the reverse hybridization assay. Four main molecular patterns were identified in association with the β-TI phenotype, namely: β(+)/β(+) (38.5%), β(+)/β(0) (21.6%), β(0)/β(0) (31.3%), and β(0)/wild type (8.4%). IVS-I-6 (T > C) was the most frequently encountered mutation (55 alleles, 34.6%), followed by IVS-II-1 (G > A) and codon 8 (-AA); furthermore, we report for the first time from Iraq two β(+) mutations, -87 (C > G) and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) +22 (G > A). The XmnI polymorphism was detected in 47.0% of patients, mainly in association with the β(0)/β(0) genotype. The α-globin gene deletions were encountered in four cases, including one case with (- -(FIL)) double gene deletion, a report that is the first from our country. The α-globin gene triplication was detected in five of the seven heterozygous β-thalassemia (β-thal) patients. Similar to other Mediterranean countries, inheritance of mild β-globin mutations was the main molecular pattern underlying β-TI in our patients followed by the ameliorating effect of the XmnI polymorphism.

  13. Kaiser-Bessel Basis for the Particle-Mesh Interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xingyu; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce the Kaiser-Bessel interpolation basis for the particle-mesh interpolation in the fast Ewald method. A reliable a priori error estimate is developed to measure the accuracy of the force computation, and is shown to be effective in optimizing the shape parameter of the Kaiser-Bessel basis in terms of accuracy. By comparing the optimized Kaiser-Bessel basis with the traditional B-spline basis, we demonstrate that the former is more accurate than the latter in part of the working parameter space, saying a relatively small real space cutoff, a relatively small reciprocal space mesh and a relatively large truncation of basis. In some cases, the Kaiser-Bessel basis is found to be more than one order of magnitude more accurate. Therefore, it is worth trying the Kaiser-Bessel basis in the simulations where the computational accuracy of the electrostatic interaction is critical.

  14. Local-basis-function approach to computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, K. M.; Wecksung, G. W.

    1985-12-01

    In the local basis-function approach, a reconstruction is represented as a linear expansion of basis functions, which are arranged on a rectangular grid and possess a local region of support. The basis functions considered here are positive and may overlap. It is found that basis functions based on cubic B-splines offer significant improvements in the calculational accuracy that can be achieved with iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithms. By employing repetitive basis functions, the computational effort involved in these algorithms can be minimized through the use of tabulated values for the line or strip integrals over a single-basis function. The local nature of the basis functions reduces the difficulties associated with applying local constraints on reconstruction values, such as upper and lower limits. Since a reconstruction is specified everywhere by a set of coefficients, display of a coarsely represented image does not require an arbitrary choice of an interpolation function.

  15. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  16. Thalidomide ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2015-04-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug. However, its chemotherapeutic use is restricted by serious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory mechanisms have a significant role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential nephroprotective effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in mice by a single injection of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with thalidomide (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days, beginning 24 h prior to the cisplatin injection. Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin was demonstrated by increasing plasma levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Cisplatin increased the renal production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition, kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) were increased by cisplatin. Biochemical results showed that thalidomide reduced cisplatin-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN. Thalidomide treatment also significantly reduced tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO, and NO and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, histological examination indicated that thalidomide ameliorated renal damage caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that thalidomide attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly by inhibition of inflammatory reactions. Taken together, our findings indicate that thalidomide might be a valuable candidate for the prevention of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin.

  17. Ameliorative effects of sildenafil and/or febuxostat on doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khames, Ali; Khalaf, Marwa M; Gad, Amany M; Abd El-Raouf, Ola M

    2017-02-28

    Sildenafil and febuxostat protect against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity; however the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. The effect of sildenafil and febuxostat on doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats was studied. Male rats were subdivided into nine groups. The 1st group served as normal control, the 2nd group received dimethylsulfoxide 50% (DMSO), the 3rd group received doxorubicin (3.5mg/kg, i.p.), twice weekly for 3 weeks. The next 3 groups received sildenafil (5mg/kg; p.o.), febuxostat (10mg/kg; p.o.) and their combination, respectively daily for 21 days. The last 3 groups received doxorubicin in combination with sildenafil, febuxostat or their combination. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated histopathologically by light microscopy and biochemically through measuring the following parameters, Kidney function biomarkers [serum levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid], oxidative stress biomarkers [kidney contents of glutathione reduced (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA)], The apoptotic marker namely; caspase-3 in kidney tissue and the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). doxorubicin-induced a significant elevation in nephrotoxicity markers, expression of caspase-3 and caused induction of inflammation and oxidative stress. Histological changes in the kidney was tubular necrosis. Sildenafil and/or febuxostat administration with doxorubicin caused a significant decrease in nephrotoxicity markers and inflammatory mediators, restoration of normal values of oxidative stress biomarkers and hampering the expression of renal caspase-3. They also ameliorate histological changes induced by doxorubicin. sildenafil and febuxostat are promising protective agents against doxorubicin-nephrotoxicity through improving biochemical, inflammatory, histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations induced by doxorubicin.

  18. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates motor function deterioration of spinocerebellar ataxia by rescuing cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei-Hsien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA refers to a disease entity in which polyglutamine aggregates are over-produced in Purkinje cells (PCs of the cerebellum as well as other neurons in the central nervous system, and the formation of intracellular polyglutamine aggregates result in the loss of neurons as well as deterioration of motor functions. So far there is no effective neuroprotective treatment for this debilitating disease although numerous efforts have been made. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multi-lineage differentiation potentials as well as immuno-modulatory properties, and are theoretically good candidates for SCA treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether transplantation of human MSCs (hMSCs can rescue cerebellar PCs and ameliorate motor function deterioration in SCA in a pre-clinical animal model. Method Transgenic mice bearing poly-glutamine mutation in ataxin-2 gene (C57BL/6J SCA2 transgenic mice were serially transplanted with hMSCs intravenously or intracranially before and after the onset of motor function loss. Motor function of mice was evaluated by an accelerating protocol of rotarod test every 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical stain of whole brain sections was adopted to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of hMSC transplantation on cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs into mice brain. Results Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs effectively improved rotarod performance of SCA2 transgenic mice and delayed the onset of motor function deterioration; while intracranial transplantation failed to achieve such neuroprotective effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intravenous transplantation was more effective in the preservation of the survival of cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs than intracranial injection, which was compatible to rotarod performance of transplanted mice. Conclusion Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs can indeed delay the onset as well as improve the motor

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in fructose consumption is considered to be a risk factor for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, and the changes of Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathways in response to DHA treatment. The hepatocytes were treated with fructose, DHA, fructose plus DHA, tunicamycin (TM or fructose plus 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA for 24 h. Intracellular triglyceride (TG accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA expression levels and protein levels related to lipid metabolism and ER stress response were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Fructose treatment led to obvious TG accumulation in primary hepatocytes through increasing expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, two key enzymes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. DHA ameliorates fructose-induced TG accumulation by upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1α and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1. DHA treatment or pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor PBA significantly decreased TG accumulation and reduced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, total inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1α and p-IRE1α. The present results suggest that DHA protects against high fructose-induced hepatocellular lipid accumulation. The current findings also suggest that alleviating the ER stress response seems to play a role in the prevention of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis by DHA.